Engineers Corps – Federal Register Recent Federal Regulation Documents

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Corps of Engineers: Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Lake on Yellow Creek in Lamar County, AL (Department of Army Permit Number SAM-2005-4302-MNS)
Document Number: E9-20134
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-08-21
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The Mobile District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) intends to prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to
Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Conveyance of Federal Lands at Lake Texoma to the State of Oklahoma, Marshall County, OK
Document Number: E9-20132
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-08-21
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The purpose of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to
Proposed Suspension and Modification of Nationwide Permit 21
Document Number: E9-19446
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-08-13
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
In the July 15, 2009, issue of the Federal Register (74 FR 34311) the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers published a proposal to take two actions concerning Nationwide Permit 21, which authorizes discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States for surface coal mining activities. The two proposed actions are to suspend NWP 21 to prohibit its use to authorize surface coal mining activities in the Appalachian region of Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, and then to modify NWP 21 to make that prohibition permanent until NWP 21 expires on March 18, 2012. The July 15, 2009, notice stated that public comments and any requests for a public hearing must be received by August 14, 2009. We have received several requests to extend the comment period. We are extending the comment period to September 14, 2009.
Amended Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Regional Watershed Supply Project, Second Notice of Extension of Scoping Period
Document Number: E9-19232
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-08-11
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The public scoping comment period for the Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Regional Watershed Supply Project by Million Conservation Resource Group, published in the Federal Register on Friday, March 20, 2009 (74 FR 11920), required comments be submitted May 19, 2009 following publication in the Federal Register. The comment period was later extended to July 27, 2009, to accommodate requests from entities that desired more time and from areas that desired additional public meetings. The comment period has now been extended to September 28, 2009. Due to number of cooperating agency requests received, the Corps is extending the comment period to allow for additional time to respond to these requests. During this time period, the Corps will communicate with certain entities regarding the possibility of consolidating participation through designation of a single point of contact to represent multiple entities.
Plaquemines Parish, LA, Federal Hurricane Protection Levee
Document Number: E9-19230
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-08-11
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg District, in cooperation with the New Orleans District and the Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (the non-Federal sponsor), are undertaking studies to develop and evaluate possible alternatives to improve the storm damage reduction capability of the Federal levee system, Plaquemines Parish, LA.
Deauthorization of Water Resources Projects
Document Number: E9-18738
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-08-06
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers published a document in the Federal Register of July 2, 2009, listing water resources projects deauthorized on March 29, 2009. The document incorrectly included the Baltimore Harbor and Channels, MD & VA (50-ft Deepening) project.
Notice of Availability for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Matagorda Ship Channel Improvement Project, Calhoun County and Matagorda County, TX
Document Number: E9-17902
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-07-31
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Galveston District, announces the release of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and the public comment period for the Calhoun Port Authority's (CPA) proposed Matagorda Ship Channel (MSC) Improvement Project.
Intent To Prepare a Draft and Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Reaches 1B, 1C and 1D on the Herbert Hoover Dike Major Rehabilitation Project, Martin and Palm Beach Counties
Document Number: E9-17903
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-07-28
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The purpose of the project is to reconstruct and rehabilitate Reaches 1B, 1C and 1D of the Herbert Hoover Dike to prevent catastrophic failure of the system to retain the waters of Lake Okeechobee. On July 8 2005, the Jacksonville District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) issued a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (FSEIS) for the Major Rehabilitation actions proposed for Herbert Hoover Dike (HHD), Reach One. Herbert Hoover Dike is the levee that completely surrounds Lake Okeechobee. On September 23, 2005, a Record of Decision was signed adopting the preferred alternative as the Selected Plan for Reach One.
Restricted Areas at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Patrick AFB, FL
Document Number: E9-17551
Type: Rule
Date: 2009-07-23
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) is amending its restricted area regulations to enlarge an existing restricted area in the Banana River and to establish a new restricted area in the Atlantic Ocean for the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), located on Patrick Air Force Base (AFB), Florida. We are also removing an existing restricted area in the Banana River at CCAFS. CCAFS Command, located at Patrick AFB, Florida, is responding to Department of Defense (DoD) security assessments which have identified a need for CCAFS to have the capability to secure their shoreline. The enhancement of these capabilities is necessary to counter postulated threats to CCAFS.
Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for a Proposed: Supercritical Pulverized Coal/Biomass Steam Power Electric Generation Facility in Non-Tidal Wetlands in Surry County, VA
Document Number: E9-17369
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-07-22
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The Corps will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement to evaluate project alternatives and the public interest review factors for the proposed supercritical pulverized coal/biomass steam power electric generation facility.
