Special Conditions: The Boeing Company Model 787 Series Airplane; Seats With Pretensioner Restraint Systems, 16037-16038 [2021-06028]

Download as PDF Federal Register / Vol. 86, No. 57 / Friday, March 26, 2021 / Rules and Regulations DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 [Docket No. FAA–2020–0720; Special Conditions No. 25–786–SC] Special Conditions: The Boeing Company Model 787 Series Airplane; Seats With Pretensioner Restraint Systems Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special conditions. AGENCY: These special conditions are issued for The Boeing Company (Boeing) Model 787 series airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature when compared to the state of technology envisioned in the airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes. This design feature is pretensioner restraint systems installed on passenger seats. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. DATES: Effective April 26, 2021. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shannon Lennon, Human-Machine Interface Section, AIR–626, Technical Innovation Policy Branch, Policy and Innovation Division, Aircraft Certification Service, Federal Aviation Administration, 2200 South 216th Street, Des Moines, Washington 98198; telephone and fax 206–231–3209; email shannon.lennon@faa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: SUMMARY: khammond on DSKJM1Z7X2PROD with RULES Background On November 8, 2018, Boeing applied for a change to Type Certificate No. T00021SE for pretensioner restraint systems installed on passenger seats in the Model 787 series airplane. This airplane is a twin-engine, transportcategory airplane with passenger seating capacity of 420 and a maximum takeoff weight of 557,000 pounds. Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 21.101, Boeing must show that the Model 787 series airplane, as changed, continues to meet the applicable provisions of the regulations listed in Type Certificate No. T00021SE or the applicable regulations in effect on the date of application for VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:24 Mar 25, 2021 Jkt 253001 the change, except for earlier amendments as agreed upon by the FAA. If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (e.g., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for Boeing Model 787 series airplane because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed under the provisions of § 21.16. Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended later to include any other model that incorporates the same novel or unusual design feature, or should any other model already included on the same type certificate be modified to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would also apply to the other model under § 21.101. In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special conditions, the Boeing Model 787 series airplane must comply with the fuel-vent and exhaust-emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34, and the noise certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36. The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in accordance with § 11.38, and they become part of the type certification basis under § 21.101. Novel or Unusual Design Features The Boeing Model 787 series airplane will incorporate the following novel or unusual design features: Forward-facing seats incorporating a shoulder harness with pretensioner device, otherwise known as a pretensioner restraint system, which is intended to protect the occupants from head injuries. Discussion Boeing will install, in the Model 787 series airplane, forward-facing seats that incorporate a shoulder harness with a pretensioner system at each seat place for head-injury protection. Shoulder harnesses have been widely used on flight-attendant seats, flightdeck seats, in business jets, and in general-aviation airplanes to reduce occupant head injury in the event of an emergency landing. Special conditions, pertinent regulations, and published guidance exist that relate to other restraint systems. However, the use of pretensioners in the restraint system on transport-airplane seats is a novel design. PO 00000 Frm 00011 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 16037 The pretensioner restraint system utilizes a retractor which eliminates slack in the shoulder harness and pulls the occupant back into the seat prior to impact. This has the effect of reducing forward translation of the occupant, reducing head arc, and reducing the loads in the shoulder harness. Pretensioner technology involves a step-change in loading experienced by the occupant for impacts below and above that at which the device deploys, because activation of the shoulder harness, at the point at which the pretensioner engages, interrupts uppertorso excursion. This could result in the head injury criteria (HIC) being higher at an intermediate impact condition than that resulting from the maximum impact condition corresponding to the test conditions specified in § 25.562. See condition 1 in these special conditions. The ideal triangular maximumseverity pulse is defined in Advisory Circular (AC) 25.562–1B, ‘‘Dynamic Evaluation of Seat Restraint Systems and Occupant Protection on Transport Airplanes.’’ For the evaluation and testing of less-severe pulses for purposes of assessing the effectiveness of the pretensioner setting, a similar triangular pulse should be used with acceleration, rise time, and velocity change scaled accordingly. The magnitude of the required pulse should not deviate below the ideal pulse by more than 0.5g until 1.33 t1 is reached, where t1 represents the time interval between 0 and t1 on the referenced pulse shape as shown in AC 25.562–1B. This is an acceptable method of compliance to the test requirements of the special conditions. Additionally, the pretensioner might not provide protection, after actuation, during secondary impacts. Therefore, the case where a small impact is followed by a large impact should be addressed. If the minimum deceleration severity at which the pretensioner is set to deploy is unnecessarily low, the protection offered by the pretensioner may be lost by the time a second, larger impact occurs. Conditions 1 through 4 ensure that the pretensioner system activates when intended, to provide the necessary protection of occupants. This includes protection of a range