Imposition of Import Restrictions on Categories of Archaeological and Ethnological Material of Albania, 15079-15084 [2022-05685]

Download as PDF Federal Register / Vol. 87, No. 52 / Thursday, March 17, 2022 / Rules and Regulations D&R.315 Fatigue DATES: The structure of the UA must be shown to withstand the repeated loads expected during its service life without failure. A life limit for the airframe must be established, demonstrated by test, and included in the ICA. D&R.320 Verification of Limits The performance, maneuverability, stability, and control of the UA within the flight envelope described in the UA Flight Manual must be demonstrated at a minimum of 5% over maximum gross weight with no loss of control or loss of flight. Issued in Washington, DC, on March 1, 2022. Ian Lucas, Manager, Policy Implementation Section, Policy and Innovation Division, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2022–05610 Filed 3–16–22; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–13–P DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 12 [CBP Dec. 22–06] RIN 1515–AE67 U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security; Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Final rule. AGENCIES: This final rule amends the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) regulations to reflect the imposition of import restrictions on certain categories of archaeological and ethnological material of the Republic of Albania (Albania). These restrictions are being imposed pursuant to an agreement between the United States and Albania that has been entered into under the authority of the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act. This final rule amends the CBP regulations by adding Albania to the list of countries which have a bilateral agreement with the United States that imposes cultural property import restrictions. This final rule also contains the Designated List that describes the types of archaeological and ethnological material to which the restrictions apply. khammond on DSKJM1Z7X2PROD with RULES VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:41 Mar 16, 2022 Jkt 256001 For legal aspects, W. Richmond Beevers, Chief, Cargo Security, Carriers and Restricted Merchandise Branch, Regulations and Rulings, Office of Trade, (202) 325–0084, ototrrculturalproperty@cbp.dhs.gov. For operational aspects, Julie L. Stoeber, Chief, 1USG Branch, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of Trade, (202) 945– 7064, 1USGBranch@cbp.dhs.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act, Public Law 97– 446, 19 U.S.C. 2601 et seq. (hereinafter, ‘‘the Cultural Property Implementation Act’’), implements the 1970 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (hereinafter, ‘‘the Convention’’ (823 U.N.T.S. 231 (1972)). Pursuant to the Cultural Property Implementation Act, the United States entered into a bilateral agreement with the Republic of Albania (Albania) to impose import restrictions on certain archaeological and ethnological material from Albania. This rule announces the imposition of import restrictions on certain archaeological and ethnological material from Albania. Determinations Imposition of Import Restrictions on Categories of Archaeological and Ethnological Material of Albania SUMMARY: Effective on March 17, 2022. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Under 19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1), the United States must make certain determinations before entering into an agreement to impose import restrictions under 19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(2). On May 26, 2021, the Acting Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs, United States Department of State, after consultation with and recommendation by the Cultural Property Advisory Committee, made the determinations required under the statute with respect to certain archaeological and ethnological material originating in Albania that is described in the Designated List set forth below in this document. These determinations include the following: (1) That Albania’s cultural heritage is in jeopardy from pillage of certain types of archaeological material representing Albania’s cultural heritage ranging in date from approximately 300,000 B.C. to A.D. 1750, and certain types of ethnological material representing Albania’s cultural heritage ranging in date from approximately A.D. 400 to 1913 (19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(A)); (2) that the Albanian government has taken PO 00000 Frm 00049 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 15079 measures consistent with the Convention to protect its cultural patrimony (19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(B)); (3) that import restrictions imposed by the United States would be of substantial benefit in deterring a serious situation of pillage and remedies less drastic are not available (19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(C)); and (4) that the application of import restrictions as set forth in this final rule is consistent with the general interests of the international community in the interchange of cultural property among nations for scientific, cultural, and educational purposes (19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(D)). The Acting Assistant Secretary also found that the material described in the determinations meets the statutory definition of ‘‘archaeological or ethnological material of the State Party’’ (19 U.S.C. 2601(2)). The Agreement On August 23, 2021, the Governments of the United States and Albania signed a bilateral agreement, ‘‘Memorandum of Understanding between the United States of America and the Republic of Albania Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Categories of Archaeological and Ethnological Material of Albania’’ (hereinafter, ‘‘the Agreement’’), pursuant to the provisions of 19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(2). The Agreement entered into force on February 28, 2022, following the exchange of diplomatic notes, and enables the promulgation of import restrictions on certain categories of archaeological material ranging in date from approximately 300,000 B.C. to A.D. 1750, and ethnological material ranging in date from approximately A.D. 400 to 1913. A list of the categories of archaeological and ethnological material subject to the import restrictions is set forth later in this document. Restrictions and Amendment to the Regulations In accordance with the Agreement, importation of material designated below is subject to the restrictions of 19 U.S.C. 2606 and § 12.104g(a) of title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations (19 CFR 12.104g(a)) and will be restricted from entry into the United States unless the conditions set forth in 19 U.S.C. 2606 and § 12.104c of the CBP regulations (19 CFR 12.104c) are met. CBP is amending § 12.104g(a) of the CBP regulations (19 CFR 12.104g(a)) to indicate that these import restrictions have been imposed. Import restrictions listed at 19 CFR 12.104g(a) are effective for no more than five years beginning on the date on which the Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States. This period may be extended for additional E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1 15080 Federal Register / Vol. 87, No. 52 / Thursday, March 17, 2022 / Rules and Regulations periods of not more than five years if it is determined that the factors which justified the Agreement still pertain and no cause for suspension of the Agreement exists. The import restrictions will expire on February 28, 2027, unless extended. Designated List of Archaeological and Ethnological Material of Albania The Agreement between the United States and Albania includes, but is not limited to, the categories of objects described in the Designated List set forth below. Importation of material on this list is restricted unless the material is accompanied by documentation certifying that the material left Albania legally and not in violation of the export laws of Albania. The Designated List includes certain archaeological and ethnological material from Albania. The archaeological material in the Designated List includes archaeological material from the Middle Paleolithic to the Ottoman period, ranging in date from approximately 300,000 B.C. to A.D. 1750. The ethnological material in the Designated List includes ethnological material from the Byzantine, Medieval, and Ottoman periods, ranging in date from approximately A.D. 400 to Albanian independence in 1913. The Designated List is representative only. Any dates and dimensions are approximate. Simplified Chronology Paleolithic: c. 300,000–10,000 B.C. Mesolithic: c. 10,000–6,000 B.C. Neolithic: c. 6,000–4500 B.C. Eneolithic/Chalcolithic/Copper Age: c. 4500–3100 B.C. Bronze Age: c. 3100–1000 B.C. Iron Age: c. 1000–450 B.C. Proto-Urban/Urban period: c. 650–27 B.C. Roman period: 27 B.C.–A.D. 395 Byzantine/Medieval period: A.D. 395–c. 1500 Ottoman period: c. A.D. 1500–1913 khammond on DSKJM1Z7X2PROD with RULES Categories of Archaeological and Ethnological Material I. Archaeological Material A. Stone B. Metal C. Ceramic, Clay, and Terracotta D. Bone, Ivory, Shell, Wood, and Other Organics E. Glass, Faience, and Semi-Precious Stone F. Textiles G. Leather, Papyrus, and Parchment H. Rock Art, Paintings, and Drawings I. Mosaics II. Ethnological Material A. Architectural Elements B. Funerary Objects C. Ritual and Ceremonial Objects D. Paintings VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:41 Mar 16, 2022 Jkt 256001 E. Written Records F. Textiles G. Weapons and Armor I. Archaeological Material Archaeological material covered by the Agreement represents the following periods, styles, and cultures: Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Urban period, Roman period, Byzantine/Medieval period, and Ottoman period. A. Stone 1. Sculpture a. Architectural Elements—Primarily in marble, limestone, and gypsum; including blocks from walls, floors, and ceilings; acroteria, antefixes, architrave, water spouts, columns, capitals, bases, lintels, jambs, friezes, pediments, tympanum, metopes, and pilasters; doors, door frames, and window fittings; caryatids, altars, prayer niches (mihrabs), screens, wellheads, fountains, mosaics, and tiles. This category also includes relief and inlay sculpture that may have been part of a building, such as friezes of sculptured stone figures set into inlaid stone. May be plain, molded, carved, or inscribed. Decorative motifs may be incised or in high relief. b. Monuments and Stelae—Types include menhir, votive statues, funerary and votive stelae, bases and base revetments, and carved relief vases and slabs, usually in limestone, marble, or basalt. Common subject matter also includes figural, vegetative, floral, or decorative motifs. These may be painted, carved with relief sculpture, and/or carry dedicatory or funerary inscriptions. c. Sarcophagi and Ossuaries—In marble and limestone. The sides and lids of sarcophagi and ossuaries may have relief sculptures of human and animal figures, inscriptions, monograms, and floral and geometric decoration. d. Statuary—Both large and small, in marble, limestone, sandstone, and other stone. Subject matter includes human and animal figures and groups of figures in the round, as well as floral, vegetal and abstract elements, including fragments of statues. 