General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds, 21282-21305 [2020-06779]

Download as PDF 21282 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 10 [Docket No. FWS–HQ–MB–2018–0047; FXMB 12320900000//201//FF09M29000] RIN 1018–BC67 General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. AGENCY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), revise the List of Migratory Birds protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) by both adding and removing species. Reasons for the changes to the list include adding species based on new taxonomy and new evidence of natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories, removing species no longer known to occur within the United States or U.S. territories, and changing names to conform to accepted use. The net increase of 67 species (75 added and 8 removed) will bring the total number of species protected by the MBTA to 1,093. We regulate the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate and up-todate list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for public notification and regulatory purposes. DATES: This rule is effective May 18, 2020. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Eric L. Kershner, Chief of the Branch of Conservation, Permits, and Regulations; Division of Migratory Bird Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; MS: MB; 5275 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041–3803; (703) 358–2376. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 SUMMARY: What statutory authority does the service have for this rulemaking? We have statutory authority and responsibility for enforcing the MBTA (16 U.S.C. 703–712), the Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 742l), and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a–j). The MBTA implements Conventions between the United States and four neighboring countries for the protection of migratory birds, as follows: (1) Canada: Convention between the United States and Great Britain [on behalf of Canada] for the Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 1916, 39 Stat. 1702 (T.S. No. 628), as amended by Protocol between the Government of the VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 United States and the Government of Canada Amending the 1916 Convention between the United Kingdom and the United States of America for the Protection of Migratory Birds, Sen. Treaty Doc. 104–28 (December 14, 1995); (2) Mexico: Convention between the United States and Mexico for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, 50 Stat. 1311 (T.S. No. 912), as amended by Protocol with Mexico amending Convention for Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, Sen. Treaty Doc. 105–26 (May 5, 1997); (3) Japan: Convention between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 4, 1972, 25 U.S.T. 3329 (T.I.A.S. No. 7990); and (4) Russia: Convention between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning the Conservation of Migratory Birds and Their Environment (Russia), November 19, 1976, 29 U.S.T. 4647 (T.I.A.S. No. 9073). What is the purpose of this rulemaking? Our purpose is to inform the public of the species protected by the MBTA and its implementing regulations. These regulations are found in Title 50, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), parts 10, 20, and 21. We regulate the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for notifying the public of regulatory protections. Why is the amendment of the List of Migratory Birds necessary? The amendments we are adopting in this final rule are needed to: (1) Add 16 species that qualify for protection under the MBTA; (2) Correct the spelling of 3 species names on the alphabetized list; (3) Correct the spelling of 3 species names on the taxonomic list; (4) Add 30 species based on new distributional records documenting their natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories since 2010; (5) Add one species moved from a family that was not protected to a family protected under the MBTA as a result of taxonomic changes; (6) Add 28 species newly recognized as a result of recent taxonomic changes; (7) Remove 8 species not known to occur within the boundaries of the PO 00000 Frm 00002 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 United States or U.S. territories as a result of recent taxonomic changes; (8) Change the common (English) names of 43 species to conform to accepted use; and (9) Change the scientific names of 135 species to conform to accepted use. The List of Migratory Birds (50 CFR 10.13) was last revised on November 1, 2013 (78 FR 65844). The amendments in this rule were necessitated by nine published supplements to the 7th (1998) edition of the American Ornithologists’ Union (AOU, now recognized as the American Ornithological Society (AOS)) Check-list of North American Birds (AOU 2011, AOU 2012, AOU 2013, AOU 2014, AOU 2015, AOU 2016, AOS 2017, AOS 2018, and AOS 2019) and the 2017 publication of the Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (Clements et al. 2017). What scientific authorities are used to amend the List of Migratory Birds? Although bird names (common and scientific) are relatively stable, staying current with standardized use is necessary to avoid confusion in communications. In making our determinations, we primarily relied on the AOS’s Checklist of North American birds (AOU 1998), as amended annually (AOU 1999 through 2016, AOS 2017 through 2019), on matters of taxonomy, nomenclature, and the sequence of species and other higher taxonomic categories (Orders, Families, Subfamilies) for species that occur in North America. The AOU (now AOS) Checklist of North American Birds (Checklist), developed by the AOU Committee on Classification and Nomenclature, has been the recognized taxonomic authority for North American birds since publication of the first edition of the Checklist in 1886. The committee compiles the taxonomic foundation for ornithology in North America; evaluating and codifying the latest scientific developments in the systematics, classification, nomenclature, and distribution of North American birds. Thus, the AOS’s Checklist represents the best information available for developing the North American component of this List of Migratory Birds. In keeping with the increasing numbers of study areas on which taxonomy relies, the committee incorporates expertise in phylogenetics, genomics, vocalizations, morphology, behavior, and geographical distribution, as well as general ornithological knowledge. The AOS Checklist contains all bird species that have occurred in North America from the Arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and the Hawaiian Islands, and includes E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations distributional information for each species, which specifies whether the species is known to occur in the United States. The committee also keeps and updates a list of species known to occur in the United States. For the species that occur outside the geographic area covered by the AOS Checklist, we relied primarily on the Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (Clements Checklist) (Clements et al. 2007), the Clements Checklist 2017 installment of updates and corrections (Clements et al. 2017), and other peerreviewed literature where appropriate. The Clements Checklist is a list of all known bird species in the world and is maintained and updated annually by the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology (CLO). The CLO relies on different regional ornithological authorities to compile the list, using the AOS for the western hemisphere. Taxonomy and nomenclature are the primary focus of the Clements Checklist, but range descriptions are maintained and updated based on the best available information and do not include records of vagrancy. Although the Service primarily relies on the above sources, when informed taxonomic opinion or documented natural distribution is inconsistent or controversial, the Service evaluates available published and unpublished information and comes to its own conclusions regarding the validity of taxa and records of distribution. jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 What criteria are used to identify individual species protected by the MBTA? A species qualifies for protection under the MBTA by meeting one or more of the following criteria: (1) It occurs in the United States or U.S. territories as the result of natural biological or ecological processes and is currently, or was previously listed as, a species or part of a family protected by one of the four international treaties or their amendments. Any species that occurs in the United States or U.S. territories solely as a result of intentional or unintentional humanassisted introduction does not qualify for the MBTA list, regardless of whether the family the species belongs to is listed in any of the treaties, unless: • It was native to the United States or its territories and extant in 1918; • It was extirpated after 1918 throughout its range in the United States and its territories; and • After such extirpation, it was reintroduced in the United States or its territories as part of a program carried out by a Federal agency. VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 (2) Revised taxonomy results in it being newly split from a species that was previously on the list, and the new species occurs in the United States or U.S. territories as the result of natural biological or ecological processes. If a newly recognized native species is considered extinct (following the classification of the AOS) or, for species not covered by the AOS, the Clements Checklist or peer-reviewed literature), that species will still be included if either of the following criteria apply: • The species resembles extant species included in the list that may be affected by trade if the species is not included; or • Not including the species may create difficulties implementing the MBTA and its underlying Conventions. (3) New evidence exists for its natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories resulting from natural distributional changes and the species occurs in a protected family. Records must be documented, accepted, and published by the AOS committee. For the U.S. Pacific territories that fall outside the geographic scope of the AOS and for which there is no identified ornithological authority, new evidence of a species’ natural occurrence will be based on the Clements Checklist and then published peer-reviewed literature, in that order. In accordance with the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act of 2004 (MBTRA) (Pub. L. 108–447, 118 Stat. 2809, 3071– 72), we only include migratory bird species that are native to the United States or U.S. territories. A native migratory bird species is one that is present as a result of natural biological or ecological processes. The list at 50 CFR 10.13 does not include nonnative species that occur in the United States or U.S. territories solely as a result of intentional or unintentional humanassisted introduction(s). Elsewhere in today’s Federal Register, we publish a list of nonnative bird species that are not protected under the MBTA. How do the changes affect the List of Migratory Birds? Several taxonomic changes were made at the Order and Family level by the AOS since our 2013 publication of the list (78 FR 65844; November 1, 2013). These changes affect the inclusion and taxonomic order of species on this list. Specifically, the Order Cathartiformes (New World vultures) was split from the Accipitriformes (diurnal birds of prey). Cathartiformes now includes the Family Cathartidae (vultures and California Condor, Gymnogyps californianus). At the Family level, the Oceanitidae PO 00000 Frm 00003 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 21283 (southern storm-petrels) was split from the Hydrobatidae (northern stormpetrels), the Tityridae (becards and tityras) was split from the Tyrannidae (tyrant flycatchers), the Passerellidae (towhees, sparrows, and juncos) was split from the Emberizidae (buntings), and the Megaluridae (Locustella warblers) was renamed to Locustellidae. The Ptilogonatidae (silky-flycatchers) was renamed to the Ptiliogonatidae. The Nesospingidae (Puerto Rican Tanager) and the Spindalidae (Spindalis genus) were split from the Thraupidae (tanagers). The yellow-breasted chat was split from the Parulidae (wood-warblers) and placed into Icteriidae (chats). Within the Scolopacidae (sandpipers, phalaropes, and allies), new Subfamilies were created: The curlews were moved to Numeniinae; the godwits to Limosinae; and small sandpipers to Arenariinae and larger sandpipers to Tringinae, including phalaropes whose previous Subfamily Phalaropodinae was removed. Within the Accipitridae (hawks, eagles, and kites), new Subfamilies were created: The Whitetailed Kite was move to Elaninae, Hookbilled and Swallow-tailed Kite were moved to Gypaetinae, and all other members of the family were moved to Accipitrinae. Within the Icteridae (blackbirds), new Subfamilies were created: Yellow-headed blackbird was moved to Xanthocephalinae; bobolink was moved to Dolichonychinae; meadowlarks were moved to Sturnellinae; orioles were moved to Icterinae; and blackbirds, cowbirds, and grackles were moved to Agelaiinae. In the Falconidae (caracaras and falcons), collared forest-falcon was moved into the new Subfamily Herpetotherinae, and the Subfamily Caracarinae was removed, with crested caracara moved to the Subfamily Falconinae. In the Fringillidae (finches and allies), the Hawaiian fringillids were moved from the Subfamily Drepanidinae to Carduelinae. The Old World flycatchers in the Turdidae (thrushes) were moved to the Muscicapidae (Old World flycatchers). Bananaquit was moved from the Coerebidae (a family not protected by MBTA) to the Thraupidae (tanagers and allies), which is a family protected by the MBTA. All other tanagers were also moved from the Emberizidae (sparrows) to the Thraupidae. Within Thraupidae, the seedeaters were moved into the Subfamily Sporophilinae, and bananaquit, grassquits, and bullfinches were moved into the Subfamily Coerebinae. All species previously receiving protection under the MBTA that have E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 21284 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations been moved to newly created Families continue to be protected under the MBTA. The amendments affect a total of 252 species; 75 additions, 8 removals, and 178 name changes covering 169 species (9 species had both scientific and common name changes). The result is a net addition of 67 species to the List of Migratory Birds, increasing the number of species on the list from 1,026 to 1,093. Of the 75 species that we add to the list, 28 were previously covered under the MBTA as members of the same species (conspecific) of listed species. These amendments can be logically arranged in the following nine categories: (1) Add 16 species that qualify for protection by the MBTA but have not been added previously. The addition of these species is the result of either accepting AOS taxonomic updates that were previously excluded or determinations of documented natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories. The species and relevant publication(s) are: Pink-footed Goose, Anser brachyrhynchus (AOS 2019); Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii (AOU 2004); Long-tailed Koel, Urodynamis taitensis (Wiles 2005); White-tailed Nightjar, Hydropsalis cayennensis (AOU 1983); Vervain Hummingbird, Mellisuga minima (AOU 1983); Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus (Enbring and Owen 1981); Common Redshank, Tringa totanus (Wiles 2005); Nazca Booby, Sula granti (AOS 2019); Abbott’s Booby, Papasula abbotti (Pratt et al. 2009); Rufous Night-Heron, Nycticorax caledonicus (Glass et al. 1990); Gray-faced Buzzard, Butastur indicus (Stinson et al. 1997); Eastern Marsh-Harrier, Circus spilonotus (Wiles et al. 2000); Amur Falcon, Falco amurensis (Stinson et al. 1991); Eurasian Jackdaw, Corvus monedula (AOU 1998); Redwing, Turdus iliacus (AOU 1998); Common Kingfisher, Alcedo atthis (Wiles et al. 1993). (2) Correct the spelling of three common or scientific names on the alphabetized list: Eared Quetzel, Euptilotis neoxenus, becomes Eared Quetzal Red-footed falcon, Flaco vespertinus, becomes Falco vespertinus Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophalus becomes Legatus leucophaius VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 (3) Correct the spelling of three common or scientific names on the taxonomic list: Eared Quetzel, Euptilotis neoxenus, becomes Eared Quetzal White-crested Eleania, Elaenia albiceps becomes White-crested Elaenia Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophalus becomes Legatus leucophaius (4) Add 30 species based on review and acceptance by the AOS (since 2010) or by other appropriate ornithological authorities of new distributional records documenting their occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories. These species belong to families covered by at least one of the four international conventions, and all are considered to be of accidental or casual occurrence. For each species, we list the State in which it has been recorded plus the relevant publication: Common Scoter, Melanitta nigra— California and Oregon (AOS 2017); Amethyst-throated Mountain-gem, Lampornis amethystinus—Texas (AOS 2018, AOS 2019); Rufous-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides axillaris—New Mexico (AOU 2016); Solitary Snipe, Gallinago solitaria— Alaska (AOU 2011); Chatham Albatross, Thalassarche eremita—California (AOS 2017); European Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates pelagicus—North Carolina and Florida (AOS 2019); Providence Petrel, Pterodroma solandri—Alaska (AOU 2013); Fea’s Petrel, Pterodroma feae—North Carolina, Georgia, Virginia (AOU 2013); Zino’s Petrel, Pterodroma madeira— North Carolina, (AOU 2015); White-chinned Petrel, Procellaria aequinoctialis—Texas, California, Maine (AOU 2011); Bryan’s Shearwater, Puffinus bryani— Hawaii (AOU 2012); Bare-throated Tiger-Heron, Tigrisoma mexicanum—Texas (AOU 2011); Double-toothed Kite, Harpagus bidentatus—Texas (AOU 2013); Great Black Hawk, Buteogallus urubitinga—Texas and Maine (AOS 2019); Amazon Kingfisher, Chloroceryle amazona—Texas (AOU 2011); Gray-collared Becard, Pachyramphus major—Arizona (AOU 2011); Pine Flycatcher, Empidonax affinis— Arizona (AOS 2018); Cuban Vireo, Vireo gundlachii— Florida (AOS 2018); Common Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita—Alaska (AOU 2014); Thick-billed Warbler, Arundinax aedon—Alaska (AOS 2019); Blyth’s Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus dumetorum—Alaska (AOU 2017); PO 00000 Frm 00004 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 River Warbler, Locustella fluviatilis— Alaska (AOS 2019); European Robin, Erithacus rubecula— Pennsylvania (AOS 2019); Common Redstart, Phoenicurus phoenicurus—Alaska (AOU 2015); Pied Wheatear, Oenanthe pleschanka—Alaska (AOS 2019); Brown-backed Solitaire, Myadestes occidentalis—Arizona (AOU 2011); Pallas’s Rosefinch, Carpodacus roseus—Alaska (AOS 2019); Asian Rosy-Finch, Leucosticte arctoa—Alaska (AOU 2013); Black-backed Oriole, Icterus abeillei— Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Connecticut (AOS 2019); Red-legged Honeycreeper, Cyanerpes cyaneus—Texas (AOS 2017). (5) Add one species because of recent taxonomic changes transferring a species in a Family formerly not protected by the MBTA (Coerebidae) into a Family protected under the MBTA (Thraupidae). We reference the AOS publication supporting the change: Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola (AOU 2015). (6) Add 28 species because of recent taxonomic changes in which taxa formerly treated as conspecific have been determined to be distinct species. Given that each of these species was formerly treated as conspecific with a listed species, these additions do not change the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, we reference the AOS or relevant publication supporting the change: Stejneger’s Scoter, Melanitta stejnegeri—formerly considered conspecific with Velvet Scoter, Melanitta fusca (AOS 2019); Ridgway’s Rail, Rallus obsoletus— formerly considered conspecific with Clapper Rail, Rallus longirostris (AOU 2014); Common Gallinule, Gallinula galeata—formerly considered conspecific with Common Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus (AOU 2011); Scripps’s Murrelet, Synthliboramphus scrippsi—formerly considered conspecific with Xantus’s Murrelet, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (AOU 2012); Salvin’s Albatross, Thalassarche salvini—formerly considered conspecific with Shy Albatross, Thalassarche cauta (AOU 2014); Gray-faced Petrel, Pterodroma gouldi—formerly considered conspecific with Great-winged Petrel, Pterodroma macroptera (AOS 2019); Trindade Petrel, Pterodroma arminjoniana —formerly considered conspecific with Herald Petrel, Pterodroma heraldica (AOU 2015); E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 Newell’s Shearwater, Puffinus newelli—formerly considered conspecific with Townsend’s Shearwater, Puffinus auricularis (AOU 2015); Barolo Shearwater, Puffinus baroli— formerly considered conspecific with Little Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis (AOU 2013); Townsend’s Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates socorroensis—formerly considered conspecific with Leach’s Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhous (AOU 2016, AOS 2019); Northern Boobook, Ninox japonica— formerly considered conspecific with Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata (AOU 2014); Pacific Kingfisher, Todiramphus sacer—formerly considered conspecific with Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements et al. 2015); Mariana Kingfisher, Todiramphus albicilla—formerly considered conspecific with Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements et al. 2015); Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma woodhouseii—formerly considered conspecific with Western Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma californica (AOU 2016); Kamchatka Leaf Warbler, Phylloscopus examinandus—formerly considered conspecific with Arctic Warbler, Phylloscopus borealis (AOU 2014); Saipan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus hiwae—formerly considered conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius (Clements et al. 2013); Aguiguan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus nijoi—formerly considered conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius (Clements et al. 2013); Pagan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus yamashinae—formerly considered conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius (Clements et al. 2013); Laysan Honeycreeper, Himatione fraithii— formerly considered conspecific with Apapane, Himatione sanguinea (AOU 2015) Kauai Nukupu‘u, Hemignathus hanapepe—formerly considered conspecific with Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus (AOU 2015); Maui Nukupu‘u, Hemignathus affins—formerly considered conspecific with Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus (AOU 2015); Kauai ‘Akialoa, Akialoa stejnegeri— formerly considered conspecific with Greater Akialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (AOU 2015); Maui Nui ‘Akialoa, Akialoa lanaiensis—formerly considered conspecific with Greater Akialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (AOU 2015); O‘ahu ‘Akepa, Loxops wolstenholmei—formerly considered conspecific with Akepa, Loxops coccineus (AOU 2015); Maui ‘Akepa, Loxops ochraceus— formerly considered conspecific with Akepa, Loxops coccineus (AOU 2015); Cassia Crossbill, Loxia sinesciuris— formerly considered conspecific with Red Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra (AOS 2017); Sagebrush Sparrow, Artemisiospiza nevadensis—formerly considered conspecific with Sage Sparrow, Amphispiza belli (AOU 2013); Morelet’s Seedeater, Sporophila morelleti—formerly considered conspecific with White-collared Seedeater, Sporophila torqueola (AOS 2018). (7) Remove eight species based on revised taxonomic treatments, either because a species is taxonomically merged with another species, either on or off the list; a species previously on the list is taxonomically split into multiple species and the new species is not known to occur within the United States or U.S. territories; or the species is considered extinct (following the classification of the AOS or, for species not covered by the AOS, the Clements Checklist or peer-reviewed literature) unless any of the following criteria apply: It is protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), or the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES; 27 U.S.T. 1087); it resembles extant species included in the list that may be affected by its removal; or its removal would create difficulties implementing the Publication source and year Previous common name AOU 2004 ................. Canada Goose (including Branta hutchinsii), Branta canadensis. Common Ground-Dove, Columbina passerina .................... Ruddy Ground-Dove, Columbina talpacoti ........................... Green Violetear, Colibri thalassinus ..................................... Magnificent hummingbird, Eugenes fulgens ........................ Blue-throated Hummingbird, Lampornis clemenciae ........... Xantus’s Murrelet, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus ............... AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOU 2016 ................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOU 2012 ................. VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00005 Fmt 4701 21285 MBTA and its underlying Conventions. In each case, we reference the publication supporting these changes: Thayer’s Gull, Larus thayeri, now a subspecies of Iceland Gull, Larus glaucoides (AOS 2017); Great-winged Petrel, Pterodroma macroptera (AOS 2019); Townsend’s Shearwater, Puffinus auricularis (AOU 2015); Little Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis (AOU 2015); Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata (AOU 2014); Caribbean Coot, Fulica caribaea (AOU 2016); Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements et al. 2015); White-collared Seedeater, Sporophila torqueola (AOS 2018). (8) Revise the common (English) names of 43 species to conform to the most recent nomenclatural treatment as described in AOU publications 2011 through 2017, AOS 2018 and 2019 and Clements et al. (2017). Hawaiian species names are modified to official Hawaiian spelling, following the Pukui-Elbert Hawaiian Dictionary, adding the diacritical marks to the common names where applicable. The Government Publishing Office Style Manual requires the words Hawaii and Kauai to be spelled without the diacritical mark. These revisions do not change the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, the update is described in the table, below. (9) Revise the scientific names of 135 species to conform to the most recent nomenclatural treatment as described in AOU publications 2011 through 2017, AOS 2018 and 2019 and Clements et al. (2017). These revisions do not change the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, the update is described in the table, below. Table of name changes, as described in categories 8 and 9, above, follows. Table is organized following AOS (2019) taxonomic order. The relevant AOS publication is provided. Hawaiian common name changes are indicated with a (—). Current common name Sfmt 4700 Canada Goose, Branta canadensis. Common Ground Dove, Columbina passerina. Ruddy Ground Dove, Columbina talpacoti. Mexican Violetear, Colibri thalassinus. Rivoli’s Hummingbird, Eugenes fulgens. Blue-throated Mountain-gem, Lampornis clemenciae. Guadalupe Murrelet, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus. E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 21286 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Publication source and year Previous common name AOU 2014 ................. AOU 2015 ................. Clements et al. 2000 AOU 2012 ................. AOU 2014 ................. AOS 2018 .................. AOU 2016 ................. AOU 2016 ................. AOU 2014 ................. — ............................... — ............................... — ............................... AOS 2017 .................. AOU 2015 ................. — ............................... — ............................... — ............................... — ............................... — ............................... — ............................... — ............................... — ............................... — ............................... — ............................... — ............................... AOU 2015 ................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2019 .................. Clements et al. 2017 Clements et al. 2010 AOU 2012 ................. AOU 2012 ................. AOU 2012 ................. AOU 2012 ................. AOU 2012 ................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOU 2012 ................. AOU 2014 ................. AOU 2016 ................. AOU 2012 ................. AOU 2016 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2013 ................. AOU 2013 ................. AOU 2013 ................. AOU 2013 ................. AOU 2013 ................. AOS 2017 .................. AOU 2003 ................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. Shy Albatross, Thalassarche cauta ...................................... Herald Petrel, Pterodroma arminjoniana .............................. Pacific Reef-Egret, Egretta sacra ......................................... Gray Frog-Hawk, Accipiter soloensis ................................... Common Black-Hawk, Buteogallus anthracinus .................. Gray Jay, Perisoreus canadensis ........................................ Western Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma californica ....................... Eurasian Sky Lark, Alauda arvensis .................................... Pallas’s Leaf-Warbler, Phylloscopus proregulus .................. Kamao, Myadestes myadestinus ......................................... Olomao, Myadestes lanaiensis ............................................ Omao, Myadestes obscurus ................................................. Le Conte’s Thrasher, Toxostoma lecontei ........................... Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus ............................................ Poo-uli, Melamprosops phaeosoma ..................................... Akikiki, Oreomystis bairdi ..................................................... Oahu Alauahio, Paroreomyza maculata .............................. Kakawahie, Paroreomyza flammea ...................................... Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana ................................ Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei ................................................... Apapane, Himatione sanguinea ........................................... Iiwi, Drepanis coccinea ......................................................... Ou, Psittirostra psittacea ...................................................... Anianiau, Magumma parva .................................................. Akekee, Loxops caeruleirostris ............................................ Akepa, Loxops coccineus ..................................................... Le Conte’s Sparrow, Ammodramus leconteii ....................... Emperor Goose, Chen canagica .......................................... Snow Goose, Chen caerulescens ........................................ Ross’s Goose, Chen rossii ................................................... Baikal Teal, Anas formosa ................................................... Garganey, Anas querquedula .............................................. Blue-winged Teal, Anas discors ........................................... Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera ........................................ Northern Shoveler, Anas clypeata ....................................... Gadwall, Anas strepera ........................................................ Falcated Duck, Anas falcata ................................................ Eurasian Wigeon, Anas penelope ........................................ American Wigeon, Anas americana ..................................... White-winged Scoter, Melanitta fusca .................................. White-throated Ground-Dove, Gallicolumba xanthonura ..... Hodgson’s Hawk-Cuckoo, Cuculus fugax ............................ Chuck-will’s-widow, Caprimulgus carolinensis ..................... Buff-collared Nightjar, Caprimulgus ridgwayi ....................... Eastern Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus ................... Mexican Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus arizonae ................... Puerto Rican Nightjar, Caprimulgus noctitherus .................. Gray Nightjar, Caprimulgus indicus ...................................... Bahama Woodstar, Calliphlox evelynae .............................. Calliope Hummingbird, Stellula calliope ............................... Clapper Rail, Rallus longirostris ........................................... Yellow-breasted Crake, Porzana flaviventer ........................ Purple Gallinule, Porphyrio martinica ................................... Sandhill Crane, Grus canadensis ......................................... Snowy Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus .............................. Surfbird, Aphriza virgata ....................................................... Ruff, Philomachus pugnax ................................................... Broad-billed Sandpiper, Limicola falcinellus ......................... Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Eurynorhynchus pygmeus ............ Buff-breasted Sandpiper, Tryngites subruficollis .................. Blue-gray Noddy, Procelsterna cerulea ............................... Whiskered Tern, Chlidonias hybridus .................................. Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma furcata .................. Ringed Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma hornbyi ....................... Swinhoe’s Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma monorhis ............... Leach’s Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa .................. Townsend’s Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma socorroensis ....... Ashy Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma homochroa .................... Band-rumped Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma castro ............... Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma tethys ............ Black Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma melania ......................... Tristram’s Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma tristrami .................. Least Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma microsoma .................... VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00006 Fmt 4701 Current common name Sfmt 4700 White-capped Albatross, Thalassarche cauta. Trindade Petrel, Pterodroma arminjoniana. Pacific Reef-Heron, Egretta sacra. Chinese Sparrowhawk, Accipiter soloensis. Common Black Hawk, Buteogallus anthracinus. Canada Jay, Perisoreus canadensis. California Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma californica. Eurasian Skylark, Alauda arvensis. Pallas’s Leaf Warbler, Phylloscopus proregulus. Ka¯ma1o, Myadestes myadestinus. Oloma1o, Myadestes lanaiensis. ¯ mar1o, Myadestes obscurus. 1O LeConte’s Thrasher, Toxostoma lecontei. O1ahu Nukupu1u, Hemignathus lucidus. Po1ouli, Melamprosops phaeosoma. 1Akikiki, Oreomystis bairdi. O1ahu 1Alauahio, Paroreomyza maculata. Ka¯ka¯wahie, Paroreomyza flammea. Maui 1Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana. 1Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei. 1Apapane, Himatione sanguinea. 1I1iwi, Drepanis coccinea. ¯ 1u¯, Psittirostra psittacea. 1O 1Anianiau, Magumma parva. 1Akeke1e, Loxops caeruleirostris. Hawaii 1Akepa, Loxops coccineus. LeConte’s Sparrow, Ammodramus leconteii. Emperor Goose, Anser canagicus. Snow Goose, Anser caerulescens. Ross’s Goose, Anser rossii. Baikal Teal, Sibirionetta formosa. Garganey, Spatula querquedula. Blue-winged Teal, Spatula discors. Cinnamon Teal, Spatula cyanoptera. Northern Shoveler, Spatula clypeata. Gadwall, Mareca strepera. Falcated Duck, Mareca falcata. Eurasian Wigeon, Mareca penelope. American Wigeon, Mareca americana. White-winged Scoter, Melanitta deglandi. White-throated Ground-Dove, Alopecoenas xanthonurus. Hodgson’s Hawk-Cuckoo, Hierococcyx nisicolor. Chuck-will’s-widow, Antrostomus carolinensis. Buff-collared Nightjar, Antrostomus ridgwayi. Eastern Whip-poor-will, Antrostomus vociferus. Mexican Whip-poor-will, Antrostomus arizonae. Puerto Rican Nightjar, Antrostomus noctitherus. Gray Nightjar, Caprimulgus jotaka. Bahama Woodstar, Nesophlox evelynae. Calliope Hummingbird, Selasphorus calliope. Clapper Rail, Rallus crepitans. Yellow-breasted Crake, Hapalocrex flaviventer. Purple Gallinule, Porphyrio martinicus. Sandhill Crane, Antigone canadensis. Snowy Plover, Charadrius nivosus. Surfbird, Calidris virgata. Ruff, Calidris pugnax. Broad-billed Sandpiper, Calidris falcinellus. Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Calidris pygmea. Buff-breasted Sandpiper, Calidris subruficollis. Blue-gray Noddy, Anous ceruleus. Whiskered Tern, Chlidonias hybrida. Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates furcatus. Ringed Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates hornbyi. Swinhoe’s Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates monorhis. Leach’s Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates leucorhous. Townsend’s Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates socorroensis. Ashy Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates homochroa. Band-rumped Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates castro. Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates tethys. Black Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates melania. Tristram’s Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates tristrami. Least Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates microsoma. E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Publication source and year Previous common name AOS 2018 .................. AOU 2016 ................. AOU 2016 ................. AOU 2016 ................. AOU 2016 ................. AOU 2016 ................. AOU 2016 ................. AOU 2016 ................. AOS 2017 .................. AOS 2017 .................. AOU 2015 ................. AOU 2015 ................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2018 .................. AOU 2013 ................. AOS 2017 .................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2012 ................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2018 .................. Clements et al. 2015 Clements et al. 2015 AOU 2013 ................. AOU 2012 ................. AOU 2012 ................. AOU 2012 ................. AOU 2015 ................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2018 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2019 .................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. Tahiti Petrel, Pterodroma rostrata ........................................ Wedge-tailed Shearwater, Puffinus pacificus ....................... Buller’s Shearwater, Puffinus bulleri .................................... Short-tailed Shearwater, Puffinus tenuirostris ...................... Sooty Shearwater, Puffinus griseus ..................................... Great Shearwater, Puffinus gravis ....................................... Pink-footed Shearwater, Puffinus creatopus ........................ Flesh-footed Shearwater, Puffinus carneipes ...................... Intermediate Egret, Mesophoyx intermedia ......................... Northern Harrier, Circus cyaneus ......................................... Roadside Hawk, Buteo magnirostris .................................... White-tailed Hawk, Buteo albicaudatus ................................ Downy Woodpecker, Picoides pubescens ........................... Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Picoides nuttallii ............................... Ladder-backed Woodpecker, Picoides scalaris ................... Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Picoides borealis .................... Hairy Woodpecker, Picoides villosus ................................... White-headed Woodpecker, Picoides albolarvatus .............. Arizona Woodpecker, Picoides arizonae ............................. Flammulated Owl, Otus flammeolus .................................... Northern Shrike, Lanius excubitor ........................................ Mexican Jay, Aphelocoma ultramarina ................................ Sinaloa Wren, Thryothorus sinaloa ...................................... Siberian Blue Robin, Luscinia cyane ................................... Rufous-tailed Robin, Luscinia sibilans ................................. Bluethroat, Luscinia svecica ................................................. Siberian Rubythroat, Luscinia calliope ................................. Chestnut-cheeked Starling, Sturnus phillippensis ................ White-cheeked Starling, Sturnus cineraceus ....................... Gray Silky-flycatcher, Ptilogonys cinereus ........................... House Finch, Carpodacus mexicanus ................................. Purple Finch, Carpodacus purpureus .................................. Cassin’s Finch, Carpodacus cassinii .................................... American Tree Sparrow, Spizella arborea ........................... LeConte’s Sparrow, Ammodramus leconteii ........................ Seaside Sparrow, Ammodramus maritima ........................... Nelson’s Sparrow, Ammodramus nelsoni ............................ Saltmarsh Sparrow, Ammodramus caudacuta ..................... Baird’s Sparrow, Ammodramus bairdii ................................. Henslow’s Sparrow, Ammodramus henslowii ...................... Tennessee Warbler, Oreothlypis peregrina ......................... Orange-crowned Warbler, Oreothlypis celata ...................... Colima Warbler, Oreothlypis crissalis .................................. Lucy’s Warbler, Oreothlypis luciae ....................................... Nashville Warbler, Oreothlypis ruficapilla ............................. Virginia’s Warbler, Oreothlypis virginiae .............................. MacGillivray’s Warbler, Oporornis tolmiei ............................ Mourning Warbler, Oporornis philadelphia ........................... Kentucky Warbler, Oporornis formosus ............................... Elfin-woods Warbler, Dendroica angelae ............................. Hooded Warbler, Wilsonia citrina ......................................... Kirtland’s Warbler, Dendroica kirtlandii ................................ Cape May Warbler, Dendroica tigrina .................................. Cerulean Warbler, Dendroica cerulea .................................. Northern Parula, Parula americana ...................................... Tropical Parula, Parula pitiayumi ......................................... Magnolia Warbler, Dendroica magnolia ............................... Bay-breasted Warbler, Dendroica castanea ........................ Blackburnian Warbler, Dendroica fusca ............................... Yellow Warbler, Dendroica petechia .................................... Chestnut-sided Warbler, Dendroica pensylvanica ............... Blackpoll Warbler, Dendroica striata .................................... Black-throated Blue Warbler, Dendroica caerulescens ....... Palm Warbler, Dendroica palmarum .................................... Pine Warbler, Dendroica pinus ............................................ Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata ...................... Yellow-throated Warbler, Dendroica dominica ..................... Prairie Warbler, Dendroica discolor ..................................... Adelaide’s Warbler, Dendroica adelaidae ............................ Grace’s Warbler, Dendroica graciae .................................... Black-throated Gray Warbler, Dendroica nigrescens ........... Townsend’s Warbler, Dendroica townsendi ......................... Hermit Warbler, Dendroica occidentalis ............................... VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00007 Fmt 4701 21287 Current common name Sfmt 4700 Tahiti Petrel, Pseudobulweria rostrata. Wedge-tailed Shearwater, Ardenna pacifica. Buller’s Shearwater, Ardenna bulleri. Short-tailed Shearwater, Ardenna tenuirostris. Sooty Shearwater, Ardenna grisea. Great Shearwater, Ardenna gravis. Pink-footed Shearwater, Ardenna creatopus. Flesh-footed Shearwater, Ardenna carneipes. Intermediate Egret, Ardea intermedia. Northern Harrier, Circus hudsonius. Roadside Hawk, Rupornis magnirostris. White-tailed Hawk, Geranoaetus albicaudatus. Downy Woodpecker, Dryobates pubescens. Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Dryobates nuttallii. Ladder-backed Woodpecker, Dryobates scalaris. Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Dryobates borealis. Hairy Woodpecker, Dryobates villosus. White-headed Woodpecker, Dryobates albolarvatus. Arizona Woodpecker, Dryobates arizonae. Flammulated Owl, Psiloscops flammeolus. Northern Shrike, Lanius borealis. Mexican Jay, Aphelocoma wollweberi. Sinaloa Wren, Thryophilus sinaloa. Siberian Blue Robin, Larvivora cyane. Rufous-tailed Robin, Larvivora sibilans. Bluethroat, Cyanecula svecica. Siberian Rubythroat, Calliope calliope. Chestnut-cheeked Starling, Agropsar philippensis. White-cheeked Starling, Spodiopsar cineraceus. Gray Silky-flycatcher, Ptiliogonys cinereus. House Finch, Haemorhous mexicanus. Purple Finch, Haemorhous purpureus. Cassin’s Finch, Haemorhous cassinii. American Tree Sparrow, Spizelloides arborea. LeConte’s Sparrow, Ammospiza leconteii. Seaside Sparrow, Ammospiza maritima. Nelson’s Sparrow, Ammospiza nelsoni. Saltmarsh Sparrow, Ammospiza caudacuta. Baird’s Sparrow, Centronyx bairdii. Henslow’s Sparrow, Centronyx henslowii. Tennessee Warbler, Leiothlypis peregrina. Orange-crowned Warbler, Leiothlypis celata. Colima Warbler, Leiothlypis crissalis. Lucy’s Warbler, Leiothlypis luciae. Nashville Warbler, Leiothlypis ruficapilla. Virginia’s Warbler, Leiothlypis virginiae. MacGillivray’s Warbler, Geothlypis tolmiei. Mourning Warbler, Geothlypis philadelphia. Kentucky Warbler, Geothlypis formosa. Elfin-woods Warbler, Setophaga angelae. Hooded Warbler, Setophaga citrina. Kirtland’s Warbler, Setophaga kirtlandii. Cape May Warbler, Setophaga tigrina. Cerulean Warbler, Setophaga cerulea. Northern Parula, Setophaga americana. Tropical Parula, Setophaga pitiayumi. Magnolia Warbler, Setophaga magnolia. Bay-breasted Warbler, Setophaga castanea. Blackburnian Warbler, Setophaga fusca. Yellow Warbler, Setophaga petechia. Chestnut-sided Warbler, Setophaga pensylvanica. Blackpoll Warbler, Setophaga striata. Black-throated Blue Warbler, Setophaga caerulescens. Palm Warbler, Setophaga palmarum. Pine Warbler, Setophaga pinus. Yellow-rumped Warbler, Setophaga coronata. Yellow-throated Warbler, Setophaga dominica. Prairie Warbler, Setophaga discolor. Adelaide’s Warbler, Setophaga adelaidae. Grace’s Warbler, Setophaga graciae. Black-throated Gray Warbler, Setophaga nigrescens. Townsend’s Warbler, Setophaga townsendi. Hermit Warbler, Setophaga occidentalis. E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 21288 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Publication source and year Previous common name AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOU 2011 ................. AOS 2019 .................. AOS 2018 .................. Clements et al. 2017 Clements et al. 2006 Clements et al. 2006, 2017. AOU 2015 ................. AOU 2015 ................. AOU 2015 ................. AOU 2015 ................. AOU 2015 ................. AOU 2012, 2013 ....... Golden-cheeked Warbler, Dendroica chrysoparia ............... Black-throated Green Warbler, Dendroica virens ................ Fan-tailed Warbler, Euthlypis lachrymosa ............................ Canada Warbler, Wilsonia canadensis ................................ Wilson’s Warbler, Wilsonia pusilla ....................................... Black-faced Grassquit, Tiaris bicolor .................................... Puerto Rican Bullfinch, Loxigilla portoricensis ..................... Friendly Ground-Dove, Gallicolumba stairi .......................... Micronesian Kingfisher, Todirhamphus cinnamominus ........ Nightingale Reed-Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinia ............... Golden-cheeked Warbler, Setophaga chrysoparia. Black-throated Green Warbler, Setophaga virens. Fan-tailed Warbler, Basileuterus lachrymosus. Canada Warbler, Cardellina canadensis. Wilson’s Warbler, Cardellina pusilla. Black-faced Grassquit, Melanospiza bicolor. Puerto Rican Bullfinch, Melopyrrha portoricensis. Shy Ground-Dove, Alopecoenas stairi. Guam Kingfisher, Todiramphus cinnamominus. Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius. Akiapolaau, Hemignathus munroi ........................................ Greater Akialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus ............................. Hawaii Amakihi, Hemignathus virens ................................... Oahu Amakihi, Hemignathus flavus ..................................... Kauai Amakihi, Hemignathus kauaiensis ............................. Sage Sparrow, Amphispiza belli .......................................... 1Akiapola1au, Hemignathus wilsoni. O1ahu 1Akialoa, Akialoa ellisiana. Hawaii 1Amakihi, Chlorodrepanis virens. O1ahu 1Amakihi, Chlorodrepanis flava. Kauai 1Amakihi, Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri. Bell’s Sparrow, Artemisiospiza belli. How do the changes adopted in this rule differ from those described in the proposed rule? On November 28, 2018, we published in the Federal Register (83 FR 61288) a proposed rule to revise the list of migratory birds at 50 CFR 10.13; we accepted public comments on the proposed rule for 60 days, ending January 28, 2019. Subsequently, on November 12, 2019, we published in the Federal Register (84 FR 60998) a revised proposed rule, and we accepted comments on our proposed revisions for 30 days, ending December 12, 2019. Taken together, our publications, the November 28, 2018, proposed rule, as revised by the November 12, 2019, revised proposed rule, include all the changes adopted in this rule with one exception: On the taxonomic list, we are correcting the scientific name of the Puerto Rican bullfinch from Loxigilla portoricensis to Melopyrrha portoricensis. jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 How is the List of Migratory Birds organized? The species are listed in two formats to suit the needs of different segments of the public: Alphabetically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(1) and taxonomically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(2). In the alphabetical listing, species are listed by common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species following the English group name. This format, similar to that used in modern telephone directories, is most useful to members of the lay public. In the taxonomic listing, species are listed in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the English name following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily. This format follows the sequence adopted by VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 Current common name the AOS (1998, 2019) and is most useful to ornithologists and other scientists. other families not represented in the United States or U.S. territories. What species are not protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act? Summary of Comments and Responses The MBTA does not apply to: (1) Nonnative species introduced into the United States or U.S. territories by means of intentional or unintentional human assistance that belong to families or groups covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or Russian Conventions. Elsewhere in today’s Federal Register, we publish the revised list of nonnative bird species that are not protected under the MBTA. Note, though, that native species introduced into parts of the United States where they are not native are still protected under the MBTA regardless of where they occur in the United States or U.S. territories (e.g., cattle egrets in Hawaii). (2) Species native or nonnative to the United States or U.S. territories that either belong to families or groups not referred to in the Canada, Mexico, and Russia Conventions or are not included by species name in the Japan Convention. This includes the Tinamidae (tinamous), Megapodiidae (megapodes), Cracidae (chachalacas), Odontophoridae (New World quail), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and turkeys), Pteroclidae (sandgrouse), Heliornithidae (finfoots), Burhinidae (thick-knees), Glareolidae (pratincoles), Todidae (todies), Psittacidae (parrots), Psittaculidae (Old World parrots), Meliphagidae (honeyeaters), Dicruridae (drongos), Monarchidae (monarchs), Pycnonotidae (bulbuls), Scotocercidae (bush warblers and allies), Zosteropidae (white-eyes), Sturnidae (starlings, except as listed in Japanese treaty), Ploceidae (weavers), Estrildidae (estrildid finches), and Passeridae (Old World sparrows, including house or English sparrow), as well as numerous PO 00000 Frm 00008 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 On November 28, 2018, we published in the Federal Register (83 FR 61288) a proposed rule to revise the list of migratory birds at 50 CFR 10.13; we accepted public comments on the proposed rule for 60 days, ending January 28, 2019. We received eight comments in response to the proposed rule; seven were from private individuals, one was from an organization. Subsequently, on November 12, 2019, we published in the Federal Register (84 FR 60998) a revised proposed rule, and we accepted comments on our proposed revisions for 30 days, ending December 12, 2019. We received two comments in response to the revised proposed rule; one was from a private individual, one was from an organization. The following text discusses the substantive comments we received and provides our responses. Comment (1): One individual requested that the list be available in a more user-friendly format. Response: As noted above, in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), the list is provided in two formats for different needs. One format is ordered alphabetically by group (English) name and the other is in taxonomic order. For informational purposes only, we also provide a downloadable list online at https://www.fws.gov/birds/ management/managed-species/ migratory-bird-treaty-act-protectedspecies.php, in a spreadsheet format that includes multiple fields to allow for easy sorting and searching for users comfortable working with this format. Comment (2): One individual requested that we clarify why we are adding to the List the 16 species that we E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations say qualify for protection by the MBTA but have not been added previously. Response: For this update, the Service reviewed previously excluded AOS taxonomic updates using contemporary scientific literature to make its determinations. For species that we are adding based on evidence of natural distribution in the United States or U.S. territories, the Service reviewed historical scientific literature prompted by recommendations made by Service staff with ornithological expertise and knowledge of species’ natural distribution. Comment (3): One individual commented on the importance of updating the List of Migratory Birds for the public to be informed of what species are protected and to provide clarification about the taxonomy of species. Response: The Service agrees that it is important to maintain a current List of Migratory Birds that reflects the best available science and can inform the American public of the species that are protected by the MBTA. Comment (4): One commenter made the following comments: D The proposed action of the Service implicates the Just Compensation Clause of the Fifth Amendment; as a result, the action is not in compliance with Executive Order 12630 as it has significant takings implications. D The Service has provided the public with no meaningful opportunity to comment due to incorrect citations. D The Service has provided the public with no meaningful opportunity to comment because the correct citations are conclusory summations without details relating to the factual determinations. D The Service has unlawfully delegated its decision-making authority to a private organization. D The Service is unlawfully applying the MBTA by misinterpreting the plain language meaning of the term ‘‘occurring.’’ Response: Regarding the first bullet, there are no takings implications stemming from this rulemaking. Under 50 CFR 21.2, migratory birds that are lawfully acquired prior to the effective date of Federal protection under the MBTA (in this case, their addition to the List of Migratory Birds at 50 CFR 10.13) may continue to be possessed or transported without a permit. However, 50 CFR 21.2 prohibits import, export, purchase, sale, barter, or offer for purchase, sale, or barter of those species. The Supreme Court held in Andrus v. Allard, 444 U.S. 51, 65–68 (1979), that the prohibitions in 50 CFR 21.2 do not amount to a regulatory VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 taking that requires compensation under the Just Compensation Clause of the Fifth Amendment. Regarding the second bullet, we apologize for the incorrect citations in the November 28, 2018, proposed rule; they were corrected and described individually in the November 12, 2019, revised proposed rule, for which we accepted public comment for 30 days, and they are correct in this final rule. Regarding the third and fourth bullets, which we combine because they are interrelated with regard to the process the Service follows for determining species protected by the MBTA, the Service must rely on accepted scientific authorities and best available science when feasible. The Service has determined that the checklist published by the AOS is the best available science and a primary resource from which to reference updates in taxonomy and natural distribution for the reasons outlined above under What Scientific Authorities Are Used to Amend the List of Migratory Birds? The Service reviews and makes its own determinations for inclusion and updates to the list of protected migratory bird species, as evidenced by the Service not recognizing ackling Gogose, Branta hutchinsii, as a distinct species for protection until this update when the AOU made this determination in its 2004 supplement (see our response to comments in 78 FR 65844, November 1, 2013, at p. 78 FR 65849). Copies of the AOS checklist and supplements are publicly available, and these publications cite published resources used in the committee deliberations that are also considered by the Service for this rulemaking. Persons wishing to obtain more information about deliberations and evidence used by the AOS in their determinations should contact AOS directly. The Service also solicits public comments through a proposed rule when we make revisions to the list of protected species to obtain any additional information the public wishes to provide to aid us in our decision-making. Regarding the fifth bullet, the use of the word ‘‘occurring’’ is ambiguous in the legislative history, and there is no evidence that Congress was concerned with the number of records documenting a species’ natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. Territories. There is also no established or accepted scientific process to determine a species is occurring in the United States or U.S. Territories based on an undefined threshold number of documented records. A single documented, reviewed, and accepted record of natural occurrence in the PO 00000 Frm 00009 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 21289 United States or U.S. Territories is thus the threshold to qualify a species for protection by the MBTA. Required Determinations Regulatory Planning and Review Executive Order (E.O.) 12866 provides that the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) in the Office of Management and Budget will review all significant rules. OIRA has determined that this rule is not significant. E.O. 13563 reaffirms the principles of E.O. 12866, while calling for improvements in the nation’s regulatory system to promote predictability, to reduce uncertainty, and to use the best, most innovative, and least burdensome tools for achieving regulatory ends. E.O. 13563 directs agencies to consider regulatory approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of choice for the public where these approaches are relevant, feasible, and consistent with regulatory objectives. E.O. 13563 emphasizes further that regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow for public participation and an open exchange of ideas. We have developed this rule in a manner consistent with these requirements. Executive Order 13771—Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs This rule is not an Executive Order (E.O.) 13771 (82 FR 9339, February 3, 2017) regulatory action because this rule is not significant under E.O. 12866. Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA) of 1996 (5 U.S.C. 804(2)), whenever an agency is required to publish a notice of rulemaking for any proposed or final rule, it must prepare and make available for public comment a regulatory flexibility analysis that describes the effect of the rule on small entities (i.e., small businesses, small organizations, and small government jurisdictions). However, no regulatory flexibility analysis is required if the head of an agency certifies the rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. SBREFA amended the Regulatory Flexibility Act to require Federal agencies to provide the statement of the factual basis for certifying that a rule will not have a significant economic E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 21290 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations impact on a substantial number of small entities. We have examined this rule’s potential effects on small entities as required by the Regulatory Flexibility Act, and have determined that this action will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. This rule is an administrative action to update the list of migratory bird species protected under the Conventions. Consequently, we certify that this rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities; therefore, a regulatory flexibility analysis is not required. This rule is not a major rule under SBREFA (5 U.S.C. 804(2)). It will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. a. This rule will not have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more. b. This rule will not cause a major increase in costs or prices for consumers, individual industries, Federal, State, or local government agencies, or geographic regions. c. This rule will not have significant adverse effects on competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or the ability of U.S.-based enterprises to compete with foreignbased enterprises. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 In accordance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.), we have determined the following: a. This rule will not ‘‘significantly or uniquely’’ affect small governments. A small government agency plan is not required. This rule is an administrative action to update the list of migratory bird species protected under the Conventions; it will not affect small government activities in any significant way. b. This rule will not produce a Federal mandate of $100 million or greater in any year; i.e., it is not a ‘‘significant regulatory action’’ under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act. Federalism This rule does not have sufficient Federalism effects to warrant preparation of a federalism summary impact statement under Executive Order 13132. It does not interfere with the States’ ability to manage themselves or their funds. No significant economic impacts are expected to result from the updating of the list of migratory bird species. Civil Justice Reform In accordance with Executive Order 12988, the Office of the Solicitor has determined that this rule does not unduly burden the judicial system and meets the requirements of sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of the Order. Paperwork Reduction Act This rule does not contain information collection requirements, and a submission to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.) is not required. We may not conduct or sponsor and you are not required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Given that the revision of 50 CFR 10.13 is strictly administrative in nature and will have no or minor environmental effects, it is categorically excluded from further NEPA requirements (43 CFR 46.210(i)). Takings Endangered Species Act (ESA) Of the species on the List of Migratory Birds, 102 species, subspecies, or distinct population segments are also listed as endangered or threatened under section 4 of the ESA of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). No legal complications arise from the dual listing as the two lists are developed under separate authorities and for different purposes. Because this rule is strictly administrative in nature, it has no effect on endangered or threatened species. Thus, it does not require consultation under section 7 of the ESA. Under Executive Order 12630, this rule does not have significant takings implications. While certain activities that were previously unregulated will now be regulated, possession and transport of migratory bird species acquired prior to being added to the List of Migratory Birds in this rulemaking will remain unregulated under Federal law. Therefore, a takings implication assessment is not required. Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes In accordance with the President’s memorandum of April 29, 1994, ‘‘Government-to-Government Relations with Native American tribal Governments’’ (59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175, and 512 DM 2, we have evaluated potential effects on federally recognized Indian tribes and have determined that there are no potential VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00010 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 effects. The revisions to existing regulations in this rule are purely administrative in nature and do not interfere with the tribes’ ability to manage themselves or their funds or to regulate migratory bird activities on tribal lands. Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (Executive Order 13211) On May 18, 2001, the President issued Executive Order 13211 addressing regulations that significantly affect energy supply, distribution, or use. Executive Order 13211 requires agencies to prepare Statements of Energy Effects when undertaking certain actions. Because this rule will only affect the listing of protected species in the United States, it is not a significant regulatory action under Executive Order 12866, and does not significantly affect energy supplies, distribution, or use. Therefore, this action is not a significant energy action and no Statement of Energy Effects is required. References Cited A complete list of all references cited is available on http:// www.regulations.gov under Docket No. FWS–HQ–MB–2018–0047, and upon request (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT, above). List of Subjects in Part 10 Exports, Fish, Imports, Law enforcement, Plants, Transportation, Wildlife. Regulation Promulgation For the reasons discussed in the preamble, we amend title 50, chapter I, subchapter B, part 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as follows: PART 10—GENERAL PROVISIONS 1. The authority citation for part 10 continues to read as follows: ■ Authority: 16 U.S.C. 668a–d, 703–712, 742a–j–l, 1361–1384, 1401–1407, 1531–1543, 3371–3378; 18 U.S.C. 42; 19 U.S.C. 1202. 2. Amend § 10.13 by revising paragraph (c) to read as follows: ■ § 10.13 List of Migratory Birds. * * * * * (c) What species are protected as migratory birds? Species protected as migratory birds are listed in two formats to suit the varying needs of the user: Alphabetically in paragraph (c)(1) of this section and taxonomically in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Taxonomy and nomenclature generally follow the 7th edition of the American Ornithologists’ Union’s (AOU, now recognized as American Ornithological E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Society (AOS)) Check-list of North American birds (1998, as amended through 2019). For species not treated by the AOS Check-list, we generally follow Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (Clements et al. 2017). (1) Alphabetical listing. Species are listed alphabetically by common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species following the common name. ACCENTOR, Siberian, Prunella montanella 1AKEKE1E, Loxops caeruleirostris 1AKEPA, Hawaii, Loxops coccineus Maui, Loxops ochraceus O1ahu, Loxops wolstenholmei 1AKIALOA, Kauai, Akialoa stejnegeri Maui Nui, Akialoa lanaiensis O1ahu, Akialoa ellisiana 1AKIAPOLA1AU, Hemignathus wilsoni 1AKIKIKI, Oreomystis bairdi 1AKOHEKOHE, Palmeria dolei 1ALAUAHIO, Maui, Paroreomyza montana O1ahu, Paroreomyza maculata ALBATROSS, Black-browed, Thalassarche melanophris Black-footed, Phoebastria nigripes Chatham, Thalassarche eremita Laysan, Phoebastria immutabilis Light-mantled, Phoebetria palpebrata Salvin’s, Thalassarche salvini Short-tailed, Phoebastria albatrus Wandering, Diomedea exulans White-capped, Thalassarche cauta Yellow-nosed, Thalassarche chlororhynchos 1AMAKIHI, Hawaii, Chlorodrepanis virens Kauai, Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri O1ahu, Chlorodrepanis flava ANHINGA, Anhinga anhinga ANI, Groove-billed, Crotophaga sulcirostris Smooth-billed, Crotophaga ani 1ANIANIAU, Magumma parva 1APAPANE, Himatione sanguinea AUKLET, Cassin’s, Ptychoramphus aleuticus Crested, Aethia cristatella Least, Aethia pusilla Parakeet, Aethia psittacula Rhinoceros, Cerorhinca monocerata Whiskered, Aethia pygmaea AVOCET, American, Recurvirostra americana BANANAQUIT, Coereba flaveola BEAN–GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis Tundra, Anser serrirostris BEARDLESS–TYRANNULET, Northern, Camptostoma imberbe BECARD, Gray-collared, Pachyramphus major Rose-throated, Pachyramphus aglaiae BITTERN, American, Botaurus lentiginosus Black, Ixobrychus flavicollis VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 Least, Ixobrychus exilis Schrenck’s, Ixobrychus eurhythmus Yellow, Ixobrychus sinensis BLACKBIRD, Brewer’s, Euphagus cyanocephalus Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus Rusty, Euphagus carolinus Tawny-shouldered, Agelaius humeralis Tricolored, Agelaius tricolor Yellow-headed, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus Yellow-shouldered, Agelaius xanthomus BLUEBIRD, Eastern, Sialia sialis Mountain, Sialia currucoides Western, Sialia mexicana BLUETAIL, Red-flanked, Tarsiger cyanurus BLUETHROAT, Cyanecula svecica BOBOLINK, Dolichonyx oryzivorus BOOBOOK, Northern, Ninox japonica BOOBY, Abbott’s, Papasula abbotti Blue-footed, Sula nebouxii Brown, Sula leucogaster Masked, Sula dactylatra Nazca, Sula granti Red-footed, Sula sula BRAMBLING, Fringilla montifringilla BRANT, Branta bernicla BUFFLEHEAD, Bucephala albeola BULLFINCH, Eurasian, Pyrrhula pyrrhula Puerto Rican, Melopyrrha portoricensis BUNTING, Blue, Cyanocompsa parellina Gray, Emberiza variabilis Indigo, Passerina cyanea Lark, Calamospiza melanocorys Lazuli, Passerina amoena Little, Emberiza pusilla McKay’s, Plectrophenax hyperboreus Painted, Passerina ciris Pallas’s, Emberiza pallasi Pine, Emberiza leucocephalos Reed, Emberiza schoeniclus Rustic, Emberiza rustica Snow, Plectrophenax nivalis Varied, Passerina versicolor Yellow-breasted, Emberiza aureola Yellow-browed, Emberiza chrysophrys Yellow-throated, Emberiza elegans BUSHTIT, Psaltriparus minimus BUZZARD, Gray-faced, Butastur indicus CANVASBACK, Aythya valisineria CARACARA, Crested, Caracara cheriway CARDINAL, Northern, Cardinalis cardinalis CARIB, Green-throated, Eulampis holosericeus Purple-throated, Eulampis jugularis CATBIRD, Black, Melanoptila glabrirostris Gray, Dumetella carolinensis CHAFFINCH, Common, Fringilla coelebs PO 00000 Frm 00011 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 21291 CHAT, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens CHICKADEE, Black-capped, Poecile atricapillus Boreal, Poecile hudsonicus Carolina, Poecile carolinensis Chestnut-backed, Poecile rufescens Gray-headed, Poecile cinctus Mexican, Poecile sclateri Mountain, Poecile gambeli CHIFFCHAFF, Common, Phylloscopus collybita CHUCK-WILL’S-WIDOW, Antrostomus carolinensis CONDOR, California, Gymnogyps californianus COOT, American, Fulica americana Eurasian, Fulica atra Hawaiian, Fulica alai CORMORANT, Brandt’s, Phalacrocorax penicillatus Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auritus Great, Phalacrocorax carbo Little Pied, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus Pelagic, Phalacrocorax pelagicus Red-faced, Phalacrocorax urile COWBIRD, Bronzed, Molothrus aeneus Brown-headed, Molothrus ater Shiny, Molothrus bonariensis CRAKE, Corn, Crex crex Paint-billed, Neocrex erythrops Spotless, Porzana tabuensis Yellow-breasted, Hapalocrex flaviventer CRANE, Common, Grus grus Sandhill, Antigone canadensis Whooping, Grus americana CREEPER, Brown, Certhia americana Hawaii, Loxops mana CROSSBILL, Cassia, Loxia sinesciuris Red, Loxia curvirostra White-winged, Loxia leucoptera CROW, American, Corvus brachyrhynchos Fish, Corvus ossifragus Hawaiian, Corvus hawaiiensis Mariana, Corvus kubaryi Northwestern, Corvus caurinus Tamaulipas, Corvus imparatus White-necked, Corvus leucognaphalus CUCKOO, Black-billed, Coccyzus erythropthalmus Common, Cuculus canorus Mangrove, Coccyzus minor Oriental, Cuculus optatus Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus CURLEW, Bristle-thighed, Numenius tahitiensis Eskimo, Numenius borealis Eurasian, Numenius arquata Far Eastern, Numenius madagascariensis Little, Numenius minutus Long-billed, Numenius americanus DICKCISSEL, Spiza americana DIPPER, American, Cinclus mexicanus DOTTEREL, Eurasian, Charadrius morinellus E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 21292 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations DOVE, Common Ground, Columbina passerina Inca, Columbina inca Mourning, Zenaida macroura Ruddy Ground, Columbina talpacoti White-tipped, Leptotila verreauxi White-winged, Zenaida asiatica Zenaida, Zenaida aurita DOVEKIE, Alle alle DOWITCHER, Long-billed, Limnodromus scolopaceus Short-billed, Limnodromus griseus DUCK, American Black, Anas rubripes Eastern Spot-billed, Anas zonorhyncha Falcated, Mareca falcata Harlequin, Histrionicus histrionicus Hawaiian, Anas wyvilliana Laysan, Anas laysanensis Long-tailed, Clangula hyemalis Masked, Nomonyx dominicus Mottled, Anas fulvigula Muscovy, Cairina moschata Pacific Black, Anas superciliosa Ring-necked, Aythya collaris Ruddy, Oxyura jamaicensis Tufted, Aythya fuligula Wood, Aix sponsa DUNLIN, Calidris alpina EAGLE, Bald, Haliaeetus leucocephalus Golden, Aquila chrysaetos White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla EGRET, Cattle, Bubulcus ibis Chinese, Egretta eulophotes Great, Ardea alba Intermediate, Ardea intermedia Little, Egretta garzetta Reddish, Egretta rufescens Snowy, Egretta thula EIDER, Common, Somateria mollissima King, Somateria spectabilis Spectacled, Somateria fischeri Steller’s, Polysticta stelleri ELAENIA, Caribbean, Elaenia martinica Greenish, Myiopagis viridicata White-crested, Elaenia albiceps EMERALD, Puerto Rican, Chlorostilbon maugaeus EUPHONIA, Antillean, Euphonia musica FALCON, Amur, Falco amurensis Aplomado, Falco femoralis Peregrine, Falco peregrinus Prairie, Falco mexicanus Red-footed, Falco vespertinus FIELDFARE, Turdus pilaris FINCH, Cassin’s, Haemorhous cassinii House, Haemorhous mexicanus Laysan, Telespiza cantans Nihoa, Telespiza ultima Purple, Haemorhous purpureus FLAMINGO, American, Phoenicopterus ruber FLICKER, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides Northern, Colaptes auratus FLYCATCHER, Acadian, Empidonax virescens Alder, Empidonax alnorum Ash-throated, Myiarchus cinerascens VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 Asian Brown, Muscicapa dauurica Brown-crested, Myiarchus tyrannulus Buff-breasted, Empidonax fulvifrons Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis Crowned Slaty, Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus Dark-sided, Muscicapa sibirica Dusky, Empidonax oberholseri Dusky-capped, Myiarchus tuberculifer Fork-tailed, Tyrannus savana Gray, Empidonax wrightii Gray-streaked, Muscicapa griseisticta Great Crested, Myiarchus crinitus Hammond’s, Empidonax hammondii La Sagra’s, Myiarchus sagrae Least, Empidonax minimus Mugimaki, Ficedula mugimaki Narcissus, Ficedula narcissina Nutting’s, Myiarchus nuttingi Olive-sided, Contopus cooperi Pacific-slope, Empidonax difficilis Pine, Empidonax affinis Piratic, Legatus leucophaius Puerto Rican, Myiarchus antillarum Scissor-tailed, Tyrannus forficatus Social, Myiozetetes similis Spotted, Muscicapa striata Sulphur-bellied, Myiodynastes luteiventris Taiga, Ficedula albicilla Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus Variegated, Empidonomus varius Vermilion, Pyrocephalus rubinus Willow, Empidonax traillii Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris FOREST-FALCON, Collared, Micrastur semitorquatus FRIGATEBIRD, Great, Fregata minor Lesser, Fregata ariel Magnificent, Fregata magnificens FRUIT-DOVE, Crimson-crowned, Ptilinopus porphyraceus Many-colored, Ptilinopus perousii Mariana, Ptilinopus roseicapilla FULMAR, Northern, Fulmarus glacialis GADWALL, Mareca strepera GALLINULE, Azure, Porphyrio flavirostris Common, Gallinula galeata Purple, Porphyrio martinicus GANNET, Northern, Morus bassanus GARGANEY, Spatula querquedula GNATCATCHER, Black-capped, Polioptila nigriceps Black-tailed, Polioptila melanura Blue-Gray, Polioptila caerulea California, Polioptila californica GODWIT, Bar-tailed, Limosa lapponica Black-tailed, Limosa limosa Hudsonian, Limosa haemastica Marbled, Limosa fedoa GOLDENEYE, Barrow’s, Bucephala islandica Common, Bucephala clangula GOLDEN-PLOVER, American, Pluvialis dominica European, Pluvialis apricaria Pacific, Pluvialis fulva PO 00000 Frm 00012 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 GOLDFINCH, American, Spinus tristis Lawrence’s, Spinus lawrencei Lesser, Spinus psaltria GOOSE, Barnacle, Branta leucopsis Cackling, Branta hutchinsii Canada, Branta canadensis Emperor, Anser canagicus Greater White-fronted, Anser albifrons Hawaiian, Branta sandvicensis Lesser White-fronted, Anser erythropus Pink-footed, Anser brachyrhynchus Ross’s, Anser rossii Snow, Anser caerulescens GOSHAWK, Northern, Accipiter gentilis GRACKLE, Boat-tailed, Quiscalus major Common, Quiscalus quiscula Greater Antillean, Quiscalus niger Great-tailed, Quiscalus mexicanus GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER, Middendorff’s, Locustella ochotensis GRASSQUIT, Black-faced, Melanospiza bicolor Yellow-faced, Tiaris olivaceus GREBE, Clark’s, Aechmophorus clarkii Eared, Podiceps nigricollis Horned, Podiceps auritus Least, Tachybaptus dominicus Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps Red-necked, Podiceps grisegena Western, Aechmophorus occidentalis GREENFINCH, Oriental, Chloris sinica GREENSHANK, Common, Tringa nebularia Nordmann’s, Tringa guttifer GROSBEAK, Black-headed, Pheucticus melanocephalus Blue, Passerina caerulea Crimson-collared, Rhodothraupis celaeno Evening, Coccothraustes vespertinus Pine, Pinicola enucleator Rose-breasted, Pheucticus ludovicianus Yellow, Pheucticus chrysopeplus GROUND-DOVE, Shy, Alopecoenas stairi White-throated, Alopecoenas xanthonurus GUILLEMOT, Black, Cepphus grylle Pigeon, Cepphus columba GULL, Belcher’s, Larus belcheri Black-headed, Chroicocephalus ridibundus Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris Bonaparte’s, Chroicocephalus philadelphia California, Larus californicus Franklin’s, Leucophaeus pipixcan Glaucous, Larus hyperboreus Glaucous-winged, Larus glaucescens Gray-hooded, Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus Great Black-backed, Larus marinus Heermann’s, Larus heermanni Herring, Larus argentatus Iceland, Larus glaucoides Ivory, Pagophila eburnea E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Kelp, Larus dominicanus Laughing, Leucophaeus atricilla Lesser Black-backed, Larus fuscus Little, Hydrocoloeus minutus Mew, Larus canus Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis Ross’s, Rhodostethia rosea Sabine’s, Xema sabini Slaty-backed, Larus schistisagus Swallow-tailed, Creagrus furcatus Western, Larus occidentalis Yellow-footed, Larus livens Yellow-legged, Larus michahellis GYRFALCON, Falco rusticolus HARRIER, Northern, Circus hudsonius HAWFINCH, Coccothraustes coccothraustes HAWK, Broad-winged, Buteo platypterus Common Black, Buteogallus anthracinus Cooper’s, Accipiter cooperii Crane, Geranospiza caerulescens Ferruginous, Buteo regalis Gray, Buteo plagiatus Great Black, Buteogallus urubitinga Harris’s, Parabuteo unicinctus Hawaiian, Buteo solitarius Red-shouldered, Buteo lineatus Red-tailed, Buteo jamaicensis Roadside, Rupornis magnirostris Rough-legged, Buteo lagopus Sharp-shinned, Accipiter striatus Short-tailed, Buteo brachyurus Swainson’s, Buteo swainsoni White-tailed, Geranoaetus albicaudatus Zone-tailed, Buteo albonotatus HAWK-CUCKOO, Hodgson’s, Hierococcyx nisicolor HERON, Gray, Ardea cinerea Great Blue, Ardea herodias Green, Butorides virescens Little Blue, Egretta caerulea Tricolored, Egretta tricolor HOBBY, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo HONEYCREEPER, Laysan, Himatione fraithii Red-legged, Cyanerpes cyaneus HOOPOE, Eurasian, Upupa epops HOUSE-MARTIN, Common, Delichon urbicum HUMMINGBIRD, Allen’s, Selasphorus sasin Anna’s, Calypte anna Antillean Crested, Orthorhyncus cristatus Berylline, Amazilia beryllina Black-chinned, Archilochus alexandri Broad-billed, Cynanthus latirostris Broad-tailed, Selasphorus platycercus Buff-bellied, Amazilia yucatanensis Bumblebee, Atthis heloisa Calliope, Selasphorus calliope Cinnamon, Amazilia rutila Costa’s, Calypte costae Lucifer, Calothorax lucifer Rivoli’s, Eugenes fulgens Ruby-throated, Archilochus colubris VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 Rufous, Selasphorus rufus Vervain, Mellisuga minima Violet-crowned, Amazilia violiceps White-eared, Hylocharis leucotis Xantus’s, Hylocharis xantusii IBIS, Glossy, Plegadis falcinellus Scarlet, Eudocimus ruber White, Eudocimus albus White-faced, Plegadis chihi 1I1IWI, Drepanis coccinea IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Pacific, Ducula pacifica JABIRU, Jabiru mycteria JACANA, Northern, Jacana spinosa JACKDAW, Eurasian, Corvus monedula JAEGER, Long-tailed, Stercorarius longicaudus Parasitic, Stercorarius parasiticus Pomarine, Stercorarius pomarinus JAY, Blue, Cyanocitta cristata Brown, Psilorhinus morio Canada, Perisoreus canadensis Green, Cyanocorax yncas Mexican, Aphelocoma wollweberi Pinyon, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus Steller’s, Cyanocitta stelleri JUNCO, Dark-eyed, Junco hyemalis Yellow-eyed, Junco phaeonotus ¯ KA ¯ WAHIE, Paroreomyza flammea KA ¯ MA‘O, Myadestes myadestinus KA KESTREL, American, Falco sparverius Eurasian, Falco tinnunculus KILLDEER, Charadrius vociferus KINGBIRD, Cassin’s, Tyrannus vociferans Couch’s, Tyrannus couchii Eastern, Tyrannus tyrannus Gray, Tyrannus dominicensis Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus Thick-billed, Tyrannus crassirostris Tropical, Tyrannus melancholicus Western, Tyrannus verticalis KINGFISHER, Amazon, Chloroceryle amazona Belted, Megaceryle alcyon Common, Alcedo atthis Green, Chloroceryle americana Guam, Todiramphus cinnamominus Mariana, Todiramphus albicilla Pacific, Todiramphus sacer Ringed, Megaceryle torquata KINGLET, Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula KISKADEE, Great, Pitangus sulphuratus KITE, Black, Milvus migrans Double-toothed, Harpagus bidentatus Hook-billed, Chondrohierax uncinatus Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis Snail, Rostrhamus sociabilis Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus White-tailed, Elanus leucurus KITTIWAKE, Black-legged, Rissa tridactyla Red-legged, Rissa brevirostris KNOT, Great, Calidris tenuirostris Red, Calidris canutus KOEL, Long-tailed, Urodynamis taitensis PO 00000 Frm 00013 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 21293 LAPWING, Northern, Vanellus vanellus LARK, Horned, Eremophila alpestris LIMPKIN, Aramus guarauna LIZARD-CUCKOO, Puerto Rican, Coccyzus vieilloti LONGSPUR, Chestnut-collared, Calcarius ornatus Lapland, Calcarius lapponicus McCown’s, Rhynchophanes mccownii Smith’s, Calcarius pictus LOON, Arctic, Gavia arctica Common, Gavia immer Pacific, Gavia pacifica Red-throated, Gavia stellata Yellow-billed, Gavia adamsii MAGPIE, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia Yellow-billed, Pica nuttalli MALLARD, Anas platyrhynchos MANGO, Antillean, Anthracothorax dominicus Green, Anthracothorax viridis Green-breasted, Anthracothorax prevostii MARSH-HARRIER, Eastern, Circus spilonotus MARTIN, Brown-chested, Progne tapera Caribbean, Progne dominicensis Cuban, Progne cryptoleuca Gray-breasted, Progne chalybea Purple, Progne subis Southern, Progne elegans MEADOWLARK, Eastern, Sturnella magna Western, Sturnella neglecta MERGANSER, Common, Mergus merganser Hooded, Lophodytes cucullatus Red-breasted, Mergus serrator MERLIN, Falco columbarius MILLERBIRD, Acrocephalus familiaris MOCKINGBIRD, Bahama, Mimus gundlachii Blue, Melanotis caerulescens Northern, Mimus polyglottos MOORHEN, Common, Gallinula chloropus MOUNTAIN-GEM, Amethyst-throated, Lampornis amethystinus Blue-throated, Lampornis clemenciae MURRE, Common, Uria aalge Thick-billed, Uria lomvia MURRELET, Ancient, Synthliboramphus antiquus Craveri’s, Synthliboramphus craveri Guadalupe, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus Kittlitz’s, Brachyramphus brevirostris Long-billed, Brachyramphus perdix Marbled, Brachyramphus marmoratus Scripps’s, Synthliboramphus scrippsi NEEDLETAIL, White-throated, Hirundapus caudacutus NIGHTHAWK, Antillean, Chordeiles gundlachii Common, Chordeiles minor Lesser, Chordeiles acutipennis NIGHT-HERON, Black-crowned, Nycticorax nycticorax Japanese, Gorsachius goisagi E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 21294 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus Rufous, Nycticorax caledonicus Yellow-crowned, Nyctanassa violacea NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH, Blackheaded, Catharus mexicanus Orange-billed, Catharus aurantiirostris NIGHTJAR, Buff-collared, Antrostomus ridgwayi Gray, Caprimulgus jotaka Puerto Rican, Antrostomus noctitherus White-tailed, Hydropsalis cayennensis NODDY, Black, Anous minutus Blue-gray, Anous ceruleus Brown, Anous stolidus NUKUPU1U, Kauai, Hemignathus hanapepe Maui, Hemignathus affinis O1ahu, Hemignathus lucidus NUTCRACKER, Clark’s, Nucifraga columbiana NUTHATCH, Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla Pygmy, Sitta pygmaea Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis OLOMA1O, Myadestes lanaiensis ¯ MA1O, Myadestes obscurus 1O ORIOLE, Altamira, Icterus gularis Audubon’s, Icterus graduacauda Baltimore, Icterus galbula Black-backed, Icterus abeillei Black-vented, Icterus wagleri Bullock’s, Icterus bullockii Hooded, Icterus cucullatus Orchard, Icterus spurius Puerto Rican, Icterus portoricensis Scott’s, Icterus parisorum Streak-backed, Icterus pustulatus OSPREY, Pandion haliaetus ¯ 1U ¯ , Psittirostra psittacea 1O OVENBIRD, Seiurus aurocapilla OWL, Barn, Tyto alba Barred, Strix varia Boreal, Aegolius funereus Burrowing, Athene cunicularia Elf, Micrathene whitneyi Flammulated, Psiloscops flammeolus Great Gray, Strix nebulosa Great Horned, Bubo virginianus Long-eared, Asio otus Mottled, Ciccaba virgata Northern Hawk, Surnia ulula Northern Saw-whet, Aegolius acadicus Short-eared, Asio flammeus Snowy, Bubo scandiacus Spotted, Strix occidentalis Stygian, Asio stygius OYSTERCATCHER, American, Haematopus palliatus Black, Haematopus bachmani Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus PALILA, Loxioides bailleui PALM-SWIFT, Antillean, Tachornis phoenicobia PARROTBILL, Maui, Pseudonestor xanthophrys VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 PARULA, Northern, Setophaga americana Tropical, Setophaga pitiayumi PAURAQUE, Common, Nyctidromus albicollis PELICAN, American White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis PETREL, Bermuda, Pterodroma cahow Black-capped, Pterodroma hasitata Black-winged, Pterodroma nigripennis Bonin, Pterodroma hypoleuca Bulwer’s, Bulweria bulwerii Cook’s, Pterodroma cookii Fea’s, Pterodroma feae Gould’s, Pterodroma leucoptera Gray-faced, Pterodroma gouldi Hawaiian, Pterodroma sandwichensis Herald, Pterodroma heraldica Jouanin’s, Bulweria fallax Juan Fernandez, Pterodroma externa Kermadec, Pterodroma neglecta Mottled, Pterodroma inexpectata Murphy’s, Pterodroma ultima Parkinson’s, Procellaria parkinsoni Phoenix, Pterodroma alba Providence, Pterodroma solandri Stejneger’s, Pterodroma longirostris Tahiti, Pseudobulweria rostrata Trindade, Pterodroma arminjoniana White-chinned, Procellaria aequinoctialis White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis Zino’s, Pterodroma madeira PEWEE, Cuban, Contopus caribaeus Greater, Contopus pertinax Hispaniolan, Contopus hispaniolensis Lesser Antillean, Contopus latirostris PHAINOPEPLA, Phainopepla nitens PHALAROPE, Red, Phalaropus fulicarius Red-necked, Phalaropus lobatus Wilson’s, Phalaropus tricolor PHOEBE, Black, Sayornis nigricans Eastern, Sayornis phoebe Say’s, Sayornis saya PIGEON, Band-tailed, Patagioenas fasciata Plain, Patagioenas inornata Red-billed, Patagioenas flavirostris Scaly-naped, Patagioenas squamosa White-crowned, Patagioenas leucocephala PINTAIL, Northern, Anas acuta White-cheeked, Anas bahamensis PIPIT, American, Anthus rubescens Olive-backed, Anthus hodgsoni Pechora, Anthus gustavi Red-throated, Anthus cervinus Sprague’s, Anthus spragueii Tree, Anthus trivialis PLOVER, Black-bellied, Pluvialis squatarola Collared, Charadrius collaris Common Ringed, Charadrius hiaticula Kentish, Charadrius alexandrinus Little Ringed, Charadrius dubius PO 00000 Frm 00014 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 Mountain, Charadrius montanus Piping, Charadrius melodus Semipalmated, Charadrius semipalmatus Snowy, Charadrius nivosus Wilson’s, Charadrius wilsonia POCHARD, Baer’s, Aythya baeri Common, Aythya ferina POND-HERON, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus POORWILL, Common, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii PO1OULI, Melamprosops phaeosoma PUAIOHI, Myadestes palmeri PUFFIN, Atlantic, Fratercula arctica Horned, Fratercula corniculata Tufted, Fratercula cirrhata PYGMY-OWL, Ferruginous, Glaucidium brasilianum Northern, Glaucidium gnoma PYRRHULOXIA, Cardinalis sinuatus QUAIL-DOVE, Bridled, Geotrygon mystacea Key West, Geotrygon chrysia Ruddy, Geotrygon montana QUETZAL, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus RAIL, Black, Laterallus jamaicensis Buff-banded, Gallirallus philippensis Clapper, Rallus crepitans Guam, Gallirallus owstoni King, Rallus elegans Ridgway’s, Rallus obsoletus Spotted, Pardirallus maculatus Virginia, Rallus limicola Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis RAVEN, Chihuahuan, Corvus cryptoleucus Common, Corvus corax RAZORBILL, Alca torda REDHEAD, Aythya americana REDPOLL, Common, Acanthis flammea Hoary, Acanthis hornemanni REDSHANK, Common, Tringa totanus Spotted, Tringa erythropus REDSTART, American, Setophaga ruticilla Common, Phoenicurus phoenicurus Painted, Myioborus pictus Slate-throated, Myioborus miniatus REDWING, Turdus iliacus REEF-HERON, Pacific, Egretta sacra Western, Egretta gularis ROADRUNNER, Greater, Geococcyx californianus ROBIN, American, Turdus migratorius European, Erithacus rubecula Rufous-backed, Turdus rufopalliatus Rufous-tailed, Larvivora sibilans Siberian Blue, Larvivora cyane ROCK-THRUSH, Blue, Monticola solitarius ROSEFINCH, Common, Carpodacus erythrinus Pallas’s, Carpodacus roseus ROSY-FINCH, Asian, Leucosticte arctoa Black, Leucosticte atrata Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis RUBYTHROAT, Siberian, Calliope calliope E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations RUFF, Calidris pugnax SANDERLING, Calidris alba SANDPIPER, Baird’s, Calidris bairdii Broad-billed, Calidris falcinellus Buff-breasted, Calidris subruficollis Common, Actitis hypoleucos Curlew, Calidris ferruginea Green, Tringa ochropus Least, Calidris minutilla Marsh, Tringa stagnatilis Pectoral, Calidris melanotos Purple, Calidris maritima Rock, Calidris ptilocnemis Semipalmated, Calidris pusilla Sharp-tailed, Calidris acuminata Solitary, Tringa solitaria