of occupants under various accident conditions. Conditions 5 through 10 address maintenance and reliability of the pretensioner system, including any outside influences on the mechanism, to ensure it functions as intended. E:\FR\FM\26MRR1.SGM 26MRR1 16038 Federal Register / Vol. 86, No. 57 / Friday, March 26, 2021 / Rules and Regulations The special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. Discussion of Comments The FAA issued Notice of Proposed Special Conditions No. 25–20–08–SC for the Boeing Model 787 series airplane, which was published in the Federal Register on October 30, 2020 (85 FR 68801). No comments were received, and the special conditions are adopted as proposed. Applicability As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the Boeing Model 787 series airplane. Should Boeing apply at a later date for a change to the type certificate to include another model incorporating the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would apply to that model as well. Conclusion This action affects only a certain novel or unusual design feature on one model series of airplane. It is not a rule of general applicability. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25 Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Authority Citation The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704. The Special Conditions D Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of the type certification basis for the Boeing Model 787 series airplane. In addition to the requirements of § 25.562, forward-facing passenger seats with pretensioner restraint systems must meet the following: khammond on DSKJM1Z7X2PROD with RULES 1. Head Injury Criteria (HIC) The HIC value must not exceed 1000 at any condition at which the pretensioner does or does not deploy, up to the maximum severity pulse that corresponds to the test conditions specified in § 25.562. Tests must be performed to demonstrate this, taking into account any necessary tolerances for deployment. When an airbag device is present in addition to the pretensioner restraint system, and the anthropomorphic test VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:24 Mar 25, 2021 Jkt 253001 device (ATD) has no apparent contact with the seat/structure but has contact with an airbag, a HIC unlimited scored in excess of 1000 is acceptable, provided the HIC15 score (calculated in accordance with 49 CFR 571.208) for that contact is less than 700. ATD head contact with the seat or other structure, through the airbag, or contact subsequent to contact with the airbag, requires a HIC value that does not exceed 1000. 2. Protection During Secondary Impacts The pretensioner activation setting must be demonstrated to maximize the probability of the protection being available when needed, considering secondary impacts. 3. Protection of Occupants Other Than 50th Percentile Protection of occupants for a range of stature from a 2-year-old child to a 95th percentile male must be shown. For shoulder harnesses that include pretensioners, protection of occupants other than a 50th percentile male may be shown by test or analysis. In addition, the pretensioner must not introduce a hazard to passengers due to the following seating configurations: a. The seat occupant is holding an infant. b. The seat occupant is a child in a child-restraint device. c. The seat occupant is a pregnant woman. 4. Occupants Adopting the Brace Position Occupants in the traditional brace position when the pretensioner activates must not experience adverse effects from the pretensioner activation. 6. Availability of the Pretensioner Function Prior to Flight The design must provide means for a crewmember to verify the availability of the pretensioner function prior to each flight, or the probability of failure of the pretensioner function must be demonstrated to be extremely remote (i.e., average probability per flight hour of less than 10¥7) between inspection intervals. 7. Incorrect Seat Belt Orientation The system design must ensure that any incorrect orientation (twisting) of the seat belt does not compromise the pretensioner protection function. 8. Contamination Protection The pretensioner mechanisms and controls must be protected from external contamination associated with that which could occur on or around passenger seating. 9. Prevention of Hazards The pretensioner system must not induce a hazard to passengers in case of fire, nor create a fire hazard, if activated. 10. Functionality After Loss of Power The system must function properly after loss of normal airplane electrical power, and after a transverse separation in the fuselage at the most critical location. A separation at the location of the system does not have to be considered. Issued in Kansas City, Missouri, on March 17, 2021. Patrick R. Mullen, Manager, Technical Innovation Policy Branch, Policy and Innovation Division, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2021–06028 Filed 3–25–21; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–13–P 5. Inadvertent Pretensioner Actuation a. The probability of inadvertent pretensioner actuation must be shown to be extremely remote (i.e., average probability per flight hour of less than 10¥7). b. The system must be shown to be not susceptible to inadvertent pretensioner actuation as a result of wear and tear, nor inertia loads resulting from in-flight or ground maneuvers likely to be experienced in service. c. The seated occupant must not be seriously injured as a result of inadvertent pretensioner actuation. d. Inadvertent pretensioner actuation must not cause a hazard to the airplane, nor cause serious injury to anyone who may be positioned close to the retractor or belt (e.g., seated in an adjacent seat or standing adjacent to the seat). PO 00000 Frm 00012 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA–2020–0846; Project Identifier MCAI–2020–00806–T; Amendment 39–21411; AD 2021–03–08] RIN 2120–AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus SAS Airplanes Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. AGENCY: The FAA is adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain SUMMARY: E:\FR\FM\26MRR1.SGM 26MRR1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 86, Number 57 (Friday, March 26, 2021)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 16037-16038]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2021-06028]