2. Vessels and Containers—In marble, steatite, rock crystal, and other stone. Types include conventional shapes, such as bowls, cups, jars, jugs, and lamps, or may be in the shape of a human or animal, or part of a human or animal. 3. Furniture—In marble and other stone. Types include tables, thrones, beds, funerary furniture, and other burial elements. PO 00000 Frm 00050 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 4. Tools and Weapons—In flint, chert, obsidian, limestone, and other hard stone. Types include small tools, large and small blades, borers, scrapers, sickles, awls, harpoons, cores, loom weights, and arrow heads. Ground stone types include grinders (e.g., mortars, pestles, millstones, and/or whetstones), choppers, axes, hammers, molds, and mace heads. 5. Seals and Stamps—These are small devices with at least one side engraved with a design for stamping or sealing, often in marble, limestone, and various semiprecious stones, including rock crystal, amethyst, jasper, agate, steatite, and carnelian. Shapes can include cylinders, buttons, and prismatic. 6. Jewelry and Beads—Jewelry made of or decorated with colored and semiprecious stones, including beads, necklaces, pendants, cameos, crowns, earrings, finger rings, bracelets, anklets, belts, girdles, pins, hair ornaments, and arm bands. May be incised or cut as gems or cameos. B. Metal 1. Sculpture a. Statuary—Large and small statuary, primarily in bronze, including fragments of statues. Subject matter includes human and animal figures, masks, plaques, and groups of figures in the round. b. Reliefs—In gold, bronze, or lead. Types include plaques, burial masks, leaves, and applique´s with images of gods, mythical creatures, or other figures. c. Inscribed or Decorated Sheets—In bronze and lead. Engraved inscriptions, ‘‘military diplomas,’’ ‘‘curse tablets,’’ and thin metal sheets with engraved or impressed designs often used as attachments to furniture. 2. Vessels and Containers—In copper, bronze, gold, and silver. Bronze may be gilded or silver-plated. Types include conventional shapes, such as bowls, cups, jars, jugs, strainers, cauldrons, candelabras, and lamps, or may be in the shape of a human or animal or part of a human or animal. 3. Jewelry and Personal Adornment— In copper, bronze, silver, and gold. Types include earrings, ear caps, pendants, bracelets, necklaces, spiraliform tubes, brooches, torques, belts, belt buckles, belt ends/applique´s, fibulas with chain pendants, plates, spangles, diadems, pins, dress pins, finger rings, hair rings, chains, spirals, ornaments, beads, mirrors, wreaths, cuffs, and pectoral crosses. 4. Tools—In bronze, iron, lead, and copper. Types include socketed hammers, spearheads, lanceheads, E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1 Federal Register / Vol. 87, No. 52 / Thursday, March 17, 2022 / Rules and Regulations daggers, knives, axes, double axes, hooks, weights, scrapers, trowels, keys, strigils, and other tools of physicians and artisans. 5. Weapons and Armor—In copper, bronze, lead and iron. This category includes common weapon types, such as daggers, arrows, swords, spears, javelins, axes, rapiers, and maces. Body armor is also included, such as helmets, cuirasses, shin guards, shields, horse armor, and chariot decoration. Some may have inscriptions or be otherwise decorated with engraved, embossed, or perforated designs. 6. Seals and Stamps—These are small devices with at least one side engraved with a design for sealing or stamping, often in bronze, copper, gold, silver, tin, or lead. Types include rings, amulets, stamps, and seals with shank. 7. Ship and Boat Material—Parts and fragments from shipwrecks in bronze, lead, and iron, including anchors. 8. Coins—This category includes coins of Illyrian, Greek, Macedonian, Roman provincial, Byzantine, Medieval, and Ottoman types that circulated primarily in Albania, ranging in date from approximately the 6th century B.C. to A.D. 1750. Coins were made in copper, bronze, silver, and gold. Examples are generally round, have writing, and show imagery of animals, buildings, symbols, or royal or imperial figures. C. Ceramic, Clay, and Terracotta khammond on DSKJM1Z7X2PROD with RULES 1. Sculpture a. Architectural Elements—Baked clay (terracotta) elements used to decorate buildings. Elements include tiles, acroteria, antefixes, painted and relief plaques, metopes, cornices, roof tiles, pipes, and revetments, as well as wall and floor decorations in plaster. May be painted as icons. b. Statuary—Large and small statuary. Subject matter includes human and animal figures and groups of figures in the round, human body parts, shrines, houses, ovens, rhyta, strainers, and chariots. This includes figurines which may be anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, vegetal, furniture-like, schematic, or flat. 2. Vessels—Ceramic types, forms, and decoration vary among archaeological styles over time. Forms may be handmade or produced with ceramic wheels, plain or decorated, and may be glazed, unglazed, slipped, painted, burnished, engraved, and/or incised. They may be produced in Albania or imported at or near the time of production. Some of the most wellknown types are highlighted below: a. Neolithic Pottery—Early Neolithic types include thick-walled, coarse, fine, VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:41 Mar 16, 2022 Jkt 256001 fine with sand inclusion, red, brown, and black pottery. Decorations, applications, and paint include sandy slip, barbotine, red monochrome, or dark brown paint on red barbotine ware. Middle Neolithic types include gray or black, lustrous, incised, and beaded pottery. Decorations include incised bands filled with dots or lines, incised spiral motifs, or white paint. Late Neolithic types include light yellow ocherous fabric, red ocherous fabric with painted decoration, black ware with incisions and applique´s, brown on light painted, clay mixed with sand, brown with broad lines and triangles, unpolished, net patterns, zig-zag lines, fine, polished, painted, multi-colored, linear-geometric, and spiral pottery. Shapes include globular, spherical, hemispherical, and biconical vessels. b. Chalcolithic Pottery—This category includes similar types and decorations as described above for earlier periods, with the addition of thick-walled, thinwalled mixed with sand, gray surface, brown surface, black surface, fine, and gray-black pottery. They may be painted, incised, encrusted, recessed, or in relief, sometimes representing combined techniques. Prominently black monochrome with fluted decoration. Shapes include squat biconical bodies with cylindrical necks and bowls with incurving rims. c. Bronze Age Pottery—Types include thick-walled and thin-walled vessels, which are black, gray, gray-black, red, light beige, or ocherous yellow, handmade and wheel-made, as well as Mycenaean (Late Helladic) imported wares. Decorations include bands, punctuated plastic bands, incised linear or curvilinear motifs, geometric motifs, horizontal bands with or without holes, finger impressed bands, matte-painted with geometric patterns, applied plastic decoration, monochrome painted motifs, and/or piercing at juncture of rim and handle. Shapes include pots with handles rising above the rim, vessels with wide necks and exaggerated vertical handles, vessels with bulbous bodies, wide necks, and thick lips, cups with handles, piriform cups with handles that rise above the rim, vessels with elbow or axebladeshaped handles, vessels with wish bone handles, bowls, vessels with wide throats, vessels with horizontal handles, vessels with handle and spout, short open vessels with two handles, and double vessels. d. Iron Age Pottery—Types include brown, gray, red, black, clean fabric mixed with sand, thin-walled, and smooth surface pottery, both handmade and wheel-made. Decorations include brown matte-painted linear or PO 00000 Frm 00051 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 15081 curvilinear motifs, narrow ribbing, incised geometric patterns, including triangles and concentric bands, and red paint on black glaze. Shapes include vessels with globular bodies and cylindrical or conical necks with vertical handles, jars with globular necks, beaked jugs, spherical vessels, double vessels, vessels with narrow throats, vessels with handles rising above the rim, pots, beaked oinochoe, skyphoi, amphorae, conical bowls with upright or incurving rims, hemispherical bowls, cups with various profiles, chalices, biphora, and vessels with four handles. e. Illyrian, Greek, and Hellenistic Pottery—Types include thin and thickwalled vessels; proto-Corinthian, Corinthian, Attic, Devollian, blackglazed, and other types. Decorations include thick black gloss, as well as Attic and other imported Black Figure and Red Figure vessels, including local imitations of these types. Shapes include lekythoi (small, thin-walled jars), large storage amphorae, oinochoe, pyxides, unguentaria, skyphoi, and others. f. Roman Pottery—Types include fineware, coarseware, red gloss, red slip, black slip, lead glaze, and others. Shapes include cooking ware, jars, beakers, bowls, plates, vases, amphorae, and others. g. Byzantine/Medieval Pottery—Types include thin and thick-walled vessels with fine to coarse fabrics, often deep red to purplish with lime inclusions and sandy texture, or dark orange with many lime inclusions and voids. Decorations include red slips, plain glazes, colored glazes, particularly green and silver, sgraffito incised naturalistic, geometric, and figural decoration, painted geometric motifs, including dots, ridge surface treatment, and proto-Maiolica ware. Shapes include amphorae, open and closed jugs, large storage vessels with small handles, and shallow platelike vessels. h. Ottoman Pottery—Types include thin and thick-walled vessels with fine to coarse fabrics, often deep red to purplish with lime inclusions and sandy texture. Decorations include plain glazes, colored glazes, particularly green and brown, painted glaze, sgraffito incised decoration, painted geometric motif, and Maiolica ware. 3. Objects of Daily Use—This type includes objects of daily use including tools, spindle whorls, weights, and lamps. 