Special Conditions: Pro Star Aviation LLC, Bombardier Model CL-600-2B16 Airplanes; Installation of an Infrared Laser Countermeasure System, 46958-46959 [2021-17979]

Download as PDF 46958 Federal Register / Vol. 86, No. 160 / Monday, August 23, 2021 / Rules and Regulations Dated: August 18, 2021. Laura Galban, Federal Register Liaison, Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. [FR Doc. 2021–17994 Filed 8–20–21; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4810–AM–P DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 [Docket No. FAA–2020–0893; Special Conditions No. 25–790–SC] Special Conditions: Pro Star Aviation LLC, Bombardier Model CL–600–2B16 Airplanes; Installation of an Infrared Laser Countermeasure System Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special conditions. AGENCY: These special conditions are issued for the Bombardier Model CL– 600–2B16 (Bombardier) airplane. This airplane, as modified by Pro Star Aviation LLC (Pro Star Aviation), will have a novel or unusual design feature when compared to the state of technology envisioned in the airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes. This design feature is a system that emits infrared laser energy outside the aircraft as a countermeasure against heat-seeking missiles. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. DATES: Effective September 22, 2021. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Eric Peterson, Safety Risk Management Section, AIR–633, Policy and Innovation Division, Aircraft Certification Service, Federal Aviation Administration, 2200 South 216th Street, Des Moines, Washington 98198; telephone and fax 206–231–3413; email Eric.M.Peterson@faa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES SUMMARY: airplane, which is a derivative of the Bombardier Model CL–600 series airplanes currently approved under Type Certificate No. A21EA, is a twinengine business jet with seating for 20 passengers and two crewmembers, and a maximum takeoff weight of 47,600 pounds. Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 21.101, Pro Star Aviation must show that the Bombardier Model CL–600–2B16 airplane, as changed, continues to meet the applicable provisions of the regulations listed in Type Certificate No. A21EA, or the applicable regulations in effect on the date of application for the change, except for earlier amendments as agreed upon by the FAA. If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (e.g., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for the Bombardier Model CL–600–2B16 airplane because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed under the provisions of § 21.16. Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which they are issued. Should the applicant apply for a supplemental type certificate to modify any other model included on the same type certificate to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would also apply to the other model under § 21.101. In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special conditions, the Bombardier Model CL– 600–2B16 airplane must comply with the fuel-vent and exhaust-emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34, and the noise-certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36. The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in accordance with § 11.38, and they become part of the type certification basis under § 21.101. Background Novel or Unusual Design Features The Bombardier Model CL–600–2B16 airplane, as modified by Pro Star Aviation, will incorporate the following novel or unusual design feature: A system that emits infrared laser energy outside the aircraft. On December 7, 2018, Pro Star Aviation applied for a supplemental type certificate to install a ‘‘Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasure (LAIRCM)’’ system, which directs infrared laser energy toward heatseeking missiles, on the Bombardier Model CL–600–2B16 airplane. This Discussion In recent years, in several incidents abroad, civilian aircraft were fired upon by man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS). This has led several companies to design and adapt systems like LAIRCM for installation on civilian aircraft, to protect those aircraft against VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:11 Aug 20, 2021 Jkt 253001 PO 00000 Frm 00006 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 heat-seeking missiles. Pro Star Aviation’s LAIRCM system directs infrared laser energy toward an incoming missile, in an effort to interrupt the missile’s tracking of the aircraft’s heat. Infrared laser energy can pose a hazard to persons on the aircraft, on the ground, and on other aircraft. The risk is heightened because infrared light is invisible to the human eye. Human exposure to infrared laser energy can result in eye and skin damage, and affect a flight crew’s ability to control the aircraft. Infrared laser energy can also affect other aircraft, whether airborne or on the ground, and property, such as fuel trucks and airport equipment, in a manner that adversely affects aviation safety. FAA design standards for transport category airplanes did not envisage that a design feature could project infrared laser energy outside the airplane. The FAA’s design standards are inadequate to address this capability. Therefore, this system is a novel or unusual design feature, and the FAA has developed these special conditions to establish a level of safety equivalent to that of the regulations. Special conditions are also warranted, per 14 CFR 21.16, because FAA design standards are inappropriate for this design feature. 14 CFR 25.1301 requires installed equipment to be of a design that is appropriate for its intended function. The FAA has no basis to determine whether this LAIRCM system will successfully perform its intended function of thwarting heat-seeking missiles. Ground Activation. Condition 1 requires the design to have means to prevent inadvertent operation of the system while the airplane is on the ground, including during maintenance. These means must identify and address all foreseeable failure modes that may result in inadvertent operation. These modes include errors in airplane maintenance and operating procedures, such as erroneously setting the system to ‘‘air’’ mode while the airplane is on the ground. The applicant could show such failure modes, their risks, and how they will be addressed, by conducting safety assessments and incorporating prevention strategies into the design. In-Flight Activation. Condition 2 requires that the system be designed so that in-flight operation does not result in damage to the airplane or to other aircraft, or injury to any person. To account for these effects, the applicant’s analysis should include effects from the system’s erroneous operation, from system failures, and from failures that may