Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Kauai Islandwide Recovery Plan, 23988-23992 [2020-09177]

Download as PDF 23988 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 84 / Thursday, April 30, 2020 / Notices an impact, since the wall would be built anyway. Response: Congress has made funding available for border wall construction. Comment: One commenter was concerned that the wall would make it more difficult for U.S. citizens to travel to Mexico for medical and dental care. Response: Part of CBP’s mission is to safeguard America’s borders while enhancing the nation’s global economic competitiveness by enabling legitimate trade and travel. Border wall construction will not affect the ability of U.S. citizens to lawfully travel to and from Mexico. Dated: April 27, 2020. Loren Flossman, Director, Infrastructure Program, Program Management Office Directorate, U.S. Border Patrol, U.S. Customs and Border Protection. [FR Doc. 2020–09236 Filed 4–29–20; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 9111–14–P DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS–R1–ES–2019–N071; FXES11130100000–190–FF01E00000] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Kauai Islandwide Recovery Plan Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of document availability for review and public comment. AGENCY: SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce the availability of the Draft Kauai Islandwide Recovery Plan under the Endangered Species Act. This draft recovery plan addresses 175 listed species occurring on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, 111 of which are endemic to Kauai. The draft recovery plan includes specific goals, objectives, and criteria that should be met to remove the Kauai endemic species from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. For the listed species that occur on multiple Hawaiian islands, the draft recovery plan describes those actions specific to Kauai; complete recovery actions and recovery criteria for these species will be covered in a subsequent multi-island recovery plan. We request review and comment on this draft recovery plan from local, State, and Federal agencies and the public. We will also accept any new information on the species’ status throughout their range. In order to be considered, comments on the draft recovery plan must be received on or before July 29, 2020. However, we will accept information about any species at any time. DATES: An electronic copy of the draft recovery plan is available at our website at http://www.fws.gov/ endangered/species/recovery-plans.html and http://www.fws.gov/pacific/ ecoservices/endangered/recovery/ plans.html. If you wish to comment on the plan, you may submit your comments in writing by any one of the following methods: (1) You may submit written comments and materials to Field Supervisor, Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Room 3122, Honolulu, HI 96850. (2) You may submit written comments to our Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office by fax at (808)792–9581. (3) You may send comments by email to gregory_koob@fws.gov. For additional information about submitting comments, see the ‘‘Request for Public Comments’’ section below. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gregory Koob, Deputy Field Supervisor, by mail at the above Honolulu address, or by telephone at (808)792–9400. Individuals who are hearing impaired may call the Federal Relay Service at 800–877–8339 for TTY assistance. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, ADDRESSES: Scientific name announce the availability of the Draft Kauai Islandwide Recovery Plan under the Endangered Species Act (Act; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). This draft recovery plan addresses 175 listed species occurring on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, 111 of which are endemic to Kauai. The draft recovery plan includes specific goals, objectives, and criteria that should be met to remove the Kauai endemic species from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. For the listed species that occur on multiple Hawaiian islands, the draft recovery plan describes those actions specific to Kauai; complete recovery actions and recovery criteria for these species will be covered in a subsequent multi-island recovery plan. We request review and comment on this draft recovery plan from local, State, and Federal agencies and the public. We will also accept any new information on any species’ status throughout its range. Background Recovery of endangered or threatened animals and plants to the point where they are again secure, self-sustaining members of their ecosystems is a primary goal of our endangered species program and the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). Recovery means improvement of the status of listed species to the point at which listing is no longer appropriate under the criteria set out in section 4(a)(1) of the Act. The Act requires the development of recovery plans for listed species, unless such a plan would not promote the conservation of a particular species. Species Addressed in Recovery Plan This draft recovery plan addresses 175 species, as listed in the table below. Many of these species have been addressed previously in earlier recovery plans; this plan will update and supersede the Kauai-specific actions in those documents, and is intended to provide a single unified reference for the recovery of all listed species on Kauai. Common name Listing status Kauai endemic Most recent recovery plan Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered No ........ No ........ No ........ No ........ No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ D A A D A —— E —— A jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with NOTICES PLANTS Acaena exigua ..................................................................................... Achyranthes mutica ............................................................................. Adenophorus periens ........................................................................... Alectryon macrococcus ........................................................................ Asplenium dielerectum ......................................................................... Asplenium dielmannii [=Diellia mannii] ................................................ Asplenium dielpallidum [=Diellia pallida] ............................................. Astelia waialealae ................................................................................ Bonamia menziesii ............................................................................... VerDate Sep<11>2014 18:56 Apr 29, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00047 Liliwai ............................................ No common name ........................ Fern, pendant kihi ........................ Mahoe .......................................... Diellia, asplenium-leaved ............. No common name ........................ No common name ........................ Painiu ........................................... No common name ........................ Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 E:\FR\FM\30APN1.SGM 30APN1 23989 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with NOTICES Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 84 / Thursday, April 30, 2020 / Notices Scientific name Common name Listing status Kauai endemic Most recent recovery plan Brighamia insignis ................................................................................ Canavalia napaliensis .......................................................................... Canavalia pubescens ........................................................................... Charpentiera densiflora ........................................................................ Ctenitis squamigera ............................................................................. Cyanea asarifolia ................................................................................. Cyanea dolichopoda ............................................................................ Cyanea eleeleensis .............................................................................. Cyanea kolekoleensis .......................................................................... Cyanea kuhihewa ................................................................................ Cyanea recta ........................................................................................ Cyanea remyi ....................................................................................... Cyanea undulata .................................................................................. Cyperus pennatiformis ......................................................................... Cyperus trachysanthos ........................................................................ Cyrtandra cyaneoides .......................................................................... Cyrtandra limahuliensis ........................................................................ Cyrtandra oenobarba ........................................................................... Cyrtandra paliku ................................................................................... Delissea rhytidosperma ....................................................................... Delissea rivularis .................................................................................. Diplazium molokaiense ........................................................................ Doryopteris angelica ............................................................................ Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus ....................................................... Dubautia imbricata subsp. imbricata ................................................... Dubautia kalalauensis .......................................................................... Dubautia kenwoodii .............................................................................. Dubautia latifolia .................................................................................. Dubautia pauciflorula ........................................................................... Dubautia plantaginea subsp. magnifolia .............................................. Dubautia waialealae ............................................................................. Euphorbia eleanoriae [=Chamaesyce eleanoriae] .............................. Euphorbia haeleeleana ........................................................................ Euphorbia halemanui [=Chamaesyce halemanui] ............................... Euphorbia remyi var. kauaiensis [=Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis]. Euphorbia remyi var. remyi [=Chamaesyce remyi var. remyii ............ Exocarpos luteolus ............................................................................... Flueggea neowawraea ......................................................................... Gardenia remyi .................................................................................... Geranium kauaiense ............................................................................ Gouania meyenii .................................................................................. Haplostachys haplostachya ................................................................. Hesperomannia lydgatei ...................................................................... Hibiscadelphus distans ........................................................................ Hibiscadelphus woodii ......................................................................... Hibiscus brackenridgei ......................................................................... Olulu ............................................. Awikiwiki ....................................... Awikiwiki ....................................... Papala .......................................... Pauoa ........................................... Haha ............................................. Haha ............................................. Haha ............................................. Haha ............................................. Haiwale ......................................... Haha ............................................. Haha ............................................. No common name ........................ No common name ........................ Puukaa ......................................... Mapele .......................................... Haiwale ......................................... Haiwale ......................................... Haiwale ......................................... No common name ........................ Oha ............................................... No common name ........................ No common name ........................ Palapalai aumakua ....................... Naenae ......................................... Naenae ......................................... Naenae ......................................... Koholapehu .................................. Naenae ......................................... Naenae ......................................... Naenae ......................................... Akoko ........................................... Akoko ........................................... Akoko ........................................... Akoko ........................................... Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Threatened ... Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Threatened ... Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered No ........ Yes ....... No ........ Yes ....... No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ Yes ....... No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... E —— —— —— C E —— —— —— —— F F G A A F E —— —— E F C —— —— —— —— —— E G —— —— —— A E —— Akoko ........................................... Heau ............................................. Mehamehame .............................. Nanu ............................................. Nohoanu ....................................... No common name ........................ No common name ........................ No common name ........................ Kauai hau kuahiwi ........................ Hau kuahiwi .................................. Mao hau hele, (=native yellow hibiscus). Clay’s hibiscus ............................. Kokio keokeo ................................ Wawaeiole .................................... Wawaeiole .................................... Hilo ischaemum ............................ Aupaka ......................................... Aupaka ......................................... Ohe ............................................... Awiwi ............................................ Kamapuaa .................................... No common name ........................ Kohe malama malama o kanaloa No common name ........................ No common name ........................ Kokio ............................................ Kamakahala ................................. Kamakahala ................................. Kamakahala ................................. Kamakahala ................................. Nehe ............................................. Nehe ............................................. Nehe ............................................. No common name ........................ Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ No ........ Yes ....... No ........ No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ —— E A —— —— H I G J F A Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Threatened ... Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ No ........ No ........ No ........ No ........ No ........ No ........ No ........ Yes ....... No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ E F D H K A A —— E —— E B —— —— F —— G —— F E E E H Hibiscus clayi ....................................................................................... Hibiscus waimeae subsp. hannerae .................................................... Huperzia mannii ................................................................................... Huperzia nutans ................................................................................... Ischaemum byrone .............................................................................. Isodendrion laurifolium ......................................................................... Isodendrion longifolium ........................................................................ Joinvillea ascendens subsp. ascendens ............................................. Kadua cookiana [=Hedyotis cookiana] ................................................ Kadua fluviatilis [=Hedyotis fluviatilis] .................................................. Kadua st.-johnii [=Hedyotis st.-johnii] .................................................. Kanaloa kahoolawensis ....................................................................... Keysseria erici ...................................................................................... Keysseria helenae ............................................................................... Kokia kauaiensis .................................................................................. Labordia helleri .................................................................................... Labordia lydgatei .................................................................................. Labordia pumila ................................................................................... Labordia tinifolia var. wahiawaensis .................................................... Lipochaeta fauriei [=Melanthera fauriei] .............................................. Lipochaeta micrantha [=Melanthera micrantha] .................................. Lipochaeta waimeaensis [=Melanthera waimeaensis] ........................ Lobelia niihauensis .............................................................................. VerDate Sep<11>2014 18:56 Apr 29, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00048 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 E:\FR\FM\30APN1.SGM 30APN1 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with NOTICES 23990 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 84 / Thursday, April 30, 2020 / Notices Scientific name Common name Listing status Kauai endemic Most recent recovery plan Lysimachia daphnoides ....................................................................... Lysimachia iniki .................................................................................... Lysimachia pendens ............................................................................ Lysimachia scopulensis ....................................................................... Lysimachia venosa .............................................................................. Melicope degeneri ................................................................................ Melicope haupuensis ........................................................................... Melicope knudsenii .............................................................................. Melicope pallida ................................................................................... Melicope paniculata ............................................................................. Melicope puberula ................................................................................ Melicope quadrangularis ...................................................................... Mezoneuron kavaiense ........................................................................ Myrsine fosbergii .................................................................................. Myrsine knudsenii ................................................................................ Myrsine linearifolia ............................................................................... Myrsine mezii ....................................................................................... Nothocestrum latifolium ....................................................................... Nothocestrum peltatum ........................................................................ Panicum niihauense ............................................................................. Peucedanum sandwicense .................................................................. Phyllostegia knudsenii ......................................................................... Phyllostegia renovans .......................................................................... Phyllostegia waimeae .......................................................................... Phyllostegia wawrana .......................................................................... Pittosporum napaliense ....................................................................... Plantago princeps ................................................................................ Platanthera holochila ........................................................................... Platydesma rostrata ............................................................................. Poa mannii ........................................................................................... Poa sandvicensis ................................................................................. Poa siphonoglossa ............................................................................... Polyscias bisattenuata [=Tetraplasandra bisattenuata] ....................... Polyscias flynnii [=Tetraplasandra flynnii] ............................................ Polyscias racemosa [=Munroidendron racemosum] ........................... Pritchardia hardyi ................................................................................. Pritchardia napaliensis ......................................................................... Pritchardia viscosa ............................................................................... Psychotria grandiflora .......................................................................... Psychotria hobdyi ................................................................................. Pteralyxia kauaiensis ........................................................................... Ranunculus mauiensis ......................................................................... Remya kauaiensis ................................................................................ Remya montgomeryi ............................................................................ Scaevola coriacea ................................................................................ Schenkia sebaeoides ........................................................................... Schiedea apokremnos ......................................................................... Schiedea attenuata .............................................................................. Schiedea helleri ................................................................................... Schiedea kauaiensis ............................................................................ Schiedea lychnoides [=Alsinidendron lychnoides] ............................... Schiedea membranacea ...................................................................... Schiedea nuttalii ................................................................................... Schiedea spergulina var. leiopoda ...................................................... Schiedea spergulina var. spergulina ................................................... Schiedea stellarioides .......................................................................... Schiedea viscosa [=Alsinidendron viscosum] ...................................... Sesbania tomentosa ............................................................................ Silene lanceolata .................................................................................. Solanum incompletum ......................................................................... Solanum nelsonii .................................................................................. Solanum sandwicense ......................................................................... Spermolepis hawaiiensis ..................................................................... Stenogyne campanulata ...................................................................... Stenogyne kealiae ............................................................................... Viola helenae ....................................................................................... Viola kauaiensis var. wahiawaensis .................................................... Wilkesia hobdyi .................................................................................... Xylosma crenatum ............................................................................... Zanthoxylum hawaiiense ..................................................................... Lehua makanoe ........................... No common name ........................ No common name ........................ No common name ........................ No common name ........................ Alani ............................................. Alani ............................................. Alani ............................................. Alani ............................................. Alani ............................................. Alani ............................................. Alani ............................................. Uhiuhi ........................................... Kolea ............................................ Kolea ............................................ Kolea ............................................ Kolea ............................................ Aiea .............................................. Aiea .............................................. Lauehu ......................................... Makou ........................................... No common name ........................ No common name ........................ No common name ........................ No common name ........................ Hoawa .......................................... Kuahiwi laukahi ............................ No common name ........................ Pilokea laulii ................................. Mann’s bluegrass ......................... Hawaiian bluegrass ...................... No common name ........................ No common name ........................ No common name ........................ No common name ........................ Loulu ............................................. Loulu ............................................. Loulu ............................................. Kopiko .......................................... Kopiko .......................................... Kaulu ............................................ Makou ........................................... No common name ........................ No common name ........................ Naupaka, dwarf ............................ Awiwi ............................................ Maolioli ......................................... No common name ........................ No common name ........................ No common name ........................ Kuawawaenohu ............................ No common name ........................ No common name ........................ No common name ........................ No common name ........................ Laulihilihi ....................................... No common name ........................ Ohai .............................................. No common name ........................ Popolo ku mai .............................. Popolo .......................................... Popolo aiakeakua ......................... No common name ........................ No common name ........................ No common name ........................ No common name ........................ Nani waialeale .............................. Dwarf iliau .................................... No common name ........................ Ae ................................................. Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Threatened ... Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Threatened ... Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Threatened ... Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ Yes ....... No ........ No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ No ........ No ........ No ........ No ........ No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ —— —— —— —— —— —— E E E —— —— E L —— —— F —— —— E A E F —— E F —— A A —— E E E —— —— E —— F F —— —— E —— E E D A E —— F F F F A E E F F A M A —— E A E —— G F E E K VerDate Sep<11>2014 18:56 Apr 29, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00049 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 E:\FR\FM\30APN1.SGM 30APN1 23991 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 84 / Thursday, April 30, 2020 / Notices Scientific name Common name Listing status Kauai endemic Most recent recovery plan Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Threatened ... Endangered Endangered No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ No ........ N —— —— O O P —— —— Endangered Endangered No ........ No ........ Q —— Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ No ........ —— R* Q Q Endangered Threatened ... Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered Endangered No ........ No ........ Yes ....... Yes ....... Yes ....... No ........ No ........ No ........ Yes ....... No ........ No ........ Yes ....... No ........ S T R R R Q U V R W R R S INVERTEBRATES Manduca blackburni ............................................................................. Drosophila musaphilia .......................................................................... Drosophila sharpi ................................................................................. Spelaeorchestia koloana ...................................................................... Adelocosa anops ................................................................................. Erinna newcombi ................................................................................. Megalagrion xanthomelas .................................................................... Megalagrion pacificum ......................................................................... Blackburn’s sphinx moth .............. Hawaiian picture-wing fly ............. Hawaiian picture-wing fly ............. Kauai cave amphipod .................. Kauai cave wolf spider ................. Newcomb’s snail .......................... Orangeblack Hawaiian damselfly Pacific Hawaiian damselfly .......... VERTEBRATES Himantopus mexicanus knudseni ........................................................ Oceanodroma castro ........................................................................... Loxops caeruleirostris .......................................................................... Oreomystis bairdi ................................................................................. Fulica alai ............................................................................................. Gallinula galeata sandvicensis ............................................................ Puffinus newelli .................................................................................... Chelonia mydas ................................................................................... Myadestes myadestinus ...................................................................... Akialoa stejnegeri ................................................................................. Hemignathus hanapepe ....................................................................... Anas wyvilliana .................................................................................... Anas laysanensis ................................................................................. Branta sandvicensis ............................................................................. Moho braccatus ................................................................................... Lasiurus cinereus semotus .................................................................. Psittirostra psittacea ............................................................................. Myadestes palmeri ............................................................................... Pterodroma sandwichensis .................................................................. Hawaiian stilt ................................ Akeake, Band-rumped storm-petrel (Hawaii Distinct Population Segment). Akekee (honeycreeper) ................ Akikiki (honeycreeper) .................. Alae keokeo, Hawaiian coot ........ Alae ula, Hawaiian common gallinule. Ao, Newell’s shearwater .............. Green turtle .................................. Kamao, large Kauai thrush .......... Kauai akialoa ................................ Kauai nukupuu ............................. Koloa maoli, Hawaiian duck ......... Laysan duck ................................. Nene, Hawaiian goose ................. Oo aa, Kauai oo ........................... Opeapea, Hawaiian hoary bat ..... Ou ................................................. Small Kauai thrush ....................... Hawaiian petrel ............................ jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with NOTICES A: Recovery Plan for the Multi-Island Plants (FWS 1999) B: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Multi-Island Plants (FWS 2002) C: Final Recovery Plan for Four Species of Hawaiian Ferns (FWS 1998a) D: Recovery Plan for the Maui Plant Cluster (FWS 1997) E: Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster (FWS 1995) F: Kauai II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster (FWS 1998b) G: Recovery Plan for the Wahiawa Plant Cluster (FWS 1994) H: Recovery Plan for the Oahu Plants (FWS 1998c) I: Draft Recovery Plan for Haplostachys haplostachya and Stenogyne angustifolia (FWS 1993) J: Recovery Plan for Hibiscadelphus distans (FWS 1996a) K: Recovery Plan for the Big Island Plant Cluster (FWS 1996b) L: Recovery Plan for Caesalpinia kavaiensis and Kokia drynarioides (FWS 1994) M: Recovery plan for the Molokai Plant Cluster (FWS 1996c) N: Recovery Plan for Blackburn’s Sphinx Moth (FWS 2005) O: Final Recovery Plan for the Kauai Cave Arthropods (FWS 2006a) P: Final Recovery Plan for Newcomb’s Snail (FWS 2006b) Q: Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Waterbirds, Second Revision (FWS 2011) R: Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds (FWS 2006c) S: Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell’s Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan (FWS 1983) T: Recovery Plan for U.S. Pacific Populations of the Green Turtle (NMFS and FWS 1998) U: Revised Recovery Plan for the Laysan Duck (FWS 2009) V: Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Nene or Hawaiian Goose (FWS 2004) W: Recovery Plan for the Hawaiian Hoary Bat (FWS 1998d) *: Addressed only as candidate species. Major threats to the various Kauai species addressed in this draft recovery plan include habitat degradation, predation and herbivory by nonnative mammals and invertebrates, disease spread by nonnative species, and competition with invasive nonnative plant species. VerDate Sep<11>2014 18:56 Apr 29, 2020 Jkt 250001 Recovery Plan Goals The objective of a recovery plan is to provide a framework for the recovery of a listed species so that protection under the Act is no longer necessary. A recovery plan includes scientific information about the species and provides criteria and actions necessary for us to be able to reclassify the species or remove it from the Federal List of PO 00000 Frm 00050 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Recovery plans help guide our recovery efforts by describing actions we consider necessary for the species’ conservation, and by estimating time and costs for implementing needed recovery measures. The draft recovery plan recommends a combination of islandwide recovery actions (e.g., biosecurity), management E:\FR\FM\30APN1.SGM 30APN1 23992 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 84 / Thursday, April 30, 2020 / Notices of ecosystem-level threats within specific geographic management units, and species-specific recovery actions such as propagation and reintroduction. Request for Public Comments Section 4(f) of the Act requires us to provide public notice and an opportunity for public review and comment during recovery plan development. It is also our policy to request peer review of recovery plans (July 1, 1994; 59 FR 34270). In an appendix to the approved recovery plan, we will summarize and respond to the issues raised by the public and peer reviewers. Substantive comments may or may not result in changes to the recovery plan; comments regarding recovery plan implementation will be forwarded as appropriate to Federal or other entities so that they can be taken into account during the course of implementing recovery actions. We request written comments on the draft recovery plan. Before we approve the plan, we will consider all comments we receive by the date specified in DATES. Methods of submitting comments are described in ADDRESSES. Public Availability of Comments Before including your address, phone number, email address, or other personal identifying information in your comment, you should be aware that your entire comment—including your personal identifying information—may be made publicly available at any time. While you can ask us in your comment to withhold your personal identifying information from public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. Authority The authority for this action is section 4(f) of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). Mary Abrams, Acting Regional Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [FR Doc. 2020–09177 Filed 4–29–20; 8:45 am] jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with NOTICES BILLING CODE 4333–15–P VerDate Sep<11>2014 18:56 Apr 29, 2020 Jkt 250001 DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Background [FWS–HQ–ES–2020–N064; FF09E42000 189 FXES11130900000] Endangered and Threatened Species; Issuance of Enhancement of Survival and Incidental Take Permits for Safe Harbor Agreements, Candidate Conservation Agreements, Habitat Conservation Plans, and Recovery Activities, January 1, 2019, Through December 31, 2019 Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. AGENCY: SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in accordance with the Endangered Species Act (ESA), provide a list to the public of permits issued under the ESA. With some exceptions, the ESA prohibits take of listed species unless a Federal permit is issued that authorizes or exempts the taking under the ESA. We provide this list to the public as a summary of our permit issuances for candidate conservation agreements with assurances, safe harbor agreements, habitat conservation plans, and recovery activities for calendar year 2019. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For general information about the ESA permit process, contact Amanda Murnane, via phone at 703–358– 2469,viaemailatAmanda_murnane@ fws.gov, or via the Federal Relay Service at 800–877–8339. For information on specific permits, see the contact information below in Permits Issued. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in accordance with section 10(d) of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), as amended, provide a list to the public of the permits issued under section 10(a)(1)(A) and 10(a)(1)(B) of the ESA. With some exceptions, the ESA prohibits take of listed species unless a Federal permit is issued that authorizes the taking, or the take is exempted through section 7 of the ESA. Under section 10(a)(1)(A) of the ESA, we issue enhancement of survival permits in conjunction with candidate conservation agreements with assurances (CCAAs) and safe harbor agreements (SHAs). Section 10(a)(1)(A) also authorizes recovery permits. Section 10(a)(1)(B) permits authorize take of listed species incidental to otherwise lawful activities associated with habitat conservation plans (HCPs). We provide this list to the public as a summary of our permit issuances for PO 00000 Frm 00051 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 CCAAs, SHAs, HCPs, and recovery permits for calendar year 2019. Under the authority of section 10(a)(1)(A) of the ESA, we have issued enhancement of survival permits to conduct activities that provide a conservation benefit for endangered or threatened species, or for unlisted species should they become listed in the future, in response to permit applications that we received in conjunction with a SHA or a CCAA. Recovery permits have been issued under ESA section 10(a)(1)(A) to allow for take as part of activities intended to foster the recovery of listed species, typically for scientific research in order to understand better the species’ longterm survival needs. Under ESA section 10(a)(1)(B), we may issue permits for any taking otherwise prohibited by ESA section 9 if such taking is incidental to, and not the purpose of, carrying out an otherwise lawful activity (known as an incidental take permit (ITP)) and the permit applicant submits a habitat conservation plan (HCP) that meets the permit issuance criteria under section 10(a)(2)(B). Typically, applicants seek an ITP to conduct activities such as residential and commercial development, infrastructure development or maintenance, and energy development projects that range in scale from small to landscape-level planning efforts. The permits associated with SHAs, CCAAs, HCPs, and recovery activities that we issued between January 1 and December 31, 2019, are listed below. Under section 10(a)(1)(A), we issued each permit only after we determined that it was applied for in good faith, that granting the permit would not be to the disadvantage of the listed species, or to the unlisted species should it be listed; that the proposed activities would benefit the recovery or the enhancement of survival of the species; and that the terms and conditions of the permits were consistent with the purposes and policy set forth in the ESA. Under section 10(a)(1)(B), we issued permits only after we determined that the applicant is eligible and has submitted a complete application and HCP that fully meets the permit issuance criteria consistent with section 10(a)(2)(B). E:\FR\FM\30APN1.SGM 30APN1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 85, Number 84 (Thursday, April 30, 2020)]
[Notices]
[Pages 23988-23992]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2020-09177]