4. Inscriptions—These are typically unbaked and should be handled with extreme care, even when hard fired through accidental burning. They typically take the form of tablets, which E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1 15082 Federal Register / Vol. 87, No. 52 / Thursday, March 17, 2022 / Rules and Regulations may be shaped like leaves or may be rectangular or square. In various languages and scripts. D. Bone, Ivory, Shell, Wood, and Other Organics 1. Small Statuary and Figurines—This category includes human and animal figures and groups of figures in the round. 2. Personal Ornaments and Objects of Daily Use—In bone, ivory, shell, amber, and other organics. Types include tools, ornaments, beads, amulets, combs, pins, spoons, small containers, bracelets, and buckles. 3. Seals and Stamps—These are small objects with at least one side engraved with a design for stamping or sealing. They may be discoid, cuboid, conoid, or in the shape of animals or mythological creatures. 4. Tools and Weapons—Bone, ivory, and horn were used to produce and decorate weapons and tools. Types include needles, awls, chisels, hoes, picks, knives, spearheads, harpoons, and blades. 5. Human and Animal Remains— Skeletal remains from human and animal bodies, found in burials or preserved in other contexts. 6. Musical Instruments—In bone, ivory, and tortoise shell. Types include pipes and flutes. 7. Inscriptions and Writing—On wood, particularly wooden sticks, ivory, and others. In various languages and scripts. 8. Ship and Boat Material—This includes whole or pieces that compose a ship or boat, including logs, planks, and other fittings. E. Glass, Faience, and Semi-Precious Stone khammond on DSKJM1Z7X2PROD with RULES 1. Architectural Elements—This includes glass inlay and tesserae pieces from floor and wall mosaics, mirrors, and windows. 2. Vessels—Types include small jars, bowls, animal shaped containers, goblets, spherical containers, candle holders, and perfume jars (unguentaria). 3. Beads and Jewelry—Jewelry such as bracelets and rings, pendants, and beads in various shapes (e.g., circular or globular), may be decorated with symbolic and/or floral reliefs. G. Leather, Papyrus, and Parchment 1. Leather—This category includes bags, furniture parts, masks, shields, cases and containers for a variety of uses, sandals, clothing, and manuscript covers. There are examples of religious and/or rare books that were written on leather pages. 2. Papyrus—Documents made from papyrus and written upon. These are often rolled and/or fragmentary. 3. Parchment—Writing material made of animal skin and used to produce manuscripts, including religious, liturgical, and scientific works. These may be single leaves or bound as books or scrolls. These may also have illustrations or illuminated paintings with gold and other colors. H. Rock Art, Paintings, and Drawing 1. Rock Art—Types include humanmade markings on stone, cave walls, or rocks in open air, and may be carved or painted. The earliest known examples date from approximately 10,000 B.C. 2. Wall Paintings—This category includes paintings from buildings and tombs. Several methods were used, such as wet-fresco and dry-fresco, and the paintings may be applied to plaster, wood, or stone. Types include simple applied color, bands and borders, landscapes, scenes of people and/or animals in natural or built settings, and religious themes. Tomb paintings may depict gods, goddesses, or funerary scenes, and date primarily from the first millennium BC through the 6th century A.D. 3. Panel Painting (Icons)—An icon is a work of art for religious devotion, normally depicting saints, angels, or other religious figures. These are painted on a wooden panel, often for inclusion in a wooden screen (iconostasis), or else painted onto ceramic panels. May be partially covered with gold or silver, sometimes encrusted with precious or semiprecious stone. F. Textiles I. Mosaics Mosaics are a combination of small three-dimensional pieces of colored stone or glass (tesserae) to create motifs, such as geometric shapes, mythological scenes, floral or animal designs, natural motifs, such as landscapes, and depictions of daily chores. These were generally applied to walls, ceilings, or floors. This category includes clothing or clothing fragments, carpets, flags or banners, flag bags, wall hangings, blankets, and textiles used during religious practice, and includes objects made from linen, wool, cotton, and silk. II. Ethnological Material Ethnological material covered by the Agreement includes, but is not limited to, architectural elements from historic or religious structures, funerary objects, ritual and ceremonial objects, paintings, VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:41 Mar 16, 2022 Jkt 256001 PO 00000 Frm 00052 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 written records, textiles, and weapons and armor; all of which contribute to the knowledge of the origins, development, and history of the Albanian people. This includes objects from approximately A.D. 400, starting in the Byzantine period, through the Medieval and Ottoman periods, ending in A.D. 1913, with Albania’s independence. A. Architectural Elements This category includes architectural elements and decoration from religious and historic buildings in all materials. These buildings have distinctive characteristics described below. Examples of architectural elements covered by the Agreement include, but are not limited to, the following objects: 1. Structural and Decorative Architectural Elements—This category includes material from religious or public buildings in stone, ceramic, plaster, wood, and other organic elements, which includes blocks; columns, capitals, bases, lintels, jambs, friezes, and pilasters; beams, panels, doors, door frames, and window fittings; altars and altar partitions, prayer niches (mihrab), circular marking slabs (omphalion), screens, iconostases, fountains, ceilings, and carved, molded, or painted brick and tile. Metal elements are primarily in copper, brass, lead, and alloys, and may include doors, door fixtures, lathes, finials, chandeliers, screens, and sheets to protect domes. Glass may be incorporated into either structural or decorative elements. This category also includes relief and inlay sculpture, including applique´s and plaques that may have been part of a building. May be plain, molded, carved, or inscribed. Decorative motifs may be incised or in high relief, and may include religious, floral, human, animal, or other motifs. 2. Mosaics—Wall or floor mosaics generally portray religious images and scenes of biblical events. Surrounding panels may contain animal, floral, or geometric designs. They are made from stone and glass cut into small pieces (tesserae) and laid into a plaster matrix. B. Funerary Objects This category includes objects related to funerary rites and burials in all materials. Examples of funerary objects covered by the Agreement include, but are not limited to, the following objects: 1. Sepulchers—Sepulchers are repositories for human or animal remains, in stone (usually marble or limestone), metal, and wood. Types of burial containers include sarcophagi, caskets, coffins, and chest urns. These may also have associated sculpture in relief or in the round. May be plain or E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1 Federal Register / Vol. 87, No. 52 / Thursday, March 17, 2022 / Rules and Regulations khammond on DSKJM1Z7X2PROD with RULES have figural, geometric, or floral motifs, either painted or carved in relief. May also contain human or animal remains. 2. Inscriptions, Memorial Stones, Epitaphs, and Tombstones—This category includes inscribed funerary objects, primarily slabs in marble and ceramic; most frequently engraved with Ottoman Turkish or Greek. These may also have associated sculpture in relief or in the round. 3. Funerary Offerings—This category includes objects in all materials; shrouds and body adornment, such as clothing, jewelry, and accessories; idols, figurines, vessels, beads, weapons, or other ritual or ceremonial offerings; and writing implements, books, and manuscripts. C. Ritual and Ceremonial Objects This category includes objects for use in religious services (Christian, Islamic, or other) or by the state (Byzantine Empire, Medieval period rulers, and Ottoman Empire). Examples of ritual and ceremonial objects covered by the Agreement include, but are not limited to, the following objects: 1. Religious Objects—This category includes objects in all materials, such as lamps, libation vessels, patens, pitchers, chalices, plates, censers, candelabra, crosses and cross pendants, pilgrim flasks, tabernacles, boxes and chests, carved diptychs, triptychs, plaques and applique´s, cast metal icons, liturgical spoons, ecclesiastic crowns, bells, ampoules, prayer beads, icons, amulets, Bektashi surrender stones, and Qu’ran study tablets. This type also includes reliquaries and reliquary containers, which may or may not include human remains. Objects are often engraved, inscribed, inlaid, or otherwise decorated with semi-precious or precious stones. 2. State Ceremonial Objects—This category includes objects in all materials. Examples include ceremonial garments, clothing emblematic of state or imperial position and accessories thereof (such as shoes, headdresses and hats, belts, and jewelry); objects of state office (such as scepters, staffs, insignia, relics, and monumental boxes, trays, and containers); flags, flagstaffs, and alem (finials); stamps, seals, and writing implements for official use by the state; tapestries, or other representations of the court; and musical instruments. 3. Furniture—This category includes objects primarily in stone or wood, including altars, tables, platforms, pulpits, fonts, screens, thrones, minbar, lecterns, desks, and other types of furniture used for religious or official state purpose. 4. Musical Instruments—This category includes instruments important VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:41 Mar 16, 2022 Jkt 256001 for religious or state ceremonies, such as drums of various sizes in leather (e.g., bendir drums used in Sufi rituals, wedding processions, and Mal’uf performances), metal instruments, such as cymbals and trumpets, and wooden instruments. D. Paintings This category includes works of paint on plaster, wood, or ceramic, from religious or historic contexts. Paintings from these periods provide information on the social and religious history of the people of Albania that may be absent from written records. Examples of paintings include, but are not limited to: 1. Wall paintings—This category includes paintings on various types of plaster, which generally portray religious images and/or scenes of biblical events. Types may also include simple applied color, bands and borders, and animal, floral, and geometric motifs. 