Fluridone; Pesticide Tolerances, 29633-29637 [2020-08963]

Download as PDF Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 96 / Monday, May 18, 2020 / Rules and Regulations the tolerance exemption in this action, do not require the issuance of a proposed rule, the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) do not apply. This action directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food retailers, not States or Tribes. As a result, this action does not alter the relationships or distribution of power and responsibilities established by Congress in the preemption provisions of FFDCA section 408(n)(4). As such, EPA determined that this action will not have a substantial direct effect on States or Tribal Governments, on the relationship between the National Government and the States or Tribal Governments, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government or between the Federal Government and Indian Tribes. Thus, EPA determined that Executive Order 13132, entitled ‘‘Federalism’’ (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999), and Executive Order 13175, entitled ‘‘Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments’’ (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000), do not apply to this action. In addition, this action does not impose any enforceable duty or contain any unfunded mandate as described under Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.). This action does not involve any technical standards that would require EPA’s consideration of voluntary consensus standards pursuant to section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (15 U.S.C. 272 note). V. Congressional Review Act (CRA) Under the CRA (5 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), EPA will submit a rule report to the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives, and the Comptroller General of the United States prior to publication of the rule in the Federal Register. This action is not a ‘‘major rule’’ as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 180 Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES Dated: April 2, 2020. Richard Keigwin, Director, Office of Pesticide Programs. Therefore, 40 CFR chapter I is amended as follows: PART 180—[AMENDED] 1. The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as follows: ■ VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:02 May 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 Authority: 21 U.S.C. 321(q), 346a and 371. 2. Add § 180.1375 to subpart D to read as follows: ■ § 180.1375 Methyl mercaptan; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of methyl mercaptan are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all food commodities, when methyl mercaptan is used as a gopher repellent in irrigation lines in accordance with label directions and good agricultural practices. [FR Doc. 2020–08964 Filed 5–15–20; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6560–50–P ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA–HQ–OPP–2019–0074; FRL–10007–09] Fluridone; Pesticide Tolerances Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. AGENCY: This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of fluridone in or on avocados, mandarins, pomegranates, pistachios, and the stone fruit group (crop group 12). SePRO Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective May 18, 2020. Objections and requests for hearings must be received on or before July 17, 2020, and must be filed in accordance with the instructions provided in 40 CFR part 178 (see also Unit I.C. of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION). ADDRESSES: The docket for this action, identified by docket identification (ID) number EPA–HQ–OPP–2019–0074, is available at http://www.regulations.gov or at the Office of Pesticide Programs Regulatory Public Docket (OPP Docket) in the Environmental Protection Agency Docket Center (EPA/DC), West William Jefferson Clinton Bldg., Rm. 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20460–0001. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566–1744, and the telephone number for the OPP Docket is (703) 305–5805. Please review the visitor instructions and additional information about the docket available at http://www.epa.gov/dockets. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Goodis, Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs, SUMMARY: PO 00000 Frm 00041 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 29633 Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20460–0001; main telephone number: (703) 305–7090; email address: RDFRNotices@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. General Information A. Does this action apply to me? You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine whether this document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: • Crop production (NAICS code 111). • Animal production (NAICS code 112). • Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). • Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). B. How can I get electronic access to other related information? You may access a frequently updated electronic version of EPA’s tolerance regulations at 40 CFR part 180 through the Government Publishing Office’s e-CFR site at http://www.ecfr.gov/cgibin/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/ Title40/40tab_02.tpl. C. How can I file an objection or hearing request? Under FFDCA section 408(g), 21 U.S.C. 346a, any person may file an objection to any aspect of this regulation and may also request a hearing on those objections. You must file your objection or request a hearing on this regulation in accordance with the instructions provided in 40 CFR part 178. To ensure proper receipt by EPA, you must identify docket ID number EPA–HQ– OPP–2019–0074 in the subject line on the first page of your submission. All objections and requests for a hearing must be in writing, and must be received by the Hearing Clerk on or before July 17, 2020. Addresses for mail and hand delivery of objections and hearing requests are provided in 40 CFR 178.25(b). In addition to filing an objection or hearing request with the Hearing Clerk as described in 40 CFR part 178, please submit a copy of the filing (excluding any Confidential Business Information (CBI)) for inclusion in the public docket. Information not marked confidential pursuant to 40 CFR part 2 may be disclosed publicly by EPA without prior E:\FR\FM\18MYR1.SGM 18MYR1 29634 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 96 / Monday, May 18, 2020 / Rules and Regulations notice. Submit the non-CBI copy of your objection or hearing request, identified by docket ID number EPA–HQ–OPP– 2019–0074, by one of the following methods: • Federal eRulemaking Portal: http:// www.regulations.gov. Follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Do not submit electronically any information you consider to be CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. • Mail: OPP Docket, Environmental Protection Agency Docket Center (EPA/ DC), (28221T), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20460–0001. • Hand Delivery: To make special arrangements for hand delivery or delivery of boxed information, please follow the instructions at http:// www.epa.gov/dockets/contacts.html. Additional instructions on commenting or visiting the docket, along with more information about dockets generally, is available at http://www.epa.gov/ dockets. II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of February 11, 2020 (85 FR 7708) (FRL–10005–02), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3), 21 U.S.C. 346a(d)(3), announcing the filing of a pesticide petition (PP 8F8710) by SePRO Corporation, 11550 North Meridian Street, Suite 600, Carmel, IN 46032. The petition requested that 40 CFR part 180 be amended by establishing tolerances for residues of the herbicide fluridone in or on avocados, mandarins, pomegranates, pistachios, and the stone fruit group (crop group 12) at 0.1 parts per million (ppm). That document referenced a summary of the petition prepared by SePRO Corporation, the registrant, which is available in the docket, http:// www.regulations.gov. There were no comments received in response to the notice of filing. Based upon review of the data supporting the petition, EPA is establishing the requested tolerances with slight variations to reflect the correct commodity definitions. jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES III. Aggregate Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety Section 408(b)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is ‘‘safe.’’ Section 408(b)(2)(A)(ii) of FFDCA defines ‘‘safe’’ to mean that ‘‘there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:02 May 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable information.’’ This includes exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. Section 408(b)(2)(C) of FFDCA requires EPA to give special consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to ‘‘ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue. . . .’’ Consistent with FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), and the factors specified in FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), EPA has reviewed the available scientific data and other relevant information in support of this action. EPA has sufficient data to assess the hazards of and to make a determination on aggregate exposure for fluridone including exposure resulting from the tolerances established by this action. EPA’s assessment of exposures and risks associated with fluridone follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and considered its validity, completeness, and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also considered available information concerning the variability of the sensitivities of major identifiable subgroups of consumers, including infants and children. The liver and kidneys were identified as the primary target organs based on a multitude of organ specific effects noted across the toxicity database. All model species exhibited indications of liver toxicity that were often accompanied by body weight effects. No signs of neurotoxicity were identified in the rest of the toxicity database. Toxicity from repeated dose dermal exposures was limited to irritation effects on the skin (erythema, desquamation, epidermal fissures). No evidence of immunotoxicity, mutagenicity, or carcinogenicity were noted in the toxicity database. Fluridone did not demonstrate mutagenic behavior either in vitro or in vivo nor did exposure result in an increased incidence of tumors. The EPA concluded that fluridone should be classified as ‘‘not likely’’ to be a human carcinogen. Specific information on the studies received and the nature of the adverse effects caused by fluridone as well as the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and the lowest-observedadverse-effect-level (LOAEL) from the PO 00000 Frm 00042 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 toxicity studies can be found at http:// www.regulations.gov in document Fluridone. Human Health Risk Assessment for the Section 3 Registration on: Avocado, Mandarin (Tangerine), Pistachio, Pomegranate, and Stone Fruit (Crop Group 12–12) in docket ID number EPA–HQ–OPP–2019– 0074. B. Toxicological Points of Departure/ Levels of Concern Once a pesticide’s toxicological profile is determined, EPA identifies toxicological points of departure (POD) and levels of concern to use in evaluating the risk posed by human exposure to the pesticide. For hazards that have a threshold below which there is no appreciable risk, the toxicological POD is used as the basis for derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are developed based on a careful analysis of the doses in each toxicological study to determine the dose at which no adverse effects are observed (the NOAEL) and the lowest dose at which adverse effects of concern are identified (the LOAEL). Uncertainty/ safety factors are used in conjunction with the POD to calculate a safe exposure level—generally referred to as a population-adjusted dose (PAD) or a reference dose (RfD)—and a safe margin of exposure (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the Agency assumes that any amount of exposure will lead to some degree of risk. Thus, the Agency estimates risk in terms of the probability of an occurrence of the adverse effect expected in a lifetime. For more information on the general principles EPA uses in risk characterization and a complete description of the risk assessment process, see http:// www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/ riskassess.htm. A summary of the toxicological endpoints for fluridone used for human risk assessment is discussed in Unit III.B. of the final rule published in the Federal Register of February 17, 2016 (81 FR 7982) (FRL–9941–69). C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to fluridone, EPA considered exposure under the petitioned-for tolerances as well as all existing fluridone tolerances in 40 CFR 180. EPA assessed dietary exposures from fluridone in food as follows: i. Acute exposure. Quantitative acute dietary exposure and risk assessments are performed for a food-use pesticide, if a toxicological study has indicated the possibility of an effect of concern occurring as a result of a 1-day or single E:\FR\FM\18MYR1.SGM 18MYR1 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 96 / Monday, May 18, 2020 / Rules and Regulations exposure. Such effects were identified for fluridone. In estimating acute dietary exposure, EPA used food consumption information from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat in America, (NHANES/WWEIA). This dietary survey was conducted from 2003 to 2008. 100 percent crop treated (PCT), tolerance-level residues, and default processing factors were assumed for this assessment. ii. Chronic exposure. In conducting the chronic dietary exposure assessment EPA used the food consumption data from the USDA NHANES/WWEIA. This dietary survey was conducted from 2003 to 2008. 100 PCT, tolerance-level residues, and default processing factors were assumed. iii. Cancer. Based on the data summarized in Unit III.A., EPA has concluded that fluridone does not pose a cancer risk to humans. Therefore, a dietary exposure assessment for the purpose of assessing cancer risk is unnecessary. iv. Anticipated residue and percent crop treated (PCT) information. EPA did not use anticipated residue and/or PCT information in the dietary assessment for fluridone. Tolerance-level residues and/or 100% CT were assumed for all food commodities. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening level water exposure models in the dietary exposure analysis and risk assessment for fluridone in drinking water. These simulation models take into account data on the physical, chemical, and fate/ transport characteristics of fluridone. Further information regarding EPA drinking water models used in pesticide exposure assessment can be found at http://www2.epa.gov/pesticide-scienceand-assessing-pesticide-risks/aboutwater-exposure-models-used-pesticide. Based on the Tier 1 Rice Model v2.0, the estimated drinking water concentrations (EDWCs) of fluridone for acute exposures are estimated to be 150 parts per billion (ppb) for surface water and 45 ppb for ground water. For chronic exposures for non-cancer assessments are estimated to be 107 ppb for surface water and 43 ppb for ground water. Modeled estimates of drinking water concentrations were directly entered into the dietary exposure model. For acute dietary risk assessment, the water concentration value of 150 ppb was used to assess the contribution to drinking water. For chronic dietary risk assessment, the water concentration of value 107 ppb was used to assess the contribution to drinking water. VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:02 May 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 3. From non-dietary exposure. The term ‘‘residential exposure’’ is used in this document to refer to nonoccupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Fluridone is currently registered for the following uses that could result in residential exposures: From use on ponds (including a homeowner use), lakes, reservoirs, and rivers. EPA assessed residential exposure using the following assumptions: Adult applicators may be exposed (dermal and inhalation) while applying the pesticide to residential ponds. Residential handler exposure is expected to be short-term in duration only. Intermediate-term and chronic exposures are not likely because of the intermittent nature of applications by homeowners. There is also potential for residential post-application exposure (dermal, inhalation and incidental ingestion) for adults and children (3 to <6 years old) swimming in treated water. Residential post-application exposure is expected to be short-term in duration only. Further information regarding EPA standard assumptions and generic inputs for residential exposures may be found at http:// www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science/ trac6a05.pdf. 4. Cumulative effects from substances with a common mechanism of toxicity. Section 408(b)(2)(D)(v) of FFDCA requires that, when considering whether to establish, modify, or revoke a tolerance, the Agency consider ‘‘available information’’ concerning the cumulative effects of a particular pesticide’s residues and ‘‘other substances that have a common mechanism of toxicity.’’ EPA has not found fluridone to share a common mechanism of toxicity with any other substances, and fluridone does not appear to produce a toxic metabolite produced by other substances. For the purposes of this tolerance action, therefore, EPA has assumed that fluridone does not have a common mechanism of toxicity with other substances. For information regarding EPA’s efforts to determine which chemicals have a common mechanism of toxicity and to evaluate the cumulative effects of such chemicals, see EPA’s website at http:// www.epa.gov/pesticides/cumulative. D. Safety Factor for Infants and Children 1. In general. Section 408(b)(2)(C) of FFDCA provides that EPA shall apply an additional tenfold (10X) margin of safety for infants and children in the PO 00000 Frm 00043 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 29635 case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on toxicity and exposure unless EPA determines based on reliable data that a different margin of safety will be safe for infants and children. This additional margin of safety is commonly referred to as the FQPA Safety Factor (SF). In applying this provision, EPA either retains the default value of 10X, or uses a different additional safety factor when reliable data available to EPA support the choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. There was no evidence of qualitative susceptibility in fetuses in the rat and rabbit developmental study. Equivocal susceptibility was observed in the young from the F2 population in the reproductive study during the lactation phase (based decreased body weight); however, body weight of the F2 offspring returned to control levels after the lactation period and no evidence of susceptibility was observed in the F3 offspring. 3. Conclusion. EPA has determined that reliable data show the safety of infants and children would be adequately protected if the FQPA SF were reduced to 1X. More information on that decision can be found at http:// www.regulations.gov in document Fluridone. Human Health Risk Assessment for the Section 3 Registration on: Avocado, Mandarin (Tangerine), Pistachio, Pomegranate, and Stone Fruit (Crop Group 12–12) in docket ID number EPA–HQ–OPP–2019– 0074. E. Aggregate Risks and Determination of Safety EPA determines whether acute and chronic dietary pesticide exposures are safe by comparing aggregate exposure estimates to the acute PAD (aPAD) and chronic PAD (cPAD). For linear cancer risks, EPA calculates the lifetime probability of acquiring cancer given the estimated aggregate exposure. Short-, intermediate-, and chronic-term risks are evaluated by comparing the estimated aggregate food, water, and residential exposure to the appropriate PODs to ensure that an adequate MOE exists. 1. Acute risk. Using the exposure assumptions discussed in this unit for acute exposure, the acute dietary exposure from food and water to fluridone will occupy 2.3% of the aPAD for all infants (<1-year-old), the population group receiving the greatest exposure. 2. Chronic risk. Using the exposure assumptions described in this unit for chronic exposure, EPA has concluded E:\FR\FM\18MYR1.SGM 18MYR1 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES 29636 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 96 / Monday, May 18, 2020 / Rules and Regulations that chronic exposure to fluridone from food and water will utilize 7% of the cPAD for children aged 1 to 2 the population group receiving the greatest exposure. Based on the explanation in Unit III.C.3., regarding residential use patterns, chronic residential exposure to residues of fluridone is not expected. 3. Short-term risk. Short-term aggregate exposure takes into account short-term residential exposure plus chronic exposure to food and water (considered to be a background exposure level). Fluridone is currently registered for uses that could result in short-term residential exposure, and the Agency has determined that it is appropriate to aggregate chronic exposure through food and water with short-term residential exposures to fluridone. Using the exposure assumptions described in this unit for short-term exposures, EPA has concluded the combined short-term food, water, and residential exposures result in aggregate MOEs of 1,300 for adults and 1,600 for children. Because EPA’s level of concern for fluridone is a MOE of 100 or below, these MOEs are not of concern. 4. Intermediate-term risk. Intermediate-term aggregate exposure takes into account intermediate-term residential exposure plus chronic exposure to food and water (considered to be a background exposure level). An intermediate-term adverse effect was identified; however, fluridone is not registered for any use patterns that would result in intermediate-term residential exposure. Intermediate-term risk is assessed based on intermediateterm residential exposure plus chronic dietary exposure. Because there is no intermediate-term residential exposure and chronic dietary exposure has already been assessed under the appropriately protective cPAD (which is at least as protective as the POD used to assess intermediate-term risk), no further assessment of intermediate-term risk is necessary, and EPA relies on the chronic dietary risk assessment for evaluating intermediate-term risk for fluridone. 5. Aggregate cancer risk for U.S. population. Based on the lack of evidence of carcinogenicity in two adequate rodent carcinogenicity studies, fluridone is not expected to pose a cancer risk to humans. 6. Determination of safety. Based on these risk assessments, EPA concludes that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to the general population, or to infants and children from aggregate exposure to fluridone residues. VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:02 May 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 IV. Other Considerations A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology Adequate enforcement methodology (high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method (originally submitted as method AM– AA–CA–RO52–AA–755)) is available to enforce the tolerance expression. B. International Residue Limits In making its tolerance decisions, EPA seeks to harmonize U.S. tolerances with international standards whenever possible, consistent with U.S. food safety standards and agricultural practices. EPA considers the international maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), as required by FFDCA section 408(b)(4). The Codex Alimentarius is a joint United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization food standards program, and it is recognized as an international food safety standards-setting organization in trade agreements to which the United States is a party. EPA may establish a tolerance that is different from a Codex MRL; however, FFDCA section 408(b)(4) requires that EPA explain the reasons for departing from the Codex level. The Codex has not established a MRL for fluridone. V. Conclusion Therefore, tolerances are established for residues of fluridone, in or on avocado, tangerine, pomegranate, pistachio, and the fruit, stone, group 12– 12 at 0.1 ppm. VI. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews This action establishes tolerances under FFDCA section 408(d) in response to a petition submitted to the Agency. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted these types of actions from review under Executive Order 12866, entitled ‘‘Regulatory Planning and Review’’ (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this action has been exempted from review under Executive Order 12866, this action is not subject to Executive Order 13211, entitled ‘‘Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use’’ (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001) or Executive Order 13045, entitled ‘‘Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks’’ (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997), nor is it considered a regulatory action under Executive Order 13771, entitled ‘‘Reducing Regulations and Controlling Regulatory Costs’’ (82 PO 00000 Frm 00044 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 FR 9339, February 3, 2017). This action does not contain any information collections subject to OMB approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), nor does it require any special considerations under Executive Order 12898, entitled ‘‘Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations’’ (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994). Since tolerances and exemptions that are established on the basis of a petition under FFDCA section 408(d), such as the tolerance in this final rule, do not require the issuance of a proposed rule, the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), do not apply. This action directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food retailers, not States or Tribes, nor does this action alter the relationships or distribution of power and responsibilities established by Congress in the preemption