=======================================================================
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Fish and Wildlife Service

[FWS-R1-ES-2019-N071; FXES11130100000-190-FF01E00000]


Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Kauai 
Islandwide Recovery Plan

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Notice of document availability for review and public comment.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce the 
availability of the Draft Kauai Islandwide Recovery Plan under the 
Endangered Species Act. This draft recovery plan addresses 175 listed 
species occurring on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, 111 of which are 
endemic to Kauai. The draft recovery plan includes specific goals, 
objectives, and criteria that should be met to remove the Kauai endemic 
species from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and 
Plants. For the listed species that occur on multiple Hawaiian islands, 
the draft recovery plan describes those actions specific to Kauai; 
complete recovery actions and recovery criteria for these species will 
be covered in a subsequent multi-island recovery plan. We request 
review and comment on this draft recovery plan from local, State, and 
Federal agencies and the public. We will also accept any new 
information on the species' status throughout their range.

DATES: In order to be considered, comments on the draft recovery plan 
must be received on or before July 29, 2020. However, we will accept 
information about any species at any time.

ADDRESSES: An electronic copy of the draft recovery plan is available 
at our website at http://www.fws.gov/endangered/species/recovery-plans.html and http://www.fws.gov/pacific/ecoservices/endangered/recovery/plans.html. If you wish to comment on the plan, you may submit 
your comments in writing by any one of the following methods:
    (1) You may submit written comments and materials to Field 
Supervisor, Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Room 3122, Honolulu, HI 
96850.
    (2) You may submit written comments to our Pacific Islands Fish and 
Wildlife Office by fax at (808)792-9581.
    (3) You may send comments by email to [email protected].
    For additional information about submitting comments, see the 
``Request for Public Comments'' section below.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gregory Koob, Deputy Field Supervisor, 
by mail at the above Honolulu address, or by telephone at (808)792-
9400. Individuals who are hearing impaired may call the Federal Relay 
Service at 800-877-8339 for TTY assistance.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
announce the availability of the Draft Kauai Islandwide Recovery Plan 
under the Endangered Species Act (Act; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). This 
draft recovery plan addresses 175 listed species occurring on the 
island of Kauai, Hawaii, 111 of which are endemic to Kauai. The draft 
recovery plan includes specific goals, objectives, and criteria that 
should be met to remove the Kauai endemic species from the Federal List 
of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. For the listed 
species that occur on multiple Hawaiian islands, the draft recovery 
plan describes those actions specific to Kauai; complete recovery 
actions and recovery criteria for these species will be covered in a 
subsequent multi-island recovery plan. We request review and comment on 
this draft recovery plan from local, State, and Federal agencies and 
the public. We will also accept any new information on any species' 
status throughout its range.