2. Panel Paintings (Icons)—An icon is a work of art for religious devotion, normally depicting saints, angels, or other religious figures. These are painted on a wooden panel, often for inclusion in a wooden screen (iconostasis), or else painted onto ceramic panels. May be partially covered with gold and/or silver, sometimes encrusted with precious or semi-precious stone. 3. Works on Leather and Paper— Paintings may be on leather, parchment, or paper. Images depicted may include, among other themes, courtly themes (e.g., rulers, musicians, or riders on horses) and city views. E. Written Records This category includes written records of religious, ritual, ceremonial, political, or scientific importance, including, but not limited to, works on papyrus, vellum or parchment, paper, or leather. Papyrus documents are often rolled and/or fragmentary. Parchment and paper documents may be single leaves or bound as scrolls or books. They may have illustrations or illuminated paintings with gold or other colors, or be otherwise embellished with colorful floral or geometric motifs. There are also examples of Korans (Qur’ans) and other religious and/or rare books written on leather pages. This category also includes boxes for books or scrolls made of wood or other organic materials and book or manuscript covers made of leather, textile, or metal. F. Textiles 1. Traditional Clothing—Traditional Albanian folk clothing including headdresses (qeleshe, pils, Albanian hat, PO 00000 Frm 00053 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 15083 qylafe¨, kapica, langi, le¨vere, kryqe), pants and upper body covers (fustanella, tirq, brekusha, xhubleta, mbe¨shtjelle¨se), vests (xhamadan), belts (brez), socks (c ¸orape), and shoes (opinga). 2. Religious Vestments and Textiles— In linen, silk, and wool. This category includes religious textiles and fragments from mosques, churches, shrines, tombs, and monuments, including garments, hangings, prayer rugs, and shrine covers, as well as robes, vestments and altar clothes that are often embroidered in silver and gold. Embroidered designs include religious motifs and floral and geometric designs. G. Weapons and Armor This category includes weapons and armor in all materials. This includes daggers, swords, saifs, scimitars, other blades, with or without sheaths, as well as spears, firearms, and cannons. These may be inlaid with gemstones, embellished with silver or gold, or engraved with floral or geometric motifs and inscriptions. Grips or hilts may be made of metal, wood, and/or semiprecious stones, such as agate, and bound with leather. Armor consists of small metal scales, originally sewn to a backing of cloth or leather, and augmented by helmets, body armor, shields, and horse armor. Inapplicability of Notice and Delayed Effective Date This amendment involves a foreign affairs function of the United States and is, therefore, being made without notice or public procedure under 5 U.S.C. 553(a)(1). For the same reason, a delayed effective date is not required under 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3). Regulatory Flexibility Act Because no notice of proposed rulemaking is required, the provisions of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) do not apply. Executive Order 12866 CBP has determined that this document is not a regulation or rule subject to the provisions of Executive Order 12866 because it pertains to a foreign affairs function of the United States, as described above, and therefore is specifically exempted by section 3(d)(2) of Executive Order 12866. Signing Authority This regulation is being issued in accordance with 19 CFR 0.1(a)(1) pertaining to the Secretary of the Treasury’s authority (or that of his/her delegate) to approve regulations related to customs revenue functions. E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1 15084 Federal Register / Vol. 87, No. 52 / Thursday, March 17, 2022 / Rules and Regulations Chris Magnus, the Commissioner of CBP, having reviewed and approved this document, has delegated the authority to electronically sign this document to Robert F. Altneu, who is the Director of the Regulations and Disclosure Law Division for CBP, for purposes of publication in the Federal Register. List of Subjects in 19 CFR Part 12 Cultural property, Customs duties and inspection, Imports, Prohibited merchandise, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Amendment to CBP Regulations For the reasons set forth above, part 12 of title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations (19 CFR part 12), is amended as set forth below: * * * PART 12—SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE * * * Sections 12.104 through 12.104i also issued under 19 U.S.C. 2612; * * * * 2. In § 12.104g, the table in paragraph (a) is amended by adding Albania in alphabetical order to read as follows: ■ 1. The general authority citation for part 12 and the specific authority citation for § 12.104g continue to read as follows: ■ Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301; 19 U.S.C. 66, 1202 (General Note 3(i), Harmonized Tariff § 12.104g Specific items or categories designated by agreements or emergency actions. (a) * * * State party Cultural property Decision No. Albania ................. Archaeological material of Albania ranging in date from approximately 300,000 B.C. to A.D. 1750, and ethnological material of Albania ranging in date from approximately A.D. 400 to 1913. CBP Dec. 22–06. * * * * * * * * Robert F. Altneu, Director, Regulations & Disclosure Law Division, Regulations & Rulings, Office of Trade, U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Timothy E. Skud, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. [FR Doc. 2022–05685 Filed 3–16–22; 8:45 am] * * Nigeria to the list of countries which have a bilateral agreement with the United States that imposes cultural property import restrictions. This document also contains the Designated List that describes the types of archaeological and ethnological material to which the restrictions apply. DATES: BILLING CODE 9111–14–P Effective on March 17, 2022. [CBP Dec. 22–05] For legal aspects, W. Richmond Beevers, Branch Chief, Cargo Security, Carriers and Restricted Merchandise Branch, Regulations and Rulings, Office of Trade, (202) 325–0084, ototrrculturalproperty@cbp.dhs.gov. For operational aspects, Julie L. Stoeber, Chief, 1USG Branch, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of Trade, (202) 945– 7064, 1USGBranch@cbp.dhs.gov. RIN 1515–AE71 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 12 Background Import Restrictions Imposed on Categories of Archaeological and Ethnological Material of Nigeria U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security; Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Final rule. AGENCY: This document amends the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) regulations to reflect the imposition of import restrictions on certain categories of archaeological and ethnological material from the Federal Republic of Nigeria (‘‘Nigeria’’). These restrictions are being imposed pursuant to an agreement between the United States and Nigeria that has been entered into under the authority of the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act. This document amends the CBP regulations by adding SUMMARY: khammond on DSKJM1Z7X2PROD with RULES Schedule of the United States (HTSUS)), 1624. VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:41 Mar 16, 2022 Jkt 256001 The Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act, Public Law 97– 446, 19 U.S.C. 2601 et seq. (‘‘the Cultural Property Implementation Act’’), implements the 1970 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (‘‘UNESCO’’) Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (‘‘the Convention’’ (823 U.N.T.S. 231 (1972)). Pursuant to the Cultural Property Implementation Act, on January 20, 2022, the United States entered into a bilateral agreement with the Federal Republic of Nigeria (‘‘Nigeria’’) to impose import restrictions on certain archaeological and ethnological material from Nigeria. This rule announces that the United States is now imposing import PO 00000 Frm 00054 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 * * restrictions on certain archaeological and ethnological material from Nigeria. Determinations Under 19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1), the United States must make certain determinations before entering into an agreement to impose import restrictions under 19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(2). On March 9, 2021, the Acting Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs, United States Department of State, after consultation with and recommendation by the Cultural Property Advisory Committee, made the determinations required under the statute with respect to certain archaeological and ethnological material originating in Nigeria that is described in the Designated List set forth below in this document. These determinations include the following: (1) That the cultural patrimony of Nigeria is in jeopardy from the pillage of certain types of archaeological material representing Nigeria’s cultural heritage dating from approximately 1500 B.C. to A.D. 1770, and certain categories of ethnological material dating from approximately A.D. 200 to the early 20th century A.D. (19 U.S.C. 2606(a)(1)(A)); (2) that the Nigerian government has taken measures consistent with the Convention to protect its cultural patrimony (19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(B)); (3) that import restrictions imposed by the United States would be of substantial benefit in deterring a serious situation of pillage and remedies less drastic are not available (19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(C)); and (4) that the application of import restrictions as set forth in this final rule is consistent with the general interests of the international community in the interchange of cultural property among E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 87, Number 52 (Thursday, March 17, 2022)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 15079-15084]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2022-05685]