provisions of FFDCA section 408(n)(4). As such, the Agency has determined that this action will not have a substantial direct effect on States or Tribal Governments, on the relationship between the National Government and the States or Tribal Governments, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government or between the Federal Government and Indian Tribes. Thus, the Agency has determined that Executive Order 13132, entitled ‘‘Federalism’’ (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999) and Executive Order 13175, entitled ‘‘Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments’’ (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000) do not apply to this action. In addition, this action does not impose any enforceable duty or contain any unfunded mandate as described under Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) (2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.). This action does not involve any technical standards that would require Agency consideration of voluntary consensus standards pursuant to section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA) (15 U.S.C. 272 note). VII. Congressional Review Act Pursuant to the Congressional Review Act (5 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), EPA will submit a report containing this rule and other required information to the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives, and the Comptroller General of the United States prior to publication of the rule in the Federal E:\FR\FM\18MYR1.SGM 18MYR1 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 96 / Monday, May 18, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Register. This action is not a ‘‘major rule’’ as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2). This notification is to inform the public that the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is exercising List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 180 its discretion in how it applies the Environmental protection, Privacy, Security, and Breach Administrative practice and procedure, Notification Rules under the Health Agricultural commodities, Pesticides Insurance Portability and and pests, Reporting and recordkeeping Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). As requirements. a matter of enforcement discretion, the HHS Office for Civil Rights (OCR) will Dated: April 13, 2020. not impose penalties for noncompliance Michael Goodis, with the regulatory requirements under Director, Registration Division, Office of the HIPAA Rules against covered health Pesticide Programs. care providers or their business Therefore, 40 CFR chapter I is associates in connection with the good amended as follows: faith participation in the operation of a COVID–19 Community-Based Testing PART 180—[AMENDED] Site (CBTS) during the COVID–19 nationwide public health emergency. ■ 1. The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as follows: DATES: The notification of enforcement discretion was effective on April 9, Authority: 21 U.S.C. 321(q), 346a and 371. 2020, and had a retroactive effect to ■ 2. Amend § 180.420 by: March 13, 2020, and will remain in ■ a. Adding alphabetically entries for ‘‘Avocado’’; ‘‘Fruit, stone, group 12–12’’; effect until the Secretary of HHS declares that the public health ‘‘Pistachio’’; ‘‘Pomegranate’’; and emergency no longer exists, or upon the ‘‘Tangerine’’ in the table in paragraph expiration date of the declared public (a)(2); and health emergency, including any ■ b. Removing the entries ‘‘Avocado’’; and ‘‘Fruit, stone, group 12’’ in the table extensions, (as determined by 42 U.S.C. 247d),1 whichever occurs first. in paragraph (d). The additions read as follows: FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rachel Seeger at (202) 619–0403 or (800) § 180.420 Fluridone; tolerances for 537–7697 (TDD). residues. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: HHS is (a) * * * informing the public that it is exercising (2) * * * its discretion in how it applies the Privacy, Security, and Breach Parts per Commodity Notification Rules under the Health million Insurance Portability and Avocado ................................ 0.1 Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) 2 during the nationwide public health * * * * * emergency declared by the Secretary of Fruit, stone, group 12–12 ..... 0.1 HHS.3 * * * Pistachio ............................... Pomegranate ........................ * * * * Tangerine .............................. * * * * * SUMMARY: * 0.1 0.1 * * BILLING CODE 6560–50–P DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES 45 CFR Parts 160 and 164 Enforcement Discretion Regarding COVID–19 Community-Based Testing Sites (CBTS) During the COVID–19 Nationwide Public Health Emergency Office of the Secretary, HHS. Notification of enforcement discretion. AGENCY: ACTION: 16:02 May 15, 2020 The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is responsible 0.1 [FR Doc. 2020–08963 Filed 5–15–20; 8:45 am] VerDate Sep<11>2014 I. Background Jkt 250001 1 Public Health Emergency Declaration issued by HHS Secretary, pursuant to Section 319 of the Public Health Service Act, on January 31, 2020, with retroactive effective date of January 27, 2020. For more information, see https://www.phe.gov/ emergency/news/healthactions/phe/Pages/2019nCoV.aspx. 2 Due to the public health emergency posed by COVID–19, the HHS Office for Civil Rights (OCR) is exercising its enforcement discretion under the conditions outlined herein. We believe that this guidance is a statement of agency policy not subject to the notice and comment requirements of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(3)(A). OCR additionally finds that, even if this guidance were subject to the public participation provisions of the APA, prior notice and comment for this guidance is impracticable, and there is good cause to issue this guidance without prior public comment and without a delayed effective date. 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(3)(B) & (d)(3). 3 https://www.phe.gov/emergency/news/ healthactions/phe/Pages/2019-nCoV.aspx. PO 00000 Frm 00045 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 29637 for enforcing certain regulations issued under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, to protect the privacy and security of protected health information (PHI), namely the HIPAA Privacy, Security, and Breach Notification Rules (HIPAA Rules). During the COVID–19 national emergency,4 which also constitutes a nationwide public health emergency,5 certain covered health care providers, including some large pharmacy chains, and their business associates may choose to participate in the operation of COVID–19 specimen collection and testing sites (Community-Based Testing Sites, or CBTS). For purposes of this notification, a CBTS includes mobile, drive-through, or walk-up sites that only provide COVID–19 specimen collection or testing services to the public. OCR will exercise its enforcement discretion and will not impose penalties for noncompliance with regulatory requirements under the HIPAA Rules against covered health care providers and their business associates in connection with the good faith participation in the operation of a CBTS during the COVID–19 nationwide public health emergency as described below. II. Who/what is covered by this notification? This notification applies to all HIPAA covered health care providers and their business associates when such entities are, in good faith, participating in the operation of a CBTS. The operation of a CBTS includes all activities that support the collection of specimens from individuals for COVID–19 testing. III. Covered Health Care Providers and Their Business Associates Should Implement Reasonable Safeguards OCR encourages covered health care providers participating in the good faith operation of a CBTS to implement reasonable safeguards to protect the privacy and security of individuals’ PHI. Reasonable safeguards include the following: • Using and disclosing only the minimum PHI necessary except when disclosing PHI for treatment. 4 Presidential Proclamation on Declaring a National Emergency Concerning the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID–19) Outbreak (Mar 13, 2020), available at https://www.whitehouse.gov/ presidential-actions/proclamation-declaringnational-emergency-concerning-novel-coronavirusdisease-covid-19-outbreak/. 5 Secretary of HHS Alex M. Azar, Determination that a Public Health Emergency Exists (Jan. 31, 2020), available at https://www.phe.gov/emergency/ news/healthactions/phe/Pages/2019-nCoV.aspx. E:\FR\FM\18MYR1.SGM 18MYR1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 85, Number 96 (Monday, May 18, 2020)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 29633-29637]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2020-08963]