not be readily detectable prior to E:\FR\FM\23AUR1.SGM 23AUR1 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES Federal Register / Vol. 86, No. 160 / Monday, August 23, 2021 / Rules and Regulations flight (i.e., latent failures). The applicant may address this condition through safety assessments and incorporation of prevention strategies into its design. The ‘‘operation’’ addressed by Condition 2 includes all operation of the system, whether intentional, inadvertent, or automatic. Markings, instructions, and other information. Conditions 3, 4, and 5 are intended to protect certain categories of persons based upon their expected interaction with the system. These conditions require the design to supply certain safety information to these persons. Condition 3 requires the design to provide pertinent laser-safety information to maintenance and service personnel at the location of the installation. At a minimum, such ‘‘pertinent’’ information will include information about potential hazards to persons who are using optical magnification devices, such as magnifying glasses or binoculars. The warning information should be consistent with the laser’s classification in 21 CFR 1040. Condition 4 requires the airplane instructions for continued airworthiness to contain the appropriate warnings related to the laser’s classification. Like the warning information to be provided at the location of the laser system’s installation, the purpose of this condition is to ensure any person maintaining the system is aware of the hazards, including those related to the use of magnifying glasses or binoculars. Condition 5 requires the applicant to update the airplane operating limitations and information required under 14 CFR 25.1581. The airplane flight-manual supplement insert must describe the intended function of the LAIRCM system, its intended operation, and the phases of flight in which it may be used. The insert also must add a caution that describes the significant risk of injury the LAIRCM system poses to others while in proximity to other aircraft, airports, and populated areas. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. These special conditions, and the corresponding supplemental type certificate for the installation of this system, do not constitute approval to operate the system. FAA Advisory Circular 70–1, ‘‘Outdoor Laser Operations,’’ provides guidance on obtaining operational approval. VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:11 Aug 20, 2021 Jkt 253001 Discussion of Comments The FAA issued Notice of Proposed Special Conditions No. 25–21–02–SC for the Bombardier Model CL–600–2B16 airplane, as modified by Pro Star Aviation, which was published in the Federal Register on June 24, 2021 (86 FR 33147). The FAA received one comment supporting the proposed special conditions as they apply to the installation of a LAIRCM system ‘‘. . . on the specific model of aircraft.’’ Applicability As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the Bombardier Model CL–600–2B16 airplane with the Pro Star Aviation LAIRCM system installed. Should Pro Star Aviation apply at a later date for a supplemental type certificate to modify any other model included on Type Certificate No. A21EA to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would apply to that model as well. Conclusion This action affects only a certain novel or unusual design feature on one model of airplane. It is not a rule of general applicability and affects only the applicant. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25 Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Authority Citation The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows: damage, or through distraction or incapacitation of crew. 3. Laser-safety information for maintaining or servicing the airplane must be prominently placarded on the airplane or LAIRCM system at the location of the laser installation. 4. Instructions for continued airworthiness for installation, removal, and maintenance of the LAIRCM system must contain warnings appropriate to the laser classification concerning the hazards associated with exposure to laser radiation. This includes instructions regarding potential hazards to personnel who are using optical magnification devices such as magnifying glasses or binoculars. 5. The airplane flight manual supplement (AFMS) must describe the intended functions of the installed laser systems, to include identifying the intended operations and phases of flight. The AFMS must state: CAUTION: The operation of the installed laser system could pose significant risk of injury to others while in proximity to other aircraft, airports, and populated areas. Issued in Washington, DC, on August 17, 2021. Erik Brown, Acting Manager, Systems Policy Branch, Policy and Innovation Division, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2021–17979 Filed 8–20–21; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–13–P DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704. Federal Aviation Administration The Special Conditions Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of the type certification basis for the Bombardier Model CL–600–2B16 airplane with the LAIRCM system, as modified by Pro Star Aviation. 1. The system must have means that prevent the inadvertent activation of the system on the ground, including during airplane maintenance and ground handling. Such means must address all foreseeable failure modes and operating and maintenance errors. 2. The system must be designed so that its operation in-flight does not result in damage to the airplane or other aircraft, or injury to any person. Operation of the system must not be capable of compromising continued safe flight and landing of other aircraft and the airplane on which it is installed, either by direct damage, laser-reflective 14 CFR Part 39 PO 00000 Frm 00007 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 46959 [Docket No. FAA–2021–0373; Project Identifier MCAI–2020–01352–R; Amendment 39–21668; AD 2021–16–06] RIN 2120–AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Leonardo S.p.a. Helicopters Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. AGENCY: The FAA is superseding Airworthiness Directive (AD) 2020–19– 11 for certain Leonardo S.p.a. Model A119 and AW119 MKII helicopters. AD 2020–19–11 required repetitive borescope inspections of the 90-degree tail rotor gearbox (TGB) and depending on the inspection results, removing the TGB from service. This AD was prompted by the determination that additional parts may be susceptible to the unsafe condition. This AD retains SUMMARY: E:\FR\FM\23AUR1.SGM 23AUR1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 86, Number 160 (Monday, August 23, 2021)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 46958-46959]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2021-17979]


