Census Bureau 2010 – Federal Register Recent Federal Regulation Documents

Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Census Barriers, Attitudes, and Motivators Survey (CBAMS) II
Document Number: 2010-32743
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-12-29
Agency: Census Bureau, Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Wave 10 of the 2008 Panel
Document Number: 2010-32284
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-12-23
Agency: Department of Commerce, U.s. Census Bureau, Census Bureau
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Basic Demographic Items
Document Number: 2010-31544
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-12-16
Agency: Department of Commerce, U.s. Census Bureau, Census Bureau
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Center for Economic Studies Research Proposal Process and Project Management
Document Number: 2010-31471
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-12-15
Agency: Census Bureau, Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Questionnaire for Building Permit Official
Document Number: 2010-31466
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-12-15
Agency: Census Bureau, Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census Classification Report for the Construction, Manufacturing, and Mining Sectors and Selected Wholesale Industries
Document Number: 2010-31385
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-12-15
Agency: Census Bureau, Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census General Classification Report
Document Number: 2010-30328
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-12-03
Agency: Department of Commerce, U.s. Census Bureau, Census Bureau
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Federal Economic Statistics Advisory Committee Meeting
Document Number: 2010-29602
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-11-24
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The Bureau of the Census (U.S. Census Bureau) is giving notice of a meeting of the Federal Economic Statistics Advisory Committee (FESAC). The Committee will advise the Directors of the Economics and Statistics Administration's (ESA) two statistical agencies, the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) and the Bureau of the Census, and the Commissioner of the Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) on statistical methodology and other technical matters related to the collection, tabulation, and analysis of federal economic statistics. Last minute changes to the agenda are possible, which could prevent giving advance public notice of schedule adjustments.
2010 Company Organization Survey
Document Number: 2010-29408
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-11-23
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) is conducting the 2010 Company Organization Survey. The survey's data are needed, in part, to update the multilocation companies in the Business Register. The survey, which has been conducted annually since 1974, is designed to collect information on the number of employees, payroll, geographic location, current operational status, and kind of business for each establishment of companies with more than one location. We have determined that annual data collected from this survey are needed to aid the efficient performance of essential governmental functions, and that these data have significant application to the needs of the public and industry. The data derived from this survey are not available from any other source.
Annual Surveys in the Manufacturing Area
Document Number: 2010-28085
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-11-05
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) is conducting the 2010 Annual Surveys in the Manufacturing Area. The 2010 Annual Surveys consist of the Current Industrial Reports surveys, the Annual Survey of Manufactures, the Business R&D and Innovation Survey, and the Manufacturers' Unfilled Orders Survey. We have determined that annual data collected from these surveys are needed to aid the efficient performance of essential governmental functions, and have significant application to the needs of the public and industry. The data derived from these surveys, most of which have been conducted for many years, are not publicly available from nongovernmental or other governmental sources.
Annual Wholesale Trade Survey
Document Number: 2010-26149
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-10-18
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The United States Department of Commerce's Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) publishes this notice to announce that the Director of the Census Bureau has determined the need to conduct the 2010 Annual Wholesale Trade Survey (AWTS). AWTS covers firms with establishments located in the United States and classified in the Wholesale Trade Sector as defined by the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Specifically, AWTS includes wholesale distributors; manufacturers' sales branches and offices; and agents, brokers, and electronic markets. Through this survey, the Census Bureau will collect data on annual sales, e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses, year-end inventories held both inside and outside the United States, commissions, total operating revenue, and gross selling value. These data are collected to provide a sound statistical basis for the formation of policy by various government agencies. These data will be available for use for a variety of public and business needs such as economic and market analysis, company performance, and forecasting future demand.
Annual Retail Trade Survey
Document Number: 2010-26145
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-10-18
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The United States Department of Commerce's Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) publishes this notice to announce that the Director of the Census Bureau has determined the need to conduct the 2010 Annual Retail Trade Survey (ARTS). ARTS covers employer firms with establishments located in the United States and classified in the Retail Trade and/or Accommodation and Food Services sectors as defined by the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Through this survey, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end inventories held inside and outside the United States, total operating expenses, purchases, accounts receivables, and, for selected industries, merchandise line sales, percent of sales by class of customer, and percent of e-commerce sales to customers located outside the United States. These data are collected to provide a sound statistical basis for the formation of policy by various government agencies. Results will be available for use for a variety of public and business needs such as economic and market analysis, company performance, and forecasting future demand.
