New York Codes, Rules and Regulations
Title 10 - Department of Health
Appendix 14-A - APPENDIX 14-A





Formulated by

International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians

United States Public Health Service

The Dairy Industry Committee

It is the purpose of IAMFES, USPHS, and DIC in connection with the development of the 3-A Sanitary Standards program to allow and encourage full freedom for inventive genius or new developments. Practices for permanently installed sanitary product-pipelines and cleaning systems heretofore or hereafter developed which so differ in design, material, fabrication, or otherwise as not to conform with the following practices, but which, in the fabricator's opinion, are equivalent or better may be submitted for the joint consideration of IAMFES, USPHS, and DIC at any time.


These 3-A Accepted Practices provide for the installation, cleaning, and sanitizing of rigid sanitary pipelines for milk and milk products in which the joints are welded or are provided with appropriate sanitary C-I-P connections. These 3-A Accepted Practices also include provisions for rigid cleaning solution lines and cleaning systems.


(1) C-I-P Pipelines: Shall mean rigid pipelines which have welded joints or have sanitary cleaned-in-place connections or joints of such design as to form a substantially smooth, flush interior surface.

(2) Tungsten Shielded Arc Method: Shall mean electric welding with a tungsten electrode shielded by an inert gas, to produce a straight butt fusion weld.

(3) Product Contact Surfaces: Shall mean all surfaces that are exposed to the product or from which liquids may drain, drop, or be drawn into the product.

(4) Solution Contact Surfaces: Shall mean the interior surfaces of the circuit which are used exclusively for supply and re-circulation of cleaning and/or sanitizing solutions.

(5) Non-Product Contact Surfaces: Shall mean all other exposed surfaces.


(1) All product contact surfaces shall be of stainless steel of the AISI 300 series [FN1] or corresponding ACI [FN2] types (See Appendix, Section A.), or equally corrosion resistant metal that is non-toxic and non-absorbent or heat resistant glass piping, except that rubber or rubber-like materials or plastic materials may be used for sealing applications. Paper gaskets shall not be used.

(2) Solution contact surfaces shall be of stainless steel of the AISI 300 series1 or corresponding ACI 2 types (See Appendix, Section A.), or equally corrosion resistant metal that is non-toxic and non-absorbent or of heat reistant glass piping; provided that plastic or rubber and rubber-like materials may be used for sealing applications and short flexible take-down jumpers or connectors.

(3) Plastic materials used for sealing applications and solution contact surfaces shall conform with the applicable provisions of the "3-A Sanitary Standards for Multiple-Use Plastic Materials Used as Product Contact Surfaces for Dairy Equipment, Serial #2000."

(4) Rubber and rubber-like materials used for sealing applications and solution contact surfaces shall conform with "3-A Sanitary Standards for Multiple-Use Rubber and Rubber-Like Materials Used as Product Contact Surfaces in Dairy Equipment, Serial #1800."

(5) Lines and fittings for the application of air under pressure shall comply with the applicable provisions of "3-A Accepted Practices for Supplying Air Under Pressure in Contact With Milk, Milk Products, and Product Contact Surfaces," April, 1964, as amended.


(1) All product contact surfaces of sanitary piping utilized in C-I-P systems shall be at least as smooth as a No. 4 mill finish on stainless steel sheets. (See Appendix, Section B.)

(2) The finish of solution contact surfaces whether sheet, tube, casting, or other shall be equal in cleanability to stainless steel with No. 4 finish or No. 2B mill finish, (pit free) as applied to stainless steel sheet. Castings for pumps or other appurtenances shall meet at least NAS-823 [FN3] Cast Surface Comparison Standard surface C-50/500, (See Appendix, Section D.) and tooled or polished areas shall be at least as smooth as 150 grit properly

(3) Product lines and equipment shall have C-I-P fittings or welded joints.

(4) Solution lines and equipment shall have C-I-P fittings or welded joints.

(5) Welded joints shall be smooth and free from pits, cracks, inclusions, or other defects.

(6) Removable fittings may be used with or without gaskets and shall be of such design as to form substantially flush interior joints.

(7) Appurtenances having product contact surfaces shall be cleanable, either when in an assembled position or when disassembled. Removable parts shall be readily demountable.

(8) All internal angles of 135° or less on product contact surfaces shall have minimum radii of 1/4 inch except where smaller radii are required for essential functional reasons, such as sealing ring grooves and pumps.

(9) All internal angles of 135° or less on solution contact surfaces shall have minimum radii of 1/4 inch except where smaller radii are required for essential functional reasons, such as for sealing ring grooves and in pumps.

(10) All solution contact surfaces shall be cleanable, either when in an assembled position or when disassembled. They shall contain no pockets or crevices that are not readily cleanable. Removable parts shall be readily demountable. Solution system appurtenances shall be accessible for inspection to determine freedom from biological, chemical, or physical soil contamination.

(11) Non-product contact surfaces shall have a smooth finish, be free of pockets and crevices, and be readily cleanable.