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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Part 25

[Docket No. FAA-2020-0893; Special Conditions No. 25-790-SC]


Special Conditions: Pro Star Aviation LLC, Bombardier Model CL-
600-2B16 Airplanes; Installation of an Infrared Laser Countermeasure 
System

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION: Final special conditions.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Bombardier Model 
CL-600-2B16 (Bombardier) airplane. This airplane, as modified by Pro 
Star Aviation LLC (Pro Star Aviation), will have a novel or unusual 
design feature when compared to the state of technology envisioned in 
the airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes. This 
design feature is a system that emits infrared laser energy outside the 
aircraft as a countermeasure against heat-seeking missiles. The 
applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or 
appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special 
conditions contain the additional safety standards that the 
Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety 
equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards.

DATES: Effective September 22, 2021.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Eric Peterson, Safety Risk Management 
Section, AIR-633, Policy and Innovation Division, Aircraft 
Certification Service, Federal Aviation Administration, 2200 South 
216th Street, Des Moines, Washington 98198; telephone and fax 206-231-
3413; email [email protected].

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

    On December 7, 2018, Pro Star Aviation applied for a supplemental 
type certificate to install a ``Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasure 
(LAIRCM)'' system, which directs infrared laser energy toward heat-
seeking missiles, on the Bombardier Model CL-600-2B16 airplane. This 
airplane, which is a derivative of the Bombardier Model CL-600 series 
airplanes currently approved under Type Certificate No. A21EA, is a 
twin-engine business jet with seating for 20 passengers and two 
crewmembers, and a maximum takeoff weight of 47,600 pounds.