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DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY

U.S. Customs and Border Protection

DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY

19 CFR Part 12

[CBP Dec. 22-06]
RIN 1515-AE67


Imposition of Import Restrictions on Categories of Archaeological 
and Ethnological Material of Albania

AGENCIES:  U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland 
Security; Department of the Treasury.

ACTION: Final rule.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: This final rule amends the U.S. Customs and Border Protection 
(CBP) regulations to reflect the imposition of import restrictions on 
certain categories of archaeological and ethnological material of the 
Republic of Albania (Albania). These restrictions are being imposed 
pursuant to an agreement between the United States and Albania that has 
been entered into under the authority of the Convention on Cultural 
Property Implementation Act. This final rule amends the CBP regulations 
by adding Albania to the list of countries which have a bilateral 
agreement with the United States that imposes cultural property import 
restrictions. This final rule also contains the Designated List that 
describes the types of archaeological and ethnological material to 
which the restrictions apply.

DATES: Effective on March 17, 2022.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For legal aspects, W. Richmond 
Beevers, Chief, Cargo Security, Carriers and Restricted Merchandise 
Branch, Regulations and Rulings, Office of Trade, (202) 325-0084, [email protected]. For operational aspects, Julie L. 
Stoeber, Chief, 1USG Branch, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of 
Trade, (202) 945-7064, [email protected].

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

    The Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act, Public Law 
97-446, 19 U.S.C. 2601 et seq. (hereinafter, ``the Cultural Property 
Implementation Act''), implements the 1970 United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Convention on the Means 
of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer 
of Ownership of Cultural Property (hereinafter, ``the Convention'' (823 
U.N.T.S. 231 (1972)). Pursuant to the Cultural Property Implementation 
Act, the United States entered into a bilateral agreement with the 
Republic of Albania (Albania) to impose import restrictions on certain 
archaeological and ethnological material from Albania. This rule 
announces the imposition of import restrictions on certain 
archaeological and ethnological material from Albania.

Determinations

    Under 19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1), the United States must make certain 
determinations before entering into an agreement to impose import 
restrictions under 19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(2). On May 26, 2021, the Acting 
Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs, United States 
Department of State, after consultation with and recommendation by the 
Cultural Property Advisory Committee, made the determinations required 
under the statute with respect to certain archaeological and 
ethnological material originating in Albania that is described in the 
Designated List set forth below in this document.
    These determinations include the following: (1) That Albania's 
cultural heritage is in jeopardy from pillage of certain types of 
archaeological material representing Albania's cultural heritage 
ranging in date from approximately 300,000 B.C. to A.D. 1750, and 
certain types of ethnological material representing Albania's cultural 
heritage ranging in date from approximately A.D. 400 to 1913 (19 U.S.C. 
2602(a)(1)(A)); (2) that the Albanian government has taken measures 
consistent with the Convention to protect its cultural patrimony (19 
U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(B)); (3) that import restrictions imposed by the 
United States would be of substantial benefit in deterring a serious 
situation of pillage and remedies less drastic are not available (19 
U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(C)); and (4) that the application of import 
restrictions as set forth in this final rule is consistent with the 
general interests of the international community in the interchange of 
cultural property among nations for scientific, cultural, and 
educational purposes (19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(D)). The Acting Assistant 
Secretary also found that the material described in the determinations 
meets the statutory definition of ``archaeological or ethnological 
material of the State Party'' (19 U.S.C. 2601(2)).

The Agreement

    On August 23, 2021, the Governments of the United States and 
Albania signed a bilateral agreement, ``Memorandum of Understanding 
between the United States of America and the Republic of Albania 
Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Categories of 
Archaeological and Ethnological Material of Albania'' (hereinafter, 
``the Agreement''), pursuant to the provisions of 19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(2). 
The Agreement entered into force on February 28, 2022, following the 
exchange of diplomatic notes, and enables the promulgation of import 
restrictions on certain categories of archaeological material ranging 
in date from approximately 300,000 B.C. to A.D. 1750, and ethnological 
material ranging in date from approximately A.D. 400 to 1913. A list of 
the categories of archaeological and ethnological material subject to 
the import restrictions is set forth later in this document.

Restrictions and Amendment to the Regulations

    In accordance with the Agreement, importation of material 
designated below is subject to the restrictions of 19 U.S.C. 2606 and 
Sec.  12.104g(a) of title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations (19 CFR 
12.104g(a)) and will be restricted from entry into the United States 
unless the conditions set forth in 19 U.S.C. 2606 and Sec.  12.104c of 
the CBP regulations (19 CFR 12.104c) are met. CBP is amending Sec.  
12.104g(a) of the CBP regulations (19 CFR 12.104g(a)) to indicate that 
these import restrictions have been imposed.
    Import restrictions listed at 19 CFR 12.104g(a) are effective for 
no more than five years beginning on the date on which the Agreement 
enters into force with respect to the United States. This period may be 
extended for additional

[[Page 15080]]

periods of not more than five years if it is determined that the 
factors which justified the Agreement still pertain and no cause for 
suspension of the Agreement exists. The import restrictions will expire 
on February 28, 2027, unless extended.

Designated List of Archaeological and Ethnological Material of Albania

    The Agreement between the United States and Albania includes, but 
is not limited to, the categories of objects described in the 
Designated List set forth below. Importation of material on this list 
is restricted unless the material is accompanied by documentation 
certifying that the material left Albania legally and not in violation 
of the export laws of Albania.
    The Designated List includes certain archaeological and 
ethnological material from Albania. The archaeological material in the 
Designated List includes archaeological material from the Middle 
Paleolithic to the Ottoman period, ranging in date from approximately 
300,000 B.C. to A.D. 1750. The ethnological material in the Designated 
List includes ethnological material from the Byzantine, Medieval, and 
Ottoman periods, ranging in date from approximately A.D. 400 to 
Albanian independence in 1913. The Designated List is representative 
only. Any dates and dimensions are approximate.

Simplified Chronology

Paleolithic: c. 300,000-10,000 B.C.
Mesolithic: c. 10,000-6,000 B.C.
Neolithic: c. 6,000-4500 B.C.
Eneolithic/Chalcolithic/Copper Age: c. 4500-3100 B.C.
Bronze Age: c. 3100-1000 B.C.
Iron Age: c. 1000-450 B.C.
Proto-Urban/Urban period: c. 650-27 B.C.
Roman period: 27 B.C.-A.D. 395
Byzantine/Medieval period: A.D. 395-c. 1500
Ottoman period: c. A.D. 1500-1913

Categories of Archaeological and Ethnological Material

I. Archaeological Material
    A. Stone
    B. Metal
    C. Ceramic, Clay, and Terracotta
    D. Bone, Ivory, Shell, Wood, and Other Organics
    E. Glass, Faience, and Semi-Precious Stone
    F. Textiles
    G. Leather, Papyrus, and Parchment
    H. Rock Art, Paintings, and Drawings
    I. Mosaics
II. Ethnological Material
    A. Architectural Elements
    B. Funerary Objects
    C. Ritual and Ceremonial Objects
    D. Paintings
    E. Written Records
    F. Textiles
    G. Weapons and Armor

I. Archaeological Material

    Archaeological material covered by the Agreement represents the 
following periods, styles, and cultures: Paleolithic, Mesolithic, 
Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Urban period, Roman 
period, Byzantine/Medieval period, and Ottoman period.