Spoon-billed, Calidris pygmea Spotted, Actitis macularius Stilt, Calidris himantopus Terek, Xenus cinereus Upland, Bartramia longicauda Western, Calidris mauri White-rumped, Calidris fuscicollis Wood, Tringa glareola SAND-PLOVER, Greater, Charadrius leschenaultii Lesser, Charadrius mongolus SAPSUCKER, Red-breasted, Sphyrapicus ruber Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis Williamson’s, Sphyrapicus thyroideus Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius SCAUP, Greater, Aythya marila Lesser, Aythya affinis SCOPS-OWL, Oriental, Otus sunia SCOTER, Black, Melanitta americana Common, Melanitta nigra Stejneger’s, Melanitta stejnegeri Surf, Melanitta perspicillata White-winged, Melanitta deglandi SCREECH-OWL, Eastern, Megascops asio Puerto Rican, Megascops nudipes Western, Megascops kennicottii Whiskered, Megascops trichopsis SCRUB-JAY, California, Aphelocoma californica Florida, Aphelocoma coerulescens Island, Aphelocoma insularis Woodhouse’s, Aphelocoma woodhouseii SEA-EAGLE, Steller’s, Haliaeetus pelagicus SEEDEATER, Morelet’s, Sporophila morelleti SHEARWATER, Audubon’s, Puffinus lherminieri Barolo, Puffinus baroli Black-vented, Puffinus opisthomelas Bryan’s, Puffinus bryani Buller’s, Ardenna bulleri Cape Verde, Calonectris edwardsii Christmas, Puffinus nativitatis Cory’s, Calonectris diomedea Flesh-footed, Ardenna carneipes Great, Ardenna gravis Manx, Puffinus puffinus Newell’s, Puffinus newelli Pink-footed, Ardenna creatopus VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 Short-tailed, Ardenna tenuirostris Sooty, Ardenna grisea Streaked, Calonectris leucomelas Wedge-tailed, Ardenna pacifica SHOVELER, Northern, Spatula clypeata SHRIKE, Brown, Lanius cristatus Loggerhead, Lanius ludovicianus Northern, Lanius borealis SILKY-FLYCATCHER, Gray, Ptiliogonys cinereus SISKIN, Eurasian, Spinus spinus Pine, Spinus pinus SKIMMER, Black, Rynchops niger SKUA, Great, Stercorarius skua South Polar, Stercorarius maccormicki SKYLARK, Eurasian, Alauda arvensis SMEW, Mergellus albellus SNIPE, Common, Gallinago gallinago Jack, Lymnocryptes minimus Pin-tailed, Gallinago stenura Solitary, Gallinago solitaria Swinhoe’s, Gallinago megala Wilson’s, Gallinago delicata SOLITAIRE, Brown-backed, Myadestes occidentalis Townsend’s, Myadestes townsendi SORA, Porzana carolina SPARROW, American Tree, Spizelloides arborea Bachman’s, Peucaea aestivalis Baird’s, Centronyx bairdii Bell’s, Artemisiospiza belli Black-chinned, Spizella atrogularis Black-throated, Amphispiza bilineata Botteri’s, Peucaea botterii Brewer’s, Spizella breweri Cassin’s, Peucaea cassinii Chipping, Spizella passerina Clay-colored, Spizella pallida Field, Spizella pusilla Five-striped, Amphispiza quinquestriata Fox, Passerella iliaca Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia atricapilla Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum Harris’s, Zonotrichia querula Henslow’s, Centronyx henslowii Lark, Chondestes grammacus LeConte’s, Ammospiza leconteii Lincoln’s, Melospiza lincolnii Nelson’s, Ammospiza nelsoni Olive, Arremonops rufivirgatus Rufous-crowned, Aimophila ruficeps Rufous-winged, Peucaea carpalis Sagebrush, Artemisiospiza nevadensis Saltmarsh, Ammospiza caudacuta Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis Seaside, Ammospiza maritima Song, Melospiza melodia Swamp, Melospiza georgiana Vesper, Pooecetes gramineus White-crowned, Zonotrichia leucophrys White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis Worthen’s, Spizella wortheni SPARROWHAWK, Chinese, Accipiter soloensis PO 00000 Frm 00015 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 21295 Japanese, Accipiter gularis SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis Western, Spindalis zena SPOONBILL, Roseate, Platalea ajaja STARLING, Chestnut-cheeked, Agropsar philippensis White-cheeked, Spodiopsar cineraceus STARTHROAT, Plain-capped, Heliomaster constantii STILT, Black-necked, Himantopus mexicanus Black-winged, Himantopus himantopus STINT, Little, Calidris minuta Long-toed, Calidris subminuta Red-necked, Calidris ruficollis Temminck’s, Calidris temminckii STONECHAT, Saxicola torquatus STORK, Wood, Mycteria americana STORM-PETREL, Ashy, Hydrobates homochroa Band-rumped, Hydrobates castro Black, Hydrobates melania Black-bellied, Fregetta tropica European, Hydrobates pelagicus Fork-tailed, Hydrobates furcatus Leach’s, Hydrobates leucorhous Least, Hydrobates microsoma Matsudaira’s, Oceanodroma matsudairae Polynesian, Nesofregetta fuliginosa Ringed, Hydrobates hornbyi Swinhoe’s, Hydrobates monorhis Townsend’s, Hydrobates socorroensis Tristram’s, Hydrobates tristrami Wedge-rumped, Hydrobates tethys White-bellied, Fregetta grallaria White-faced, Pelagodroma marina Wilson’s, Oceanites oceanicus SURFBIRD, Calidris virgata SWALLOW, Bahama, Tachycineta cyaneoviridis Bank, Riparia riparia Barn, Hirundo rustica Cave, Petrochelidon fulva Cliff, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Mangrove, Tachycineta albilinea Northern Rough-winged, Stelgidopteryx serripennis Tree, Tachycineta bicolor Violet-green, Tachycineta thalassina SWAMPHEN, Purple, Porphyrio porphyrio SWAN, Trumpeter, Cygnus buccinator Tundra, Cygnus columbianus Whooper, Cygnus cygnus SWIFT, Alpine, Apus melba Black, Cypseloides niger Chimney, Chaetura pelagica Common, Apus apus Fork-tailed, Apus pacificus Short-tailed, Chaetura brachyura Vaux’s, Chaetura vauxi White-collared, Streptoprocne zonaris White-throated, Aeronautes saxatalis SWIFTLET, Mariana, Aerodramus bartschi E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 21296 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations White-rumped, Aerodramus spodiopygius TANAGER, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata Hepatic, Piranga flava Puerto Rican, Nesospingus speculiferus Scarlet, Piranga olivacea Summer, Piranga rubra Western, Piranga ludoviciana TATTLER, Gray-tailed, Tringa brevipes Wandering, Tringa incana TEAL, Baikal, Sibirionetta formosa Blue-winged, Spatula discors Cinnamon, Spatula cyanoptera Green-winged, Anas crecca TERN, Aleutian, Onychoprion aleuticus Arctic, Sterna paradisaea Black, Chlidonias niger Black-naped, Sterna sumatrana Bridled, Onychoprion anaethetus Caspian, Hydroprogne caspia Common, Sterna hirundo Elegant, Thalasseus elegans Forster’s, Sterna forsteri Gray-backed, Onychoprion lunatus Great Crested, Thalasseus bergii Gull-billed, Gelochelidon nilotica Large-billed, Phaetusa simplex Least, Sternula antillarum Little, Sternula albifrons Roseate, Sterna dougallii Royal, Thalasseus maximus Sandwich, Thalasseus sandvicensis Sooty, Onychoprion fuscatus Whiskered, Chlidonias hybrida White, Gygis alba White-winged, Chlidonias leucopterus THRASHER, Bendire’s, Toxostoma bendirei Brown, Toxostoma rufum California, Toxostoma redivivum Crissal, Toxostoma crissale Curve-billed, Toxostoma curvirostre LeConte’s, Toxostoma lecontei Long-billed, Toxostoma longirostre Pearly-eyed, Margarops fuscatus Sage, Oreoscoptes montanus THRUSH, Aztec, Ridgwayia pinicola Bicknell’s, Catharus bicknelli Clay-colored, Turdus grayi Dusky, Turdus naumanni Eyebrowed, Turdus obscurus Gray-cheeked, Catharus minimus Hermit, Catharus guttatus Red-legged, Turdus plumbeus Swainson’s, Catharus ustulatus Varied, Ixoreus naevius White-throated, Turdus assimilis Wood, Hylocichla mustelina TIGER-HERON, Bare-throated, Tigrisoma mexicanum TITMOUSE, Black-crested, Baeolophus atricristatus Bridled, Baeolophus wollweberi Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi Oak, Baeolophus inornatus Tufted, Baeolophus bicolor VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 TITYRA, Masked, Tityra semifasciata TOWHEE, Abert’s, Melozone aberti California, Melozone crissalis Canyon, Melozone fusca Eastern, Pipilo erythrophthalmus Green-tailed, Pipilo chlorurus Spotted, Pipilo maculatus TROGON, Elegant, Trogon elegans TROPICBIRD, Red-billed, Phaethon aethereus Red-tailed, Phaethon rubricauda White-tailed, Phaethon lepturus TURNSTONE, Black, Arenaria melanocephala Ruddy, Arenaria interpres TURTLE-DOVE, Oriental, Streptopelia orientalis VEERY, Catharus fuscescens VERDIN, Auriparus flaviceps VIOLETEAR, Mexican, Colibri thalassinus VIREO, Bell’s, Vireo bellii Black-capped, Vireo atricapilla Black-whiskered, Vireo altiloquus Blue-headed, Vireo solitarius Cassin’s, Vireo cassinii Cuban, Vireo gundlachii Gray, Vireo vicinior Hutton’s, Vireo huttoni Philadelphia, Vireo philadelphicus Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus Puerto Rican, Vireo latimeri Red-eyed, Vireo olivaceus Thick-billed, Vireo crassirostris Warbling, Vireo gilvus White-eyed, Vireo griseus Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis Yellow-throated, Vireo flavifrons Yucatan, Vireo magister VULTURE, Black, Coragyps atratus Turkey, Cathartes aura WAGTAIL, Citrine, Motacilla citreola Eastern Yellow, Motacilla tschutschensis Gray, Motacilla cinerea White, Motacilla alba WARBLER, Adelaide’s, Setophaga adelaidae Aguiguan Reed, Acrocephalus nijoi Arctic, Phylloscopus borealis Bachman’s, Vermivora bachmanii Bay-breasted, Setophaga castanea Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia Blackburnian, Setophaga fusca Blackpoll, Setophaga striata Black-throated Blue, Setophaga caerulescens Black-throated Gray, Setophaga nigrescens Black-throated Green, Setophaga virens Blue-winged, Vermivora cyanoptera Blyth’s Reed, Acrocephalus dumetorum Canada, Cardellina canadensis Cape May, Setophaga tigrina Cerulean, Setophaga cerulea Chestnut-sided, Setophaga pensylvanica PO 00000 Frm 00016 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 Colima, Leiothlypis crissalis Connecticut, Oporornis agilis Crescent-chested, Oreothlypis superciliosa Dusky, Phylloscopus fuscatus Elfin-woods, Setophaga angelae Fan-tailed, Basileuterus lachrymosus Golden-cheeked, Setophaga chrysoparia Golden-crowned, Basileuterus culicivorus Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera Grace’s, Setophaga graciae Hermit, Setophaga occidentalis Hooded, Setophaga citrina Kamchatka Leaf, Phylloscopus examinandus Kentucky, Geothlypis formosa Kirtland’s, Setophaga kirtlandii Lanceolated, Locustella lanceolata Lucy’s, Leiothlypis luciae MacGillivray’s, Geothlypis tolmiei Magnolia, Setophaga magnolia Mourning, Geothlypis philadelphia Nashville, Leiothlypis ruficapilla Nightingale Reed, Acrocephalus luscinius Olive, Peucedramus taeniatus Orange-crowned, Leiothlypis celata Pagan Reed, Acrocephalus yamashinae Pallas’s Leaf, Phylloscopus proregulus Palm, Setophaga palmarum Pine, Setophaga pinus Prairie, Setophaga discolor Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea Red-faced, Cardellina rubrifrons River, Locustella fluviatilis Rufous-capped, Basileuterus rufifrons Saipan Reed, Acrocephalus hiwae Sedge, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus Swainson’s, Limnothlypis swainsonii Tennessee, Leiothlypis peregrina Thick-billed, Arundinax aedon Townsend’s, Setophaga townsendi Virginia’s, Leiothlypis virginiae Willow, Phylloscopus trochilus Wilson’s, Cardellina pusilla Wood, Phylloscopus sibilatrix Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorum Yellow, Setophaga petechia Yellow-browed, Phylloscopus inornatus Yellow-rumped, Setophaga coronata Yellow-throated, Setophaga dominica WATERTHRUSH, Louisiana, Parkesia motacilla Northern, Parkesia noveboracensis WAXWING, Bohemian, Bombycilla garrulus Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum WHEATEAR, Northern, Oenanthe oenanthe Pied, Oenanthe pleschanka WHIMBREL, Numenius phaeopus WHIP-POOR-WILL, Eastern, Antrostomus vociferus E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Mexican, Antrostomus arizonae WHISTLING-DUCK, Black-bellied, Dendrocygna autumnalis Fulvous, Dendrocygna bicolor West Indian, Dendrocygna arborea WHITETHROAT, Lesser, Sylvia curruca WIGEON, American, Mareca americana Eurasian, Mareca penelope WILLET, Tringa semipalmata WOODCOCK, American, Scolopax minor Eurasian, Scolopax rusticola WOODPECKER, Acorn, Melanerpes formicivorus American Three-toed, Picoides dorsalis Arizona, Dryobates arizonae Black-backed, Picoides arcticus Downy, Dryobates pubescens Gila, Melanerpes uropygialis Golden-fronted, Melanerpes aurifrons Great Spotted, Dendrocopos major Hairy, Dryobates villosus Ivory-billed, Campephilus principalis Ladder-backed, Dryobates scalaris Lewis’s, Melanerpes lewis Nuttall’s, Dryobates nuttallii Pileated, Dryocopus pileatus Puerto Rican, Melanerpes portoricensis Red-bellied, Melanerpes carolinus Red-cockaded, Dryobates borealis Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus White-headed, Dryobates albolarvatus WOOD-PEWEE, Eastern, Contopus virens Western, Contopus sordidulus WOOD-RAIL, Rufous-necked, Aramides axillaris WOODSTAR, Bahama, Nesophlox evelynae WREN, Bewick’s, Thryomanes bewickii Cactus, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus Canyon, Catherpes mexicanus Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus House, Troglodytes aedon Marsh, Cistothorus palustris Pacific, Troglodytes pacificus Rock, Salpinctes obsoletus Sedge, Cistothorus platensis Sinaloa, Thryophilus sinaloa Winter, Troglodytes hiemalis WRENTIT, Chamaea fasciata WRYNECK, Eurasian, Jynx torquilla YELLOWLEGS, Greater, Tringa melanoleuca Lesser, Tringa flavipes YELLOWTHROAT, Common, Geothlypis trichas Gray-crowned, Geothlypis poliocephala (2) Taxonomic listing. Species are listed in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the common (English) name following the scientific name. To help clarify species VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 relationships, we also list the higherlevel taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily. Order ANSERIFORMES Family ANATIDAE Subfamily DENDROCYGNINAE Dendrocygna autumnalis, Blackbellied Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-Duck Subfamily ANSERINAE Anser canagicus, Emperor Goose Anser caerulescens, Snow Goose Anser rossii, Ross’s Goose Anser albifrons, Greater White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus, Lesser Whitefronted Goose Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose Anser serrirostris, Tundra Bean-Goose Anser brachyrhynchus, Pink-footed Goose Branta bernicla, Brant Branta leucopsis, Barnacle Goose Branta hutchinsii, Cackling Goose Branta canadensis, Canada Goose Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian Goose Cygnus buccinator, Trumpeter Swan Cygnus columbianus, Tundra Swan Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan Subfamily ANATINAE Cairina moschata, Muscovy Duck Aix sponsa, Wood Duck Sibirionetta formosa, Baikal Teal Spatula querquedula, Garganey Spatula discors, Blue-winged Teal Spatula cyanoptera, Cinnamon Teal Spatula clypeata, Northern Shoveler Mareca strepera, Gadwall Mareca falcata, Falcated Duck Mareca penelope, Eurasian Wigeon Mareca americana, American Wigeon Anas laysanensis, Laysan Duck Anas wyvilliana, Hawaiian Duck Anas zonorhyncha, Eastern Spotbilled Duck Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard Anas rubripes, American Black Duck Anas fulvigula, Mottled Duck Anas superciliosa, Pacific Black Duck Anas bahamensis, White-cheeked Pintail Anas acuta, Northern Pintail Anas crecca, Green-winged Teal Aythya valisineria, Canvasback Aythya americana, Redhead Aythya ferina, Common Pochard Aythya baeri, Baer’s Pochard Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck Aythya marila, Greater Scaup Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup Polysticta stelleri, Steller’s Eider Somateria fischeri, Spectacled Eider Somateria spectabilis, King Eider Somateria mollissima, Common Eider PO 00000 Frm 00017 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 21297 Histrionicus histrionicus, Harlequin Duck Melanitta perspicillata, Surf Scoter Melanitta deglandi, White-winged Scoter Melanitta stejnegeri, Stejneger’s Scoter Melanitta nigra, Common Scoter Melanitta americana, Black Scoter Clangula hyemalis, Long-tailed Duck Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead Bucephala clangula, Common Goldeneye Bucephala islandica, Barrow’s Goldeneye Mergellus albellus, Smew Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser Mergus merganser, Common Merganser Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser Nomonyx dominicus, Masked Duck Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck Order PHOENICOPTERIFORMES Family PHOENICOPTERIDAE Phoenicopterus ruber, American Flamingo Order PODICIPEDIFORMES Family PODICIPEDIDAE Tachybaptus dominicus, Least Grebe Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe Podiceps auritus, Horned Grebe Podiceps grisegena, Red-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis, Eared Grebe Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe Aechmophorus clarkii, Clark’s Grebe Order COLUMBIFORMES Family COLUMBIDAE Patagioenas squamosa, Scaly-naped Pigeon Patagioenas leucocephala, Whitecrowned Pigeon Patagioenas flavirostris, Red-billed Pigeon Patagioenas inornata, Plain Pigeon Patagioenas fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon Streptopelia orientalis, Oriental Turtle-Dove Alopecoenas xanthonurus, Whitethroated Ground-Dove Alopecoenas stairi, Shy Ground-Dove Columbina inca, Inca Dove Columbina passerina, Common Ground Dove Columbina talpacoti, Ruddy Ground Dove Geotrygon montana, Ruddy QuailDove Geotrygon chrysia, Key West QuailDove Geotrygon mystacea, Bridled QuailDove Leptotila verreauxi, White-tipped Dove Zenaida asiatica, White-winged Dove E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 21298 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Zenaida aurita, Zenaida Dove Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove Ptilinopus perousii, Many-colored Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus porphyraceus, Crimsoncrowned Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, Mariana FruitDove Ducula pacifica, Pacific ImperialPigeon Order CUCULIFORMES Family CUCULIDAE Subfamily CROTOPHAGINAE Crotophaga ani, Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga sulcirostris, Groove-billed Ani Subfamily NEOMORPHINAE Geococcyx californianus, Greater Roadrunner Subfamily CUCULINAE Urodynamis taitensis, Long-tailed Koel Hierococcyx nisicolor, Hodgson’s Hawk-Cuckoo Cuculus canorus, Common Cuckoo Cuculus optatus, Oriental Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus minor, Mangrove Cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Blackbilled Cuckoo Coccyzus vieilloti, Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo Order CAPRIMULGIFORMES Family CAPRIMULGIDAE Subfamily CHORDEILINAE Chordeiles acutipennis, Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles minor, Common Nighthawk Chordeiles gundlachii, Antillean Nighthawk Subfamily CAPRIMULGINAE Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Pauraque Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Common Poorwill Antrostomus carolinensis, Chuckwill’s-widow Antrostomus ridgwayi, Buff-collared Nightjar Antrostomus vociferus, Eastern Whippoor-will Antrostomus arizonae, Mexican Whip-poor-will Antrostomus noctitherus, Puerto Rican Nightjar Hydropsalis cayennensis, Whitetailed Nightjar Caprimulgus jotaka, Gray Nightjar Order APODIFORMES Family APODIDAE Subfamily CYPSELOIDINAE Cypseloides niger, Black Swift Streptoprocne zonaris, White-collared Swift Subfamily CHAETURINAE Chaetura pelagica, Chimney Swift Chaetura vauxi, Vaux’s Swift VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 Chaetura brachyura, Short-tailed Swift Hirundapus caudacutus, Whitethroated Needletail Aerodramus spodiopygius, Whiterumped Swiftlet Aerodramus bartschi, Mariana Swiftlet Subfamily APODINAE Apus apus, Common Swift Apus pacificus, Fork-tailed Swift Apus melba, Alpine Swift Aeronautes saxatalis, White-throated Swift Tachornis phoenicobia, Antillean Palm-Swift Family TROCHILIDAE Subfamily TROCHILINAE Colibri thalassinus, Mexican Violetear Anthracothorax prevostii, Greenbreasted Mango Anthracothorax dominicus, Antillean Mango Anthracothorax viridis, Green Mango Eulampis jugularis, Purple-throated Carib Eulampis holosericeus, Greenthroated Carib Eugenes fulgens, Rivoli’s Hummingbird Heliomaster constantii, Plain-capped Starthroat Lampornis amethystinus, Amethystthroated Mountain-gem Lampornis clemenciae, Blue-throated Mountain-gem Calothorax lucifer, Lucifer Hummingbird Archilochus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus alexandri, Black-chinned Hummingbird Mellisuga minima, Vervain Hummingbird Nesophlox evelynae, Bahama Woodstar Calypte anna, Anna’s Hummingbird Calypte costae, Costa’s Hummingbird Atthis heloisa, Bumblebee Hummingbird Selasphorus platycercus, Broad-tailed Hummingbird Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird Selasphorus sasin, Allen’s Hummingbird Selasphorus calliope, Calliope Hummingbird Chlorostilbon maugaeus, Puerto Rican Emerald Cynanthus latirostris, Broad-billed Hummingbird Orthorhyncus cristatus, Antillean Crested Hummingbird Amazilia beryllina, Berylline Hummingbird Amazilia yucatanensis, Buff-bellied Hummingbird Amazilia rutila, Cinnamon PO 00000 Frm 00018 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 Hummingbird Amazilia violiceps, Violet-crowned Hummingbird Hylocharis leucotis, White-eared Hummingbird Hylocharis xantusii, Xantus’s Hummingbird Order GRUIFORMES Family RALLIDAE Coturnicops noveboracensis, Yellow Rail Laterallus jamaicensis, Black Rail Gallirallus philippensis, Buff-banded Rail Gallirallus owstoni, Guam Rail Crex crex, Corn Crake Rallus obsoletus, Ridgway’s Rail Rallus crepitans, Clapper Rail Rallus elegans, King Rail Rallus limicola, Virginia Rail Aramides axillaris, Rufous-necked Wood-Rail Porzana carolina, Sora Porzana tabuensis, Spotless Crake Hapalocrex flaviventer, Yellowbreasted Crake Neocrex erythrops, Paint-billed Crake Pardirallus maculatus, Spotted Rail Porphyrio martinicus, Purple Gallinule Porphyrio flavirostris, Azure Gallinule Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Swamphen Gallinula galeata, Common Gallinule Gallinula chloropus, Common Moorhen Fulica atra, Eurasian Coot Fulica alai, Hawaiian Coot Fulica americana, American Coot Family ARAMIDAE Aramus guarauna, Limpkin Family GRUIDAE Subfamily GRUINAE Antigone canadensis, Sandhill Crane Grus grus, Common Crane Grus americana, Whooping Crane Order CHARADRIIFORMES Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE Himantopus himantopus, Blackwinged Stilt Himantopus mexicanus, Blacknecked Stilt Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet Family HAEMATOPODIDAE Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Black Oystercatcher Family CHARADRIIDAE Subfamily VANELLINAE Vanellus vanellus, Northern Lapwing Subfamily CHARADRIINAE Pluvialis squatarola, Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis apricaria, European GoldenPlover E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Pluvialis dominica, American GoldenPlover Pluvialis fulva, Pacific Golden-Plover Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Dotterel Charadrius vociferus, Killdeer Charadrius hiaticula, Common Ringed Plover Charadrius semipalmatus, Semipalmated Plover Charadrius melodus, Piping Plover Charadrius dubius, Little Ringed Plover Charadrius mongolus, Lesser SandPlover Charadrius leschenaultii, Greater Sand-Plover Charadrius wilsonia, Wilson’s Plover Charadrius collaris, Collared Plover Charadrius montanus, Mountain Plover Charadrius alexandrinus, Kentish Plover Charadrius nivosus, Snowy Plover Family JACANIDAE Jacana spinosa, Northern Jacana Family SCOLOPACIDAE Subfamily NUMENIINAE Bartramia longicauda, Upland Sandpiper Numenius tahitiensis, Bristle-thighed Curlew Numenius phaeopus, Whimbrel Numenius minutus, Little Curlew Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew Numenius arquata, Eurasian Curlew Subfamily LIMOSINAE Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit Limosa haemastica, Hudsonian Godwit Limosa fedoa, Marbled Godwit Subfamily ARENARIINAE Arenaria interpres, Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria melanocephala, Black Turnstone Calidris tenuirostris, Great Knot Calidris canutus, Red Knot Calidris virgata, Surfbird Calidris pugnax, Ruff Calidris falcinellus, Broad-billed Sandpiper Calidris acuminata, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Calidris himantopus, Stilt Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Curlew Sandpiper Calidris temminckii, Temminck’s Stint Calidris subminuta, Long-toed Stint Calidris pygmea, Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris ruficollis, Red-necked Stint Calidris alba, Sanderling Calidris alpina, Dunlin Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 Calidris maritima, Purple Sandpiper Calidris bairdii, Baird’s Sandpiper Calidris minuta, Little Stint Calidris minutilla, Least Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis, White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper Calidris melanotos, Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris pusilla, Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper Subfamily SCOLOPACINAE Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus, Longbilled Dowitcher Lymnocryptes minimus, Jack Snipe Scolopax rusticola, Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax minor, American Woodcock Gallinago solitaria, Solitary Snipe Gallinago stenura, Pin-tailed Snipe Gallinago megala, Swinhoe’s Snipe Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe Gallinago delicata, Wilson’s Snipe Subfamily TRINGINAE Xenus cinereus, Terek Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper Actitis macularius, Spotted Sandpiper Tringa ochropus, Green Sandpiper Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper Tringa brevipes, Gray-tailed Tattler Tringa incana, Wandering Tattler Tringa flavipes, Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa semipalmata, Willet Tringa erythropus, Spotted Redshank Tringa nebularia, Common Greenshank Tringa guttifer, Nordmann’s Greenshank Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs Tringa totanus, Common Redshank Tringa glareola, Wood Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper Phalaropus tricolor, Wilson’s Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus, Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius, Red Phalarope Family STERCORARIIDAE Stercorarius skua, Great Skua Stercorarius maccormicki, South Polar Skua Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus, Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger Family ALCIDAE Alle alle, Dovekie Uria aalge, Common Murre Uria lomvia, Thick-billed Murre Alca torda, Razorbill Cepphus grylle, Black Guillemot PO 00000 Frm 00019 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 21299 Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot Brachyramphus perdix, Long-billed Murrelet Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris, Kittlitz’s Murrelet Synthliboramphus scrippsi, Scripps’s Murrelet Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Guadalupe Murrelet Synthliboramphus craveri, Craveri’s Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus, Ancient Murrelet Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin’s Auklet Aethia psittacula, Parakeet Auklet Aethia pusilla, Least Auklet Aethia pygmaea, Whiskered Auklet Aethia cristatella, Crested Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata, Rhinoceros Auklet Fratercula arctica, Atlantic Puffin Fratercula corniculata, Horned Puffin Fratercula cirrhata, Tufted Puffin Family LARIDAE Subfamily LARINAE Creagrus furcatus, Swallow-tailed Gull Rissa tridactyla, Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa brevirostris, Red-legged Kittiwake Pagophila eburnea, Ivory Gull Xema sabini, Sabine’s Gull Chroicocephalus philadelphia, Bonaparte’s Gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus, Grayhooded Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Blackheaded Gull Hydrocoloeus minutus, Little Gull Rhodostethia rosea, Ross’s Gull Leucophaeus atricilla, Laughing Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan, Franklin’s Gull Larus belcheri, Belcher’s Gull Larus crassirostris, Black-tailed Gull Larus heermanni, Heermann’s Gull Larus canus, Mew Gull Larus delawarensis, Ring-billed Gull Larus occidentalis, Western Gull Larus livens, Yellow-footed Gull Larus californicus, California Gull Larus argentatus, Herring Gull Larus michahellis, Yellow-legged Gull Larus glaucoides, Iceland Gull Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus schistisagus, Slaty-backed Gull Larus glaucescens, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus hyperboreus, Glaucous Gull Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull Larus dominicanus, Kelp Gull Subfamily STERNINAE Anous stolidus, Brown Noddy E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 21300 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Anous minutus, Black Noddy Anous ceruleus, Blue-gray Noddy Gygis alba, White Tern Onychoprion fuscatus, Sooty Tern Onychoprion lunatus, Gray-backed Tern Onychoprion anaethetus, Bridled Tern Onychoprion aleuticus, Aleutian Tern Sternula albifrons, Little Tern Sternula antillarum, Least Tern Phaetusa simplex, Large-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica, Gull-billed Tern Hydroprogne caspia, Caspian Tern Chlidonias niger, Black Tern Chlidonias leucopterus, Whitewinged Tern Chlidonias hybrida, Whiskered Tern Sterna dougallii, Roseate Tern Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern Sterna hirundo, Common Tern Sterna paradisaea, Arctic Tern Sterna forsteri, Forster’s Tern Thalasseus maximus, Royal Tern Thalasseus bergii, Great Crested Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern Thalasseus elegans, Elegant Tern Subfamily RYNCHOPINAE Rynchops niger, Black Skimmer Order PHAETHONTIFORMES Family PHAETHONTIDAE Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda, Red-tailed Tropicbird Order GAVIIFORMES Family GAVIIDAE Gavia stellata, Red-throated Loon Gavia arctica, Arctic Loon Gavia pacifica, Pacific Loon Gavia immer, Common Loon Gavia adamsii, Yellow-billed Loon Order PROCELLARIIFORMES Family DIOMEDEIDAE Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche cauta, White-capped Albatross Thalassarche eremita, Chatham Albatross Thalassarche salvini, Salvin’s Albatross Thalassarche melanophris, Blackbrowed Albatross Phoebetria palpebrata, Light-mantled Albatross Diomedea exulans, Wandering Albatross Phoebastria immutabilis, Laysan Albatross Phoebastria nigripes, Black-footed Albatross Phoebastria albatrus, Short-tailed Albatross Family OCEANITIDAE VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 Oceanites oceanicus, Wilson’s StormPetrel Pelagodroma marina, White-faced Storm-Petrel Fregetta tropica, Black-bellied StormPetrel Family HYDROBATIDAE Hydrobates pelagicus, European Storm-Petrel Fregetta grallaria, White-bellied Storm-Petrel Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Polynesian Storm-Petrel Hydrobates furcatus, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel Hydrobates hornbyi, Ringed StormPetrel Hydrobates monorhis, Swinhoe’s Storm-Petrel Hydrobates leucorhous, Leach’s Storm-Petrel Hydrobates socorroensis, Townsend’s Storm-Petrel Hydrobates homochroa, Ashy StormPetrel Hydrobates castro, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel Hydrobates tethys, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma matsudairae, Matsudaira’s Storm-Petrel