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 180

[EPA-HQ-OPP-2019-0074; FRL-10007-09]


Fluridone; Pesticide Tolerances

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Final rule.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of 
fluridone in or on avocados, mandarins, pomegranates, pistachios, and 
the stone fruit group (crop group 12). SePRO Corporation requested 
these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act 
(FFDCA).

DATES: This regulation is effective May 18, 2020. Objections and 
requests for hearings must be received on or before July 17, 2020, and 
must be filed in accordance with the instructions provided in 40 CFR 
part 178 (see also Unit I.C. of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION).

ADDRESSES: The docket for this action, identified by docket 
identification (ID) number EPA-HQ-OPP-2019-0074, is available at http://www.regulations.gov or at the Office of Pesticide Programs Regulatory 
Public Docket (OPP Docket) in the Environmental Protection Agency 
Docket Center (EPA/DC), West William Jefferson Clinton Bldg., Rm. 3334, 
1301 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20460-0001. The Public 
Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through 
Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public 
Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the OPP 
Docket is (703) 305-5805. Please review the visitor instructions and 
additional information about the docket available at http://www.epa.gov/dockets.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Goodis, Registration Division 
(7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 
1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20460-0001; main telephone 
number: (703) 305-7090; email address: [email protected].

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 

I. General Information

A. Does this action apply to me?

    You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an 
agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. 
The following list of North American Industrial Classification System 
(NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a 
guide to help readers determine whether this document applies to them. 
Potentially affected entities may include:

     Crop production (NAICS code 111).
     Animal production (NAICS code 112).
     Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311).
     Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532).

B. How can I get electronic access to other related information?

    You may access a frequently updated electronic version of EPA's 
tolerance regulations at 40 CFR part 180 through the Government 
Publishing Office's e-CFR site at http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40tab_02.tpl.

C. How can I file an objection or hearing request?

    Under FFDCA section 408(g), 21 U.S.C. 346a, any person may file an 
objection to any aspect of this regulation and may also request a 
hearing on those objections. You must file your objection or request a 
hearing on this regulation in accordance with the instructions provided 
in 40 CFR part 178. To ensure proper receipt by EPA, you must identify 
docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2019-0074 in the subject line on the first 
page of your submission. All objections and requests for a hearing must 
be in writing, and must be received by the Hearing Clerk on or before 
July 17, 2020. Addresses for mail and hand delivery of objections and 
hearing requests are provided in 40 CFR 178.25(b).
    In addition to filing an objection or hearing request with the 
Hearing Clerk as described in 40 CFR part 178, please submit a copy of 
the filing (excluding any Confidential Business Information (CBI)) for 
inclusion in the public docket. Information not marked confidential 
pursuant to 40 CFR part 2 may be disclosed publicly by EPA without 
prior

[[Page 29634]]

notice. Submit the non-CBI copy of your objection or hearing request, 
identified by docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2019-0074, by one of the 
following methods:

     Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. 
Follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Do not submit 
electronically any information you consider to be CBI or other 
information whose disclosure is restricted by statute.
     Mail: OPP Docket, Environmental Protection Agency Docket 
Center (EPA/DC), (28221T), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 
20460-0001.
     Hand Delivery: To make special arrangements for hand 
delivery or delivery of boxed information, please follow the 
instructions at http://www.epa.gov/dockets/contacts.html. Additional 
instructions on commenting or visiting the docket, along with more 
information about dockets generally, is available at http://www.epa.gov/dockets.