Proposed Suspension and Modification of Nationwide Permit 21
Document Number: E9-16803
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-07-15
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) is proposing to take two actions concerning Nationwide Permit (NWP) 21, which authorizes discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States for surface coal mining activities. First, the Corps proposes to modify NWP 21 to prohibit its use to authorize discharges of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States for surface coal mining activities in the Appalachian region of the following states: Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia until it expires on March 18, 2012. The proposed modification would enhance environmental protection of aquatic resources by requiring surface coal mining projects in the affected region to obtain individual permit coverage under the Clean Water Act (CWA), which includes increased public and agency involvement in the permit review process, including an opportunity for public comment on individual projects. The application of NWP 21 to surface coal mining activities in the rest of the United States would not be affected by this proposed modification.
Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the West Sacramento Project, California, General Reevaluation Report
Document Number: E9-16610
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-07-14
Agency: Department of Defense, United States Army Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The action being taken is the preparation of an environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the West Sacramento Project, California, General Reevaluation Report (GRR). The GRR will re-evaluate the currently authorized plan as well as develop and evaluate opportunities to reduce flood risk, increase recreation, and restore the ecosystem along the Sacramento River in and around the City of West Sacramento.
Inland Waterways Users Board
Document Number: E9-16346
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-07-10
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
In Accordance with 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), announcement is made of the forthcoming meeting.
Notice of Intent To Terminate the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Potable Water Supply for Washington Parish Reservoir Project
Document Number: E9-16344
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-07-10
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The Vicksburg District, Corps of Engineers, is issuing this notice to advise the public that the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) process for the proposed Potable Water Supply Project for Washington Parish, Louisiana, is terminated. The original Notice of Intent for this EIS process was published in the Federal Register on March 28, 2008 (73 FR 16653).
United States Navy Danger Zone, Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, CA
Document Number: E9-16235
Type: Proposed Rule
Date: 2009-07-09
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is proposing to establish a new danger zone in the waters adjacent to the existing small arms range (SAR) on Naval Air Station North Island (NASNI) located in San Diego, California. The proposed regulation would prohibit any activity by the public within the danger zone. The new danger zone is necessary to bring the existing SAR into compliance with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command MIL-HDBK 10-27/3B by preventing any SAR ricochet rounds from posing a hazard to passing water traffic.
Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for a Permit Application for the Proposed Berths 302-306 Container Terminal Improvements Project at the Port of Los Angeles, in Los Angeles County, CA
Document Number: E9-16231
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-07-09
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District (Corps) in conjunction with the City of Los Angeles Harbor Department (LAHD) is examining the feasibility of waterside terminal and transportation improvements at Berths 302-306 in the Port of Los Angeles. The Corps is considering the LAHD's application for a Department of the Army permit under section 10 of the River and Harbor Act and potentially section 404 of the Clean Water Act to construct wharf/docking facilities, perform dredging, construct container loading apparatus (i.e., cranes), and other ancillary improvements within 100 feet land side of the waters' edge associated with the Berths 302-306 [American President Lines (APL)] Container Terminal Project (proposed project). Dredging up to 75,000 cubic yards (cy) may be required for the proposed project, and any proposed offshore disposal at the LA-2 disposal site would also trigger review under section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA).
Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Whittier Harbor Navigation Improvements Feasibility Study
Document Number: E9-15834
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-07-06
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) announces its intention to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to study the feasibility of expanding the existing moorage capacity for vessels at Whittier, AK. This study will be performed through partnership of USACE and the City of Whittier. The existing moorage at Whittier is at maximum capacity, resulting in overcrowded and unsafe conditions for harbor users. Additionally, the City will be unable to meet the growing moorage demands of commercial, charter, recreation, and subsistence
Deauthorization of Water Resources Projects
Document Number: E9-15663
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-07-02
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The Corps of Engineers is publishing the list of water resources projects deauthorized under the provisions of section 1001(b)(2) of the Water Resources Development Act of 1986, Public Law 99-662, as amended, (33 U.S.C 579a(b)(2)), and lists of projects removed from the deauthorization list due to obligations of funds, or deauthorized earlier.
Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Stakeholder Representative Members of the Missouri River Recovery Implementation Committee
Document Number: E9-15411
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-06-30
Agency: Department of Defense, United States Army Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The Commander of the Northwestern Division of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) is soliciting applications to fill vacant stakeholder representative member positions on the Missouri River Recovery Implementation Committee (MRRIC). Members are sought to fill vacancies on a committee to represent various categories of interests within the Missouri River basin. The MRRIC was formed to advise the Corps on a study of the Missouri River and its tributaries and to provide guidance to the Corps with respect to the Missouri River recovery and mitigation activities currently underway. The Corps established the MRRIC as required by the U.S. Congress through the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 (WRDA), section 5018.
Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement on an Application for a Department of the Army Permit Under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act by The Sabine Mining Company for the Construction, Operation, and Reclamation of the South Hallsville No. 1 Lignite Mine-Rusk Permit Area, Rusk, Panola, and Harrison Counties, TX
Document Number: E9-14836
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-06-24
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth District (USACE) has received an application for a Department of the Army permit under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) from The Sabine Mining Company (SMC) to construct, operate, and reclaim the South Hallsville No. 1 Lignite MineRusk Permit Area. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the USACE has determined that issuance of such a permit may have a significant impact on the quality of the human environment and, therefore, requires the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).
Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Revised Great Salt Lake Minerals Corporation's Solar Evaporation Pond Expansion Project Within the Great Salt Lake, Box Elder County, UT
Document Number: E9-13437
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-06-10
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the U.S. Army Corps of EngineersSacramento District (Corps) will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Corps authorization actions for the proposed Revised Great Salt Lake Minerals Corporation Solar Evaporation Ponds Expansion project. The basic project purpose is potassium sulfate extraction/mining. The overall project purpose is to increase production/output of organically certified potassium sulfate to help meet the increasing demand for this type of fertilize. The applicant believes there is a need to increase production of potassium sulfate in order to maintain its market share over the next 50 years.
Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Elverta Specific Plan Project, in Sacramento County, CA, Corps Permit File Number SPK-2004-323
Document Number: E9-13473
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-06-09
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento District (Corps), will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Elverta Specific Plan project, a proposed master planned community in Sacramento County, CA. The Elverta Owners Group has applied for Department of Army permits to fill approximately 39 acres of waters of the United States, including wetlands, to construct this project.
Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplement No. 2 to the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the West Tennessee Tributaries (WTT) General Reevaluation
Document Number: E9-12567
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-05-29
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The draft supplement no. 2 will be prepared in conjunction with a general reevaluation report (GRR) and will supplement the ``Final Supplement to the Final Environmental Impact Statement, West Tennessee Tributaries Project (Obion-Forked Deer River Basin),'' filed with the Environmental Protection Agency on February 25, 1983. A general reevaluation study will be conducted for the entire WTT project area to determine if there is still a federal interest in pursuing a flood risk management project and, if so, recommend a plan of improvement. The GRR and draft supplement no. 2 to the final environmental impact statement (FEIS) will focus on methods that reduce flood risks within the Obion and Forked Deer watersheds by restoring natural floodplain functions and reducing sedimentation that could cause channel blockages.
Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Feasibility Study of the Trilby Wash Study Area
Document Number: E9-12388
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-05-28
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
Analyses of foreseeable environmental impacts from potential actions in the vicinity of Trilby Wash and the McMicken Dam project area located near the Cities of Surprise, Sun City, El Mirage Litchfield Park and Goodyear, Maricopa County, Arizona will commence. No explicit plans have been advanced as yet, so contents of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) remain to be determined during the public scoping process. The Trilby Wash Study area encompasses the Trilby Wash watershed upstream and downstream from the McMicken Dam Project which includes: McMicken Dam, McMicken Dam Outlet Channel and McMicken Dam Outlet Wash, approximately 9 miles, 6 miles, and 4 miles respectively in length. The McMiken Dam Outlet Wash discharges to the Agua Fria River in Maricopa County, Central Arizona.
Board on Coastal Engineering Research
Document Number: E9-10736
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-05-08
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), announcement is made of the following committee meeting:
Amended Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Regional Watershed Supply Project, Notice of Additional Public Scoping Meetings and Extension of Scoping Period
Document Number: E9-10734
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-05-08
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The public scoping comment period for the Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Regional Watershed Supply Project by Million Conservation Resource Group, published in the Federal Register on Friday, March 20, 2009 (74 FR 11920), required comments be submitted by May 19, 2009 following publication in the Federal Register. The comment period has been extended to July 27, 2009. In addition, the COE will be conducting two additional public scoping meetings to describe the Project, preliminary alternatives, the NEPA compliance process, and to solicit input on the issues and alternatives to be evaluated and other related matters.
Rescission of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Dam Powerhouse Rehabilitations and Possible Operational Changes at the Wolf Creek, Center Hill, and Dale Hollow Dams, Kentucky and Tennessee
Document Number: E9-10731
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-05-08
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), Nashville District published its intention to prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement relating to proposed dam powerhouse rehabilitations and possible operational changes at the Wolf Creek, Center Hill, and Dale Hollow Dams in Kentucky and Tennessee. Instead, the Corps has decided to evaluate impacts associated with Center Hill Dam powerhouse rehabilitation with an Environmental Assessment (EA). Separate EAs will also be prepared for powerhouse rehabilitations at Wolf Creek and Dale Hollow Dams in the future. Each of these rehabilitation projects are unconnected stand-alone projects that will occur at different times and in different geographic areas.