Hydrobates melania, Black StormPetrel Hydrobates tristrami, Tristram’s Storm-Petrel Hydrobates microsoma, Least StormPetrel Family PROCELLARIIDAE Fulmarus glacialis, Northern Fulmar Pterodroma gouldi, Gray-faced Petrel Pterodroma solandri, Providence Petrel Pterodroma neglecta, Kermadec Petrel Pterodroma arminjoniana, Trindade Petrel Pterodroma heraldica, Herald Petrel Pterodroma ultima, Murphy’s Petrel Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel Pterodroma cahow, Bermuda Petrel Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel Pterodroma externa, Juan Fernandez Petrel Pterodroma sandwichensis, Hawaiian Petrel Pterodroma cervicalis, White-necked Petrel Pterodroma hypoleuca, Bonin Petrel Pterodroma nigripennis, Blackwinged Petrel Pterodroma feae, Fea’s Petrel Pterodroma madeira, Zino’s Petrel Pterodroma cookii, Cook’s Petrel Pterodroma longirostris, Stejneger’s Petrel Pterodroma alba, Phoenix Petrel Pterodroma leucoptera, Gould’s Petrel Pseudobulweria rostrata, Tahiti Petrel PO 00000 Frm 00020 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer’s Petrel Bulweria fallax, Jouanin’s Petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis, Whitechinned Petrel Procellaria parkinsoni, Parkinson’s Petrel Calonectris leucomelas, Streaked Shearwater Calonectris diomedea, Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Shearwater Ardenna pacifica, Wedge-tailed Shearwater Ardenna bulleri, Buller’s Shearwater Ardenna tenuirostris, Short-tailed Shearwater Ardenna grisea, Sooty Shearwater Ardenna gravis, Great Shearwater Ardenna creatopus, Pink-footed Shearwater Ardenna carneipes, Flesh-footed Shearwater Puffinus nativitatis, Christmas Shearwater Puffinus puffinus, Manx Shearwater Puffinus newelli, Newell’s Shearwater Puffinus bryani, Bryan’s Shearwater Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon’s Shearwater Puffinus baroli, Barolo Shearwater Order CICONIIFORMES Family CICONIIDAE Jabiru mycteria, Jabiru Mycteria americana, Wood Stork Order SULIFORMES Family FREGATIDAE Fregata ariel, Lesser Frigatebird Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata minor, Great Frigatebird Family SULIDAE Sula dactylatra, Masked Booby Sula granti, Nazca Booby Sula nebouxii, Blue-footed Booby Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby Sula sula, Red-footed Booby Papasula abbotti, Abbott’s Booby Morus bassanus, Northern Gannet Family PHALACROCORACIDAE Phalacrocorax melanoleucos, Little Pied Cormorant Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt’s Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus, Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax urile, Red-faced Cormorant Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pelagic Cormorant Family ANHINGIDAE Anhinga anhinga, Anhinga Order PELECANIFORMES Family PELECANIDAE E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, American White Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis, Brown Pelican Family ARDEIDAE Botaurus lentiginosus, American Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis, Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus exilis, Least Bittern Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Schrenck’s Bittern Ixobrychus flavicollis, Black Bittern Tigrisoma mexicanum, Bare-throated Tiger-Heron Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron Ardea cinerea, Gray Heron Ardea alba, Great Egret Ardea intermedia, Intermediate Egret Egretta eulophotes, Chinese Egret Egretta garzetta, Little Egret Egretta sacra, Pacific Reef-Heron Egretta gularis, Western Reef-Heron Egretta thula, Snowy Egret Egretta caerulea, Little Blue Heron Egretta tricolor, Tricolored Heron Egretta rufescens, Reddish Egret Bubulcus ibis, Cattle Egret Ardeola bacchus, Chinese PondHeron Butorides virescens, Green Heron Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax caledonicus, Rufous Night-Heron Nyctanassa violacea, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron Gorsachius goisagi, Japanese NightHeron Gorsachius melanolophus, Malayan Night-Heron Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE Subfamily THRESKIORNITHINAE Eudocimus albus, White Ibis Eudocimus ruber, Scarlet Ibis Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis Subfamily PLATALEINAE Platalea ajaja, Roseate Spoonbill Order CARTHARTIFORMES Family CATHARTIDAE Coragyps atratus, Black Vulture Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture Gymnogyps californianus, California Condor Order ACCIPITRIFORMES Family PANDIONIDAE Pandion haliaetus, Osprey Family ACCIPITRIDAE Subfamily ELANINAE Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite Subfamily GYPAETINAE Chondrohierax uncinatus, Hookbilled Kite Elanoides forficatus, Swallow-tailed Kite Subfamily ACCIPITRINAE Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle Harpagus bidentatus, Double-toothed Kite VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 Circus spilonotus, Eastern MarshHarrier Circus hudsonius, Northern Harrier Accipiter soloensis, Chinese Sparrowhawk Accipiter gularis, Japanese Sparrowhawk Accipiter striatus, Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter cooperii, Cooper’s Hawk Accipiter gentilis, Northern Goshawk Milvus migrans, Black Kite Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla, White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus pelagicus, Steller’s SeaEagle Ictinia mississippiensis, Mississippi Kite Butastur indicus, Gray-faced Buzzard Geranospiza caerulescens, Crane Hawk Rostrhamus sociabilis, Snail Kite Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black Hawk Buteogallus urubitinga, Great Black Hawk Rupornis magnirostris, Roadside Hawk Parabuteo unicinctus, Harris’s Hawk Geranoaetus albicaudatus, Whitetailed Hawk Buteo plagiatus, Gray Hawk Buteo lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo platypterus, Broad-winged Hawk Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian Hawk Buteo brachyurus, Short-tailed Hawk Buteo swainsoni, Swainson’s Hawk Buteo albonotatus, Zone-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Hawk Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk Order STRIGIFORMES Family TYTONIDAE Tyto alba, Barn Owl Family STRIGIDAE Otus sunia, Oriental Scops-Owl Psiloscops flammeolus, Flammulated Owl Megascops kennicottii, Western Screech-Owl Megascops asio, Eastern Screech-Owl Megascops trichopsis, Whiskered Screech-Owl Megascops nudipes, Puerto Rican Screech-Owl Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl Bubo scandiacus, Snowy Owl Surnia ulula, Northern Hawk Owl Glaucidium gnoma, Northern PygmyOwl Glaucidium brasilianum, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Micrathene whitneyi, Elf Owl Athene cunicularia, Burrowing Owl Ciccaba virgata, Mottled Owl Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl Strix varia, Barred Owl PO 00000 Frm 00021 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 21301 Strix nebulosa, Great Gray Owl Asio otus, Long-eared Owl Asio stygius, Stygian Owl Asio flammeus, Short-eared Owl Aegolius funereus, Boreal Owl Aegolius acadicus, Northern Sawwhet Owl Ninox japonica, Northern Boobook Order TROGONIFORMES Family TROGONIDAE Subfamily TROGONINAE Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon Euptilotis neoxenus, Eared Quetzal Order UPUPIFORMES Family UPUPIDAE Upupa epops, Eurasian Hoopoe Order CORACIIFORMES Family ALCEDINIDAE Subfamily ALCEDININAE Alcedo atthis, Common Kingfisher Subfamily HALCYONINAE Todiramphus sacer, Pacific Kingfisher Todiramphus cinnamominus, Guam Kingfisher Todiramphus albicilla, Mariana Kingfisher Subfamily CERYLINAE Megaceryle torquata, Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona, Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher Order PICIFORMES Family PICIDAE Subfamily JYNGINAE Jynx torquilla, Eurasian Wryneck Subfamily PICINAE Melanerpes lewis, Lewis’s Woodpecker Melanerpes portoricensis, Puerto Rican Woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Redheaded Woodpecker Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker Melanerpes uropygialis, Gila Woodpecker Melanerpes aurifrons, Golden-fronted Woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Williamson’s Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus nuchalis, Red-naped Sapsucker Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker Picoides dorsalis, American Threetoed Woodpecker Picoides arcticus, Black-backed Woodpecker Dendrocopos major, Great Spotted Woodpecker Dryobates pubescens, Downy Woodpecker E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 21302 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Dryobates nuttallii, Nuttall’s Woodpecker Dryobates scalaris, Ladder-backed Woodpecker Dryobates borealis, Red-cockaded Woodpecker Dryobates villosus, Hairy Woodpecker Dryobates albolarvatus, White-headed Woodpecker Dryobates arizonae, Arizona Woodpecker Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker Colaptes chrysoides, Gilded Flicker Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker Campephilus principalis, Ivory-billed Woodpecker Order FALCONIFORMES Family FALCONIDAE Subfamily HERPETOTHERINAE Micrastur semitorquatus, Collared Forest-Falcon Subfamily FALCONINAE Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara Falco tinnunculus, Eurasian Kestrel Falco sparverius, American Kestrel Falco vespertinus, Red-footed Falcon Falco amurensis, Amur Falcon Falco columbarius, Merlin Falco subbuteo, Eurasian Hobby Falco femoralis, Aplomado Falcon Falco rusticolus, Gyrfalcon Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon Order PASSERIFORMES Family TITYRIDAE Tityra semifasciata, Masked Tityra Pachyramphus major, Gray-collared Becard Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard Family TYRANNIDAE Subfamily ELAENIINAE Camptostoma imberbe, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet Myiopagis viridicata, Greenish Elaenia Elaenia martinica, Caribbean Elaenia Elaenia albiceps, White-crested Elaenia Subfamily FLUVICOLINAE Mitrephanes phaeocercus, Tufted Flycatcher Contopus cooperi, Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus pertinax, Greater Pewee Contopus sordidulus, Western WoodPewee Contopus virens, Eastern Wood-Pewee Contopus caribaeus, Cuban Pewee Contopus hispaniolensis, Hispaniolan Pewee Contopus latirostris, Lesser Antillean Pewee Empidonax flaviventris, Yellowbellied Flycatcher Empidonax virescens, Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum, Alder VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 Flycatcher Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher Empidonax hammondii, Hammond’s Flycatcher Empidonax wrightii, Gray Flycatcher Empidonax oberholseri, Dusky Flycatcher Empidonax affinis, Pine Flycatcher Empidonax difficilis, Pacific-slope Flycatcher Empidonax occidentalis, Cordilleran Flycatcher Empidonax fulvifrons, Buff-breasted Flycatcher Sayornis nigricans, Black Phoebe Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe Sayornis saya, Say’s Phoebe Pyrocephalus rubinus, Vermilion Flycatcher Subfamily TYRANNINAE Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus cinerascens, Ash-throated Flycatcher Myiarchus nuttingi, Nutting’s Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus, Great Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus tyrannulus, Brown-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus sagrae, La Sagra’s Flycatcher Myiarchus antillarum, Puerto Rican Flycatcher Pitangus sulphuratus, Great Kiskadee Myiozetetes similis, Social Flycatcher Myiodynastes luteiventris, Sulphurbellied Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius, Piratic Flycatcher Empidonomus varius, Variegated Flycatcher Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus, Crowned Slaty Flycatcher Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus couchii, Couch’s Kingbird Tyrannus vociferans, Cassin’s Kingbird Tyrannus crassirostris, Thick-billed Kingbird Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus, Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis, Gray Kingbird Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Loggerhead Kingbird Tyrannus forficatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher Family LANIIDAE Lanius cristatus, Brown Shrike Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike Lanius borealis, Northern Shrike Family VIREONIDAE PO 00000 Frm 00022 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 Vireo atricapilla, Black-capped Vireo Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo Vireo crassirostris, Thick-billed Vireo Vireo latimeri, Puerto Rican Vireo Vireo gundlachii, Cuban Vireo Vireo bellii, Bell’s Vireo Vireo vicinior, Gray Vireo Vireo huttoni, Hutton’s Vireo Vireo flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo cassinii, Cassin’s Vireo Vireo solitarius, Blue-headed Vireo Vireo plumbeus, Plumbeous Vireo Vireo philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo Vireo flavoviridis, Yellow-green Vireo Vireo altiloquus, Black-whiskered Vireo Vireo magister, Yucatan Vireo Family CORVIDAE Perisoreus canadensis, Canada Jay Psilorhinus morio, Brown Jay Cyanocorax yncas, Green Jay Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Pinyon Jay Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller’s Jay Cyanocitta cristata, Blue Jay Aphelocoma coerulescens, Florida Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma insularis, Island ScrubJay Aphelocoma californica, California Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma woodhouseii, Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma wollweberi, Mexican Jay Nucifraga columbiana, Clark’s Nutcracker Pica hudsonia, Black-billed Magpie Pica nuttalli, Yellow-billed Magpie Corvus monedula, Eurasian Jackdaw Corvus kubaryi, Mariana Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos, American Crow Corvus caurinus, Northwestern Crow Corvus leucognaphalus, Whitenecked Crow Corvus imparatus, Tamaulipas Crow Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian Crow Corvus cryptoleucus, Chihuahuan Raven Corvus corax, Common Raven Family ALAUDIDAE Alauda arvensis, Eurasian Skylark Eremophila alpestris, Horned Lark Family HIRUNDINIDAE Subfamily HIRUNDININAE Riparia riparia, Bank Swallow Tachycineta bicolor, Tree Swallow Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Bahama Swallow Tachycineta thalassina, Violet-green Swallow Tachycineta albilinea, Mangrove Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Northern E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Rough-winged Swallow Progne tapera, Brown-chested Martin Progne dominicensis, Caribbean Martin Progne subis, Purple Martin Progne cryptoleuca, Cuban Martin Progne chalybea, Gray-breasted Martin Progne elegans, Southern Martin Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow Delichon urbicum, Common HouseMartin Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon fulva, Cave Swallow Family PARIDAE Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee Poecile atricapillus, Black-capped Chickadee Poecile gambeli, Mountain Chickadee Poecile sclateri, Mexican Chickadee Poecile rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee Poecile hudsonicus, Boreal Chickadee Poecile cinctus, Gray-headed Chickadee Baeolophus wollweberi, Bridled Titmouse Baeolophus inornatus, Oak Titmouse Baeolophus ridgwayi, Juniper Titmouse Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse Baeolophus atricristatus, Blackcrested Titmouse Family REMIZIDAE Auriparus flaviceps, Verdin Family AEGITHALIDAE Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit Family SITTIDAE Subfamily SITTINAE Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch Sitta pygmaea, Pygmy Nuthatch Sitta pusilla, Brown-headed Nuthatch Family CERTHIIDAE Subfamily CERTHIINAE Certhia americana, Brown Creeper Family TROGLODYTIDAE Salpinctes obsoletus, Rock Wren Catherpes mexicanus, Canyon Wren Troglodytes aedon, House Wren Troglodytes pacificus, Pacific Wren Troglodytes hiemalis, Winter Wren Cistothorus platensis, Sedge Wren Cistothorus palustris, Marsh Wren Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren Thryomanes bewickii, Bewick’s Wren Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren Thryophilus sinaloa, Sinaloa Wren Family POLIOPTILIDAE Polioptila caerulea, Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher Polioptila californica, California Gnatcatcher VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher Family CINCLIDAE Cinclus mexicanus, American Dipper Family REGULIDAE Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned Kinglet Family PHYLLOSCOPIDAE Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler Phylloscopus collybita, Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Wood Warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus, Dusky Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus, Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus, Yellowbrowed Warbler Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus examinandus, Kamchatka Leaf Warbler Family SYLVIIDAE Sylvia curruca, Lesser Whitethroat Chamaea fasciata, Wrentit Family ACROCEPHALIDAE Arundinax aedon, Thick-billed Warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Nightingale Reed Warbler Acrocephalus hiwae, Saipan Reed Warbler Acrocephalus nijoi, Aguiguan Reed Warbler Acrocephalus yamashinae, Pagan Reed Warbler Acrocephalus familiaris, Millerbird Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum, Blyth’s Reed Warbler Family LOCUSTELLIDAE Locustella ochotensis, Middendorff’s Grasshopper-Warbler Locustella fluviatilis, River Warbler Locustella lanceolata, Lanceolated Warbler Family MUSCICAPIDAE Muscicapa griseisticta, Gray-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica, Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa striata, Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica, Dark-sided Flycatcher Erithacus rubecula, European Robin Larvivora cyane, Siberian Blue Robin Larvivora sibilans, Rufous-tailed Robin Cyanecula svecica, Bluethroat Calliope calliope, Siberian Rubythroat Tarsiger cyanurus, Red-flanked Bluetail Ficedula narcissina, Narcissus Flycatcher PO 00000 Frm 00023 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 21303 Ficedula mugimaki, Mugimaki Flycatcher Ficedula albicilla, Taiga Flycatcher Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Common Redstart Saxicola torquatus, Stonechat Oenanthe oenanthe, Northern Wheatear Oenanthe pleschanka, Pied Wheatear Family TURDIDAE Monticola solitarius, Blue RockThrush Sialia sialis, Eastern Bluebird Sialia mexicana, Western Bluebird Sialia currucoides, Mountain Bluebird Myadestes townsendi, Townsend’s Solitaire Myadestes occidentalis, Brownbacked Solitaire Myadestes myadestinus, Ka¯ma1o Myadestes lanaiensis, Olomao ¯ ma1o Myadestes obscurus, O Myadestes palmeri, Puaiohi Catharus aurantiirostris, Orangebilled Nightingale-Thrush Catharus mexicanus, Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus fuscescens, Veery Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus bicknelli, Bicknell’s Thrush Catharus ustulatus, Swainson’s Thrush Catharus guttatus, Hermit Thrush Hylocichla mustelina, Wood Thrush Turdus obscurus, Eyebrowed Thrush Turdus naumanni, Dusky Thrush Turdus pilaris, Fieldfare Turdus iliacus, Redwing Turdus grayi, Clay-colored Thrush Turdus assimilis, White-throated Thrush Turdus rufopalliatus, Rufous-backed Robin Turdus migratorius, American Robin Turdus plumbeus, Red-legged Thrush Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush Ridgwayia pinicola, Aztec Thrush Family MIMIDAE Melanotis caerulescens, Blue Mockingbird Melanoptila glabrirostris, Black Catbird Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird Margarops fuscatus, Pearly-eyed Thrasher Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher Toxostoma rufum, Brown Thrasher Toxostoma longirostre, Long-billed Thrasher Toxostoma bendirei, Bendire’s Thrasher Toxostoma redivivum, California Thrasher Toxostoma lecontei, LeConte’s Thrasher Toxostoma crissale, Crissal Thrasher E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 21304 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Oreoscoptes montanus, Sage Thrasher Hemignathus hanapepe, Kauai Mimus gundlachii, Bahama Nukupu1u Mockingbird Hemignathus lucidus, O1ahu Mimus polyglottos, Northern Nukupu1u Mockingbird Hemignathus affinis, Maui Nukupu1u Family STURNIDAE Hemignathus wilsoni, 1Akiapola1au Agropsar philippensis, ChestnutAkialoa stejnegeri, Kauai 1Akialoa Akialoa ellisiana, O1ahu 1Akialoa cheeked Starling Akialoa lanaiensis, Maui Nui 1Akialoa Spodiopsar cineraceus, WhiteMagumma parva, 1Anianiau cheeked Starling Chlorodrepanis virens, Hawaii Family BOMBYCILLIDAE 1Amakihi Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Chlorodrepanis flava, O1ahu 1Amakihi Waxwing Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri, Kauai Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar 1Amakihi Waxwing Loxops mana, Hawaii Creeper Family PTILIOGONATIDAE Loxops caeruleirostris, 1Akeke1e Ptiliogonys cinereus, Gray SilkyLoxops wolstenholmei, O1ahu 1Akepa flycatcher Loxops ochraceus, Maui 1Akepa Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla Loxops coccineus, Hawaii 1Akepa Family PEUCEDRAMIDAE Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak Peucedramus taeniatus, Olive Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Eurasian Bullfinch Warbler Leucosticte arctoa, Asian Rosy-Finch Family PRUNELLIDAE Leucosticte tephrocotis, Gray-crowned Prunella montanella, Siberian Rosy-Finch Accentor Leucosticte atrata, Black Rosy-Finch Family MOTACILLIDAE Leucosticte australis, Brown-capped Motacilla tschutschensis, Eastern Rosy-Finch Yellow Wagtail Haemorhous mexicanus, House Finch Motacilla citreola, Citrine Wagtail Haemorhous purpureus, Purple Finch Motacilla cinerea, Gray Wagtail Haemorhous cassinii, Cassin’s Finch Motacilla alba, White Wagtail Chloris sinica, Oriental Greenfinch Anthus trivialis, Tree Pipit Acanthis flammea, Common Redpoll Anthus hodgsoni, Olive-backed Pipit Acanthis hornemanni, Hoary Redpoll Anthus gustavi, Pechora Pipit Loxia curvirostra, Red Crossbill Anthus cervinus, Red-throated Pipit Loxia sinesciuris, Cassia Crossbill Anthus rubescens, American Pipit Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Anthus spragueii, Sprague’s Pipit Crossbill Family FRINGILLIDAE Spinus spinus, Eurasian Siskin Subfamily FRINGILLINAE Spinus pinus, Pine Siskin Fringilla coelebs, Common Chaffinch Spinus psaltria, Lesser Goldfinch Fringilla montifringilla, Brambling Spinus lawrencei, Lawrence’s Subfamily EUPHONIINAE Goldfinch Euphonia musica, Antillean Euphonia Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch Subfamily CARDUELINAE Family CALCARIIDAE Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Calcarius lapponicus, Lapland Grosbeak Longspur Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Calcarius ornatus, Chestnut-collared Hawfinch Longspur Carpodacus erythrinus, Common Calcarius pictus, Smith’s Longspur Rosefinch Rhynchophanes mccownii, McCown’s Carpodacus roseus, Pallas’s Rosefinch Longspur Melamprosops phaeosoma, Po1ouli Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting Oreomystis bairdi, 1Akikiki Plectrophenax hyperboreus, McKay’s Paroreomyza maculata, O1ahu Bunting 1Alauahio Family EMBERIZIDAE Paroreomyza flammea,Ka¯ka¯wahie Emberiza leucocephalos, Pine Paroreomyza montana, Maui Bunting 1Alauahio Emberiza chrysophrys, YellowLoxioides bailleui, Palila Telespiza cantans, Laysan Finch browed Bunting Telespiza ultima, Nihoa Finch Emberiza pusilla, Little Bunting Palmeria dolei, 1Akohekohe Emberiza rustica, Rustic Bunting Himatione fraithii, Laysan Emberiza elegans, Yellow-throated Honeycreeper Bunting Himatione sanguinea, 1Apapane Emberiza aureola, Yellow-breasted Drepanis coccinea, 1I1iwi Bunting ¯ 1u¯ Psittirostra psittacea, 1O Emberiza variabilis, Gray Bunting Pseudonestor xanthophrys, Maui Emberiza pallasi, Pallas’s Bunting Parrotbill Emberiza schoeniclus, Reed Bunting VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00024 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 Family PASSERELLIDAE Peucaea carpalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow Peucaea botterii, Botteri’s Sparrow Peucaea cassinii, Cassin’s Sparrow Peucaea aestivalis, Bachman’s Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow Arremonops rufivirgatus, Olive Sparrow Amphispiza quinquestriata, Fivestriped Sparrow Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow Spizella pallida, Clay-colored Sparrow Spizella atrogularis, Black-chinned Sparrow Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow Spizella breweri, Brewer’s Sparrow Spizella wortheni, Worthen’s Sparrow Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow Spizelloides arborea, American Tree Sparrow Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco Junco phaeonotus, Yellow-eyed Junco Zonotrichia leucophrys, Whitecrowned Sparrow Zonotrichia atricapilla, Goldencrowned Sparrow Zonotrichia querula, Harris’s Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis, White-throated Sparrow Artemisiospiza nevadensis, Sagebrush Sparrow Artemisiospiza belli, Bell’s Sparrow Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow Ammospiza leconteii, LeConte’s Sparrow Ammospiza maritima, Seaside Sparrow Ammospiza nelsoni, Nelson’s Sparrow Ammospiza caudacuta, Saltmarsh Sparrow Centronyx bairdii, Baird’s Sparrow Centronyx henslowii, Henslow’s Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln’s Sparrow Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow Melozone fusca, Canyon Towhee Melozone aberti, Abert’s Towhee Melozone crissalis, California Towhee Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee Family NESOSPINGIDAE E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES2 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Nesospingus speculiferus, Puerto Rican Tanager Family SPINDALIDAE Spindalis zena, Western Spindalis Spindalis portoricensis, Puerto Rican Spindalis Family ICTERIIDAE Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat Family ICTERIDAE Subfamily XANTHOCEPHALINAE Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Yellow-headed Blackbird Subfamily DOLICHONYCHINAE Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink Subfamily STURNELLINAE Sturnella magna, Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark Subfamily ICTERINAE Icterus portoricensis, Puerto Rican Oriole Icterus wagleri, Black-vented Oriole Icterus spurius, Orchard Oriole Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole Icterus pustulatus, Streak-backed Oriole Icterus bullockii, Bullock’s Oriole Icterus gularis, Altamira Oriole Icterus graduacauda, Audubon’s Oriole Icterus galbula, Baltimore Oriole Icterus abeillei, Black-backed Oriole Icterus parisorum, Scott’s Oriole Subfamily AGELAIINAE Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius tricolor, Tricolored Blackbird Agelaius humeralis, Tawnyshouldered Blackbird Agelaius xanthomus, Yellowshouldered Blackbird Molothrus bonariensis, Shiny Cowbird Molothrus aeneus, Bronzed Cowbird Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird Euphagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer’s Blackbird Quiscalus quiscula, Common Grackle Quiscalus major, Boat-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus, Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus niger, Greater Antillean Grackle Family PARULIDAE Seiurus aurocapilla, Ovenbird Helmitheros vermivorum, Wormeating Warbler Parkesia motacilla, Louisiana Waterthrush Parkesia noveboracensis, Northern Waterthrush Vermivora bachmanii, Bachman’s Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera, Goldenwinged Warbler Vermivora cyanoptera, Blue-winged VerDate Sep<11>2014 19:00 Apr 15, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Warbler Mniotilta varia, Black-and-white Warbler Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson’s Warbler Oreothlypis superciliosa, Crescentchested Warbler Leiothlypis peregrina, Tennessee Warbler Leiothlypis celata, Orange-crowned Warbler Leiothlypis crissalis, Colima Warbler Leiothlypis luciae, Lucy’s Warbler Leiothlypis ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler Leiothlypis virginiae, Virginia’s Warbler Oporornis agilis, Connecticut Warbler Geothlypis poliocephala, Graycrowned Yellowthroat Geothlypis tolmiei, MacGillivray’s Warbler Geothlypis philadelphia, Mourning Warbler Geothlypis formosa, Kentucky Warbler Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat Setophaga angelae, Elfin-woods Warbler Setophaga citrina, Hooded Warbler Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart Setophaga kirtlandii, Kirtland’s Warbler Setophaga tigrina, Cape May Warbler Setophaga cerulea, Cerulean Warbler Setophaga americana, Northern Parula Setophaga pitiayumi, Tropical Parula Setophaga magnolia, Magnolia Warbler Setophaga castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler Setophaga fusca, Blackburnian Warbler Setophaga petechia, Yellow Warbler Setophaga pensylvanica, Chestnutsided Warbler Setophaga striata, Blackpoll Warbler Setophaga caerulescens, Blackthroated Blue Warbler Setophaga palmarum, Palm Warbler Setophaga pinus, Pine Warbler Setophaga coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler Setophaga dominica, Yellow-throated Warbler Setophaga discolor, Prairie Warbler Setophaga adelaidae, Adelaide’s Warbler Setophaga graciae, Grace’s Warbler Setophaga nigrescens, Black-throated Gray Warbler Setophaga townsendi, Townsend’s Warbler Setophaga occidentalis, Hermit Frm 00025 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 9990 21305 Warbler Setophaga chrysoparia, Goldencheeked Warbler Setophaga virens, Black-throated Green Warbler Basileuterus lachrymosus, Fan-tailed Warbler Basileuterus rufifrons, Rufous-capped Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus, Goldencrowned Warbler Cardellina canadensis, Canada Warbler Cardellina pusilla, Wilson’s Warbler Cardellina rubrifrons, Red-faced Warbler Myioborus pictus, Painted Redstart Myioborus miniatus, Slate-throated Redstart Family CARDINALIDAE Piranga flava, Hepatic Tanager Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager Piranga ludoviciana, Western Tanager Piranga bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager Rhodothraupis celaeno, Crimsoncollared Grosbeak Cardinalis cardinalis, Northern Cardinal Cardinalis sinuatus, Pyrrhuloxia Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Yellow Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus, Rosebreasted Grosbeak Pheucticus melanocephalus, Blackheaded Grosbeak Cyanocompsa parellina, Blue Bunting Passerina caerulea, Blue Grosbeak Passerina amoena, Lazuli Bunting Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting Passerina versicolor, Varied Bunting Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting Spiza americana, Dickcissel Family THRAUPIDAE Subfamily DACNINAE Cyanerpes cyaneus, Red-legged Honeycreeper Subfamily COEREBINAE Coereba flaveola, Bananaquit Tiaris olivaceus, Yellow-faced Grassquit Melanospiza bicolor, Black-faced Grassquit Melopyrrha portoricensis, Puerto Rican Bullfinch Subfamily SPOROPHILINAE Sporophila morelleti, Morelet’s Seedeater * * * * * George Wallace, Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks. [FR Doc. 2020–06779 Filed 4–15–20; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4333–15–P E:\FR\FM\16APR2.SGM 16APR2