II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance

    In the Federal Register of February 11, 2020 (85 FR 7708) (FRL-
10005-02), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3), 
21 U.S.C. 346a(d)(3), announcing the filing of a pesticide petition (PP 
8F8710) by SePRO Corporation, 11550 North Meridian Street, Suite 600, 
Carmel, IN 46032. The petition requested that 40 CFR part 180 be 
amended by establishing tolerances for residues of the herbicide 
fluridone in or on avocados, mandarins, pomegranates, pistachios, and 
the stone fruit group (crop group 12) at 0.1 parts per million (ppm). 
That document referenced a summary of the petition prepared by SePRO 
Corporation, the registrant, which is available in the docket, http://www.regulations.gov. There were no comments received in response to the 
notice of filing.
    Based upon review of the data supporting the petition, EPA is 
establishing the requested tolerances with slight variations to reflect 
the correct commodity definitions.

III. Aggregate Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety

    Section 408(b)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a 
tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a 
food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is ``safe.'' Section 
408(b)(2)(A)(ii) of FFDCA defines ``safe'' to mean that ``there is a 
reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure 
to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary 
exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable 
information.'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in 
residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. 
Section 408(b)(2)(C) of FFDCA requires EPA to give special 
consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide 
chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to ``ensure that there 
is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and 
children from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue. . . 
.''
    Consistent with FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), and the factors 
specified in FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), EPA has reviewed the available 
scientific data and other relevant information in support of this 
action. EPA has sufficient data to assess the hazards of and to make a 
determination on aggregate exposure for fluridone including exposure 
resulting from the tolerances established by this action. EPA's 
assessment of exposures and risks associated with fluridone follows.

A. Toxicological Profile

    EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and considered its 
validity, completeness, and reliability as well as the relationship of 
the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also considered 
available information concerning the variability of the sensitivities 
of major identifiable subgroups of consumers, including infants and 
children.
    The liver and kidneys were identified as the primary target organs 
based on a multitude of organ specific effects noted across the 
toxicity database. All model species exhibited indications of liver 
toxicity that were often accompanied by body weight effects. No signs 
of neurotoxicity were identified in the rest of the toxicity database. 
Toxicity from repeated dose dermal exposures was limited to irritation 
effects on the skin (erythema, desquamation, epidermal fissures). No 
evidence of immunotoxicity, mutagenicity, or carcinogenicity were noted 
in the toxicity database. Fluridone did not demonstrate mutagenic 
behavior either in vitro or in vivo nor did exposure result in an 
increased incidence of tumors. The EPA concluded that fluridone should 
be classified as ``not likely'' to be a human carcinogen.
    Specific information on the studies received and the nature of the 
adverse effects caused by fluridone as well as the no-observed-adverse-
effect-level (NOAEL) and the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level 
(LOAEL) from the toxicity studies can be found at http://www.regulations.gov in document Fluridone. Human Health Risk Assessment 
for the Section 3 Registration on: Avocado, Mandarin (Tangerine), 
Pistachio, Pomegranate, and Stone Fruit (Crop Group 12-12) in docket ID 
number EPA-HQ-OPP-2019-0074.

B. Toxicological Points of Departure/Levels of Concern

    Once a pesticide's toxicological profile is determined, EPA 
identifies toxicological points of departure (POD) and levels of 
concern to use in evaluating the risk posed by human exposure to the 
pesticide. For hazards that have a threshold below which there is no 
appreciable risk, the toxicological POD is used as the basis for 
derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are developed 
based on a careful analysis of the doses in each toxicological study to 
determine the dose at which no adverse effects are observed (the NOAEL) 
and the lowest dose at which adverse effects of concern are identified 
(the LOAEL). Uncertainty/safety factors are used in conjunction with 
the POD to calculate a safe exposure level--generally referred to as a 
population-adjusted dose (PAD) or a reference dose (RfD)--and a safe 
margin of exposure (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the Agency assumes 
that any amount of exposure will lead to some degree of risk. Thus, the 
Agency estimates risk in terms of the probability of an occurrence of 
the adverse effect expected in a lifetime. For more information on the 
general principles EPA uses in risk characterization and a complete 
description of the risk assessment process, see http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/riskassess.htm.
    A summary of the toxicological endpoints for fluridone used for 
human risk assessment is discussed in Unit III.B. of the final rule 
published in the Federal Register of February 17, 2016 (81 FR 7982) 
(FRL-9941-69).

C. Exposure Assessment

    1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary 
exposure to fluridone, EPA considered exposure under the petitioned-for 
tolerances as well as all existing fluridone tolerances in 40 CFR 180. 
EPA assessed dietary exposures from fluridone in food as follows:
    i. Acute exposure. Quantitative acute dietary exposure and risk 
assessments are performed for a food-use pesticide, if a toxicological 
study has indicated the possibility of an effect of concern occurring 
as a result of a 1-day or single

[[Page 29635]]