C-I-P pipeline circuits shall meet the following installation criteria:

(1) The C-I-P pipelines together with gaskets, if used, shall be supported so that they remain in alignment and position. The support system shall be designed so as to preclude electolytic action between support(s) and pipeline(s).

(2) Each separate cleaning circuit, including product and solution lines, shall be provided with a sufficient number of access points, such as valves, fittings, or removable sections to make possible adequate inspections and examinations of the interior surfaces.

(3) Relatively horizontal lines shall be self-draining and pitched to drain points.

(4) Upon completion of welded pipeline installation and prior to use all interior line and weld areas shall be subjected to circulation of cleaning solution of 0.5 to 1.0% alkalinity at a minimum of 160° F. for 30 minutes, followed by an adequate post rinse, followed by circulation of a 0.5% minimum and 1% maximum phosphoric or nitric acid solution at 150-180° F. for 10 minutes to clean all interior surfaces of ferric impurities. This treatment shall be followed by an adequate rinse.


(1) Prior to installation a drawing or equivalent plan shall be made available to the regulatory agency by the processor for each installation, or subsequent addition or modification, showing each permanent circuit to be cleaned, noting thereon the size and length of piping, fittings, pitch, drain points, access points, relative elevations, location and specifications of circulating unit, and other pertinent facts.

(2) The circulating unit, consisting of a motor driven pump and solution tank, shall provide a minimum average solution velocity at any instant of not less than five feet per second through each pipe and/or fitting in the circuit. In split flow arrangement, pressure differential must be maintained to assure the five feet per second minimum flow rate. This operation is to be checked by observation and tests. The rate of flow per second through the piping of known diameter can be determined from the following table:

[Note: The following TABLE/FORM is too wide to be displayed on one screen. You must print it for a meaningful review of its contents. The table has been divided into multiple pieces with each piece containing information to help you assemble a printout of the table. The information for each piece includes: (1) a three line message preceding the tabular data showing by line # and character # the position of the upper left-hand corner of the piece and the position of the piece within the entire table; and (2) a numeric scale following the tabular data displaying the character positions.] ******************************************************************************* ******** This is piece 1. -- It begins at character 1 of table line 1. ******** ******************************************************************************* Nominal Pipe Size Inside Dimension Inches 1 0.900 1--1/2 1.400 2 1.875 2--1/2 2.375 3 2.875 4 3.814 1 1.157 1--1/2 1.672 2 2.172 3 3.203 4 4.265 1...+...10....+...20....+...30....+.. ******************************************************************************* ******* This is piece 2. -- It begins at character 38 of table line 1. ******** ******************************************************************************* Average velocity, feet per second 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Sanitary Stainless Steel Pipe 301.2 150.6 100.3 75.3 60.2 50.3 43.1 37.7 33.4 124.7 62.4 41.5 31.2 24.9 20.8 17.8 15.6 13.8 70.1 35.0 23.3 17.5 14.0 11.7 10.0 8.8 7.8 43.6 21.8 14.3 10.9 8.8 7.8 6.2 5.5 4.77 29.8 14.88 9.9 7.4 6.0 5.0 4.3 3.7 3.3 16.8 8.4 5.6 4.2 3.4 2.8 2.4 2.1 1.85 Glass Pipe 245.1 122.6 81.6 61.3 49.0 40.9 35.0 30.6 27.2 108.9 54.5 36.3 27.2 21.8 18.2 15.6 13.6 12.1 61.3 30.6 20.4 15.3 12.3 10.2 8.8 7.7 6.8 27.2 13.6 9.1 6.8 5.4 4.5 3.9 3.4 3.0 15.3 7.6 5.13 3.83 3.04 2.6 2.2 1.92 1.7 38.....+...50....+...60....+...70....+...80....+...90....+....0....+...10. ******************************************************************************* ******* This is piece 3. -- It begins at character 112 of table line 1. ******* ******************************************************************************* 10 30.1 12.5 7.0 4.4 3.0 1.7 24.5 10.9 6.1 2.7 1.52 112...


(3) C-I-P systems shall be designed so that the suction intake of the primary circulating pump shall be flooded at all times during the cleaning cycle.

(4) Solution temperature shall be automatically controlled by the use of a temperature regulator with a response range of +- 5° F.

(5) The system shall be provided with a recording thermometer having a scale range of 60° to 180° F. with extension of scale on either side permitted: graduated in time scale divisions of not more than 15 minutes. Between 110° and 180° F., the chart shall be graduated in temperature divisions of not more than 2° F., spaced not less than 1/16 inch apart, and be accurate within 2° F. +-. The sensor shall be protected against damage at 212° F. The sensing element of the recording thermometer shall be located in the return solution line.

(6) All connections between the solution circuit and the product circuit shall be so constructed as to positively prevent the comingling of the product and solution during processing.


(1) All welding of sanitary product pipelines and solution lines shall be made by the Tungsten Shielded Arc Method or another equally satisfactory method may be used. The following precautions shall be taken.