Withdrawal of Notice of Intent To Prepare Environmental Impact Statement for St. Charles International Airport
Document Number: E9-10316
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-05-05
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The Department of the Army, Army Corps of Engineers today withdraws its Notice of Intent (67 FR 65342, October 24, 2002) to prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the St. Charles International Airport Project.
Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Flood Risk Management Project on the Red River of the North in Fargo, ND & Moorhead, MN
Document Number: E9-10309
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-05-05
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The St. Paul District Corps of Engineers, in partnership with the City of Fargo, North Dakota and City of Moorhead, Minnesota is conducting a flood risk management feasibility study for the Fargo- Moorhead metropolitan area. The feasibility study will focus on reducing flood risk in the entire Fargo-Moorhead Metropolitan area and surrounding areas. The study will evaluate several alternative measures, including but not limited to; levees and floodwalls, diversion channels, non-structural flood-proofing, relocation of flood- prone structures, and flood storage.
Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Newhall Ranch Resource Management and Development Plan and Spineflower Conservation Plan, Los Angeles County, CA
Document Number: E9-10160
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-05-04
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District (Regulatory Division), in coordination with the California Department of Fish and Game, has completed a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Newhall Ranch Resource Management and Development Plan and Spineflower Conservation Plan. The project proponent and landowner, The Newhall Land and Farming Company, requires a long-term Section 404 permit from the Corps of Engineers for permanent impacts to approximately 82.3 acres of waters of the United States, including 8.69 acres of wetlands, for the construction of various facilities in waters of the United States associated with the development of a new community composed of a broad range of residential, mixed-use and nonresidential land uses in the 12,000-acre project area located in Santa Clarita, Los Angeles County, California.
Notice of Public Scoping for the Missouri River Ecosystem Restoration Plan, Missouri River Basin, United States
Document Number: E9-8739
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-04-16
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
On Monday, January 26, 2009, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), U.S Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Kansas City and Omaha Districts, issued a Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the preparation of the Missouri River Ecosystem Restoration Plan (74 FR 4382). Pursuant to Subsection (a) of Section 5018 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 (WRDA 2007), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers must study actions required to mitigate habitat losses of aquatic and terrestrial habitat, recover federally listed species under the Endangered Species Act and restore ecosystem functions to prevent further declines among other native species. As part of this effort, the Kansas City and Omaha District offices of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers are hosting public scoping meetings. The first official phase of public scoping will occur from May 1, 2009
Notice of Availability of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement/Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIS/SEIR), Draft Air Quality Conformity Determination (CD), and Section 404 Clean Water Act for the Port of Los Angeles Channel Deepening Project, Los Angeles, CA
Document Number: E9-8614
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-04-15
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District (Corps) and the Los Angeles Harbor Department (LAHD) have prepared a joint Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement/Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIS/SEIR) for the Port of Los Angeles Channel Deepening Project, Los Angeles County, California. The Corps and the LAHD have reviewed the written and oral comments received during the August 6, 2008 public hearing and during the public comment period for the Draft SEIS/SEIR. The Corps is publishing a Notice of Availability for the Final SEIS/EIR and Draft CD in the Federal Register for public review. The document will also be placed at public libraries in the vicinity of the project area and distributed to the concerned resource agencies and the public who has provided comment on the Draft SEIS/SEIR.
Public Notice Concerning Nationwide Permit 46
Document Number: E9-8611
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-04-15
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
In response to a memorandum opinion issued on March 26, 2008, in litigation relating to Nationwide Permit (NWP) 46, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) is removing a sentence in the preamble that was published in the March 12, 2007, final notice for the reissuance of the Nationwide Permits and replacing that sentence and providing additional clarification. The preamble language at issue concerns when a pre-construction notification is required in connection with NWP 46, and we are soliciting comments on the removed sentence, the replacement sentences, and the additional clarification provided in this notice. The Corps is not proposing any changes to the terms and conditions of NWP 46.