exposure. Such effects were identified for fluridone. In estimating 
acute dietary exposure, EPA used food consumption information from the 
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Health and 
Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat in America, (NHANES/WWEIA). 
This dietary survey was conducted from 2003 to 2008. 100 percent crop 
treated (PCT), tolerance-level residues, and default processing factors 
were assumed for this assessment.
    ii. Chronic exposure. In conducting the chronic dietary exposure 
assessment EPA used the food consumption data from the USDA NHANES/
WWEIA. This dietary survey was conducted from 2003 to 2008. 100 PCT, 
tolerance-level residues, and default processing factors were assumed.
    iii. Cancer. Based on the data summarized in Unit III.A., EPA has 
concluded that fluridone does not pose a cancer risk to humans. 
Therefore, a dietary exposure assessment for the purpose of assessing 
cancer risk is unnecessary.
    iv. Anticipated residue and percent crop treated (PCT) information. 
EPA did not use anticipated residue and/or PCT information in the 
dietary assessment for fluridone. Tolerance-level residues and/or 100% 
CT were assumed for all food commodities.
    2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening 
level water exposure models in the dietary exposure analysis and risk 
assessment for fluridone in drinking water. These simulation models 
take into account data on the physical, chemical, and fate/transport 
characteristics of fluridone. Further information regarding EPA 
drinking water models used in pesticide exposure assessment can be 
found at http://www2.epa.gov/pesticide-science-and-assessing-pesticide-risks/about-water-exposure-models-used-pesticide.
    Based on the Tier 1 Rice Model v2.0, the estimated drinking water 
concentrations (EDWCs) of fluridone for acute exposures are estimated 
to be 150 parts per billion (ppb) for surface water and 45 ppb for 
ground water. For chronic exposures for non-cancer assessments are 
estimated to be 107 ppb for surface water and 43 ppb for ground water.
    Modeled estimates of drinking water concentrations were directly 
entered into the dietary exposure model. For acute dietary risk 
assessment, the water concentration value of 150 ppb was used to assess 
the contribution to drinking water. For chronic dietary risk 
assessment, the water concentration of value 107 ppb was used to assess 
the contribution to drinking water.
    3. From non-dietary exposure. The term ``residential exposure'' is 
used in this document to refer to non-occupational, non-dietary 
exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, 
termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets).
    Fluridone is currently registered for the following uses that could 
result in residential exposures: From use on ponds (including a 
homeowner use), lakes, reservoirs, and rivers. EPA assessed residential 
exposure using the following assumptions: Adult applicators may be 
exposed (dermal and inhalation) while applying the pesticide to 
residential ponds. Residential handler exposure is expected to be 
short-term in duration only. Intermediate-term and chronic exposures 
are not likely because of the intermittent nature of applications by 
homeowners. There is also potential for residential post-application 
exposure (dermal, inhalation and incidental ingestion) for adults and 
children (3 to <6 years old) swimming in treated water. Residential 
post-application exposure is expected to be short-term in duration 
only. Further information regarding EPA standard assumptions and 
generic inputs for residential exposures may be found at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf.
    4. Cumulative effects from substances with a common mechanism of 
toxicity. Section 408(b)(2)(D)(v) of FFDCA requires that, when 
considering whether to establish, modify, or revoke a tolerance, the 
Agency consider ``available information'' concerning the cumulative 
effects of a particular pesticide's residues and ``other substances 
that have a common mechanism of toxicity.'' EPA has not found fluridone 
to share a common mechanism of toxicity with any other substances, and 
fluridone does not appear to produce a toxic metabolite produced by 
other substances. For the purposes of this tolerance action, therefore, 
EPA has assumed that fluridone does not have a common mechanism of 
toxicity with other substances. For information regarding EPA's efforts 
to determine which chemicals have a common mechanism of toxicity and to 
evaluate the cumulative effects of such chemicals, see EPA's website at 
http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/cumulative.

D. Safety Factor for Infants and Children

    1. In general. Section 408(b)(2)(C) of FFDCA provides that EPA 
shall apply an additional tenfold (10X) margin of safety for infants 
and children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal 
and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on toxicity 
and exposure unless EPA determines based on reliable data that a 
different margin of safety will be safe for infants and children. This 
additional margin of safety is commonly referred to as the FQPA Safety 
Factor (SF). In applying this provision, EPA either retains the default 
value of 10X, or uses a different additional safety factor when 
reliable data available to EPA support the choice of a different 
factor.
    2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. There was no evidence of 
qualitative susceptibility in fetuses in the rat and rabbit 
developmental study. Equivocal susceptibility was observed in the young 
from the F2 population in the reproductive study during the lactation 
phase (based decreased body weight); however, body weight of the F2 
offspring returned to control levels after the lactation period and no 
evidence of susceptibility was observed in the F3 offspring.
    3. Conclusion. EPA has determined that reliable data show the 
safety of infants and children would be adequately protected if the 
FQPA SF were reduced to 1X. More information on that decision can be 
found at http://www.regulations.gov in document Fluridone. Human Health 
Risk Assessment for the Section 3 Registration on: Avocado, Mandarin 
(Tangerine), Pistachio, Pomegranate, and Stone Fruit (Crop Group 12-12) 
in docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2019-0074.

E. Aggregate Risks and Determination of Safety

    EPA determines whether acute and chronic dietary pesticide 
exposures are safe by comparing aggregate exposure estimates to the 
acute PAD (aPAD) and chronic PAD (cPAD). For linear cancer risks, EPA 
calculates the lifetime probability of acquiring cancer given the 
estimated aggregate exposure. Short-, intermediate-, and chronic-term 
risks are evaluated by comparing the estimated aggregate food, water, 
and residential exposure to the appropriate PODs to ensure that an 
adequate MOE exists.
    1. Acute risk. Using the exposure assumptions discussed in this 
unit for acute exposure, the acute dietary exposure from food and water 
to fluridone will occupy 2.3% of the aPAD for all infants (<1-year-
old), the population group receiving the greatest exposure.
    2. Chronic risk. Using the exposure assumptions described in this 
unit for chronic exposure, EPA has concluded

[[Page 29636]]