A. Stone

1. Sculpture
    a. Architectural Elements--Primarily in marble, limestone, and 
gypsum; including blocks from walls, floors, and ceilings; acroteria, 
antefixes, architrave, water spouts, columns, capitals, bases, lintels, 
jambs, friezes, pediments, tympanum, metopes, and pilasters; doors, 
door frames, and window fittings; caryatids, altars, prayer niches 
(mihrabs), screens, wellheads, fountains, mosaics, and tiles. This 
category also includes relief and inlay sculpture that may have been 
part of a building, such as friezes of sculptured stone figures set 
into inlaid stone. May be plain, molded, carved, or inscribed. 
Decorative motifs may be incised or in high relief.
    b. Monuments and Stelae--Types include menhir, votive statues, 
funerary and votive stelae, bases and base revetments, and carved 
relief vases and slabs, usually in limestone, marble, or basalt. Common 
subject matter also includes figural, vegetative, floral, or decorative 
motifs. These may be painted, carved with relief sculpture, and/or 
carry dedicatory or funerary inscriptions.
    c. Sarcophagi and Ossuaries--In marble and limestone. The sides and 
lids of sarcophagi and ossuaries may have relief sculptures of human 
and animal figures, inscriptions, monograms, and floral and geometric 
decoration.
    d. Statuary--Both large and small, in marble, limestone, sandstone, 
and other stone. Subject matter includes human and animal figures and 
groups of figures in the round, as well as floral, vegetal and abstract 
elements, including fragments of statues.
    2. Vessels and Containers--In marble, steatite, rock crystal, and 
other stone. Types include conventional shapes, such as bowls, cups, 
jars, jugs, and lamps, or may be in the shape of a human or animal, or 
part of a human or animal.
    3. Furniture--In marble and other stone. Types include tables, 
thrones, beds, funerary furniture, and other burial elements.
    4. Tools and Weapons--In flint, chert, obsidian, limestone, and 
other hard stone. Types include small tools, large and small blades, 
borers, scrapers, sickles, awls, harpoons, cores, loom weights, and 
arrow heads. Ground stone types include grinders (e.g., mortars, 
pestles, millstones, and/or whetstones), choppers, axes, hammers, 
molds, and mace heads.
    5. Seals and Stamps--These are small devices with at least one side 
engraved with a design for stamping or sealing, often in marble, 
limestone, and various semiprecious stones, including rock crystal, 
amethyst, jasper, agate, steatite, and carnelian. Shapes can include 
cylinders, buttons, and prismatic.
    6. Jewelry and Beads--Jewelry made of or decorated with colored and 
semi-precious stones, including beads, necklaces, pendants, cameos, 
crowns, earrings, finger rings, bracelets, anklets, belts, girdles, 
pins, hair ornaments, and arm bands. May be incised or cut as gems or 
cameos.

B. Metal

1. Sculpture
    a. Statuary--Large and small statuary, primarily in bronze, 
including fragments of statues. Subject matter includes human and 
animal figures, masks, plaques, and groups of figures in the round.
    b. Reliefs--In gold, bronze, or lead. Types include plaques, burial 
masks, leaves, and appliqu[eacute]s with images of gods, mythical 
creatures, or other figures.
    c. Inscribed or Decorated Sheets--In bronze and lead. Engraved 
inscriptions, ``military diplomas,'' ``curse tablets,'' and thin metal 
sheets with engraved or impressed designs often used as attachments to 
furniture.
    2. Vessels and Containers--In copper, bronze, gold, and silver. 
Bronze may be gilded or silver-plated. Types include conventional 
shapes, such as bowls, cups, jars, jugs, strainers, cauldrons, 
candelabras, and lamps, or may be in the shape of a human or animal or 
part of a human or animal.
    3. Jewelry and Personal Adornment--In copper, bronze, silver, and 
gold. Types include earrings, ear caps, pendants, bracelets, necklaces, 
spiraliform tubes, brooches, torques, belts, belt buckles, belt ends/
appliqu[eacute]s, fibulas with chain pendants, plates, spangles, 
diadems, pins, dress pins, finger rings, hair rings, chains, spirals, 
ornaments, beads, mirrors, wreaths, cuffs, and pectoral crosses.
    4. Tools--In bronze, iron, lead, and copper. Types include socketed 
hammers, spearheads, lanceheads,

[[Page 15081]]

daggers, knives, axes, double axes, hooks, weights, scrapers, trowels, 
keys, strigils, and other tools of physicians and artisans.
    5. Weapons and Armor--In copper, bronze, lead and iron. This 
category includes common weapon types, such as daggers, arrows, swords, 
spears, javelins, axes, rapiers, and maces. Body armor is also 
included, such as helmets, cuirasses, shin guards, shields, horse 
armor, and chariot decoration. Some may have inscriptions or be 
otherwise decorated with engraved, embossed, or perforated designs.
    6. Seals and Stamps--These are small devices with at least one side 
engraved with a design for sealing or stamping, often in bronze, 
copper, gold, silver, tin, or lead. Types include rings, amulets, 
stamps, and seals with shank.
    7. Ship and Boat Material--Parts and fragments from shipwrecks in 
bronze, lead, and iron, including anchors.
    8. Coins--This category includes coins of Illyrian, Greek, 
Macedonian, Roman provincial, Byzantine, Medieval, and Ottoman types 
that circulated primarily in Albania, ranging in date from 
approximately the 6th century B.C. to A.D. 1750. Coins were made in 
copper, bronze, silver, and gold. Examples are generally round, have 
writing, and show imagery of animals, buildings, symbols, or royal or 
imperial figures.

C. Ceramic, Clay, and Terracotta

1. Sculpture
    a. Architectural Elements--Baked clay (terracotta) elements used to 
decorate buildings. Elements include tiles, acroteria, antefixes, 
painted and relief plaques, metopes, cornices, roof tiles, pipes, and 
revetments, as well as wall and floor decorations in plaster. May be 
painted as icons.
    b. Statuary--Large and small statuary. Subject matter includes 
human and animal figures and groups of figures in the round, human body 
parts, shrines, houses, ovens, rhyta, strainers, and chariots. This 
includes figurines which may be anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, vegetal, 
furniture-like, schematic, or flat.
    2. Vessels--Ceramic types, forms, and decoration vary among 
archaeological styles over time. Forms may be handmade or produced with 
ceramic wheels, plain or decorated, and may be glazed, unglazed, 
slipped, painted, burnished, engraved, and/or incised. They may be 
produced in Albania or imported at or near the time of production. Some 
of the most well-known types are highlighted below:
    a. Neolithic Pottery--Early Neolithic types include thick-walled, 
coarse, fine, fine with sand inclusion, red, brown, and black pottery. 
Decorations, applications, and paint include sandy slip, barbotine, red 
monochrome, or dark brown paint on red barbotine ware. Middle Neolithic 
types include gray or black, lustrous, incised, and beaded pottery. 
Decorations include incised bands filled with dots or lines, incised 
spiral motifs, or white paint. Late Neolithic types include light 
yellow ocherous fabric, red ocherous fabric with painted decoration, 
black ware with incisions and appliqu[eacute]s, brown on light painted, 
clay mixed with sand, brown with broad lines and triangles, unpolished, 
net patterns, zig-zag lines, fine, polished, painted, multi-colored, 
linear-geometric, and spiral pottery. Shapes include globular, 
spherical, hemispherical, and biconical vessels.
    b. Chalcolithic Pottery--This category includes similar types and 
decorations as described above for earlier periods, with the addition 
of thick-walled, thin-walled mixed with sand, gray surface, brown 
surface, black surface, fine, and gray-black pottery. They may be 
painted, incised, encrusted, recessed, or in relief, sometimes 
representing combined techniques. Prominently black monochrome with 
fluted decoration. Shapes include squat biconical bodies with 
cylindrical necks and bowls with incurving rims.
    c. Bronze Age Pottery--Types include thick-walled and thin-walled 
vessels, which are black, gray, gray-black, red, light beige, or 
ocherous yellow, handmade and wheel-made, as well as Mycenaean (Late 
Helladic) imported wares. Decorations include bands, punctuated plastic 
bands, incised linear or curvilinear motifs, geometric motifs, 
horizontal bands with or without holes, finger impressed bands, matte-
painted with geometric patterns, applied plastic decoration, monochrome 
painted motifs, and/or piercing at juncture of rim and handle. Shapes 
include pots with handles rising above the rim, vessels with wide necks 
and exaggerated vertical handles, vessels with bulbous bodies, wide 
necks, and thick lips, cups with handles, piriform cups with handles 
that rise above the rim, vessels with elbow or axeblade-shaped handles, 
vessels with wish bone handles, bowls, vessels with wide throats, 
vessels with horizontal handles, vessels with handle and spout, short 
open vessels with two handles, and double vessels.
    d. Iron Age Pottery--Types include brown, gray, red, black, clean 
fabric mixed with sand, thin-walled, and smooth surface pottery, both 
handmade and wheel-made. Decorations include brown matte-painted linear 
or curvilinear motifs, narrow ribbing, incised geometric patterns, 
including triangles and concentric bands, and red paint on black glaze. 
Shapes include vessels with globular bodies and cylindrical or conical 
necks with vertical handles, jars with globular necks, beaked jugs, 
spherical vessels, double vessels, vessels with narrow throats, vessels 
with handles rising above the rim, pots, beaked oinochoe, skyphoi, 
amphorae, conical bowls with upright or incurving rims, hemispherical 
bowls, cups with various profiles, chalices, biphora, and vessels with 
four handles.
    e. Illyrian, Greek, and Hellenistic Pottery--Types include thin and 
thick-walled vessels; proto-Corinthian, Corinthian, Attic, Devollian, 
black-glazed, and other types. Decorations include thick black gloss, 
as well as Attic and other imported Black Figure and Red Figure 
vessels, including local imitations of these types. Shapes include 
lekythoi (small, thin-walled jars), large storage amphorae, oinochoe, 
pyxides, unguentaria, skyphoi, and others.
    f. Roman Pottery--Types include fineware, coarseware, red gloss, 
red slip, black slip, lead glaze, and others. Shapes include cooking 
ware, jars, beakers, bowls, plates, vases, amphorae, and others.
    g. Byzantine/Medieval Pottery--Types include thin and thick-walled 
vessels with fine to coarse fabrics, often deep red to purplish with 
lime inclusions and sandy texture, or dark orange with many lime 
inclusions and voids. Decorations include red slips, plain glazes, 
colored glazes, particularly green and silver, sgraffito incised 
naturalistic, geometric, and figural decoration, painted geometric 
motifs, including dots, ridge surface treatment, and proto-Maiolica 
ware. Shapes include amphorae, open and closed jugs, large storage 
vessels with small handles, and shallow plate-like vessels.
    h. Ottoman Pottery--Types include thin and thick-walled vessels 
with fine to coarse fabrics, often deep red to purplish with lime 
inclusions and sandy texture. Decorations include plain glazes, colored 
glazes, particularly green and brown, painted glaze, sgraffito incised 
decoration, painted geometric motif, and Maiolica ware.
    3. Objects of Daily Use--This type includes objects of daily use 
including tools, spindle whorls, weights, and lamps.
    4. Inscriptions--These are typically unbaked and should be handled 
with extreme care, even when hard fired through accidental burning. 
They typically take the form of tablets, which