Background

    Recovery of endangered or threatened animals and plants to the 
point where they are again secure, self-sustaining members of their 
ecosystems is a primary goal of our endangered species program and the 
Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). Recovery means improvement of the status 
of listed species to the point at which listing is no longer 
appropriate under the criteria set out in section 4(a)(1) of the Act. 
The Act requires the development of recovery plans for listed species, 
unless such a plan would not promote the conservation of a particular 
species.

Species Addressed in Recovery Plan

    This draft recovery plan addresses 175 species, as listed in the 
table below. Many of these species have been addressed previously in 
earlier recovery plans; this plan will update and supersede the Kauai-
specific actions in those documents, and is intended to provide a 
single unified reference for the recovery of all listed species on 
Kauai.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                   Most recent
         Scientific name                Common name          Listing status      Kauai endemic    recovery plan
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     PLANTS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Acaena exigua....................  Liliwai.............  Endangered...........  No............  D
Achyranthes mutica...............  No common name......  Endangered...........  No............  A
Adenophorus periens..............  Fern, pendant kihi..  Endangered...........  No............  A
Alectryon macrococcus............  Mahoe...............  Endangered...........  No............  D
Asplenium dielerectum............  Diellia, asplenium-   Endangered...........  No............  A
                                    leaved.
Asplenium dielmannii [=Diellia     No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
 mannii].
Asplenium dielpallidum [=Diellia   No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
 pallida].
Astelia waialealae...............  Painiu..............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Bonamia menziesii................  No common name......  Endangered...........  No............  A

[[Page 23989]]

 
Brighamia insignis...............  Olulu...............  Endangered...........  No............  E
Canavalia napaliensis............  Awikiwiki...........  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Canavalia pubescens..............  Awikiwiki...........  Endangered...........  No............  ----
Charpentiera densiflora..........  Papala..............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Ctenitis squamigera..............  Pauoa...............  Endangered...........  No............  C
Cyanea asarifolia................  Haha................  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Cyanea dolichopoda...............  Haha................  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Cyanea eleeleensis...............  Haha................  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Cyanea kolekoleensis.............  Haha................  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Cyanea kuhihewa..................  Haiwale.............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Cyanea recta.....................  Haha................  Threatened...........  Yes...........  F
Cyanea remyi.....................  Haha................  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
Cyanea undulata..................  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  G
Cyperus pennatiformis............  No common name......  Endangered...........  No............  A
Cyperus trachysanthos............  Puukaa..............  Endangered...........  No............  A
Cyrtandra cyaneoides.............  Mapele..............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
Cyrtandra limahuliensis..........  Haiwale.............  Threatened...........  Yes...........  E
Cyrtandra oenobarba..............  Haiwale.............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Cyrtandra paliku.................  Haiwale.............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Delissea rhytidosperma...........  No common name......  Endangered...........  No............  E
Delissea rivularis...............  Oha.................  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
Diplazium molokaiense............  No common name......  Endangered...........  No............  C
Doryopteris angelica.............  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Dryopteris crinalis var.           Palapalai aumakua...  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
 podosorus.
Dubautia imbricata subsp.          Naenae..............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
 imbricata.
Dubautia kalalauensis............  Naenae..............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Dubautia kenwoodii...............  Naenae..............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Dubautia latifolia...............  Koholapehu..........  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Dubautia pauciflorula............  Naenae..............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  G
Dubautia plantaginea subsp.        Naenae..............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
 magnifolia.
Dubautia waialealae..............  Naenae..............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Euphorbia eleanoriae [=Chamaesyce  Akoko...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
 eleanoriae].
Euphorbia haeleeleana............  Akoko...............  Endangered...........  No............  A
Euphorbia halemanui [=Chamaesyce   Akoko...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
 halemanui].
Euphorbia remyi var. kauaiensis    Akoko...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
 [=Chamaesyce remyi var.
 kauaiensis].
Euphorbia remyi var. remyi         Akoko...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
 [=Chamaesyce remyi var. remyii.
Exocarpos luteolus...............  Heau................  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Flueggea neowawraea..............  Mehamehame..........  Endangered...........  No............  A
Gardenia remyi...................  Nanu................  Endangered...........  No............  ----
Geranium kauaiense...............  Nohoanu.............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Gouania meyenii..................  No common name......  Endangered...........  No............  H
Haplostachys haplostachya........  No common name......  Endangered...........  No............  I
Hesperomannia lydgatei...........  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  G
Hibiscadelphus distans...........  Kauai hau kuahiwi...  Endangered...........  Yes...........  J
Hibiscadelphus woodii............  Hau kuahiwi.........  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
Hibiscus brackenridgei...........  Mao hau hele,         Endangered...........  No............  A
                                    (=native yellow
                                    hibiscus).
Hibiscus clayi...................  Clay's hibiscus.....  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Hibiscus waimeae subsp. hannerae.  Kokio keokeo........  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
Huperzia mannii..................  Wawaeiole...........  Endangered...........  No............  D
Huperzia nutans..................  Wawaeiole...........  Endangered...........  No............  H
Ischaemum byrone.................  Hilo ischaemum......  Endangered...........  No............  K
Isodendrion laurifolium..........  Aupaka..............  Endangered...........  No............  A
Isodendrion longifolium..........  Aupaka..............  Threatened...........  No............  A
Joinvillea ascendens subsp.        Ohe.................  Endangered...........  No............  ----
 ascendens.
Kadua cookiana [=Hedyotis          Awiwi...............  Endangered...........  No............  E
 cookiana].
Kadua fluviatilis [=Hedyotis       Kamapuaa............  Endangered...........  No............  ----
 fluviatilis].
Kadua st.-johnii [=Hedyotis st.-   No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
 johnii].
Kanaloa kahoolawensis............  Kohe malama malama o  Endangered...........  No............  B
                                    kanaloa.
Keysseria erici..................  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Keysseria helenae................  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Kokia kauaiensis.................  Kokio...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
Labordia helleri.................  Kamakahala..........  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Labordia lydgatei................  Kamakahala..........  Endangered...........  Yes...........  G
Labordia pumila..................  Kamakahala..........  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Labordia tinifolia var.            Kamakahala..........  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
 wahiawaensis.
Lipochaeta fauriei [=Melanthera    Nehe................  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
 fauriei].
Lipochaeta micrantha [=Melanthera  Nehe................  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
 micrantha].
Lipochaeta waimeaensis             Nehe................  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
 [=Melanthera waimeaensis].
Lobelia niihauensis..............  No common name......  Endangered...........  No............  H