Type Certification Basis

    Under the provisions of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 
CFR) 21.101, Pro Star Aviation must show that the Bombardier Model CL-
600-2B16 airplane, as changed, continues to meet the applicable 
provisions of the regulations listed in Type Certificate No. A21EA, or 
the applicable regulations in effect on the date of application for the 
change, except for earlier amendments as agreed upon by the FAA.
    If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness 
regulations (e.g., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or 
appropriate safety standards for the Bombardier Model CL-600-2B16 
airplane because of a novel or unusual design feature, special 
conditions are prescribed under the provisions of Sec.  21.16.
    Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which 
they are issued. Should the applicant apply for a supplemental type 
certificate to modify any other model included on the same type 
certificate to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, 
these special conditions would also apply to the other model under 
Sec.  21.101.
    In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special 
conditions, the Bombardier Model CL-600-2B16 airplane must comply with 
the fuel-vent and exhaust-emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34, and 
the noise-certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36.
    The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in 
accordance with Sec.  11.38, and they become part of the type 
certification basis under Sec.  21.101.

Novel or Unusual Design Features

    The Bombardier Model CL-600-2B16 airplane, as modified by Pro Star 
Aviation, will incorporate the following novel or unusual design 
feature:
    A system that emits infrared laser energy outside the aircraft.

Discussion

    In recent years, in several incidents abroad, civilian aircraft 
were fired upon by man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS). This has 
led several companies to design and adapt systems like LAIRCM for 
installation on civilian aircraft, to protect those aircraft against 
heat-seeking missiles. Pro Star Aviation's LAIRCM system directs 
infrared laser energy toward an incoming missile, in an effort to 
interrupt the missile's tracking of the aircraft's heat.
    Infrared laser energy can pose a hazard to persons on the aircraft, 
on the ground, and on other aircraft. The risk is heightened because 
infrared light is invisible to the human eye. Human exposure to 
infrared laser energy can result in eye and skin damage, and affect a 
flight crew's ability to control the aircraft. Infrared laser energy 
can also affect other aircraft, whether airborne or on the ground, and 
property, such as fuel trucks and airport equipment, in a manner that 
adversely affects aviation safety.
    FAA design standards for transport category airplanes did not 
envisage that a design feature could project infrared laser energy 
outside the airplane. The FAA's design standards are inadequate to 
address this capability. Therefore, this system is a novel or unusual 
design feature, and the FAA has developed these special conditions to 
establish a level of safety equivalent to that of the regulations.
    Special conditions are also warranted, per 14 CFR 21.16, because 
FAA design standards are inappropriate for this design feature. 14 CFR 
25.1301 requires installed equipment to be of a design that is 
appropriate for its intended function. The FAA has no basis to 
determine whether this LAIRCM system will successfully perform its 
intended function of thwarting heat-seeking missiles.
    Ground Activation. Condition 1 requires the design to have means to 
prevent inadvertent operation of the system while the airplane is on 
the ground, including during maintenance. These means must identify and 
address all foreseeable failure modes that may result in inadvertent 
operation. These modes include errors in airplane maintenance and 
operating procedures, such as erroneously setting the system to ``air'' 
mode while the airplane is on the ground. The applicant could show such 
failure modes, their risks, and how they will be addressed, by 
conducting safety assessments and incorporating prevention strategies 
into the design.
    In-Flight Activation. Condition 2 requires that the system be 
designed so that in-flight operation does not result in damage to the 
airplane or to other aircraft, or injury to any person. To account for 
these effects, the applicant's analysis should include effects from the 
system's erroneous operation, from system failures, and from failures 
that may not be readily detectable prior to

