Federal Aviation Administration February 2015 – Federal Register Recent Federal Regulation Documents

Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of Information Collection: Fractional Aircraft Ownership Programs
Document Number: 2015-02651
Type: Notice
Date: 2015-02-10
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, FAA invites public comments about our intention to request the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval to renew an information collection. The Federal Register Notice with a 60-day comment period soliciting comments on the following collection of information was published on December 4, 2014. Fractional Ownership offers increased flexibility in aircraft ownership. Owners purchase shares of an aircraft and agree to share their aircraft with others having an ownership share in that same aircraft. Owners agree to put their aircraft into a ``pool'' of other shared aircraft and to lease their aircraft to another owner in that pool.
Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of Information Collection: Report of Inspections Required by Airworthiness Directives
Document Number: 2015-02647
Type: Notice
Date: 2015-02-10
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, FAA invites public comments about our intention to request the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval to renew an information collection. The Federal Register Notice with a 60-day comment period soliciting comments on the following collection of information was published on December 4, 2014. Airworthiness Directives (ADs) are regulations issued to require correct corrective action to correct unsafe conditions in aircraft, engines, propellers, and appliances. Reports of inspections are often needed when emergency corrective action is taken to determine if the action was adequate to correct the unsafe condition. The respondents are aircraft owners and operators. Currently, FAA has blanket Paperwork Reduction Act approval from OMB for all ADs with information collection requirements. Per OMB's request, this collection is being converted to a generic information collection request, which will require FAA to submit individual ADs with reporting requirements to OMB for approval prior to their release.
Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes
Document Number: 2015-02282
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-10
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2B19 (Regional Jet Series 100 & 440) airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of dislodged engine fan cowl panels. This AD requires installing additional attaching hardware on the left and right fan cowl access panels and the nacelle attaching structures. We are issuing this AD to prevent damage to the fuselage and flight control surfaces from dislodged engine fan cowl panels.
Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. (Type Certificate Currently Held by AgustaWestland S.p.A.) (Agusta) Helicopters
Document Number: 2015-01809
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-10
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Agusta AB139 and AW139 helicopters to require replacing certain single-braided flexible hydraulic hoses with double-braided flexible hydraulic hoses. This AD was prompted by occurrences of leaking flexible hydraulic hoses. The actions of this AD are intended to prevent loss of hydraulic power and subsequent loss of helicopter control.
Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Helicopters (Formerly Eurocopter France)
Document Number: 2015-01803
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-10
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are publishing a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Airbus Helicopters (formerly Eurocopter France) Model EC130T2 helicopters, which was sent previously to all known U.S. owners and operators of these helicopters. This AD requires repetitively inspecting the attachment points where the fan attaches to the main gearbox (MGB) oil cooler hopper (hopper) and replacing any cracked hopper with an airworthy hopper. This AD is prompted by several cases of a cracked hopper. The cracks were found on the hopper at the fan attachment points. These actions are intended to detect a crack in the hopper at a fan attachment point to prevent failure of the fan attachment, interference of the fan with the control rod of the front servo-control or with the flight control bellcrank, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter.
Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes
Document Number: 2015-01710
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-10
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are superseding Airworthiness Directive (AD) 2007-03-18, AD 2008-17-02, AD 2012-08-03, and AD 2012-15-14, for certain Airbus Model A300 B4-2C, B4-103, and B4-203 airplanes; Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes (collectively called Model A300-600 series airplanes); and Model A310 series airplanes. AD 2007-03-18, AD 2008-17-02, AD 2012-08- 03, and AD 2012-15-14 required repetitive inspections of the forward lugs of the aft bearing at rib 5 of the main landing gear (MLG) on the left-hand (LH) and right-hand (RH) wings, and repair if necessary; and installation of new bushes with increased interference fit in the forward lug of the aft bearing at rib 5 of the MLG on the LH and RH wings. This new AD adds airplanes to the applicability; and adds, for certain airplanes, repetitive inspections of the MLG rib 5 aft bearing forward lugs, and repair if necessary. This AD was prompted by reports of cracking in the forward lug of the MLG rib 5 aft bearing attachment. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct cracking of the forward lugs of the aft bearing at rib 5 of the MLG on the LH and RH wings, which could affect the structural integrity of the MLG attachment, resulting in possible MLG collapse during landing or rollout.
Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes
Document Number: 2015-01663
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-10
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Bombardier, Inc. Model DHC-8-400 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by fuel system reviews conducted by the manufacturer. This AD requires replacing a fitting that is part of the refuel control solenoid valve assembly. We are issuing this AD to prevent the potential of ignition sources inside fuel tanks, which, in combination with flammable fuel vapors, could result in fuel tank explosions and consequent loss of the airplane.