[[Page 16037]]

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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Part 25

[Docket No. FAA-2020-0720; Special Conditions No. 25-786-SC]


Special Conditions: The Boeing Company Model 787 Series Airplane; 
Seats With Pretensioner Restraint Systems

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION: Final special conditions.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for The Boeing Company 
(Boeing) Model 787 series airplane. This airplane will have a novel or 
unusual design feature when compared to the state of technology 
envisioned in the airworthiness standards for transport category 
airplanes. This design feature is pretensioner restraint systems 
installed on passenger seats. The applicable airworthiness regulations 
do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design 
feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety 
standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a 
level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing 
airworthiness standards.

DATES: Effective April 26, 2021.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shannon Lennon, Human-Machine 
Interface Section, AIR-626, Technical Innovation Policy Branch, Policy 
and Innovation Division, Aircraft Certification Service, Federal 
Aviation Administration, 2200 South 216th Street, Des Moines, 
Washington 98198; telephone and fax 206-231-3209; email 
[email protected].

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

    On November 8, 2018, Boeing applied for a change to Type 
Certificate No. T00021SE for pretensioner restraint systems installed 
on passenger seats in the Model 787 series airplane. This airplane is a 
twin-engine, transport-category airplane with passenger seating 
capacity of 420 and a maximum takeoff weight of 557,000 pounds.

Type Certification Basis

    Under the provisions of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 
CFR) 21.101, Boeing must show that the Model 787 series airplane, as 
changed, continues to meet the applicable provisions of the regulations 
listed in Type Certificate No. T00021SE or the applicable regulations 
in effect on the date of application for the change, except for earlier 
amendments as agreed upon by the FAA.
    If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness 
regulations (e.g., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or 
appropriate safety standards for Boeing Model 787 series airplane 
because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are 
prescribed under the provisions of Sec.  21.16.
    Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which 
they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended 
later to include any other model that incorporates the same novel or 
unusual design feature, or should any other model already included on 
the same type certificate be modified to incorporate the same novel or 
unusual design feature, these special conditions would also apply to 
the other model under Sec.  21.101.
    In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special 
conditions, the Boeing Model 787 series airplane must comply with the 
fuel-vent and exhaust-emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34, and the 
noise certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36.
    The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in 
accordance with Sec.  11.38, and they become part of the type 
certification basis under Sec.  21.101.