[[Page 15082]]

may be shaped like leaves or may be rectangular or square. In various 
languages and scripts.

D. Bone, Ivory, Shell, Wood, and Other Organics

    1. Small Statuary and Figurines--This category includes human and 
animal figures and groups of figures in the round.
    2. Personal Ornaments and Objects of Daily Use--In bone, ivory, 
shell, amber, and other organics. Types include tools, ornaments, 
beads, amulets, combs, pins, spoons, small containers, bracelets, and 
buckles.
    3. Seals and Stamps--These are small objects with at least one side 
engraved with a design for stamping or sealing. They may be discoid, 
cuboid, conoid, or in the shape of animals or mythological creatures.
    4. Tools and Weapons--Bone, ivory, and horn were used to produce 
and decorate weapons and tools. Types include needles, awls, chisels, 
hoes, picks, knives, spearheads, harpoons, and blades.
    5. Human and Animal Remains--Skeletal remains from human and animal 
bodies, found in burials or preserved in other contexts.
    6. Musical Instruments--In bone, ivory, and tortoise shell. Types 
include pipes and flutes.
    7. Inscriptions and Writing--On wood, particularly wooden sticks, 
ivory, and others. In various languages and scripts.
    8. Ship and Boat Material--This includes whole or pieces that 
compose a ship or boat, including logs, planks, and other fittings.

E. Glass, Faience, and Semi-Precious Stone

    1. Architectural Elements--This includes glass inlay and tesserae 
pieces from floor and wall mosaics, mirrors, and windows.
    2. Vessels--Types include small jars, bowls, animal shaped 
containers, goblets, spherical containers, candle holders, and perfume 
jars (unguentaria).
    3. Beads and Jewelry--Jewelry such as bracelets and rings, 
pendants, and beads in various shapes (e.g., circular or globular), may 
be decorated with symbolic and/or floral reliefs.

F. Textiles

    This category includes clothing or clothing fragments, carpets, 
flags or banners, flag bags, wall hangings, blankets, and textiles used 
during religious practice, and includes objects made from linen, wool, 
cotton, and silk.

G. Leather, Papyrus, and Parchment

    1. Leather--This category includes bags, furniture parts, masks, 
shields, cases and containers for a variety of uses, sandals, clothing, 
and manuscript covers. There are examples of religious and/or rare 
books that were written on leather pages.
    2. Papyrus--Documents made from papyrus and written upon. These are 
often rolled and/or fragmentary.
    3. Parchment--Writing material made of animal skin and used to 
produce manuscripts, including religious, liturgical, and scientific 
works. These may be single leaves or bound as books or scrolls. These 
may also have illustrations or illuminated paintings with gold and 
other colors.

H. Rock Art, Paintings, and Drawing

    1. Rock Art--Types include human-made markings on stone, cave 
walls, or rocks in open air, and may be carved or painted. The earliest 
known examples date from approximately 10,000 B.C.
    2. Wall Paintings--This category includes paintings from buildings 
and tombs. Several methods were used, such as wet-fresco and dry-
fresco, and the paintings may be applied to plaster, wood, or stone. 
Types include simple applied color, bands and borders, landscapes, 
scenes of people and/or animals in natural or built settings, and 
religious themes. Tomb paintings may depict gods, goddesses, or 
funerary scenes, and date primarily from the first millennium BC 
through the 6th century A.D.
    3. Panel Painting (Icons)--An icon is a work of art for religious 
devotion, normally depicting saints, angels, or other religious 
figures. These are painted on a wooden panel, often for inclusion in a 
wooden screen (iconostasis), or else painted onto ceramic panels. May 
be partially covered with gold or silver, sometimes encrusted with 
precious or semi-precious stone.

I. Mosaics

    Mosaics are a combination of small three-dimensional pieces of 
colored stone or glass (tesserae) to create motifs, such as geometric 
shapes, mythological scenes, floral or animal designs, natural motifs, 
such as landscapes, and depictions of daily chores. These were 
generally applied to walls, ceilings, or floors.

II. Ethnological Material

    Ethnological material covered by the Agreement includes, but is not 
limited to, architectural elements from historic or religious 
structures, funerary objects, ritual and ceremonial objects, paintings, 
written records, textiles, and weapons and armor; all of which 
contribute to the knowledge of the origins, development, and history of 
the Albanian people. This includes objects from approximately A.D. 400, 
starting in the Byzantine period, through the Medieval and Ottoman 
periods, ending in A.D. 1913, with Albania's independence.

A. Architectural Elements

    This category includes architectural elements and decoration from 
religious and historic buildings in all materials. These buildings have 
distinctive characteristics described below. Examples of architectural 
elements covered by the Agreement include, but are not limited to, the 
following objects:
    1. Structural and Decorative Architectural Elements--This category 
includes material from religious or public buildings in stone, ceramic, 
plaster, wood, and other organic elements, which includes blocks; 
columns, capitals, bases, lintels, jambs, friezes, and pilasters; 
beams, panels, doors, door frames, and window fittings; altars and 
altar partitions, prayer niches (mihrab), circular marking slabs 
(omphalion), screens, iconostases, fountains, ceilings, and carved, 
molded, or painted brick and tile. Metal elements are primarily in 
copper, brass, lead, and alloys, and may include doors, door fixtures, 
lathes, finials, chandeliers, screens, and sheets to protect domes. 
Glass may be incorporated into either structural or decorative 
elements. This category also includes relief and inlay sculpture, 
including appliqu[eacute]s and plaques that may have been part of a 
building. May be plain, molded, carved, or inscribed. Decorative motifs 
may be incised or in high relief, and may include religious, floral, 
human, animal, or other motifs.
    2. Mosaics--Wall or floor mosaics generally portray religious 
images and scenes of biblical events. Surrounding panels may contain 
animal, floral, or geometric designs. They are made from stone and 
glass cut into small pieces (tesserae) and laid into a plaster matrix.