[[Page 46959]]

flight (i.e., latent failures). The applicant may address this 
condition through safety assessments and incorporation of prevention 
strategies into its design. The ``operation'' addressed by Condition 2 
includes all operation of the system, whether intentional, inadvertent, 
or automatic.
    Markings, instructions, and other information. Conditions 3, 4, and 
5 are intended to protect certain categories of persons based upon 
their expected interaction with the system. These conditions require 
the design to supply certain safety information to these persons.
    Condition 3 requires the design to provide pertinent laser-safety 
information to maintenance and service personnel at the location of the 
installation. At a minimum, such ``pertinent'' information will include 
information about potential hazards to persons who are using optical 
magnification devices, such as magnifying glasses or binoculars. The 
warning information should be consistent with the laser's 
classification in 21 CFR 1040.
    Condition 4 requires the airplane instructions for continued 
airworthiness to contain the appropriate warnings related to the 
laser's classification. Like the warning information to be provided at 
the location of the laser system's installation, the purpose of this 
condition is to ensure any person maintaining the system is aware of 
the hazards, including those related to the use of magnifying glasses 
or binoculars.
    Condition 5 requires the applicant to update the airplane operating 
limitations and information required under 14 CFR 25.1581. The airplane 
flight-manual supplement insert must describe the intended function of 
the LAIRCM system, its intended operation, and the phases of flight in 
which it may be used. The insert also must add a caution that describes 
the significant risk of injury the LAIRCM system poses to others while 
in proximity to other aircraft, airports, and populated areas.
    These special conditions contain the additional safety standards 
that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of 
safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness 
standards.
    These special conditions, and the corresponding supplemental type 
certificate for the installation of this system, do not constitute 
approval to operate the system. FAA Advisory Circular 70-1, ``Outdoor 
Laser Operations,'' provides guidance on obtaining operational 
approval.

Discussion of Comments

    The FAA issued Notice of Proposed Special Conditions No. 25-21-02-
SC for the Bombardier Model CL-600-2B16 airplane, as modified by Pro 
Star Aviation, which was published in the Federal Register on June 24, 
2021 (86 FR 33147). The FAA received one comment supporting the 
proposed special conditions as they apply to the installation of a 
LAIRCM system ``. . . on the specific model of aircraft.''

Applicability

    As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the 
Bombardier Model CL-600-2B16 airplane with the Pro Star Aviation LAIRCM 
system installed. Should Pro Star Aviation apply at a later date for a 
supplemental type certificate to modify any other model included on 
Type Certificate No. A21EA to incorporate the same novel or unusual 
design feature, these special conditions would apply to that model as 
well.

Conclusion

    This action affects only a certain novel or unusual design feature 
on one model of airplane. It is not a rule of general applicability and 
affects only the applicant.

List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25

    Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements.

Authority Citation

    The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:

    Authority:  49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 
44704.

The Special Conditions

    Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the 
Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of 
the type certification basis for the Bombardier Model CL-600-2B16 
airplane with the LAIRCM system, as modified by Pro Star Aviation.
    1. The system must have means that prevent the inadvertent 
activation of the system on the ground, including during airplane 
maintenance and ground handling. Such means must address all 
foreseeable failure modes and operating and maintenance errors.
    2. The system must be designed so that its operation in-flight does 
not result in damage to the airplane or other aircraft, or injury to 
any person. Operation of the system must not be capable of compromising 
continued safe flight and landing of other aircraft and the airplane on 
which it is installed, either by direct damage, laser-reflective 
damage, or through distraction or incapacitation of crew.
    3. Laser-safety information for maintaining or servicing the 
airplane must be prominently placarded on the airplane or LAIRCM system 
at the location of the laser installation.
    4. Instructions for continued airworthiness for installation, 
removal, and maintenance of the LAIRCM system must contain warnings 
appropriate to the laser classification concerning the hazards 
associated with exposure to laser radiation. This includes instructions 
regarding potential hazards to personnel who are using optical 
magnification devices such as magnifying glasses or binoculars.
    5. The airplane flight manual supplement (AFMS) must describe the 
intended functions of the installed laser systems, to include 
identifying the intended operations and phases of flight. The AFMS must 
state:
    CAUTION: The operation of the installed laser system could pose 
significant risk of injury to others while in proximity to other 
aircraft, airports, and populated areas.

    Issued in Washington, DC, on August 17, 2021.
Erik Brown,
Acting Manager, Systems Policy Branch, Policy and Innovation Division, 
Aircraft Certification Service.
[FR Doc. 2021-17979 Filed 8-20-21; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4910-13-P