Novel or Unusual Design Features

    The Boeing Model 787 series airplane will incorporate the following 
novel or unusual design features:
    Forward-facing seats incorporating a shoulder harness with 
pretensioner device, otherwise known as a pretensioner restraint 
system, which is intended to protect the occupants from head injuries.

Discussion

    Boeing will install, in the Model 787 series airplane, forward-
facing seats that incorporate a shoulder harness with a pretensioner 
system at each seat place for head-injury protection.
    Shoulder harnesses have been widely used on flight-attendant seats, 
flight-deck seats, in business jets, and in general-aviation airplanes 
to reduce occupant head injury in the event of an emergency landing. 
Special conditions, pertinent regulations, and published guidance exist 
that relate to other restraint systems. However, the use of 
pretensioners in the restraint system on transport-airplane seats is a 
novel design.
    The pretensioner restraint system utilizes a retractor which 
eliminates slack in the shoulder harness and pulls the occupant back 
into the seat prior to impact. This has the effect of reducing forward 
translation of the occupant, reducing head arc, and reducing the loads 
in the shoulder harness.
    Pretensioner technology involves a step-change in loading 
experienced by the occupant for impacts below and above that at which 
the device deploys, because activation of the shoulder harness, at the 
point at which the pretensioner engages, interrupts upper-torso 
excursion. This could result in the head injury criteria (HIC) being 
higher at an intermediate impact condition than that resulting from the 
maximum impact condition corresponding to the test conditions specified 
in Sec.  25.562. See condition 1 in these special conditions.
    The ideal triangular maximum-severity pulse is defined in Advisory 
Circular (AC) 25.562-1B, ``Dynamic Evaluation of Seat Restraint Systems 
and Occupant Protection on Transport Airplanes.'' For the evaluation 
and testing of less-severe pulses for purposes of assessing the 
effectiveness of the pretensioner setting, a similar triangular pulse 
should be used with acceleration, rise time, and velocity change scaled 
accordingly. The magnitude of the required pulse should not deviate 
below the ideal pulse by more than 0.5g until 1.33 t1 is reached, where 
t1 represents the time interval between 0 and t1 on the referenced 
pulse shape as shown in AC 25.562-1B. This is an acceptable method of 
compliance to the test requirements of the special conditions.
    Additionally, the pretensioner might not provide protection, after 
actuation, during secondary impacts. Therefore, the case where a small 
impact is followed by a large impact should be addressed. If the 
minimum deceleration severity at which the pretensioner is set to 
deploy is unnecessarily low, the protection offered by the pretensioner 
may be lost by the time a second, larger impact occurs.
    Conditions 1 through 4 ensure that the pretensioner system 
activates when intended, to provide the necessary protection of 
occupants. This includes protection of a range of occupants under 
various accident conditions. Conditions 5 through 10 address 
maintenance and reliability of the pretensioner system, including any 
outside influences on the mechanism, to ensure it functions as 
intended.

[[Page 16038]]

    The special conditions contain the additional safety standards that 
the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety 
equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards.

Discussion of Comments

    The FAA issued Notice of Proposed Special Conditions No. 25-20-08-
SC for the Boeing Model 787 series airplane, which was published in the 
Federal Register on October 30, 2020 (85 FR 68801). No comments were 
received, and the special conditions are adopted as proposed.

Applicability

    As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the 
Boeing Model 787 series airplane. Should Boeing apply at a later date 
for a change to the type certificate to include another model 
incorporating the same novel or unusual design feature, these special 
conditions would apply to that model as well.

Conclusion

    This action affects only a certain novel or unusual design feature 
on one model series of airplane. It is not a rule of general 
applicability.