2010 Census Advisory Committee
Document Number: 2010-23925
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-09-24
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) is giving notice of a meeting of the 2010 Census Advisory Committee. The Committee will address policy, research, and technical issues related to 2010 Decennial Census Programs and the American Community Survey. Last- minute changes to the agenda are possible, which could prevent giving advance notification of schedule changes.
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Wave 9 of the 2008 Panel
Document Number: 2010-23453
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-09-21
Agency: Census Bureau, Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
American Community Survey 5-Year Data Product Plans
Document Number: 2010-23373
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-09-20
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) currently releases American Community Survey (ACS) data products in the form of 1-year estimates and 3-year estimates. Most recently, the 2008 ACS 1-year estimates were released in September 2009, and the 2006-2008 ACS 3-year estimates were released in October 2009. By this notice, the Census Bureau announces plans for the release of ACS 5-year data products covering the period of 2005-2009. The release of the ACS 5-year estimates will achieve a goal of the ACS to provide small-area data similar to the data published after Census 2000, based on the long-form sample. This notice provides general information on the Census Bureau's modifications to its current line of ACS data products to accommodate the 5-year estimates.
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Manufacturers' Shipments, Inventories, and Orders Benchmark Supplement
Document Number: 2010-22968
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-09-15
Agency: Census Bureau, Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and Respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Census Advisory Committees
Document Number: 2010-22534
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-09-09
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) is giving notice of a joint meeting, the Census Advisory Committees (CACs) on the African American Population, the American Indian and Alaska Native Populations, the Asian Population, the Hispanic Population, and the Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Populations. The Committees will address issues related to the 2010 Decennial Census, including the Integrated Communications Campaign, 2010 Partnerships, and other decennial activities. The five Census Advisory Committees on Race and Ethnicity will meet in plenary and concurrent sessions on October 6-8, 2010. Last-minute changes to the schedule are possible, which could prevent giving advance public notice of schedule adjustments.
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Annual Capital Expenditures Survey
Document Number: 2010-21205
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-08-26
Agency: Census Bureau, Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Information and Communication Technology Survey
Document Number: 2010-21204
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-08-26
Agency: Census Bureau, Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census
Document Number: 2010-20808
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-08-24
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
This notice provides the Bureau of the Census' (hereafter, Census Bureau's) proposed criteria for defining urban areas based on the results of the 2010 Decennial Census (the term ``urban area'' as used throughout this notice refers generically to urbanized areas of 50,000 or more population and urban clusters of at least 2,500 and less than 50,000 population). It also provides a description of the changes from the final criteria used for Census 2000. The Census Bureau is requesting public comment on these proposed criteria.
Census Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of Public Meeting
Document Number: 2010-20524
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-08-19
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The Bureau of the Census (U.S. Census Bureau) is giving notice of a meeting of the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (C-SAC). The
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation (FHWAR) Cell Phone and Debit Card Test
Document Number: 2010-19679
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-08-10
Agency: Department of Commerce, U.s. Census Bureau, Census Bureau
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Precanvass Operation for the 2012 Economic Census Covering Transportation of Commodities
Document Number: 2010-16396
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-07-07
Agency: Department of Commerce, U.s. Census Bureau, Census Bureau
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Customer Satisfaction Research
Document Number: 2010-16292
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-07-06
Agency: Department of Commerce, U.s. Census Bureau, Census Bureau
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) 2011 Re-engineered SIPP-Field Test
Document Number: 2010-15085
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-06-23
Agency: Department of Commerce, U.s. Census Bureau, Census Bureau
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure
Document Number: 2010-12628
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-05-26
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) issues this notice to request comments on the approach to developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) presented in a report entitled ``Observations from the Interagency Technical Working Group on Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure,'' which was recently released by the Interagency Technical Working Group on Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure (Working Group). This report was produced as part of an effort by the Working Group to suggest how the Census Bureau, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), should develop a new Supplemental Poverty Measure. The report provides observations about how to make a series of initial choices in the development of the SPM. The eventual publication of the SPM will not replace the official poverty measure, nor will it have any impact on allocations determined by the poverty measurement. Rather, it is part of the Census Bureau's ongoing effort to more accurately measure poverty levels in the United States.