that chronic exposure to fluridone from food and water will utilize 7% 
of the cPAD for children aged 1 to 2 the population group receiving the 
greatest exposure. Based on the explanation in Unit III.C.3., regarding 
residential use patterns, chronic residential exposure to residues of 
fluridone is not expected.
    3. Short-term risk. Short-term aggregate exposure takes into 
account short-term residential exposure plus chronic exposure to food 
and water (considered to be a background exposure level). Fluridone is 
currently registered for uses that could result in short-term 
residential exposure, and the Agency has determined that it is 
appropriate to aggregate chronic exposure through food and water with 
short-term residential exposures to fluridone. Using the exposure 
assumptions described in this unit for short-term exposures, EPA has 
concluded the combined short-term food, water, and residential 
exposures result in aggregate MOEs of 1,300 for adults and 1,600 for 
children. Because EPA's level of concern for fluridone is a MOE of 100 
or below, these MOEs are not of concern.
    4. Intermediate-term risk. Intermediate-term aggregate exposure 
takes into account intermediate-term residential exposure plus chronic 
exposure to food and water (considered to be a background exposure 
level). An intermediate-term adverse effect was identified; however, 
fluridone is not registered for any use patterns that would result in 
intermediate-term residential exposure. Intermediate-term risk is 
assessed based on intermediate-term residential exposure plus chronic 
dietary exposure. Because there is no intermediate-term residential 
exposure and chronic dietary exposure has already been assessed under 
the appropriately protective cPAD (which is at least as protective as 
the POD used to assess intermediate-term risk), no further assessment 
of intermediate-term risk is necessary, and EPA relies on the chronic 
dietary risk assessment for evaluating intermediate-term risk for 
fluridone.
    5. Aggregate cancer risk for U.S. population. Based on the lack of 
evidence of carcinogenicity in two adequate rodent carcinogenicity 
studies, fluridone is not expected to pose a cancer risk to humans.
    6. Determination of safety. Based on these risk assessments, EPA 
concludes that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result 
to the general population, or to infants and children from aggregate 
exposure to fluridone residues.

IV. Other Considerations

A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology

    Adequate enforcement methodology (high performance liquid 
chromatography (HPLC) method (originally submitted as method AM-AA-CA-
RO52-AA-755)) is available to enforce the tolerance expression.

B. International Residue Limits

    In making its tolerance decisions, EPA seeks to harmonize U.S. 
tolerances with international standards whenever possible, consistent 
with U.S. food safety standards and agricultural practices. EPA 
considers the international maximum residue limits (MRLs) established 
by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), as required by FFDCA 
section 408(b)(4). The Codex Alimentarius is a joint United Nations 
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization food 
standards program, and it is recognized as an international food safety 
standards-setting organization in trade agreements to which the United 
States is a party. EPA may establish a tolerance that is different from 
a Codex MRL; however, FFDCA section 408(b)(4) requires that EPA explain 
the reasons for departing from the Codex level.
    The Codex has not established a MRL for fluridone.

V. Conclusion

    Therefore, tolerances are established for residues of fluridone, in 
or on avocado, tangerine, pomegranate, pistachio, and the fruit, stone, 
group 12-12 at 0.1 ppm.

VI. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

    This action establishes tolerances under FFDCA section 408(d) in 
response to a petition submitted to the Agency. The Office of 
Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted these types of actions from 
review under Executive Order 12866, entitled ``Regulatory Planning and 
Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this action has been 
exempted from review under Executive Order 12866, this action is not 
subject to Executive Order 13211, entitled ``Actions Concerning 
Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or 
Use'' (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001) or Executive Order 13045, entitled 
``Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety 
Risks'' (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997), nor is it considered a 
regulatory action under Executive Order 13771, entitled ``Reducing 
Regulations and Controlling Regulatory Costs'' (82 FR 9339, February 3, 
2017). This action does not contain any information collections subject 
to OMB approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) (44 U.S.C. 3501 
et seq.), nor does it require any special considerations under 
Executive Order 12898, entitled ``Federal Actions to Address 
Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income 
Populations'' (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994).
    Since tolerances and exemptions that are established on the basis 
of a petition under FFDCA section 408(d), such as the tolerance in this 
final rule, do not require the issuance of a proposed rule, the 
requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601 et 
seq.), do not apply.
    This action directly regulates growers, food processors, food 
handlers, and food retailers, not States or Tribes, nor does this 
action alter the relationships or distribution of power and 
responsibilities established by Congress in the preemption provisions 
of FFDCA section 408(n)(4). As such, the Agency has determined that 
this action will not have a substantial direct effect on States or 
Tribal Governments, on the relationship between the National Government 
and the States or Tribal Governments, or on the distribution of power 
and responsibilities among the various levels of government or between 
the Federal Government and Indian Tribes. Thus, the Agency has 
determined that Executive Order 13132, entitled ``Federalism'' (64 FR 
43255, August 10, 1999) and Executive Order 13175, entitled 
``Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments'' (65 FR 
67249, November 9, 2000) do not apply to this action. In addition, this 
action does not impose any enforceable duty or contain any unfunded 
mandate as described under Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act 
(UMRA) (2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.).
    This action does not involve any technical standards that would 
require Agency consideration of voluntary consensus standards pursuant 
to section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement 
Act (NTTAA) (15 U.S.C. 272 note).

VII. Congressional Review Act

    Pursuant to the Congressional Review Act (5 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), 
EPA will submit a report containing this rule and other required 
information to the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives, and 
the Comptroller General of the United States prior to publication of 
the rule in the Federal

[[Page 29637]]

Register. This action is not a ``major rule'' as defined by 5 U.S.C. 
804(2).

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 180

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, 
Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements.

    Dated: April 13, 2020.
Michael Goodis,
Director, Registration Division, Office of Pesticide Programs.

    Therefore, 40 CFR chapter I is amended as follows:

PART 180--[AMENDED]

0
1. The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 21 U.S.C. 321(q), 346a and 371.


0
2. Amend Sec.  180.420 by:
0
a. Adding alphabetically entries for ``Avocado''; ``Fruit, stone, group 
12-12''; ``Pistachio''; ``Pomegranate''; and ``Tangerine'' in the table 
in paragraph (a)(2); and
0
b. Removing the entries ``Avocado''; and ``Fruit, stone, group 12'' in 
the table in paragraph (d).
    The additions read as follows:


Sec.  180.420  Fluridone; tolerances for residues.

    (a) * * *
    (2) * * *

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Parts per
                        Commodity                             million
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Avocado.................................................             0.1
 
                                * * * * *
Fruit, stone, group 12-12...............................             0.1
 
                                * * * * *
Pistachio...............................................             0.1
Pomegranate.............................................             0.1
 
                                * * * * *
Tangerine...............................................             0.1
------------------------------------------------------------------------

* * * * *
[FR Doc. 2020-08963 Filed 5-15-20; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P