[[Page 23990]]

 
Lysimachia daphnoides............  Lehua makanoe.......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Lysimachia iniki.................  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Lysimachia pendens...............  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Lysimachia scopulensis...........  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Lysimachia venosa................  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Melicope degeneri................  Alani...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Melicope haupuensis..............  Alani...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Melicope knudsenii...............  Alani...............  Endangered...........  No............  E
Melicope pallida.................  Alani...............  Endangered...........  No............  E
Melicope paniculata..............  Alani...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Melicope puberula................  Alani...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Melicope quadrangularis..........  Alani...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Mezoneuron kavaiense.............  Uhiuhi..............  Endangered...........  No............  L
Myrsine fosbergii................  Kolea...............  Endangered...........  No............  ----
Myrsine knudsenii................  Kolea...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Myrsine linearifolia.............  Kolea...............  Threatened...........  Yes...........  F
Myrsine mezii....................  Kolea...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Nothocestrum latifolium..........  Aiea................  Endangered...........  No............  ----
Nothocestrum peltatum............  Aiea................  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Panicum niihauense...............  Lauehu..............  Endangered...........  No............  A
Peucedanum sandwicense...........  Makou...............  Threatened...........  No............  E
Phyllostegia knudsenii...........  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
Phyllostegia renovans............  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Phyllostegia waimeae.............  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Phyllostegia wawrana.............  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
Pittosporum napaliense...........  Hoawa...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Plantago princeps................  Kuahiwi laukahi.....  Endangered...........  No............  A
Platanthera holochila............  No common name......  Endangered...........  No............  A
Platydesma rostrata..............  Pilokea laulii......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Poa mannii.......................  Mann's bluegrass....  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Poa sandvicensis.................  Hawaiian bluegrass..  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Poa siphonoglossa................  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Polyscias bisattenuata             No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
 [=Tetraplasandra bisattenuata].
Polyscias flynnii                  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
 [=Tetraplasandra flynnii].
Polyscias racemosa                 No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
 [=Munroidendron racemosum].
Pritchardia hardyi...............  Loulu...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Pritchardia napaliensis..........  Loulu...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
Pritchardia viscosa..............  Loulu...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
Psychotria grandiflora...........  Kopiko..............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Psychotria hobdyi................  Kopiko..............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Pteralyxia kauaiensis............  Kaulu...............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Ranunculus mauiensis.............  Makou...............  Endangered...........  No............  ----
Remya kauaiensis.................  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Remya montgomeryi................  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Scaevola coriacea................  Naupaka, dwarf......  Endangered...........  No............  D
Schenkia sebaeoides..............  Awiwi...............  Endangered...........  No............  A
Schiedea apokremnos..............  Maolioli............  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Schiedea attenuata...............  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Schiedea helleri.................  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
Schiedea kauaiensis..............  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
Schiedea lychnoides                Kuawawaenohu........  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
 [=Alsinidendron lychnoides].
Schiedea membranacea.............  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
Schiedea nuttalii................  No common name......  Endangered...........  No............  A
Schiedea spergulina var. leiopoda  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Schiedea spergulina var.           No common name......  Threatened...........  Yes...........  E
 spergulina.
Schiedea stellarioides...........  Laulihilihi.........  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
Schiedea viscosa [=Alsinidendron   No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
 viscosum].
Sesbania tomentosa...............  Ohai................  Endangered...........  No............  A
Silene lanceolata................  No common name......  Endangered...........  No............  M
Solanum incompletum..............  Popolo ku mai.......  Endangered...........  No............  A
Solanum nelsonii.................  Popolo..............  Endangered...........  No............  ----
Solanum sandwicense..............  Popolo aiakeakua....  Endangered...........  No............  E
Spermolepis hawaiiensis..........  No common name......  Endangered...........  No............  A
Stenogyne campanulata............  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Stenogyne kealiae................  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
Viola helenae....................  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  G
Viola kauaiensis var.              Nani waialeale......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  F
 wahiawaensis.
Wilkesia hobdyi..................  Dwarf iliau.........  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Xylosma crenatum.................  No common name......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  E
Zanthoxylum hawaiiense...........  Ae..................  Endangered...........  No............  K
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 23991]]