(a) Inert back-up gas shall be used to protect and control the interior of the weld.

(b) The weld surface (interior, face and exterior) shall be cleaned and freed of all foreign matter and surface oxide before welding. Iron free abrasive shall be used when cleaning surfaces.

(c) All tube and fittings ends shall be square cut and deburred.

(d) Welding procedures shall assure uniform and complete penetration of weld at all times.

(e) All welds having pits, craters, ridges, or imbedded foreign materials shall be removed and the joints shall be properly re-welded.

(f) Internal and external grinding and/or polishing of welds is not required.

(g) An acceptable sample weld piece shall be provided at the beginning of each day and/or section welding operation or when required.

(h) A boroscope or other acceptable inspection device, to inspect representative welds, shall be made available by the processor.


(1) A rinsing, cleaning and santitizing regimen which has been demonstrated to be effective shall be employed. Because of the possibilities of corrosion, the recommendations of the cleaning compound manufacturer shall be followed with respect to the time, temperature, and the concentration of specific acid or alkaline solutions and bactericides. To insure proper strength of solution and to avoid corrosion, the cleaning compound shall be completely dissolved or dispersed prior to circulation. One regimen found to be satisfactory is as follows:

(a) Immediately after concluding the day's operations, all connections between cleaned-in-place lines and processing equipment which are not included in the cleaning circuit shall be removed, the openings capped, by-pass connections made, and the lines rinsed thoroughly with tempered water (not to exceed 120° F., entering circuit) continuously discarding the rinse water near the downstream end of the solution return line until the discarded effluent is clear.

(b) All solution and product contact surfaces not cleanable by mechanical cleaning procedures shall be cleaned manually.

(c) Circulate an effective detergent solution for a period of time at a concentration and temperature capable of effectively removing the soil residue in the circuit.

(d) Thoroughly rinse the detergent solution from the circuit.

(e) Circulate an acid detergent, when needed, as a supplement to the routine circulation. Follow this acid detergent treatment with a thorough rinse.

(f) Sanitize all product surfaces with one or a combination of the following commonly used methods:

(1) Circulation of water at a minimum temperature of 170° F. (at the discharge end) through the circuit for five minutes and drained.

(2) Pumping of an approved chemical sanitizer solution of acceptable strength and recommeded temperature through product lines and equipment for at least one minute and drained.

(3) Exposure to steam at a temperature of 170° F. (at the drainage outlet), for 15 minutes or at a temperature of 200° F. for five minutes. (Approved sanitation procedures and related recommendations are provided in detail in the Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance--1965 Recommendations of the U.S. Public Health Service.)

(2) Prior to installation, a description of the cleaning regimen which has been demonstrated to be effective for each circuit shall be made available by the processor.



Stainless steel conforming to the applicable composition ranges established by AISI for wrought products, or by ACI for cast products, should be considered in compliance with the requirements of section C.

(1) herein. Where welding is involved the carbon content of the stainless steel should not exceed 0.08%. The reference cited in C.

(1) sets forth the chemical ranges and limits of accpetable stainless steels of the 300 series.

Cast grades of stainless steel equivalent to types 303, 304, and 316 are designated CF-16F, CF-8, and CF-8M, respectively. These cast grades are covered by ASTM [FN4] specifications A296 and A351.


Surface finish equivalent to 150 grit or better as obtained with silicon carbide, is considered in compliance with the requirements of section D.

(1) herein.


(1) Automatic Welds --A fully automatic weld is described as that made by equipment which starts and completes the weld, strikes, and controls the arc with no manual adjustment of control during the welding cycle and will consistantly make repetitive welds.

(2) Semi-automatic Weld --A semi-automatic weld is described as that made by equipment which requires manual strike and/or control and will consistently make repetitive welds.

(3) Hand Weld --A weld in which the positioning of the arc is manually controlled.


A copy of National Aircraft Standard 823 (NAS823) is appended to these practices.

Because the intent of the standard is that it be a visual guide, Approximate RMS finishes are shown as references only. The reason for establishing a visual standard is to overcome the obvious inadequacy of any arithmetical or geometrical measuring system when applied to a surface as variable as that found on a casting.

This standard is available from: Aluminum Co. of America, 1145 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles 17, California.


These practices become effective on June 9, 1966 at which time the 3-A Suggested Method For The Installation And Cleaning Of Cleaned-In-Place Sanitary Milk Pipe Lines For Use In Milk And Milk Products Plants, dated March-April, 1953, is rescinded.

APPENDIX 14-A - Figure 1

[FN1] The data for this series are contained in the following reference: AISI Steel Products Manual, Stainless and Heat Resisting Steels, April 1963, Table 2-1, pp. 16-17. Available from: American Iron and Steel Institute, 633 3rd Avenue, New York 17, N.Y.

[FN2] Alloy Casting Institute, 300 Madison Ave., New York, New York 10017.

[FN3] National Aircraft Standard 823.

[FN4] Available from American Society for Testing and Materials, 916 Race St., Philadelphia 3, Pa.

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