Notice of Availability of a Final General Conformity Determination and Record of Decision for the Berths 136-147 [TraPac] Container Terminal Project, Port of Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA
Document Number: E9-8239
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-04-10
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
In November 2007, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District, Regulatory Division (Corps) in coordination with the Los Angeles Harbor Department (LAHD) completed and published a joint Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/ EIR) for the Berths 136-147 [TraPac] Container Terminal Project (Project) in the Port of Los Angeles. On November 14, 2008, the Corps published an Addendum to the Final EIS, including a Draft General Conformity Determination, for the Federal action associated with the Project. Comments were received on the Addendum to the Final EIS and Draft General Conformity Determination until December 15, 2008. A General Conformity Determination was required because Project construction would require Federal action (i.e., issuance of a Corps permit for work and structures in and over navigable waters, discharges of fill into waters of the U.S., and transport and disposal of dredged material in ocean waters) and not all the Federal action's direct and indirect air emissions would be below specified de minimis thresholds (40 CFR 93.153(b)). On March 12, 2009, the Corps completed its environmental review and made a Final General Conformity Determination, executed the Record of Decision (ROD), and issued a Standard Individual Permit for the Federal action associated with the Project, pursuant to Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, Section 10 of the River and Harbor Act, and Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act. The Corps considered and responded to all comments received in making the Final General Conformity Determination, executing the ROD, and issuing the Corps permit. The pubic can request copies of the Final General Conformity Determination document or the
Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (DEIS/EIR) for the Aliso Creek, Orange County, CA
Document Number: E9-8107
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-04-09
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The purpose of the study is to evaluate an approximately 7- mile reach of the Aliso Creek and 1,000 feet of the Wood Canyon tributary to Aliso Creek located in Orange County in the Cities of Laguna Beach, Laguna Nigel, and Aliso Viejo, CA and unincorporated Orange County. Much of the 7-mile reach is located within the Aliso and Wood Canyons Wilderness Park, which is owned and managed by Orange County. The focus of the project will be on watershed improvements to restore the creek's dynamic function and habitat for endangered species by developing alternatives for ecosystem restoration for impacted reaches of the creek. The restoration project will focus on revitalization of the riparian vegetation community; establishment of an environmental corridor to benefit wildlife and sensitive species;
Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Town of Nags Head, Beach Nourishment Project in Dare County, NC
Document Number: E9-8084
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-04-09
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), Wilmington District, Regulatory Division, has received a request for Department of the Army authorization, pursuant to Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, from the Town of Nags Head to dredge up to 4.6 million cubic yards of beach-quality sediment from an offshore borrow source, and deposit the material along approximately 10 miles of ocean shoreline in the Town of Nags Head.
Notice of Availability for the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report and a Draft General Conformity Determination for the Middle Harbor Redevelopment Project, Port of Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA
Document Number: E9-7524
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-04-03
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
On May 19, 2008, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District, Regulatory Division (Corps) in coordination with the Port of Long Beach (POLB) completed and published the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Middle Harbor Redevelopment Project (Project) in the Port of Long Beach. The Corps and POLB considered all comments received in preparing the Final EIS/EIR, which is available for a 30-day review (April 3, 2009 through May 3, 2009). The Final EIS/EIR includes a draft general conformity determination (see Appendix A-4), pursuant to Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act. A general conformity determination is necessary because Project construction would require Federal action (i.e., issuance of a Corps permit for activities proposed in navigable waters and waters of the U.S.) and not all the Federal action's direct and indirect emissions would be below specified de minimis thresholds (40 CFR 93.153(b)). Pursuant to the general conformity regulations (40 CFR part 93, subpart B), general conformity determinations do not have to be included in the EIS and can be separately noticed, but the draft general conformity determination for the Federal action associated with the Project is being included in the Final EIS/EIR in this case.
Notice of Availability of the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Nourishment of 25,000 Feet of Beach in Topsail Beach, Pender County, NC
Document Number: E9-7380
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-04-02
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Wilmington District, Wilmington Regulatory Field Office has received a request for Department of the Army authorization, pursuant to Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, from the Town of Topsail Beach to conduct a one-time interim beach fill project to protect oceanfront development and infrastructure until such time that a Federally authorized shore protection project can be implemented. The Corps has prepared a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (FSEIS) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This FSEIS was developed as a supplement to the West Onslow Beach and New River Inlet (Topsail Beach), NC, General Reevaluation Report (GRR) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (USACE, 2008) prepared by the Wilmington District Corps of Engineers (USACE or the Corps) to evaluate resources and environmental considerations involved with the proposed Federal Beach nourishment project. The purpose of this supplement is to fully evaluate the potential impacts of the private action proposed as an addition to the Federal Project and to evaluate alternatives to the proposed action. The private action is proposed to respond to current, substantial erosion occurring along the oceanfront shoreline of the Town of Topsail Beach, NC. While Federal budget priorities have made it difficult to obtain funds for civil works projects in general and beach protection projects in particular, the projected earliest construction date for the Federal project is 2012. State and agency review and comment on Final GRR and EIS were completed in summer 2008. The Recommended Plan outlined in the Final GRR and EIS includes use of all the identified borrow sites over the next 50 years pending further investigations during the development of detailed plans and specifications. Given the current status of the GRR-EIS and the need for Congressional authorization, funding, preparation of plans and specifications, and right-of-way acquisition, the Federal project may not be implemented until Fiscal Year 2012, or possibly later. Accordingly, the Town of Topsail Beach would like to construct an interim beach fill project to protect its development and infrastructure during the period between now and the time the Federal project is constructed. In order to account for any possible delays in the construction of the Federal project, a construction date of 2016 was used in the development of the alternatives and economic analysis for the interim project. This would maintain the baseline conditions described in the Final GRR and FSEIS.
Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Natomas Levee Improvement Program Phase 4a Landside Improvements Project, Sacramento, CA
Document Number: E9-6862
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-03-27
Agency: Department of Defense, United States Army Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The action being taken is preparation of an environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the Natomas Levee Improvement Program (NLIP) Phase 4a Landside Improvements Project (Phase 4a Project). The Corps is considering a request to issue both 408 permission to the Central Valley Flood Protection Board and 404 permit to Sacramento Area Flood Control Agency (SAFCA) for work on the NLIP. Under 33 U.S.C. 408, the Chief of Engineers may grant permission to alter an existing Federal project if it is not injurious to the public interest and does not impair the usefulness of the project. Under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, the District Engineer permits the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States if the discharge meets the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's 404(b)(1) guidelines and is not contrary to the public interest. The NLIP is located in Sacramento and Sutter Counties, CA. The 408 permission is required for structural improvements to the Sacramento River east levee and the Natomas Cross Canal south levee. A 404 permit is needed for dredge and discharge of fill materials into waters of the United States resulting from levee improvements, relocation of the Riverside Canal, and development of associated habitat.
Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Morehead City Harbor Project, Dredged Material Management Plan, Carteret County, NC
Document Number: E9-6855
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-03-27
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The Wilmington District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a study to evaluate the long-term (20-year) dredged material placement needs and opportunities for Morehead City Harbor, NC. The study area encompasses Morehead City Harbor and the Ocean Bar approach channels extending seaward to deep water through Beaufort Inlet in Carteret County, near Morehead City, NC. The study will include the preparation of an integrated (combined) Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) and Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) and will identify, evaluate, screen, prioritize, and ultimately optimize placement alternatives resulting in the recommendation of a plan for the placement of dredged materials for at least the next 20 years.
Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Regional Watershed Supply Project in Wyoming and Colorado
Document Number: E9-6170
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-03-20
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of a proposed water supply project in Wyoming and Colorado, referred to as the Regional Watershed Supply Project (RWSP). Construction of the proposed RWSP is expected to require a Clean Water Act Section 404 permit. The Project is proposed by Million Conservation Resource Group (MCRG), which is a private water development group. The RWSP proposes to provide approximately 250,000 acre-feet per year of new annual firm yield to meet a portion of the projected water supply needs of southeastern Wyoming and the Front Range of Colorado on a perpetual basis through 2030 and beyond. The water would be obtained from the Green River Basin as part of the unused portion of water allocated to the States of Wyoming and Colorado under the Upper Colorado River Compact. The RWSP would be a non-Federal project constructed, owned, and operated by MCRG.
United States Navy Restricted Area, Naval Support Activity, Panama City, FL
Document Number: E9-5748
Type: Rule
Date: 2009-03-18
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) published a document in the Federal Register on September 12, 2008 (73 FR 52926), revising the restricted areas at Naval Support Activity (NSA), Panama City (PC), Florida. The latitude of the shared point for the southeast point of restricted area BA-1 (Sec. 334.761(a)(2)) and the southwest point of restricted area BA-2 (Sec. 334.761(a)(3)) should have been provided as 30[deg]10'32'' N. This document corrects the final regulation by revising these actions.
Restricted Areas at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Patrick AFB, FL
Document Number: E9-5746
Type: Proposed Rule
Date: 2009-03-18
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) is proposing to amend the existing regulations at 33 U.S.C. 334 to enlarge an existing restricted area in the Banana River and to establish a new restricted area in the Atlantic Ocean for the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), located on Patrick AFB, Florida. We are also proposing to remove an existing restricted area in the Banana River at CCAFS. CCAFS Command, located at Patrick AFB, Florida, is responding to Department of Defense (DoD) security assessments which have identified a need for CCAFS to have the capability to secure their shoreline. The proposed enhancement of these capabilities is necessary to counter postulated threats to CCAFS.
The Release of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) and the Announcement of a Public Hearing for the Proposed Construction of the Western Wake Regional Wastewater Management Facilities, Which Includes Regional Wastewater Pumping, Conveyance, Treatment, and Discharge Facilities To Serve the Towns of Apex, Cary, Holly Springs and Morrisville, as Well as the Wake County Portion of Research Triangle Park (Service Area), NC
Document Number: E9-5563
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-03-13
Agency: Department of Defense, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), Wilmington District, Regulatory Division has been reviewing the request for Department of the Army authorization, pursuant to Section 404 of the Clean Water Act from the Town of Cary, acting as the lead for the Western Wake Regional Wastewater Management Facilities Project Partners (Western Wake Partners), to construct Regional Wastewater Management Facility. The proposed project consists of regional wastewater pumping, conveyance, treatment, and discharge facilities to serve the Towns of Apex, Cary, Holly Springs and Morrisville, as well as the Wake County portion of Research Triangle Park (RTP South), NC. The project is being proposed by the Western Wake Partners to provide wastewater service for planned growth and development in the project service area and to comply with two regulatory mandates. One regulatory mandate has been issued by the North Carolina Environmental Management Commission (EMC), and the second regulatory mandate has been issued by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NC DENR).