The 2010 Census Count Question Resolution Program
Document Number: 2010-12626
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-05-26
Agency: Census Bureau, Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Wave 8 of the 2008 Panel
Document Number: 2010-9670
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-04-27
Agency: Census Bureau, Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Business and Professional Classification Report
Document Number: 2010-9567
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-04-26
Agency: Department of Commerce, U.s. Census Bureau, Census Bureau
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Wave 8 of the 2008 Panel
Document Number: 2010-9536
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-04-26
Agency: Department of Commerce, U.s. Census Bureau, Census Bureau
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Questionnaire Pretesting Research
Document Number: 2010-7448
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-04-02
Agency: Department of Commerce, U.s. Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Reestablishment of the Census Advisory Committee of Professional Associations
Document Number: 2010-7250
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-03-31
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
Notice is hereby given that the Secretary of Commerce has determined that the reestablishment of an advisory committee of technical advisors is necessary and in the public interest. Accordingly, the Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) has chartered the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (CSAC), which succeeds the Census Advisory Committee of Professional Associations (CACPA). The charter for the CACPA expired on February 1, 2010.
Census Scientific Advisory Committee
Document Number: 2010-7241
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-03-31
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The Bureau of the Census (U.S. Census Bureau) is giving notice of a meeting of the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (C-SAC). The
Census Advisory Committees
Document Number: 2010-6251
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-03-22
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) is giving notice of a joint meeting of the Census Advisory Committees (CACs) on the African American Population, the American Indian and Alaska Native Populations, the Asian Population, the Hispanic Population, and the Native Hawaiian
Renewal of the Census Advisory Committees on the Race and Ethnic Populations
Document Number: 2010-6247
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-03-22
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
Notice is hereby given that the Secretary of Commerce has determined that the renewal of the Census Advisory Committee on the African American Population, Census Advisory Committee on the American Indian and Alaska Native Populations, Census Advisory Committee on the Asian Population, Census Advisory Committee on the Hispanic Populations and Census Advisory Committee on the Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population are in the public interest in connection with the performance of duties imposed by law on the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; AGE Search Service
Document Number: 2010-5554
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-03-15
Agency: Census Bureau, Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
2010 Census Advisory Committee
Document Number: 2010-4906
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-03-09
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) is giving notice of a meeting of the 2010 Census Advisory Committee. The Committee will
Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Eliminate the Social Security Number (SSN) as an Identification Number in the Automated Export System (AES)
Document Number: 2010-3365
Type: Rule
Date: 2010-02-22
Agency: Census Bureau, Department of Commerce
The U.S. Census Bureau (Census Bureau) issues this final rule amending the Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR) to eliminate the requirement to report a Social Security Number (SSN) as an identification number when registering to file and filing electronic export information in the Automated Export System (AES) or AESDirect. If the U.S. Principal Party in Interest (USPPI) or the U.S. authorized agent residing in or having an office in the United States does not have an Employer Identification Number (EIN), the USPPI or the U.S. authorized agent must obtain an EIN through the Web site of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Former SSN filers who want to use a Dun & Bradstreet Number (DUNS) rather than an EIN for identification purposes, must first obtain an EIN from the IRS, and apply to Dun & Bradstreet for a DUNS. This final rule is being implemented to ensure that a USPPI's or authorized agent's SSN is protected in accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act), title 5, United States Code (U.S.C.), section 552a. On August 5, 2009, this final rule was published as an interim final rule; the Census Bureau is finalizing this rule without change.
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2011 New York City Housing and Vacancy Survey
Document Number: 2010-988
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-01-20
Agency: Department of Commerce, U.s. Census Bureau, Census Bureau
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Wave 7 of the 2008 Panel
Document Number: 2010-890
Type: Notice
Date: 2010-01-20
Agency: Census Bureau, Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)).
Temporary Suspension of the Population Estimates and Income Estimates Challenge Programs
Document Number: E9-31171
Type: Rule
Date: 2010-01-04
Agency: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau
The Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) publishes this final rule to announce to state and local governments and to federal agencies that, beginning on February 3, 2010, the Census Bureau will temporarily suspend the Population Estimates Challenge Program during both the decennial census year and the following year, and will indefinitely suspend the Per Capita Income Estimates Challenge Program (also known as Procedure for Challenging Certain Population and Income Estimates) to accommodate the taking of the 2010 Census. During this time, the Census Bureau will not provide the operations necessary to review the July 1, 2009, population or per capita income estimates for state, and other general-purpose governments, such as cities, towns, and villages. The Population Estimates Challenge Program will resume in 2012 as the program begins operations based upon the results of the 2010 Census. The Per Capita Income Estimates Challenge Program will be suspended until a rulemaking is initiated to remove those regulations from the Code of Federal Regulations. This rule also summarizes the comments received on the October 7, 2009 proposed rule requesting comments on the proposed temporary suspension of the Population Estimates and Income Estimates Challenge Programs.