 
                                                  INVERTEBRATES
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Manduca blackburni...............  Blackburn's sphinx    Endangered...........  No............  N
                                    moth.
Drosophila musaphilia............  Hawaiian picture-     Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
                                    wing fly.
Drosophila sharpi................  Hawaiian picture-     Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
                                    wing fly.
Spelaeorchestia koloana..........  Kauai cave amphipod.  Endangered...........  Yes...........  O
Adelocosa anops..................  Kauai cave wolf       Endangered...........  Yes...........  O
                                    spider.
Erinna newcombi..................  Newcomb's snail.....  Threatened...........  Yes...........  P
Megalagrion xanthomelas..........  Orangeblack Hawaiian  Endangered...........  No............  ----
                                    damselfly.
Megalagrion pacificum............  Pacific Hawaiian      Endangered...........  No............  ----
                                    damselfly.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   VERTEBRATES
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Himantopus mexicanus knudseni....  Hawaiian stilt......  Endangered...........  No............  Q
Oceanodroma castro...............  Akeake, Band-rumped   Endangered...........  No............  ----
                                    storm-petrel
                                    (Hawaii Distinct
                                    Population Segment).
Loxops caeruleirostris...........  Akekee                Endangered...........  Yes...........  ----
                                    (honeycreeper).
Oreomystis bairdi................  Akikiki               Endangered...........  Yes...........  R*
                                    (honeycreeper).
Fulica alai......................  Alae keokeo,          Endangered...........  No............  Q
                                    Hawaiian coot.
Gallinula galeata sandvicensis...  Alae ula, Hawaiian    Endangered...........  No............  Q
                                    common gallinule.
Puffinus newelli.................  Ao, Newell's          Endangered...........  No............  S
                                    shearwater.
Chelonia mydas...................  Green turtle........  Threatened...........  No............  T
Myadestes myadestinus............  Kamao, large Kauai    Endangered...........  Yes...........  R
                                    thrush.
Akialoa stejnegeri...............  Kauai akialoa.......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  R
Hemignathus hanapepe.............  Kauai nukupuu.......  Endangered...........  Yes...........  R
Anas wyvilliana..................  Koloa maoli,          Endangered...........  No............  Q
                                    Hawaiian duck.
Anas laysanensis.................  Laysan duck.........  Endangered...........  No............  U
Branta sandvicensis..............  Nene, Hawaiian goose  Endangered...........  No............  V
Moho braccatus...................  Oo aa, Kauai oo.....  Endangered...........  Yes...........  R
Lasiurus cinereus semotus........  Opeapea, Hawaiian     Endangered...........  No............  W
                                    hoary bat.
Psittirostra psittacea...........  Ou..................  Endangered...........  No............  R
Myadestes palmeri................  Small Kauai thrush..  Endangered...........  Yes...........  R
Pterodroma sandwichensis.........  Hawaiian petrel.....  Endangered...........  No............  S
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
A: Recovery Plan for the Multi-Island Plants (FWS 1999)
B: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Multi-Island Plants (FWS 2002)
C: Final Recovery Plan for Four Species of Hawaiian Ferns (FWS 1998a)
D: Recovery Plan for the Maui Plant Cluster (FWS 1997)
E: Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster (FWS 1995)
F: Kauai II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster (FWS 1998b)
G: Recovery Plan for the Wahiawa Plant Cluster (FWS 1994)
H: Recovery Plan for the Oahu Plants (FWS 1998c)
I: Draft Recovery Plan for Haplostachys haplostachya and Stenogyne angustifolia (FWS 1993)
J: Recovery Plan for Hibiscadelphus distans (FWS 1996a)
K: Recovery Plan for the Big Island Plant Cluster (FWS 1996b)
L: Recovery Plan for Caesalpinia kavaiensis and Kokia drynarioides (FWS 1994)
M: Recovery plan for the Molokai Plant Cluster (FWS 1996c)
N: Recovery Plan for Blackburn's Sphinx Moth (FWS 2005)
O: Final Recovery Plan for the Kauai Cave Arthropods (FWS 2006a)
P: Final Recovery Plan for Newcomb's Snail (FWS 2006b)
Q: Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Waterbirds, Second Revision (FWS 2011)
R: Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds (FWS 2006c)
S: Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan (FWS 1983)
T: Recovery Plan for U.S. Pacific Populations of the Green Turtle (NMFS and FWS 1998)
U: Revised Recovery Plan for the Laysan Duck (FWS 2009)
V: Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Nene or Hawaiian Goose (FWS 2004)
W: Recovery Plan for the Hawaiian Hoary Bat (FWS 1998d)
*: Addressed only as candidate species.

    Major threats to the various Kauai species addressed in this draft 
recovery plan include habitat degradation, predation and herbivory by 
nonnative mammals and invertebrates, disease spread by nonnative 
species, and competition with invasive nonnative plant species.

Recovery Plan Goals

    The objective of a recovery plan is to provide a framework for the 
recovery of a listed species so that protection under the Act is no 
longer necessary. A recovery plan includes scientific information about 
the species and provides criteria and actions necessary for us to be 
able to reclassify the species or remove it from the Federal List of 
Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Recovery plans help 
guide our recovery efforts by describing actions we consider necessary 
for the species' conservation, and by estimating time and costs for 
implementing needed recovery measures.
    The draft recovery plan recommends a combination of islandwide 
recovery actions (e.g., biosecurity), management

[[Page 23992]]

of ecosystem-level threats within specific geographic management units, 
and species-specific recovery actions such as propagation and 
reintroduction.

Request for Public Comments

    Section 4(f) of the Act requires us to provide public notice and an 
opportunity for public review and comment during recovery plan 
development. It is also our policy to request peer review of recovery 
plans (July 1, 1994; 59 FR 34270). In an appendix to the approved 
recovery plan, we will summarize and respond to the issues raised by 
the public and peer reviewers. Substantive comments may or may not 
result in changes to the recovery plan; comments regarding recovery 
plan implementation will be forwarded as appropriate to Federal or 
other entities so that they can be taken into account during the course 
of implementing recovery actions.
    We request written comments on the draft recovery plan. Before we 
approve the plan, we will consider all comments we receive by the date 
specified in DATES. Methods of submitting comments are described in 
ADDRESSES.

Public Availability of Comments

    Before including your address, phone number, email address, or 
other personal identifying information in your comment, you should be 
aware that your entire comment--including your personal identifying 
information--may be made publicly available at any time. While you can 
ask us in your comment to withhold your personal identifying 
information from public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be 
able to do so.

Authority

    The authority for this action is section 4(f) of the Endangered 
Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.).

Mary Abrams,
Acting Regional Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
[FR Doc. 2020-09177 Filed 4-29-20; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4333-15-P