Department of the Army; Notice of Solicitation for Estuary Habitat Restoration Program
Document Number: E9-5463
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-03-13
Agency: Department of Defense, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
Congress has appropriated limited funds to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) for implementation of the Estuary Habitat Restoration Program as authorized in Section 104 of the Estuary Restoration Act of 2000, Title I of the Estuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-457) (accessible at http://www.usace.army.mil/ CECW/ERA/pages/Default.aspx). On behalf of the Estuary Habitat Restoration Council (Council), the Corps is soliciting proposals for estuary habitat restoration projects. This document describes project criteria and evaluation criteria the Council will use to determine which projects to recommend. Recommended projects must provide ecosystem benefits, have scientific merit, be technically feasible, and be cost-effective. Proposals selected for Estuary Habitat Restoration Program funding may be implemented in accordance with a cost-share agreement with the Corps, a cooperative agreement with the Corps, or a cooperative agreement with one of the other agencies represented on the Council, subject to availability of funds.
Intent To Prepare a Draft and Final Second Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Reach 1A on the Herbert Hoover Dike Major Rehabilitation Project, Martin and Palm Beach Counties
Document Number: E9-4931
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-03-09
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The purpose of the project is to reconstruct and rehabilitate Reach 1A of the Herbert Hoover Dike to prevent catastrophic failure of the system to retain the waters of Lake Okeechobee. On July 8 2005, the Jacksonville District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) issued a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (FSEIS) for the Major Rehabilitation actions proposed for Herbert Hoover Dike (HHD), Reach One. Herbert Hoover Dike is the levee that completely surrounds Lake Okeechobee. On September 23, 2005, a Record of Decision was signed adopting the preferred alternative as the Selected Plan for Reach One. As plans and specifications were developed for Reach 1, it became apparent that the cut-off wall with seepage berm alternative would not work for all of Reach 1. The alternative for Reach 1A will be a combination of one or more of the following features dependent on the geology and adjacent land factors with the cut-off wall: Seepage Berm, Relief Trench, Soil Replacement Wedge, Relief Wells, Drainage Feature and Sand Columns. Reach 1A of the HHD extends for approximately 4.6 miles within Martin and Palm Beach Counties, from the St. Lucie Canal at Port Mayaca, south to the 10A culvert. The final full design of the cutoff wall and landside rehabilitation feature will include lands outside of the existing ROW. Therefore it is necessary to update the July 2005 SEIS for Reach 1A to include these new landside rehabilitation features and any impacts to lands outside of the existing ROW. Two separate draft and final SEIS's will be developed for the four Subreaches: An SEIS for Subreach 1A will be completed first and a second SEIS for Subreaches 1B, 1C, and 1D will be completed when designs (anticipated late 2009) are available. This study is a cooperative effort between the Corps and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD).
Notice of Availability for the Final Program Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the San Diego Creek Watershed Special Area Management Plan/Watershed Streambed Alteration Agreement Process, Orange County, CA
Document Number: E9-4332
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-03-02
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
Pursuant to section 102(2)(c) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (as amended), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District, Regulatory Division (Corps), in coordination with the California Department of Fish and Game, Habitat Conservation Branch, South Coast Region (Department), has completed a Final Program Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) (Volume IIIEvaluation of and Response to Comments/ Errata) for the Special Area Management Plan/Watershed Streambed Alteration Agreement (SAMP/WSAA) Process for the San Diego Creek Watershed, Orange County, California. The SAMP/WSAA Process establishes alternative permitting procedures for projects within the San Diego Creek Watershed that would alter the bed, bank, or channel of rivers, streams, and lakes and associated riparian habitats under the Department's jurisdiction, and discharge dredged or fill material into waters of the United States subject to the Corps jurisdiction. The SAMP/WSAA Process permitting procedures will improve the Corps and the Department's ability to evaluate such projects, as compared to the process each agency would normally follow in permitting such projects on a case-by-case basis. The SAMP is comprised of the following four elements: an Analytical Framework that characterizes aquatic resource conditions for the San Diego Creek Watershed; modified watershed-specific permitting processes, including watershed-specific and resource-based permitting protocols and a mitigation framework; a Strategic Mitigation Plan that is based upon a riparian ecosystem restoration plan for the Watershed; and a Mitigation Coordination Program to achieve implementation of the Strategic Mitigation Plan and foster a coordinated approach to aquatic resource management in the San Diego Creek Watershed.