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Performance Requirements To Support Air Traffic Control (ATC) Service; Technical Amendment
Document Number: 2015-02579
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-09
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
The FAA is correcting a final rule published on May 28, 2010. In that rule, the FAA amended its regulations by adding equipage requirements and performance standards for Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast (ADS-B) Out avionics on aircraft operating in Classes A, B, and C airspace, as well as other specified classes of airspace within the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS). This document corrects errors in regulatory provisions addressing ADS-B Out equipment and use.
Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes
Document Number: 2015-02407
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-09
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A319-115, A319-133, A320-214, A320-232, and A320-233 airplanes. This AD requires repetitive detailed inspections of the outboard main landing gear (MLG) support rib lower flange fasteners for discrepancies, and corrective actions if necessary. This AD was prompted by reports of failure of certain fasteners on the MLG support rib lower flange. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct discrepancies of the fasteners at the outboard MLG support rib lower flange, which could result in an airplane not meeting its maximum loads expected in service. This condition could result in structural failure.
Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues
Document Number: 2015-02416
Type: Notice
Date: 2015-02-06
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
This notice announces a public meeting via teleconference of the FAA's Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) Transport Airplane and Engine (TAE) Subcommittee to discuss TAE issues.
Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters
Document Number: 2015-02283
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-06
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are revising Airworthiness Directive (AD) 2014-12-11 for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. AD 2014-12-11 required revising the Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM) to include the appropriate operating limitations for performing Class D external load-combination operations. As published, AD 2014-12-11 referenced an incorrect date for Revision No. 12 of Sikorsky RFM SA S92A-RFM-003, Part 1. This AD corrects the error while retaining the requirements of AD 2014-12-11. These actions are intended to require appropriate operating limitations to allow operators to perform Class D external load-combination operations, including human external cargo, in this model helicopter that now meets the Category A performance standard.
Harmonization of Airworthiness Standards-Gust and Maneuver Load Requirements; Correction
Document Number: C1-2015-01205
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-05
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the South Texas Regional Airport at Hondo, Texas
Document Number: 2015-02323
Type: Notice
Date: 2015-02-05
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
The FAA proposes to rule and invite public comment on the release of land at the South Texas Regional Airport at Hondo under the provisions of Section 125 of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21).
Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the South Texas Regional Airport at Hondo, Texas
Document Number: 2015-02320
Type: Notice
Date: 2015-02-05
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
The FAA proposes to rule and invite public comment on the release of land at the South Texas Regional Airport at Hondo under the provisions of Section 125 of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21).
Removal of Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87-Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia
Document Number: 2015-02193
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-04
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
This action removes the prohibition against certain flights within the territory and airspace of Ethiopia contained in Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) No. 87 from the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The prohibition only applied to flight operations within the territory and airspace of Ethiopia north of 12 degrees north latitude conducted by United States (U.S.) air carriers or commercial operators; persons exercising the privileges of an airman certificate issued by the FAA, unless that person was engaged in the operation of a U.S.-registered aircraft for a foreign air carrier; and operators using an aircraft registered in the United States, except where the operator of such aircraft was a foreign air carrier. The FAA has now determined that the safety and security situation that prompted the above flight prohibition has significantly improved, and that it is safe for U.S. civil flights to be operated within the entire territory and airspace of Ethiopia, subject to the approval of and in accordance with the conditions established by the appropriate authorities of Ethiopia.
Eighteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, AMS(R)S
Document Number: 2015-02172
Type: Notice
Date: 2015-02-04
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the eighteenth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. The purpose of this meeting is threefold. First, we will consider the draft Change 4 to DO-210D. The draft will be submitted to the workspace no later than close of business Eastern time on January 12. Second, we will consider a work plan to progress development of Iridium NEXT material for DO-343, as approved by the PMC on December 16, 2014. Third, we will consider a work plan to progress cooperation with Eurocae WG-82, as approved by the PMC on December 16, 2014.
Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of Information Collection: Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum
Document Number: 2015-02171
Type: Notice
Date: 2015-02-04
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, FAA invites public comments about our intention to request the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval to renew an information collection. Federal Register Notices with 60-day and 30-day comment periods soliciting comments on the following collection of information were published on November 6, 2014 (79 FR 66828) and January 12, 2015 (80 FR 1579), respectively. This notice serves as a correction to those prior notices, to clarify that the information collection request has been revised to report an increase in current burden estimates. Aircraft operators seeking operational approval to conduct Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) operations within the 48 contiguous United States (U.S.), Alaska and a portion of the Gulf of Mexico must submit an application to the Certificate Holding District Office.
Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Georgetown County Airport, Georgetown, South Carolina
Document Number: 2015-02166
Type: Notice
Date: 2015-02-04
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
Under the provisions of Title 49, U.S.C. Section 47151(d), notice is being given that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is considering a request from Georgetown County to waive the requirement that eleven parcels (approximately 18.32 acres) of surplus property, located at the Georgetown County Airport be used for aeronautical purposes.
Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines
Document Number: 2015-02082
Type: Proposed Rule
Date: 2015-02-04
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We propose to supersede airworthiness directive (AD) 2014-19- 05 that applies to all Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 1A1, 1A2, 1B, 1C, 1C1, 1C2, 1D, 1D1, 1E2, 1K1, 1S, 1S1, 2B, 2B1, 2C, 2C1, 2C2, 2S1, and 2S2 turboshaft engines. AD 2014-19-05 requires an initial one-time vibration check of the engine accessory gearbox (AGB) on certain higher risk Arriel 1 and Arriel 2 model engines and repetitive vibration checks for all Arriel 1 and Arriel 2 engines. Since we issued AD 2014- 19-05, we determined that a Technical Instruction (TI) number and a Test Bed Acceptance Test Specifications number in the Actions and Compliance and the Related Information sections are incorrect. This proposed AD would correct these numbers. We are proposing this AD to prevent failure of the engine AGB, which could lead to in-flight shutdown and damage to the engine, which may result in damage to the aircraft.
Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes
Document Number: 2015-02074
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-04
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are superseding Airworthiness Directive (AD) 2013-24-13 for certain The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, -500, -600, -700, -700C, -800, and -900 series airplanes. AD 2013-24-13 required replacing the pivot link assembly for certain airplanes, replacing the seat track link assemblies or modifying the existing seat track link assembly for certain airplanes, or modifying the existing seat track link assembly fastener for certain other airplanes. AD 2013-24-13 also required inspecting, changing, or repairing the seat track link assembly for certain other airplanes. Since we issued AD 2013-24-13, a certain paragraph reference in that AD was found to be mis-identified; this AD corrects this paragraph reference. We are issuing this AD to prevent seat detachment in an emergency landing, which could cause injury to occupants of the passenger compartment and affect emergency egress.
Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines
Document Number: 2015-01557
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-04
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are superseding airworthiness directive (AD) 2013-15-10 that applies to certain Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211 turbofan engines. AD 2013-15-10 required inspecting the intermediate-pressure compressor (IPC) rotor shaft rear balance land for cracks. This AD requires inspecting the IPC rotor shaft rear balance land for cracks, eliminates a terminating action, expands one inspection, and eliminates certain other inspections. We are issuing this AD to detect cracking on the IPC rotor shaft rear balance land, which could lead to uncontained engine failure and damage to the airplane.
Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Corporation Turboprop and Turbofan Engines (Type Certificate Previously Held by Allison Engine Company)
Document Number: 2015-01282
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-04
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Rolls-Royce Corporation (RRC) AE 2100 series turboprop engines and AE 3007A and 3007C series turbofan engines. This AD was prompted by reports of pitting in the wheel bores and subsequent RRC analysis that concluded that lower life limits are needed for the affected turbine wheels. This AD requires a reduction for the approved life limits of the affected turbine wheels. This AD also requires an eddy current inspection (ECI) of certain RRC engines with affected turbine wheels. We are issuing this AD to prevent uncontained failure of the turbine wheels, damage to the engine, and damage to the airplane.
Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Reciprocating Engines (Type Certificate previously held by Textron Lycoming Division, AVCO Corporation)
Document Number: 2015-01281
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-04
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain serial number (S/N) Lycoming Engines reciprocating engines. This AD was prompted by propeller governor shaft set screws coming loose due to improper installation. We are issuing this AD to prevent the propeller governor shaft set screw from coming loose, causing damage to the engine and damage to the airplane.
Airworthiness Directives; Quest Aircraft Design, LLC Airplanes
Document Number: 2015-01196
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-04
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Quest Aircraft Design, LLC Model KODIAK 100 airplanes. This AD requires inspecting the inboard upper and lower elevator skins for cracking, repairing cracks, and installing doublers. This AD was prompted by a report that fatigue cracks were found in the lower elevator skins. We are issuing this AD to correct the unsafe condition on these products.
Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes
Document Number: 2015-01188
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-04
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are superseding Airworthiness Directive (AD) 95-24-04 for all Airbus Model A300 series airplanes; Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes; and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes. AD 95-24-04 required inspections to detect cracks at the aft spar web of the wings, and repair if necessary. This new AD reduces certain compliance times, and expands the applicability. This AD was prompted by a determination that the inspection threshold and interval must be reduced to allow timely detection of cracks and accomplishment of applicable repairs, because of cracking in the rear spar web of the wings between certain ribs due to fatigue-related high shear stress. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct fatigue-related cracking, which could result in reduced structural integrity of the wing.
Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes
Document Number: 2015-01187
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-04
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-215-6B11 (CL-215T Variant), and CL-215-6B11 (CL-415 Variant) airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report that, during a routine inspection, corrosion was discovered on the lower bearing of the rudder upper torque tube. This AD requires applying grease to the bearing; doing a general visual inspection of the expelled old grease for any contaminants, metal wear, and indication of corrosion, and replacing the bearing if necessary; and revising the maintenance or inspection program, as applicable, to incorporate the rudder spring tab operational test and a check of the rudder spring tab operation into the daily inspection. We are issuing this AD to prevent corroded bearings, which could result in a partial or total loss of axial support.
Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task
Document Number: 2015-01918
Type: Notice
Date: 2015-02-03
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) a new task to provide recommendations regarding Aircraft Systems Information Security/Protection (ASISP) rulemaking, policy, and guidance on best practices for airplanes and rotorcraft, including both certification and continued airworthiness. The issue is that without updates to regulations, policy, and guidance to address ASISP, aircraft vulnerabilities may not be identified and mitigated, thus increasing exposure times to security threats. In addition, a lack of ASISP- specific regulations, policy, and guidance could result in security related certification criteria that are not standardized and harmonized between domestic and international regulatory authorities. This notice informs the public of the new ARAC activity and solicits membership for the new ASISP Working Group.
Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes
Document Number: 2015-01661
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-03
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-1A11 (CL-600), CL-600-2A12 (CL-601), and CL-600-2B16 (CL-601-3A, and CL-601-3R Variants) airplanes. This AD requires repetitive inspections for fractured or incorrectly oriented fasteners on the inboard flap hinge-box forward fittings on both wings, and replacement of all fasteners, if necessary. This AD was prompted by several reports of incorrectly oriented and fractured fasteners found on the inboard flap hinge-box forward fitting at wing station (WS) 76.50. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct incorrectly oriented or fractured fasteners, which could result in detachment of the flap hinge-box and the flap surface, and consequent reduced controllability of the airplane.
Notice of Meeting of the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation Rulemaking Committee
Document Number: 2015-01947
Type: Notice
Date: 2015-02-02
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Park Service (NPS), in accordance with the National Parks Air Tour Management Act of 2000, announce the next meeting of the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group (NPOAG) Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC). This notification provides the date, location, and agenda for the meeting. Date and Location: The NPOAG ARC will meet on March 5, 2015. The meeting will take place in Room S230DE in the South Concourse of the Orange County Convention Center at 9899 International Drive Orlando, FL 32819. The meeting will be held from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. on March 5, 2015. This NPOAG meeting will be open to the public.
Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Reciprocating Engines (Type Certificate Previously Held by Textron Lycoming Division, AVCO Corporation)
Document Number: 2015-01835
Type: Proposed Rule
Date: 2015-02-02
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Lycoming TIO-540-AJ1A reciprocating engines. This proposed AD was prompted by several reports of cracked engine exhaust pipes. This proposed AD would require inspection of the engine exhaust pipes for cracks and replacement of the turbocharger mounting bracket. We are proposing this AD to prevent failure of the exhaust system due to cracking, which could lead to uncontrolled engine fire, harmful exhaust gases entering the cabin resulting in crew incapacitation, and damage to the airplane.
Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Helicopters (Previously Eurocopter France) Helicopters
Document Number: 2015-01800
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-02
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are superseding Airworthiness Directive (AD) 2013-19-19 for certain Eurocopter France Model AS332C, AS332L, AS332L1, AS332L2, and EC225LP helicopters. AD 2013-19-19 required replacing certain serial- numbered main gearbox (MGB) bevel gear vertical shafts and inspecting and replacing, if necessary, each MGB bevel gear vertical shaft (shaft). This new AD requires the same actions as AD 2013-19-19 but corrects an error in the term used to identify an inspection qualification and updates the type certificate holder's name. This AD is prompted by two incidents of emergency ditching after warning indications of loss of MGB oil pressure. These actions are intended to detect a cracked shaft, which could result in loss of MGB oil pressure, loss of the MGB lubrication system, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter.
Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Corporation Turboprop and Turboshaft Engines
Document Number: 2015-01371
Type: Rule
Date: 2015-02-02
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are superseding airworthiness directive (AD) 2012-14-06 for certain Rolls-Royce Corporation (RRC) 250-C20, -C20B, and -C20R/2 turboshaft engines. AD 2012-14-06 required a one-time visual inspection and fluorescent-penetrant inspection (FPI) on certain 3rd-stage and 4th-stage turbine wheels for cracks in the turbine blades. This new AD replaces the one-time visual inspection and FPI with repetitive visual inspections and FPIs. This AD also adds certain engine models to the applicability. This AD was prompted by the determination that the one- time inspections required by AD 2012-14-06 should be changed to repetitive inspections. We are issuing this AD to prevent failure of 3rd-stage and 4th-stage turbine wheel blades, which could cause engine failure and damage to the aircraft.