B. Funerary Objects

    This category includes objects related to funerary rites and 
burials in all materials. Examples of funerary objects covered by the 
Agreement include, but are not limited to, the following objects:
    1. Sepulchers--Sepulchers are repositories for human or animal 
remains, in stone (usually marble or limestone), metal, and wood. Types 
of burial containers include sarcophagi, caskets, coffins, and chest 
urns. These may also have associated sculpture in relief or in the 
round. May be plain or

[[Page 15083]]

have figural, geometric, or floral motifs, either painted or carved in 
relief. May also contain human or animal remains.
    2. Inscriptions, Memorial Stones, Epitaphs, and Tombstones--This 
category includes inscribed funerary objects, primarily slabs in marble 
and ceramic; most frequently engraved with Ottoman Turkish or Greek. 
These may also have associated sculpture in relief or in the round.
    3. Funerary Offerings--This category includes objects in all 
materials; shrouds and body adornment, such as clothing, jewelry, and 
accessories; idols, figurines, vessels, beads, weapons, or other ritual 
or ceremonial offerings; and writing implements, books, and 
manuscripts.

C. Ritual and Ceremonial Objects

    This category includes objects for use in religious services 
(Christian, Islamic, or other) or by the state (Byzantine Empire, 
Medieval period rulers, and Ottoman Empire). Examples of ritual and 
ceremonial objects covered by the Agreement include, but are not 
limited to, the following objects:
    1. Religious Objects--This category includes objects in all 
materials, such as lamps, libation vessels, patens, pitchers, chalices, 
plates, censers, candelabra, crosses and cross pendants, pilgrim 
flasks, tabernacles, boxes and chests, carved diptychs, triptychs, 
plaques and appliqu[eacute]s, cast metal icons, liturgical spoons, 
ecclesiastic crowns, bells, ampoules, prayer beads, icons, amulets, 
Bektashi surrender stones, and Qu'ran study tablets. This type also 
includes reliquaries and reliquary containers, which may or may not 
include human remains. Objects are often engraved, inscribed, inlaid, 
or otherwise decorated with semi-precious or precious stones.
    2. State Ceremonial Objects--This category includes objects in all 
materials. Examples include ceremonial garments, clothing emblematic of 
state or imperial position and accessories thereof (such as shoes, 
headdresses and hats, belts, and jewelry); objects of state office 
(such as scepters, staffs, insignia, relics, and monumental boxes, 
trays, and containers); flags, flagstaffs, and alem (finials); stamps, 
seals, and writing implements for official use by the state; 
tapestries, or other representations of the court; and musical 
instruments.
    3. Furniture--This category includes objects primarily in stone or 
wood, including altars, tables, platforms, pulpits, fonts, screens, 
thrones, minbar, lecterns, desks, and other types of furniture used for 
religious or official state purpose.
    4. Musical Instruments--This category includes instruments 
important for religious or state ceremonies, such as drums of various 
sizes in leather (e.g., bendir drums used in Sufi rituals, wedding 
processions, and Mal'uf performances), metal instruments, such as 
cymbals and trumpets, and wooden instruments.

D. Paintings

    This category includes works of paint on plaster, wood, or ceramic, 
from religious or historic contexts. Paintings from these periods 
provide information on the social and religious history of the people 
of Albania that may be absent from written records. Examples of 
paintings include, but are not limited to:
    1. Wall paintings--This category includes paintings on various 
types of plaster, which generally portray religious images and/or 
scenes of biblical events. Types may also include simple applied color, 
bands and borders, and animal, floral, and geometric motifs.
    2. Panel Paintings (Icons)--An icon is a work of art for religious 
devotion, normally depicting saints, angels, or other religious 
figures. These are painted on a wooden panel, often for inclusion in a 
wooden screen (iconostasis), or else painted onto ceramic panels. May 
be partially covered with gold and/or silver, sometimes encrusted with 
precious or semi-precious stone.
    3. Works on Leather and Paper--Paintings may be on leather, 
parchment, or paper. Images depicted may include, among other themes, 
courtly themes (e.g., rulers, musicians, or riders on horses) and city 
views.

E. Written Records

    This category includes written records of religious, ritual, 
ceremonial, political, or scientific importance, including, but not 
limited to, works on papyrus, vellum or parchment, paper, or leather. 
Papyrus documents are often rolled and/or fragmentary. Parchment and 
paper documents may be single leaves or bound as scrolls or books. They 
may have illustrations or illuminated paintings with gold or other 
colors, or be otherwise embellished with colorful floral or geometric 
motifs. There are also examples of Korans (Qur'ans) and other religious 
and/or rare books written on leather pages. This category also includes 
boxes for books or scrolls made of wood or other organic materials and 
book or manuscript covers made of leather, textile, or metal.

F. Textiles

    1. Traditional Clothing--Traditional Albanian folk clothing 
including headdresses (qeleshe, pils, Albanian hat, qylaf[euml], 
kapica, langi, l[euml]vere, kryqe), pants and upper body covers 
(fustanella, tirq, brekusha, xhubleta, mb[euml]shtjell[euml]se), vests 
(xhamadan), belts (brez), socks ([ccedil]orape), and shoes (opinga).
    2. Religious Vestments and Textiles--In linen, silk, and wool. This 
category includes religious textiles and fragments from mosques, 
churches, shrines, tombs, and monuments, including garments, hangings, 
prayer rugs, and shrine covers, as well as robes, vestments and altar 
clothes that are often embroidered in silver and gold. Embroidered 
designs include religious motifs and floral and geometric designs.

G. Weapons and Armor

    This category includes weapons and armor in all materials. This 
includes daggers, swords, saifs, scimitars, other blades, with or 
without sheaths, as well as spears, firearms, and cannons. These may be 
inlaid with gemstones, embellished with silver or gold, or engraved 
with floral or geometric motifs and inscriptions. Grips or hilts may be 
made of metal, wood, and/or semi-precious stones, such as agate, and 
bound with leather. Armor consists of small metal scales, originally 
sewn to a backing of cloth or leather, and augmented by helmets, body 
armor, shields, and horse armor.

Inapplicability of Notice and Delayed Effective Date

    This amendment involves a foreign affairs function of the United 
States and is, therefore, being made without notice or public procedure 
under 5 U.S.C. 553(a)(1). For the same reason, a delayed effective date 
is not required under 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3).

Regulatory Flexibility Act

    Because no notice of proposed rulemaking is required, the 
provisions of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) do 
not apply.

Executive Order 12866

    CBP has determined that this document is not a regulation or rule 
subject to the provisions of Executive Order 12866 because it pertains 
to a foreign affairs function of the United States, as described above, 
and therefore is specifically exempted by section 3(d)(2) of Executive 
Order 12866.

Signing Authority

    This regulation is being issued in accordance with 19 CFR 0.1(a)(1) 
pertaining to the Secretary of the Treasury's authority (or that of 
his/her delegate) to approve regulations related to customs revenue 
functions.

[[Page 15084]]

    Chris Magnus, the Commissioner of CBP, having reviewed and approved 
this document, has delegated the authority to electronically sign this 
document to Robert F. Altneu, who is the Director of the Regulations 
and Disclosure Law Division for CBP, for purposes of publication in the 
Federal Register.

List of Subjects in 19 CFR Part 12

    Cultural property, Customs duties and inspection, Imports, 
Prohibited merchandise, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

Amendment to CBP Regulations

    For the reasons set forth above, part 12 of title 19 of the Code of 
Federal Regulations (19 CFR part 12), is amended as set forth below:

PART 12--SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE

0
1. The general authority citation for part 12 and the specific 
authority citation for Sec.  12.104g continue to read as follows:

    Authority:  5 U.S.C. 301; 19 U.S.C. 66, 1202 (General Note 3(i), 
Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS)), 1624.
* * * * *
    Sections 12.104 through 12.104i also issued under 19 U.S.C. 
2612;
* * * * *

0
2. In Sec.  12.104g, the table in paragraph (a) is amended by adding 
Albania in alphabetical order to read as follows:


Sec.  12.104g   Specific items or categories designated by agreements 
or emergency actions.

    (a) * * *

------------------------------------------------------------------------
        State party             Cultural property         Decision No.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Albania...................  Archaeological material      CBP Dec. 22-06.
                             of Albania ranging in
                             date from approximately
                             300,000 B.C. to A.D.
                             1750, and ethnological
                             material of Albania
                             ranging in date from
                             approximately A.D. 400
                             to 1913.
 
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------

* * * * *


Robert F. Altneu,
Director, Regulations & Disclosure Law Division, Regulations & Rulings, 
Office of Trade, U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
Timothy E. Skud,
Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.
[FR Doc. 2022-05685 Filed 3-16-22; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 9111-14-P