New York Codes, Rules and Regulations
Appendix 5-B - APPENDIX 5-B
Section 5-B.3 - Water well construction

Current through Register Vol. 43, No. 52, December 29, 2021

(a) Acceptable water well construction methods include well drilling, driving, boring, jetting and excavating into an aquifer to obtain groundwater for a source of water supply. Acceptable water well drilling methods include cable-tool drilling, percussion drilling, air or mud/direct or reverse rotary drilling, sonic drilling, driving water well casing, and boring with earth augers to obtain groundwater.

(b) All of the following provisions apply to water well construction.

(1) Wells shall be constructed according to the requirements of Table 2.

(2) A well shall be constructed to maintain existing natural protection against contamination of aquifers and other geologic materials penetrated during well drilling and installation.

(3) A well shall be constructed to preclude and prevent entry of all known sources of contamination into the well.

(4) A well shall have a minimum casing length extending from one foot above finished grade to nineteen feet below finished grade upon completion of well drilling, with the following exceptions:
(i) The required total length of casing may exceed twenty feet depending upon geologic conditions and shall be in accord with the standards for the construction of wells listed in Table 2; and

(ii) Where the only viable source of groundwater available is from a shallow aquifer where the well must be completed at a depth less than nineteen feet below grade, the Department or local health department having jurisdiction may allow use of well casing of less than twenty feet total length along with such additional measures as needed, including but not limited to increased separation distances per Table I, Note I, to ensure provision of potable water.

(5) If a well is located in a well house, the floor of the well house shall be at least six inches above grade and the permanent casing shall extend at least six inches above the floor.

(6) Upon completion of well drilling and until such time as the well is equipped with a pump, the top of the casing shall be secured with a watertight and vermin proof well cap.

(7) Casing and joints must be of sufficient strength and construction to ensure that integrity, shape, and ability to properly function are maintained during and after installation.

(8) Steel pipe that is used as permanent well casing shall be new pipe that contains a label or imprint indicating compliance with ASTM specification A53, AI 06, A500 or A589 or API specification 5L.

(9) A driven steel permanent casing terminating in bedrock shall be fitted with a drive shoe that is firmly seated in the bedrock.

(10) PVC pipe that is used as permanent casing shall be new pipe that contains a label or imprint indicating compliance with ASTM specification F 480 and NSF or UL standards and shall be Schedule 80 or SDR 21 or heavier. PVC pipe that is installed at depths of more than 200 feet shall be SDR 17 or heavier.

(11) Casing pipe that is manufactured from thermoplastic materials other than PVC shall be new pipe that contains a label or imprint indicating compliance with ASTM specification F 480 (i.e., SDR water pipe) and NSF or UL standards for use with drinking water.

(12) PVC and other thermoplastic materials may be used as casing in bedrock if not driven and if sealed with grout, provided such use complies with other requirements in this Appendix.

(13) Steel, PVC and other materials used as temporary casing in well construction shall be clean and free of contaminants. PVC and thermoplastic materials other than PVC used as temporary casing shall contain a label or imprint indicating compliance with NSF or UL standards for use with drinking water.

(14) A well shall be sufficiently straight and vertical to allow normal installation and operation of the pump.

(15) The upper twenty feet of a water well casing shall not be used as a suction line unless the well casing is protected by a standard weight or heavier outer casing.

(16) Where bedrock is present within 19 feet of the ground surface, an oversized borehole shall be drilled and the permanent casing in the oversized borehole shall be sealed with grout to a minimum depth of 19 feet below grade, or five feet into the competent bedrock, whichever is deeper.

(17) Annular space between the well casing and borehole shall be grouted in accordance with Table 2. Where inner and outer well casings are used, the annular space between these casings shall be sealed with grout.

(18) An artesian well that overflows at land surface shall be constructed, equipped, and operated to provide for controlling the rate of discharges to conserve groundwater and to prevent the loss of artesian head by minimizing uncontrolled continuous waste discharges. Discharges to waste pipe, where installed, shall not be directly connected to a sewer or other source of contamination and shall be equipped with an air gap or backflow prevention device. Discharge pipes shall be properly screened to prevent entry of vermin.

(19) Wells completed in unconsolidated material or at the unconsolidated-consolidated material interface shall be screened if necessary and sufficiently developed to produce sand-free water and to minimize the entrance of fine materials into the well.

(20) Lead packers, lead plugs, or lead wool shall not be used as a well component.

(21) No solder containing more than 0.2 percent lead shall be used in making joints and fittings in any drinking water supply system or any water user's water lines.

(22) Wells shall be developed by air lift, bailing, surging, jetting, hydrofracturing and/or chemical treatment until sand free. Rock cuttings produced during water well drilling and well development shall be cleaned out of the well. As a final stage, the well may be pumped to waste at a pumping rate which equals or exceeds that of a permanent pump, until the water is clear as reasonably possible considering the groundwater conditions of the area. The permanent pump shall not be used to develop the well without the owner's consent.

(23) Water that is used for well construction and development purposes or is otherwise introduced into the well, other than water from the well itself, shall be obtained from a public water system or, if necessary, from a non-public drinking water source provided such non-public source is not surface water nor otherwise known or suspected to be contaminated.

(24) A connection to a water well casing that is made below the ground shall be protected by a pitless adapter or by a pitless unit (threaded or welded joints). A below ground connection shall not be submerged in water during installation. Pitless adapters or pitless units to be used shall contain a label or imprint indicating compliance with the Water Systems Council Pitless Adapter Standard (PAS -97).

(25) A pitless adapter or pitless unit shall provide adequate clearance within the internal diameter of a water well to permit insertion or withdrawal of water system components from within the well through the top of the well casing and be constructed and installed to exclude dirt or other foreign matter from the interior of the well casing.

(26) Extensions of existing water well casings to at least 12 inches above grade shall be constructed of the same material as the existing casing.

(27) Any chemicals or other additives, including disinfectants, used during construction shall be of a specification acceptable for use in water wells and any excess not required for operation of the well shall be cleaned out of the well.

(28) A water well shall be designed, operated, and maintained in a manner that will preclude cross-connections or any other piping connections which may introduce contaminants into the water supply or aquifer. A physical connection between a water supply that is in compliance with the requirements of these rules and another water supply that is not in compliance with the requirements of these rules is prohibited unless acceptable cross connection control is provided.

(29) All drilling fluids used for drilling operations shall be of food grade quality or NSF or UL approved or shall be water that complies with paragraph 5- B.3(b)(23) of this Appendix.

N.Y. Comp. Codes R. & Regs. Tit. 10app 5-B § 5-B.3

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