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 85, Number 74 (Thursday, April 16, 2020)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 21282-21305]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2020-06779]



[[Page 21281]]

Vol. 85

Thursday,

No. 74

April 16, 2020

Part II





Department of the Interior





-----------------------------------------------------------------------





 Fish and Wildlife Service





-----------------------------------------------------------------------





50 CFR Part 10





General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds; Final Rule

Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 74 / Thursday, April 16, 2020 / Rules 
and Regulations

[[Page 21282]]


-----------------------------------------------------------------------

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 10

[Docket No. FWS-HQ-MB-2018-0047; FXMB 12320900000//201//FF09M29000]
RIN 1018-BC67


General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Final rule.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), revise the 
List of Migratory Birds protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act 
(MBTA) by both adding and removing species. Reasons for the changes to 
the list include adding species based on new taxonomy and new evidence 
of natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories, 
removing species no longer known to occur within the United States or 
U.S. territories, and changing names to conform to accepted use. The 
net increase of 67 species (75 added and 8 removed) will bring the 
total number of species protected by the MBTA to 1,093. We regulate the 
taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, 
exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate and up-to-
date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for public 
notification and regulatory purposes.

DATES: This rule is effective May 18, 2020.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Eric L. Kershner, Chief of the Branch 
of Conservation, Permits, and Regulations; Division of Migratory Bird 
Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; MS: MB; 5275 Leesburg Pike, 
Falls Church, VA 22041-3803; (703) 358-2376.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

What statutory authority does the service have for this rulemaking?