List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25

    Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements.

Authority Citation

    The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704.

The Special Conditions

[ssquf] Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the 
Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of 
the type certification basis for the Boeing Model 787 series airplane.
    In addition to the requirements of Sec.  25.562, forward-facing 
passenger seats with pretensioner restraint systems must meet the 
following:

1. Head Injury Criteria (HIC)

    The HIC value must not exceed 1000 at any condition at which the 
pretensioner does or does not deploy, up to the maximum severity pulse 
that corresponds to the test conditions specified in Sec.  25.562. 
Tests must be performed to demonstrate this, taking into account any 
necessary tolerances for deployment.
    When an airbag device is present in addition to the pretensioner 
restraint system, and the anthropomorphic test device (ATD) has no 
apparent contact with the seat/structure but has contact with an 
airbag, a HIC unlimited scored in excess of 1000 is acceptable, 
provided the HIC15 score (calculated in accordance with 49 CFR 571.208) 
for that contact is less than 700.
    ATD head contact with the seat or other structure, through the 
airbag, or contact subsequent to contact with the airbag, requires a 
HIC value that does not exceed 1000.

2. Protection During Secondary Impacts

    The pretensioner activation setting must be demonstrated to 
maximize the probability of the protection being available when needed, 
considering secondary impacts.

3. Protection of Occupants Other Than 50th Percentile

    Protection of occupants for a range of stature from a 2-year-old 
child to a 95th percentile male must be shown. For shoulder harnesses 
that include pretensioners, protection of occupants other than a 50th 
percentile male may be shown by test or analysis. In addition, the 
pretensioner must not introduce a hazard to passengers due to the 
following seating configurations:
    a. The seat occupant is holding an infant.
    b. The seat occupant is a child in a child-restraint device.
    c. The seat occupant is a pregnant woman.

4. Occupants Adopting the Brace Position

    Occupants in the traditional brace position when the pretensioner 
activates must not experience adverse effects from the pretensioner 
activation.

5. Inadvertent Pretensioner Actuation

    a. The probability of inadvertent pretensioner actuation must be 
shown to be extremely remote (i.e., average probability per flight hour 
of less than 10-7).
    b. The system must be shown to be not susceptible to inadvertent 
pretensioner actuation as a result of wear and tear, nor inertia loads 
resulting from in-flight or ground maneuvers likely to be experienced 
in service.
    c. The seated occupant must not be seriously injured as a result of 
inadvertent pretensioner actuation.
    d. Inadvertent pretensioner actuation must not cause a hazard to 
the airplane, nor cause serious injury to anyone who may be positioned 
close to the retractor or belt (e.g., seated in an adjacent seat or 
standing adjacent to the seat).

6. Availability of the Pretensioner Function Prior to Flight

    The design must provide means for a crewmember to verify the 
availability of the pretensioner function prior to each flight, or the 
probability of failure of the pretensioner function must be 
demonstrated to be extremely remote (i.e., average probability per 
flight hour of less than 10-7) between inspection intervals.

7. Incorrect Seat Belt Orientation

    The system design must ensure that any incorrect orientation 
(twisting) of the seat belt does not compromise the pretensioner 
protection function.

8. Contamination Protection

    The pretensioner mechanisms and controls must be protected from 
external contamination associated with that which could occur on or 
around passenger seating.

9. Prevention of Hazards

    The pretensioner system must not induce a hazard to passengers in 
case of fire, nor create a fire hazard, if activated.

10. Functionality After Loss of Power

    The system must function properly after loss of normal airplane 
electrical power, and after a transverse separation in the fuselage at 
the most critical location. A separation at the location of the system 
does not have to be considered.

    Issued in Kansas City, Missouri, on March 17, 2021.
Patrick R. Mullen,
Manager, Technical Innovation Policy Branch, Policy and Innovation 
Division, Aircraft Certification Service.
[FR Doc. 2021-06028 Filed 3-25-21; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4910-13-P