Final Supplement to the Environmental Impact Statement To Evaluate Construction of Authorized Improvements to the Gulfport Harbor Federal Navigation Project in Harrison County, MS
Document Number: E9-4203
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-02-27
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
This notice of availability announces the public release of the Final Supplement to the Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) to evaluate construction of authorized improvements to the Gulfport Harbor Federal navigation project in Harrison County, MS. The Mobile District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) published in the Federal Register, March 31, 2006, (71 FR 16294) a Notice of Intent to Prepare a Draft SEIS to address the potential impacts associated with construction of authorized improvements to the Federal Gulfport Harbor navigation project in Harrison County, MS. The Corps published in the Federal Register, February 9, 2007, (72 FR 6224) a Notice of Availability of the Draft SEIS. Comments were received and incorporated into the Final SEIS. The Final SEIS will be used as a basis for ensuring compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Corps' proposed action in the Final SEIS includes widening the Federally authorized Mississippi Sound channel to 300 feet and the Bar channel to 400 feet. In addition, disposal of the associated dredged material would be placed beneficially in water depths of 25 feet or greater east of the Chandeleur Islands and material dredged from within the Ship Island Pass (littoral zone) would be placed in the existing littoral zone disposal area in water depths between 14 feet and 18 feet. Future maintenance material dredged from the navigation channel would be placed in open-water sites within Mississippi Sound utilizing thin-layer disposal methods, the existing littoral zone disposal area, and within the existing Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites.
Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Southwest Coastal Louisiana Feasibility Study
Document Number: E9-4202
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-02-27
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The Corps of Engineers (Corps) intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Southwest Coastal Louisiana Feasibility Study for Calcasieu, Cameron and Vermilion Parishes, Louisiana. The Corps will evaluate a full suite of structural, nonstructural and coastal restoration measures to achieve hurricane protection and storm damage risk reduction within Calcasieu, Cameron and Vermilion Parishes in Louisiana. Southwestern Louisiana has been affected by several named storms in the past 50 years. The study area, which is characterized by low, flat terrain, is highly susceptible to flooding from tidal surges associated with hurricanes and tropical storms due to its close proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. Hurricanes that caused damage include Audrey (1957), Arlene (1959), Debra (1978), Chris (1982), Danny (1985), Juan (1985), Bonnie (1986), Allison (1989), Chantal (1989), Francis (1998), Hermine (1998), Allison (2001), Bertha (2002), Lili (2002), Rita (2005), Gustav (2008) and Ike (2008). As the ground elevation subsides relative to the levels of the Gulf of Mexico, the depth of potential flooding in the future will increase along with an increase in damages to the human and natural environments. Wetlands in the study area are affected by relative sea level rise, subsidence, tides and storm surge created by tropical storms and hurricanes, saltwater intrusion and ponding and reduced organic production. These conditions would continue at an increased rate as the mass of coastal land decreases.
Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Hawthorne Mill Project, Fairfield, Solano County, CA
Document Number: E9-4201
Type: Notice
Date: 2009-02-27
Agency: Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineers Corps, Army Department
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has received applications for Department of the Army authorizations from Edenbridge, Incorporated (EI) to construct two projects in the City of Fairfield, Solano County, CA. One project, Hawthorne Mill East, is a mixed-residential development project and the second, Hawthorne Mill West, is a residential development project. Development of Hawthorne Mill East will require permanent placement of fill in 37.8 acres of waters of the U.S. Hawthorne Mill West would result in permanent impacts to 0.5 acres of waters of the U.S. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the USACE has determined that the proposed actions may have a significant impact on the quality of the human environment and therefore requires the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Although the two projects are separate projects with independent utility, the USACE and the City have elected to consider these two related projects in a single document to allow for concurrent processing of requested entitlements. A combined Environmental Impact Report (EIR)/EIS will be prepared with the USACE as the Federal lead agency and the City of Fairfield (City) as the local lead agency (under the California Environmental Quality Act, or CEQA). The Hawthorne Mill East project is intended to become an integral part of the City's proposed train station by contributing to the creation of a populated, mixed-use transit hub and complementing the urban development principles as contemplated by the City. The proposed action is intended to: (1) Maximize long-term land use opportunities presented by the rail station by including a mix of land uses within walking distance of the station; (2) maximize pedestrian and bicycle access between residential and commercial development and the train station; (3) meet the City's regional housing needs requirements in a manner that minimizes pressure on regional highway facilities; (4) contribute to the clear identity of the train station as a comfortable, attractive, and vibrant public realm; and (5) provide appropriate protection of sensitive natural resources. The purpose of the Hawthorne Mill West project is to provide residential housing to fulfill the unmet needs of the City of Fairfield and to contribute to regional growth management by locating residential development on an infill site that is contiguous with existing development.