    We have statutory authority and responsibility for enforcing the 
MBTA (16 U.S.C. 703-712), the Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 
(16 U.S.C. 742l), and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 
742a-j). The MBTA implements Conventions between the United States and 
four neighboring countries for the protection of migratory birds, as 
follows:
    (1) Canada: Convention between the United States and Great Britain 
[on behalf of Canada] for the Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 
1916, 39 Stat. 1702 (T.S. No. 628), as amended by Protocol between the 
Government of the United States and the Government of Canada Amending 
the 1916 Convention between the United Kingdom and the United States of 
America for the Protection of Migratory Birds, Sen. Treaty Doc. 104-28 
(December 14, 1995);
    (2) Mexico: Convention between the United States and Mexico for the 
Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, 50 
Stat. 1311 (T.S. No. 912), as amended by Protocol with Mexico amending 
Convention for Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, Sen. 
Treaty Doc. 105-26 (May 5, 1997);
    (3) Japan: Convention between the Government of the United States 
of America and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory 
Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 
4, 1972, 25 U.S.T. 3329 (T.I.A.S. No. 7990); and
    (4) Russia: Convention between the United States of America and the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning the Conservation of 
Migratory Birds and Their Environment (Russia), November 19, 1976, 29 
U.S.T. 4647 (T.I.A.S. No. 9073).

What is the purpose of this rulemaking?

    Our purpose is to inform the public of the species protected by the 
MBTA and its implementing regulations. These regulations are found in 
Title 50, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), parts 10, 20, and 21. We 
regulate the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, 
barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate 
and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for 
notifying the public of regulatory protections.

Why is the amendment of the List of Migratory Birds necessary?

    The amendments we are adopting in this final rule are needed to:
    (1) Add 16 species that qualify for protection under the MBTA;
    (2) Correct the spelling of 3 species names on the alphabetized 
list;
    (3) Correct the spelling of 3 species names on the taxonomic list;
    (4) Add 30 species based on new distributional records documenting 
their natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories since 
2010;
    (5) Add one species moved from a family that was not protected to a 
family protected under the MBTA as a result of taxonomic changes;
    (6) Add 28 species newly recognized as a result of recent taxonomic 
changes;
    (7) Remove 8 species not known to occur within the boundaries of 
the United States or U.S. territories as a result of recent taxonomic 
changes;
    (8) Change the common (English) names of 43 species to conform to 
accepted use; and
    (9) Change the scientific names of 135 species to conform to 
accepted use.
    The List of Migratory Birds (50 CFR 10.13) was last revised on 
November 1, 2013 (78 FR 65844). The amendments in this rule were 
necessitated by nine published supplements to the 7th (1998) edition of 
the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU, now recognized as the American 
Ornithological Society (AOS)) Check-list of North American Birds (AOU 
2011, AOU 2012, AOU 2013, AOU 2014, AOU 2015, AOU 2016, AOS 2017, AOS 
2018, and AOS 2019) and the 2017 publication of the Clements Checklist 
of Birds of the World (Clements et al. 2017).

What scientific authorities are used to amend the List of Migratory 
Birds?

    Although bird names (common and scientific) are relatively stable, 
staying current with standardized use is necessary to avoid confusion 
in communications. In making our determinations, we primarily relied on 
the AOS's Checklist of North American birds (AOU 1998), as amended 
annually (AOU 1999 through 2016, AOS 2017 through 2019), on matters of 
taxonomy, nomenclature, and the sequence of species and other higher 
taxonomic categories (Orders, Families, Subfamilies) for species that 
occur in North America. The AOU (now AOS) Checklist of North American 
Birds (Checklist), developed by the AOU Committee on Classification and 
Nomenclature, has been the recognized taxonomic authority for North 
American birds since publication of the first edition of the Checklist 
in 1886. The committee compiles the taxonomic foundation for 
ornithology in North America; evaluating and codifying the latest 
scientific developments in the systematics, classification, 
nomenclature, and distribution of North American birds. Thus, the AOS's 
Checklist represents the best information available for developing the 
North American component of this List of Migratory Birds. In keeping 
with the increasing numbers of study areas on which taxonomy relies, 
the committee incorporates expertise in phylogenetics, genomics, 
vocalizations, morphology, behavior, and geographical distribution, as 
well as general ornithological knowledge. The AOS Checklist contains 
all bird species that have occurred in North America from the Arctic 
through Panama, including the West Indies and the Hawaiian Islands, and 
includes

[[Page 21283]]

distributional information for each species, which specifies whether 
the species is known to occur in the United States. The committee also 
keeps and updates a list of species known to occur in the United 
States.
    For the species that occur outside the geographic area covered by 
the AOS Checklist, we relied primarily on the Clements Checklist of 
Birds of the World (Clements Checklist) (Clements et al. 2007), the 
Clements Checklist 2017 installment of updates and corrections 
(Clements et al. 2017), and other peer-reviewed literature where 
appropriate. The Clements Checklist is a list of all known bird species 
in the world and is maintained and updated annually by the Cornell 
Laboratory of Ornithology (CLO). The CLO relies on different regional 
ornithological authorities to compile the list, using the AOS for the 
western hemisphere. Taxonomy and nomenclature are the primary focus of 
the Clements Checklist, but range descriptions are maintained and 
updated based on the best available information and do not include 
records of vagrancy.
    Although the Service primarily relies on the above sources, when 
informed taxonomic opinion or documented natural distribution is 
inconsistent or controversial, the Service evaluates available 
published and unpublished information and comes to its own conclusions 
regarding the validity of taxa and records of distribution.

What criteria are used to identify individual species protected by the 
MBTA?

    A species qualifies for protection under the MBTA by meeting one or 
more of the following criteria:
    (1) It occurs in the United States or U.S. territories as the 
result of natural biological or ecological processes and is currently, 
or was previously listed as, a species or part of a family protected by 
one of the four international treaties or their amendments. Any species 
that occurs in the United States or U.S. territories solely as a result 
of intentional or unintentional human-assisted introduction does not 
qualify for the MBTA list, regardless of whether the family the species 
belongs to is listed in any of the treaties, unless:
     It was native to the United States or its territories and 
extant in 1918;
     It was extirpated after 1918 throughout its range in the 
United States and its territories; and
     After such extirpation, it was reintroduced in the United 
States or its territories as part of a program carried out by a Federal 
agency.
    (2) Revised taxonomy results in it being newly split from a species 
that was previously on the list, and the new species occurs in the 
United States or U.S. territories as the result of natural biological 
or ecological processes. If a newly recognized native species is 
considered extinct (following the classification of the AOS) or, for 
species not covered by the AOS, the Clements Checklist or peer-reviewed 
literature), that species will still be included if either of the 
following criteria apply:
     The species resembles extant species included in the list 
that may be affected by trade if the species is not included; or
     Not including the species may create difficulties 
implementing the MBTA and its underlying Conventions.
    (3) New evidence exists for its natural occurrence in the United 
States or U.S. territories resulting from natural distributional 
changes and the species occurs in a protected family. Records must be 
documented, accepted, and published by the AOS committee. For the U.S. 
Pacific territories that fall outside the geographic scope of the AOS 
and for which there is no identified ornithological authority, new 
evidence of a species' natural occurrence will be based on the Clements 
Checklist and then published peer-reviewed literature, in that order.
    In accordance with the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act of 2004 
(MBTRA) (Pub. L. 108-447, 118 Stat. 2809, 3071-72), we only include 
migratory bird species that are native to the United States or U.S. 
territories. A native migratory bird species is one that is present as 
a result of natural biological or ecological processes. The list at 50 
CFR 10.13 does not include nonnative species that occur in the United 
States or U.S. territories solely as a result of intentional or 
unintentional human-assisted introduction(s). Elsewhere in today's 
Federal Register, we publish a list of nonnative bird species that are 
not protected under the MBTA.

How do the changes affect the List of Migratory Birds?

    Several taxonomic changes were made at the Order and Family level 
by the AOS since our 2013 publication of the list (78 FR 65844; 
November 1, 2013). These changes affect the inclusion and taxonomic 
order of species on this list. Specifically, the Order Cathartiformes 
(New World vultures) was split from the Accipitriformes (diurnal birds 
of prey). Cathartiformes now includes the Family Cathartidae (vultures 
and California Condor, Gymnogyps californianus). At the Family level, 
the Oceanitidae (southern storm-petrels) was split from the 
Hydrobatidae (northern storm-petrels), the Tityridae (becards and 
tityras) was split from the Tyrannidae (tyrant flycatchers), the 
Passerellidae (towhees, sparrows, and juncos) was split from the 
Emberizidae (buntings), and the Megaluridae (Locustella warblers) was 
renamed to Locustellidae. The Ptilogonatidae (silky-flycatchers) was 
renamed to the Ptiliogonatidae. The Nesospingidae (Puerto Rican 
Tanager) and the Spindalidae (Spindalis genus) were split from the 
Thraupidae (tanagers). The yellow-breasted chat was split from the 
Parulidae (wood-warblers) and placed into Icteriidae (chats). Within 
the Scolopacidae (sandpipers, phalaropes, and allies), new Subfamilies 
were created: The curlews were moved to Numeniinae; the godwits to 
Limosinae; and small sandpipers to Arenariinae and larger sandpipers to 
Tringinae, including phalaropes whose previous Subfamily Phalaropodinae 
was removed. Within the Accipitridae (hawks, eagles, and kites), new 
Subfamilies were created: The White-tailed Kite was move to Elaninae, 
Hook-billed and Swallow-tailed Kite were moved to Gypaetinae, and all 
other members of the family were moved to Accipitrinae. Within the 
Icteridae (blackbirds), new Subfamilies were created: Yellow-headed 
blackbird was moved to Xanthocephalinae; bobolink was moved to 
Dolichonychinae; meadowlarks were moved to Sturnellinae; orioles were 
moved to Icterinae; and blackbirds, cowbirds, and grackles were moved 
to Agelaiinae. In the Falconidae (caracaras and falcons), collared 
forest-falcon was moved into the new Subfamily Herpetotherinae, and the 
Subfamily Caracarinae was removed, with crested caracara moved to the 
Subfamily Falconinae. In the Fringillidae (finches and allies), the 
Hawaiian fringillids were moved from the Subfamily Drepanidinae to 
Carduelinae. The Old World flycatchers in the Turdidae (thrushes) were 
moved to the Muscicapidae (Old World flycatchers). Bananaquit was moved 
from the Coerebidae (a family not protected by MBTA) to the Thraupidae 
(tanagers and allies), which is a family protected by the MBTA. All 
other tanagers were also moved from the Emberizidae (sparrows) to the 
Thraupidae. Within Thraupidae, the seedeaters were moved into the 
Subfamily Sporophilinae, and bananaquit, grassquits, and bullfinches 
were moved into the Subfamily Coerebinae.
    All species previously receiving protection under the MBTA that 
have

[[Page 21284]]

been moved to newly created Families continue to be protected under the 
MBTA.
    The amendments affect a total of 252 species; 75 additions, 8 
removals, and 178 name changes covering 169 species (9 species had both 
scientific and common name changes). The result is a net addition of 67 
species to the List of Migratory Birds, increasing the number of 
species on the list from 1,026 to 1,093. Of the 75 species that we add 
to the list, 28 were previously covered under the MBTA as members of 
the same species (conspecific) of listed species. These amendments can 
be logically arranged in the following nine categories:
    (1) Add 16 species that qualify for protection by the MBTA but have 
not been added previously. The addition of these species is the result 
of either accepting AOS taxonomic updates that were previously excluded 
or determinations of documented natural occurrence in the United States 
or U.S. territories. The species and relevant publication(s) are:
    Pink-footed Goose, Anser brachyrhynchus (AOS 2019);
    Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii (AOU 2004);
    Long-tailed Koel, Urodynamis taitensis (Wiles 2005);
    White-tailed Nightjar, Hydropsalis cayennensis (AOU 1983);
    Vervain Hummingbird, Mellisuga minima (AOU 1983);
    Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus (Enbring and Owen 1981);
    Common Redshank, Tringa totanus (Wiles 2005);
    Nazca Booby, Sula granti (AOS 2019);
    Abbott's Booby, Papasula abbotti (Pratt et al. 2009);
    Rufous Night-Heron, Nycticorax caledonicus (Glass et al. 1990);
    Gray-faced Buzzard, Butastur indicus (Stinson et al. 1997);
    Eastern Marsh-Harrier, Circus spilonotus (Wiles et al. 2000);
    Amur Falcon, Falco amurensis (Stinson et al. 1991);
    Eurasian Jackdaw, Corvus monedula (AOU 1998);
    Redwing, Turdus iliacus (AOU 1998);
    Common Kingfisher, Alcedo atthis (Wiles et al. 1993).
    (2) Correct the spelling of three common or scientific names on the 
alphabetized list:
    Eared Quetzel, Euptilotis neoxenus, becomes Eared Quetzal
    Red-footed falcon, Flaco vespertinus, becomes Falco vespertinus
    Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophalus becomes Legatus leucophaius
    (3) Correct the spelling of three common or scientific names on the 
taxonomic list:
    Eared Quetzel, Euptilotis neoxenus, becomes Eared Quetzal
    White-crested Eleania, Elaenia albiceps becomes White-crested 
Elaenia
    Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophalus becomes Legatus leucophaius
    (4) Add 30 species based on review and acceptance by the AOS (since 
2010) or by other appropriate ornithological authorities of new 
distributional records documenting their occurrence in the United 
States or U.S. territories. These species belong to families covered by 
at least one of the four international conventions, and all are 
considered to be of accidental or casual occurrence. For each species, 
we list the State in which it has been recorded plus the relevant 
publication:
    Common Scoter, Melanitta nigra--California and Oregon (AOS 2017);
    Amethyst-throated Mountain-gem, Lampornis amethystinus--Texas (AOS 
2018, AOS 2019);
    Rufous-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides axillaris--New Mexico (AOU 2016);
    Solitary Snipe, Gallinago solitaria--Alaska (AOU 2011);
    Chatham Albatross, Thalassarche eremita--California (AOS 2017);
    European Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates pelagicus--North Carolina and 
Florida (AOS 2019);
    Providence Petrel, Pterodroma solandri--Alaska (AOU 2013);
    Fea's Petrel, Pterodroma feae--North Carolina, Georgia, Virginia 
(AOU 2013);
    Zino's Petrel, Pterodroma madeira--North Carolina, (AOU 2015);
    White-chinned Petrel, Procellaria aequinoctialis--Texas, 
California, Maine (AOU 2011);
    Bryan's Shearwater, Puffinus bryani--Hawaii (AOU 2012);
    Bare-throated Tiger-Heron, Tigrisoma mexicanum--Texas (AOU 2011);
    Double-toothed Kite, Harpagus bidentatus--Texas (AOU 2013);
    Great Black Hawk, Buteogallus urubitinga--Texas and Maine (AOS 
2019);
    Amazon Kingfisher, Chloroceryle amazona--Texas (AOU 2011);
    Gray-collared Becard, Pachyramphus major--Arizona (AOU 2011);
    Pine Flycatcher, Empidonax affinis--Arizona (AOS 2018);
    Cuban Vireo, Vireo gundlachii--Florida (AOS 2018);
    Common Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita--Alaska (AOU 2014);
    Thick-billed Warbler, Arundinax aedon--Alaska (AOS 2019);
    Blyth's Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus dumetorum--Alaska (AOU 2017);
    River Warbler, Locustella fluviatilis--Alaska (AOS 2019);
    European Robin, Erithacus rubecula--Pennsylvania (AOS 2019);
    Common Redstart, Phoenicurus phoenicurus--Alaska (AOU 2015);
    Pied Wheatear, Oenanthe pleschanka--Alaska (AOS 2019);
    Brown-backed Solitaire, Myadestes occidentalis--Arizona (AOU 2011);
    Pallas's Rosefinch, Carpodacus roseus--Alaska (AOS 2019);
    Asian Rosy-Finch, Leucosticte arctoa--Alaska (AOU 2013);
    Black-backed Oriole, Icterus abeillei--Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, 
Connecticut (AOS 2019);
    Red-legged Honeycreeper, Cyanerpes cyaneus--Texas (AOS 2017).
    (5) Add one species because of recent taxonomic changes 
transferring a species in a Family formerly not protected by the MBTA 
(Coerebidae) into a Family protected under the MBTA (Thraupidae). We 
reference the AOS publication supporting the change:
    Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola (AOU 2015).
    (6) Add 28 species because of recent taxonomic changes in which 
taxa formerly treated as conspecific have been determined to be 
distinct species. Given that each of these species was formerly treated 
as conspecific with a listed species, these additions do not change the 
protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they 
are known. In each case, we reference the AOS or relevant publication 
supporting the change:
    Stejneger's Scoter, Melanitta stejnegeri--formerly considered 
conspecific with Velvet Scoter, Melanitta fusca (AOS 2019);
    Ridgway's Rail, Rallus obsoletus--formerly considered conspecific 
with Clapper Rail, Rallus longirostris (AOU 2014);
    Common Gallinule, Gallinula galeata--formerly considered 
conspecific with Common Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus (AOU 2011);
    Scripps's Murrelet, Synthliboramphus scrippsi--formerly considered 
conspecific with Xantus's Murrelet, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (AOU 
2012);
    Salvin's Albatross, Thalassarche salvini--formerly considered 
conspecific with Shy Albatross, Thalassarche cauta (AOU 2014);
    Gray-faced Petrel, Pterodroma gouldi--formerly considered 
conspecific with Great-winged Petrel, Pterodroma macroptera (AOS 2019);
    Trindade Petrel, Pterodroma arminjoniana --formerly considered 
conspecific with Herald Petrel, Pterodroma heraldica (AOU 2015);

[[Page 21285]]

    Newell's Shearwater, Puffinus newelli--formerly considered 
conspecific with Townsend's Shearwater, Puffinus auricularis (AOU 
2015);
    Barolo Shearwater, Puffinus baroli--formerly considered conspecific 
with Little Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis (AOU 2013);
    Townsend's Storm-Petrel, Hydrobates socorroensis--formerly 
considered conspecific with Leach's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma 
leucorhous (AOU 2016, AOS 2019);
    Northern Boobook, Ninox japonica--formerly considered conspecific 
with Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata (AOU 2014);
    Pacific Kingfisher, Todiramphus sacer--formerly considered 
conspecific with Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements et 
al. 2015);
    Mariana Kingfisher, Todiramphus albicilla--formerly considered 
conspecific with Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements et 
al. 2015);
    Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma woodhouseii--formerly considered 
conspecific with Western Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma californica (AOU 2016);
    Kamchatka Leaf Warbler, Phylloscopus examinandus--formerly 
considered conspecific with Arctic Warbler, Phylloscopus borealis (AOU 
2014);
    Saipan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus hiwae--formerly considered 
conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius 
(Clements et al. 2013);
    Aguiguan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus nijoi--formerly considered 
conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius 
(Clements et al. 2013);
    Pagan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus yamashinae--formerly considered 
conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius 
(Clements et al. 2013);
    Laysan Honeycreeper, Himatione fraithii-- formerly considered 
conspecific with Apapane, Himatione sanguinea (AOU 2015)
    Kauai Nukupu`u, Hemignathus hanapepe--formerly considered 
conspecific with Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus (AOU 2015);
    Maui Nukupu`u, Hemignathus affins--formerly considered conspecific 
with Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus (AOU 2015);
    Kauai `Akialoa, Akialoa stejnegeri--formerly considered conspecific 
with Greater Akialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (AOU 2015);
    Maui Nui `Akialoa, Akialoa lanaiensis--formerly considered 
conspecific with Greater Akialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (AOU 2015);
    O`ahu `Akepa, Loxops wolstenholmei--formerly considered conspecific 
with Akepa, Loxops coccineus (AOU 2015);
    Maui `Akepa, Loxops ochraceus--formerly considered conspecific with 
Akepa, Loxops coccineus (AOU 2015);
    Cassia Crossbill, Loxia sinesciuris--formerly considered 
conspecific with Red Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra (AOS 2017);
    Sagebrush Sparrow, Artemisiospiza nevadensis--formerly considered 
conspecific with Sage Sparrow, Amphispiza belli (AOU 2013);
    Morelet's Seedeater, Sporophila morelleti--formerly considered 
conspecific with White-collared Seedeater, Sporophila torqueola (AOS 
2018).
    (7) Remove eight species based on revised taxonomic treatments, 
either because a species is taxonomically merged with another species, 
either on or off the list; a species previously on the list is 
taxonomically split into multiple species and the new species is not 
known to occur within the United States or U.S. territories; or the 
species is considered extinct (following the classification of the AOS 
or, for species not covered by the AOS, the Clements Checklist or peer-
reviewed literature) unless any of the following criteria apply: It is 
protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 
U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), or the Convention on International Trade in 
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES; 27 U.S.T. 1087); it 
resembles extant species included in the list that may be affected by 
its removal; or its removal would create difficulties implementing the 
MBTA and its underlying Conventions. In each case, we reference the 
publication supporting these changes:
    Thayer's Gull, Larus thayeri, now a subspecies of Iceland Gull, 
Larus glaucoides (AOS 2017);
    Great-winged Petrel, Pterodroma macroptera (AOS 2019);
    Townsend's Shearwater, Puffinus auricularis (AOU 2015);
    Little Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis (AOU 2015);
    Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata (AOU 2014);
    Caribbean Coot, Fulica caribaea (AOU 2016);
    Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements et al. 2015);
    White-collared Seedeater, Sporophila torqueola (AOS 2018).
    (8) Revise the common (English) names of 43 species to conform to 
the most recent nomenclatural treatment as described in AOU 
publications 2011 through 2017, AOS 2018 and 2019 and Clements et al. 
(2017). Hawaiian species names are modified to official Hawaiian 
spelling, following the Pukui-Elbert Hawaiian Dictionary, adding the 
diacritical marks to the common names where applicable. The Government 
Publishing Office Style Manual requires the words Hawaii and Kauai to 
be spelled without the diacritical mark. These revisions do not change 
the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which 
they are known. In each case, the update is described in the table, 
below.
    (9) Revise the scientific names of 135 species to conform to the 
most recent nomenclatural treatment as described in AOU publications 
2011 through 2017, AOS 2018 and 2019 and Clements et al. (2017). These 
revisions do not change the protective status of any of these taxa, 
only the names by which they are known. In each case, the update is 
described in the table, below.
    Table of name changes, as described in categories 8 and 9, above, 
follows. Table is organized following AOS (2019) taxonomic order. The 
relevant AOS publication is provided. Hawaiian common name changes are 
indicated with a (--).

------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Publication source and
           year              Previous common name   Current common name
------------------------------------------------------------------------
AOU 2004..................  Canada Goose           Canada Goose, Branta
                             (including Branta      canadensis.
                             hutchinsii), Branta
                             canadensis.
AOS 2019..................  Common Ground-Dove,    Common Ground Dove,
                             Columbina passerina.   Columbina passerina.
AOS 2019..................  Ruddy Ground-Dove,     Ruddy Ground Dove,
                             Columbina talpacoti.   Columbina talpacoti.
AOU 2016..................  Green Violetear,       Mexican Violetear,
                             Colibri thalassinus.   Colibri thalassinus.
AOS 2017..................  Magnificent            Rivoli's Hummingbird,
                             hummingbird, Eugenes   Eugenes fulgens.
                             fulgens.
AOS 2019..................  Blue-throated          Blue-throated
                             Hummingbird,           Mountain-gem,
                             Lampornis clemenciae.  Lampornis
                                                    clemenciae.
AOU 2012..................  Xantus's Murrelet,     Guadalupe Murrelet,
                             Synthliboramphus       Synthliboramphus
                             hypoleucus.            hypoleucus.

[[Page 21286]]

 
AOU 2014..................  Shy Albatross,         White-capped
                             Thalassarche cauta.    Albatross,
                                                    Thalassarche cauta.
AOU 2015..................  Herald Petrel,         Trindade Petrel,
                             Pterodroma             Pterodroma
                             arminjoniana.          arminjoniana.
Clements et al. 2000......  Pacific Reef-Egret,    Pacific Reef-Heron,
                             Egretta sacra.         Egretta sacra.
AOU 2012..................  Gray Frog-Hawk,        Chinese Sparrowhawk,
                             Accipiter soloensis.   Accipiter soloensis.
AOU 2014..................  Common Black-Hawk,     Common Black Hawk,
                             Buteogallus            Buteogallus
                             anthracinus.           anthracinus.
AOS 2018..................  Gray Jay, Perisoreus   Canada Jay,
                             canadensis.            Perisoreus
                                                    canadensis.
AOU 2016..................  Western Scrub-Jay,     California Scrub-Jay,
                             Aphelocoma             Aphelocoma
                             californica.           californica.
AOU 2016..................  Eurasian Sky Lark,     Eurasian Skylark,
                             Alauda arvensis.       Alauda arvensis.
AOU 2014..................  Pallas's Leaf-         Pallas's Leaf
                             Warbler,               Warbler,
                             Phylloscopus           Phylloscopus
                             proregulus.            proregulus.
--........................  Kamao, Myadestes       K[amacr]ma[revaps]o,
                             myadestinus.           Myadestes
                                                    myadestinus.
--........................  Olomao, Myadestes      Oloma[revaps]o,
                             lanaiensis.            Myadestes
                                                    lanaiensis.
--........................  Omao, Myadestes        [revaps][Omacr]mar[re
                             obscurus.              vaps]o, Myadestes
                                                    obscurus.
AOS 2017..................  Le Conte's Thrasher,   LeConte's Thrasher,
                             Toxostoma lecontei.    Toxostoma lecontei.
AOU 2015..................  Nukupuu, Hemignathus   O[revaps]ahu
                             lucidus.               Nukupu[revaps]u,
                                                    Hemignathus lucidus.
--........................  Poo-uli, Melamprosops  Po[revaps]ouli,
                             phaeosoma.             Melamprosops
                                                    phaeosoma.
--........................  Akikiki, Oreomystis    [revaps]Akikiki,
                             bairdi.                Oreomystis bairdi.
--........................  Oahu Alauahio,         O[revaps]ahu
                             Paroreomyza maculata.  [revaps]Alauahio,
                                                    Paroreomyza
                                                    maculata.
--........................  Kakawahie,             K[amacr]k[amacr]wahie
                             Paroreomyza flammea.   , Paroreomyza
                                                    flammea.
--........................  Maui Alauahio,         Maui
                             Paroreomyza montana.   [revaps]Alauahio,
                                                    Paroreomyza montana.
--........................  Akohekohe, Palmeria    [revaps]Akohekohe,
                             dolei.                 Palmeria dolei.
--........................  Apapane, Himatione     [revaps]Apapane,
                             sanguinea.             Himatione sanguinea.
--........................  Iiwi, Drepanis         [revaps]I[revaps]iwi,
                             coccinea.              Drepanis coccinea.
--........................  Ou, Psittirostra       [revaps][Omacr][revap
                             psittacea.             s][umacr],
                                                    Psittirostra
                                                    psittacea.
--........................  Anianiau, Magumma      [revaps]Anianiau,
                             parva.                 Magumma parva.
--........................  Akekee, Loxops         [revaps]Akeke[revaps]
                             caeruleirostris.       e, Loxops
                                                    caeruleirostris.
AOU 2015..................  Akepa, Loxops          Hawaii [revaps]Akepa,
                             coccineus.             Loxops coccineus.
AOS 2017..................  Le Conte's Sparrow,    LeConte's Sparrow,
                             Ammodramus leconteii.  Ammodramus
                                                    leconteii.
AOS 2017..................  Emperor Goose, Chen    Emperor Goose, Anser
                             canagica.              canagicus.
AOS 2017..................  Snow Goose, Chen       Snow Goose, Anser
                             caerulescens.          caerulescens.
AOS 2017..................  Ross's Goose, Chen     Ross's Goose, Anser
                             rossii.                rossii.
AOS 2017..................  Baikal Teal, Anas      Baikal Teal,
                             formosa.               Sibirionetta
                                                    formosa.
AOS 2017..................  Garganey, Anas         Garganey, Spatula
                             querquedula.           querquedula.
AOS 2017..................  Blue-winged Teal,      Blue-winged Teal,
                             Anas discors.          Spatula discors.
AOS 2017..................  Cinnamon Teal, Anas    Cinnamon Teal,
                             cyanoptera.            Spatula cyanoptera.
AOS 2017..................  Northern Shoveler,     Northern Shoveler,
                             Anas clypeata.         Spatula clypeata.
AOS 2017..................  Gadwall, Anas          Gadwall, Mareca
                             strepera.              strepera.
AOS 2017..................  Falcated Duck, Anas    Falcated Duck, Mareca
                             falcata.               falcata.
AOS 2017..................  Eurasian Wigeon, Anas  Eurasian Wigeon,
                             penelope.              Mareca penelope.
AOS 2017..................  American Wigeon, Anas  American Wigeon,
                             americana.             Mareca americana.
AOS 2019..................  White-winged Scoter,   White-winged Scoter,
                             Melanitta fusca.       Melanitta deglandi.
Clements et al. 2017......  White-throated Ground- White-throated Ground-
                             Dove, Gallicolumba     Dove, Alopecoenas
                             xanthonura.            xanthonurus.
Clements et al. 2010......  Hodgson's Hawk-        Hodgson's Hawk-
                             Cuckoo, Cuculus        Cuckoo, Hierococcyx
                             fugax.                 nisicolor.
AOU 2012..................  Chuck-will's-widow,    Chuck-will's-widow,
                             Caprimulgus            Antrostomus
                             carolinensis.          carolinensis.
AOU 2012..................  Buff-collared          Buff-collared
                             Nightjar,              Nightjar,
                             Caprimulgus ridgwayi.  Antrostomus
                                                    ridgwayi.
AOU 2012..................  Eastern Whip-poor-     Eastern Whip-poor-
                             will, Caprimulgus      will, Antrostomus
                             vociferus.             vociferus.
AOU 2012..................  Mexican Whip-poor-     Mexican Whip-poor-
                             will, Caprimulgus      will, Antrostomus
                             arizonae.              arizonae.
AOU 2012..................  Puerto Rican           Puerto Rican
                             Nightjar,              Nightjar,
                             Caprimulgus            Antrostomus
                             noctitherus.           noctitherus.
AOS 2018..................  Gray Nightjar,         Gray Nightjar,
                             Caprimulgus indicus.   Caprimulgus jotaka.
AOS 2019..................  Bahama Woodstar,       Bahama Woodstar,
                             Calliphlox evelynae.   Nesophlox evelynae.
AOU 2012..................  Calliope Hummingbird,  Calliope Hummingbird,
                             Stellula calliope.     Selasphorus
                                                    calliope.
AOU 2014..................  Clapper Rail, Rallus   Clapper Rail, Rallus
                             longirostris.          crepitans.
AOU 2016..................  Yellow-breasted        Yellow-breasted
                             Crake, Porzana         Crake, Hapalocrex
                             flaviventer.           flaviventer.
AOU 2012..................  Purple Gallinule,      Purple Gallinule,
                             Porphyrio martinica.   Porphyrio
                                                    martinicus.
AOU 2016..................  Sandhill Crane, Grus   Sandhill Crane,
                             canadensis.            Antigone canadensis.
AOU 2011..................  Snowy Plover,          Snowy Plover,
                             Charadrius             Charadrius nivosus.
                             alexandrinus.
AOU 2013..................  Surfbird, Aphriza      Surfbird, Calidris
                             virgata.               virgata.
AOU 2013..................  Ruff, Philomachus      Ruff, Calidris
                             pugnax.                pugnax.
AOU 2013..................  Broad-billed           Broad-billed
                             Sandpiper, Limicola    Sandpiper, Calidris
                             falcinellus.           falcinellus.
AOU 2013..................  Spoon-billed           Spoon-billed
                             Sandpiper,             Sandpiper, Calidris
                             Eurynorhynchus         pygmea.
                             pygmeus.
AOU 2013..................  Buff-breasted          Buff-breasted
                             Sandpiper, Tryngites   Sandpiper, Calidris
                             subruficollis.         subruficollis.
AOS 2017..................  Blue-gray Noddy,       Blue-gray Noddy,
                             Procelsterna cerulea.  Anous ceruleus.
AOU 2003..................  Whiskered Tern,        Whiskered Tern,
                             Chlidonias hybridus.   Chlidonias hybrida.
AOS 2019..................  Fork-tailed Storm-     Fork-tailed Storm-
                             Petrel, Oceanodroma    Petrel, Hydrobates
                             furcata.               furcatus.
AOS 2019..................  Ringed Storm-Petrel,   Ringed Storm-Petrel,
                             Oceanodroma hornbyi.   Hydrobates hornbyi.
AOS 2019..................  Swinhoe's Storm-       Swinhoe's Storm-
                             Petrel, Oceanodroma    Petrel, Hydrobates
                             monorhis.              monorhis.
AOS 2019..................  Leach's Storm-Petrel,  Leach's Storm-Petrel,
                             Oceanodroma            Hydrobates
                             leucorhoa.             leucorhous.
AOS 2019..................  Townsend's Storm-      Townsend's Storm-
                             Petrel, Oceanodroma    Petrel, Hydrobates
                             socorroensis.          socorroensis.
AOS 2019..................  Ashy Storm-Petrel,     Ashy Storm-Petrel,
                             Oceanodroma            Hydrobates
                             homochroa.             homochroa.
AOS 2019..................  Band-rumped Storm-     Band-rumped Storm-
                             Petrel, Oceanodroma    Petrel, Hydrobates
                             castro.                castro.
AOS 2019..................  Wedge-rumped Storm-    Wedge-rumped Storm-
                             Petrel, Oceanodroma    Petrel, Hydrobates
                             tethys.                tethys.
AOS 2019..................  Black Storm-Petrel,    Black Storm-Petrel,
                             Oceanodroma melania.   Hydrobates melania.
AOS 2019..................  Tristram's Storm-      Tristram's Storm-
                             Petrel, Oceanodroma    Petrel, Hydrobates
                             tristrami.             tristrami.
AOS 2019..................  Least Storm-Petrel,    Least Storm-Petrel,
                             Oceanodroma            Hydrobates
                             microsoma.             microsoma.

[[Page 21287]]

 
AOS 2018..................  Tahiti Petrel,         Tahiti Petrel,
                             Pterodroma rostrata.   Pseudobulweria
                                                    rostrata.
AOU 2016..................  Wedge-tailed           Wedge-tailed
                             Shearwater, Puffinus   Shearwater, Ardenna
                             pacificus.             pacifica.
AOU 2016..................  Buller's Shearwater,   Buller's Shearwater,
                             Puffinus bulleri.      Ardenna bulleri.
AOU 2016..................  Short-tailed           Short-tailed
                             Shearwater, Puffinus   Shearwater, Ardenna
                             tenuirostris.          tenuirostris.
AOU 2016..................  Sooty Shearwater,      Sooty Shearwater,
                             Puffinus griseus.      Ardenna grisea.
AOU 2016..................  Great Shearwater,      Great Shearwater,
                             Puffinus gravis.       Ardenna gravis.
AOU 2016..................  Pink-footed            Pink-footed
                             Shearwater, Puffinus   Shearwater, Ardenna
                             creatopus.             creatopus.
AOU 2016..................  Flesh-footed           Flesh-footed
                             Shearwater, Puffinus   Shearwater, Ardenna
                             carneipes.             carneipes.
AOS 2017..................  Intermediate Egret,    Intermediate Egret,
                             Mesophoyx intermedia.  Ardea intermedia.
AOS 2017..................  Northern Harrier,      Northern Harrier,
                             Circus cyaneus.        Circus hudsonius.
AOU 2015..................  Roadside Hawk, Buteo   Roadside Hawk,
                             magnirostris.          Rupornis
                                                    magnirostris.
AOU 2015..................  White-tailed Hawk,     White-tailed Hawk,
                             Buteo albicaudatus.    Geranoaetus
                                                    albicaudatus.
AOS 2018..................  Downy Woodpecker,      Downy Woodpecker,
                             Picoides pubescens.    Dryobates pubescens.
AOS 2018..................  Nuttall's Woodpecker,  Nuttall's Woodpecker,
                             Picoides nuttallii.    Dryobates nuttallii.
AOS 2018..................  Ladder-backed          Ladder-backed
                             Woodpecker, Picoides   Woodpecker,
                             scalaris.              Dryobates scalaris.
AOS 2018..................  Red-cockaded           Red-cockaded
                             Woodpecker, Picoides   Woodpecker,
                             borealis.              Dryobates borealis.
AOS 2018..................  Hairy Woodpecker,      Hairy Woodpecker,
                             Picoides villosus.     Dryobates villosus.
AOS 2018..................  White-headed           White-headed
                             Woodpecker, Picoides   Woodpecker,
                             albolarvatus.          Dryobates
                                                    albolarvatus.
AOS 2018..................  Arizona Woodpecker,    Arizona Woodpecker,
                             Picoides arizonae.     Dryobates arizonae.
AOU 2013..................  Flammulated Owl, Otus  Flammulated Owl,
                             flammeolus.            Psiloscops
                                                    flammeolus.
AOS 2017..................  Northern Shrike,       Northern Shrike,
                             Lanius excubitor.      Lanius borealis.
AOU 2011..................  Mexican Jay,           Mexican Jay,
                             Aphelocoma             Aphelocoma
                             ultramarina.           wollweberi.
AOU 2012..................  Sinaloa Wren,          Sinaloa Wren,
                             Thryothorus sinaloa.   Thryophilus sinaloa.
AOS 2018..................  Siberian Blue Robin,   Siberian Blue Robin,
                             Luscinia cyane.        Larvivora cyane.
AOS 2018..................  Rufous-tailed Robin,   Rufous-tailed Robin,
                             Luscinia sibilans.     Larvivora sibilans.
AOS 2018..................  Bluethroat, Luscinia   Bluethroat, Cyanecula
                             svecica.               svecica.
AOS 2018..................  Siberian Rubythroat,   Siberian Rubythroat,
                             Luscinia calliope.     Calliope calliope.
Clements et al. 2015......  Chestnut-cheeked       Chestnut-cheeked
                             Starling, Sturnus      Starling, Agropsar
                             phillippensis.         philippensis.
Clements et al. 2015......  White-cheeked          White-cheeked
                             Starling, Sturnus      Starling, Spodiopsar
                             cineraceus.            cineraceus.
AOU 2013..................  Gray Silky-            Gray Silky-
                             flycatcher,            flycatcher,
                             Ptilogonys cinereus.   Ptiliogonys
                                                    cinereus.
AOU 2012..................  House Finch,           House Finch,
                             Carpodacus mexicanus.  Haemorhous
                                                    mexicanus.
AOU 2012..................  Purple Finch,          Purple Finch,
                             Carpodacus purpureus.  Haemorhous
                                                    purpureus.
AOU 2012..................  Cassin's Finch,        Cassin's Finch,
                             Carpodacus cassinii.   Haemorhous cassinii.
AOU 2015..................  American Tree          American Tree
                             Sparrow, Spizella      Sparrow,
                             arborea.               Spizelloides
                                                    arborea.
AOS 2018..................  LeConte's Sparrow,     LeConte's Sparrow,
                             Ammodramus leconteii.  Ammospiza leconteii.
AOS 2018..................  Seaside Sparrow,       Seaside Sparrow,
                             Ammodramus maritima.   Ammospiza maritima.
AOS 2018..................  Nelson's Sparrow,      Nelson's Sparrow,
                             Ammodramus nelsoni.    Ammospiza nelsoni.
AOS 2018..................  Saltmarsh Sparrow,     Saltmarsh Sparrow,
                             Ammodramus caudacuta.  Ammospiza caudacuta.
AOS 2018..................  Baird's Sparrow,       Baird's Sparrow,
                             Ammodramus bairdii.    Centronyx bairdii.
AOS 2018..................  Henslow's Sparrow,     Henslow's Sparrow,
                             Ammodramus henslowii.  Centronyx henslowii.
AOS 2019..................  Tennessee Warbler,     Tennessee Warbler,
                             Oreothlypis            Leiothlypis
                             peregrina.             peregrina.
AOS 2019..................  Orange-crowned         Orange-crowned
                             Warbler, Oreothlypis   Warbler, Leiothlypis
                             celata.                celata.
AOS 2019..................  Colima Warbler,        Colima Warbler,
                             Oreothlypis            Leiothlypis
                             crissalis.             crissalis.
AOS 2019..................  Lucy's Warbler,        Lucy's Warbler,
                             Oreothlypis luciae.    Leiothlypis luciae.
AOS 2019..................  Nashville Warbler,     Nashville Warbler,
                             Oreothlypis            Leiothlypis
                             ruficapilla.           ruficapilla.
AOS 2019..................  Virginia's Warbler,    Virginia's Warbler,
                             Oreothlypis            Leiothlypis
                             virginiae.             virginiae.
AOU 2011..................  MacGillivray's         MacGillivray's
                             Warbler, Oporornis     Warbler, Geothlypis
                             tolmiei.               tolmiei.
AOU 2011..................  Mourning Warbler,      Mourning Warbler,
                             Oporornis              Geothlypis
                             philadelphia.          philadelphia.
AOU 2011..................  Kentucky Warbler,      Kentucky Warbler,
                             Oporornis formosus.    Geothlypis formosa.
AOU 2011..................  Elfin-woods Warbler,   Elfin-woods Warbler,
                             Dendroica angelae.     Setophaga angelae.
AOU 2011..................  Hooded Warbler,        Hooded Warbler,
                             Wilsonia citrina.      Setophaga citrina.
AOU 2011..................  Kirtland's Warbler,    Kirtland's Warbler,
                             Dendroica kirtlandii.  Setophaga
                                                    kirtlandii.
AOU 2011..................  Cape May Warbler,      Cape May Warbler,
                             Dendroica tigrina.     Setophaga tigrina.
AOU 2011..................  Cerulean Warbler,      Cerulean Warbler,
                             Dendroica cerulea.     Setophaga cerulea.
AOU 2011..................  Northern Parula,       Northern Parula,
                             Parula americana.      Setophaga americana.
AOU 2011..................  Tropical Parula,       Tropical Parula,
                             Parula pitiayumi.      Setophaga pitiayumi.
AOU 2011..................  Magnolia Warbler,      Magnolia Warbler,
                             Dendroica magnolia.    Setophaga magnolia.
AOU 2011..................  Bay-breasted Warbler,  Bay-breasted Warbler,
                             Dendroica castanea.    Setophaga castanea.
AOU 2011..................  Blackburnian Warbler,  Blackburnian Warbler,
                             Dendroica fusca.       Setophaga fusca.
AOU 2011..................  Yellow Warbler,        Yellow Warbler,
                             Dendroica petechia.    Setophaga petechia.
AOU 2011..................  Chestnut-sided         Chestnut-sided
                             Warbler, Dendroica     Warbler, Setophaga
                             pensylvanica.          pensylvanica.
AOU 2011..................  Blackpoll Warbler,     Blackpoll Warbler,
                             Dendroica striata.     Setophaga striata.
AOU 2011..................  Black-throated Blue    Black-throated Blue
                             Warbler, Dendroica     Warbler, Setophaga
                             caerulescens.          caerulescens.
AOU 2011..................  Palm Warbler,          Palm Warbler,
                             Dendroica palmarum.    Setophaga palmarum.
AOU 2011..................  Pine Warbler,          Pine Warbler,
                             Dendroica pinus.       Setophaga pinus.
AOU 2011..................  Yellow-rumped          Yellow-rumped
                             Warbler, Dendroica     Warbler, Setophaga
                             coronata.              coronata.
AOU 2011..................  Yellow-throated        Yellow-throated
                             Warbler, Dendroica     Warbler, Setophaga
                             dominica.              dominica.
AOU 2011..................  Prairie Warbler,       Prairie Warbler,
                             Dendroica discolor.    Setophaga discolor.
AOU 2011..................  Adelaide's Warbler,    Adelaide's Warbler,
                             Dendroica adelaidae.   Setophaga adelaidae.
AOU 2011..................  Grace's Warbler,       Grace's Warbler,
                             Dendroica graciae.     Setophaga graciae.
AOU 2011..................  Black-throated Gray    Black-throated Gray
                             Warbler, Dendroica     Warbler, Setophaga
                             nigrescens.            nigrescens.
AOU 2011..................  Townsend's Warbler,    Townsend's Warbler,
                             Dendroica townsendi.   Setophaga townsendi.
AOU 2011..................  Hermit Warbler,        Hermit Warbler,
                             Dendroica              Setophaga
                             occidentalis.          occidentalis.

[[Page 21288]]

 
AOU 2011..................  Golden-cheeked         Golden-cheeked
                             Warbler, Dendroica     Warbler, Setophaga
                             chrysoparia.           chrysoparia.
AOU 2011..................  Black-throated Green   Black-throated Green
                             Warbler, Dendroica     Warbler, Setophaga
                             virens.                virens.
AOU 2011..................  Fan-tailed Warbler,    Fan-tailed Warbler,
                             Euthlypis lachrymosa.  Basileuterus
                                                    lachrymosus.
AOU 2011..................  Canada Warbler,        Canada Warbler,
                             Wilsonia canadensis.   Cardellina
                                                    canadensis.
AOU 2011..................  Wilson's Warbler,      Wilson's Warbler,
                             Wilsonia pusilla.      Cardellina pusilla.
AOS 2019..................  Black-faced            Black-faced
                             Grassquit, Tiaris      Grassquit,
                             bicolor.               Melanospiza bicolor.
AOS 2018..................  Puerto Rican           Puerto Rican
                             Bullfinch, Loxigilla   Bullfinch,
                             portoricensis.         Melopyrrha
                                                    portoricensis.
Clements et al. 2017......  Friendly Ground-Dove,  Shy Ground-Dove,
                             Gallicolumba stairi.   Alopecoenas stairi.
Clements et al. 2006......  Micronesian            Guam Kingfisher,
                             Kingfisher,            Todiramphus
                             Todirhamphus           cinnamominus.
                             cinnamominus.
Clements et al. 2006, 2017  Nightingale Reed-      Nightingale Reed
                             Warbler,               Warbler,
                             Acrocephalus           Acrocephalus
                             luscinia.              luscinius.
AOU 2015..................  Akiapolaau,            [revaps]Akiapola[reva
                             Hemignathus munroi.    ps]au, Hemignathus
                                                    wilsoni.
AOU 2015..................  Greater Akialoa,       O[revaps]ahu
                             Hemignathus            [revaps]Akialoa,
                             ellisianus.            Akialoa ellisiana.
AOU 2015..................  Hawaii Amakihi,        Hawaii
                             Hemignathus virens.    [revaps]Amakihi,
                                                    Chlorodrepanis
                                                    virens.
AOU 2015..................  Oahu Amakihi,          O[revaps]ahu
                             Hemignathus flavus.    [revaps]Amakihi,
                                                    Chlorodrepanis
                                                    flava.
AOU 2015..................  Kauai Amakihi,         Kauai
                             Hemignathus            [revaps]Amakihi,
                             kauaiensis.            Chlorodrepanis
                                                    stejnegeri.
AOU 2012, 2013............  Sage Sparrow,          Bell's Sparrow,
                             Amphispiza belli.      Artemisiospiza
                                                    belli.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

How do the changes adopted in this rule differ from those described in 
the proposed rule?

    On November 28, 2018, we published in the Federal Register (83 FR 
61288) a proposed rule to revise the list of migratory birds at 50 CFR 
10.13; we accepted public comments on the proposed rule for 60 days, 
ending January 28, 2019. Subsequently, on November 12, 2019, we 
published in the Federal Register (84 FR 60998) a revised proposed 
rule, and we accepted comments on our proposed revisions for 30 days, 
ending December 12, 2019. Taken together, our publications, the 
November 28, 2018, proposed rule, as revised by the November 12, 2019, 
revised proposed rule, include all the changes adopted in this rule 
with one exception: On the taxonomic list, we are correcting the 
scientific name of the Puerto Rican bullfinch from Loxigilla 
portoricensis to Melopyrrha portoricensis.

How is the List of Migratory Birds organized?

    The species are listed in two formats to suit the needs of 
different segments of the public: Alphabetically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(1) 
and taxonomically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(2). In the alphabetical listing, 
species are listed by common (English) group names, with the scientific 
name of each species following the English group name. This format, 
similar to that used in modern telephone directories, is most useful to 
members of the lay public. In the taxonomic listing, species are listed 
in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the English name 
following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, 
we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, 
and Subfamily. This format follows the sequence adopted by the AOS 
(1998, 2019) and is most useful to ornithologists and other scientists.

What species are not protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act?

    The MBTA does not apply to:
    (1) Nonnative species introduced into the United States or U.S. 
territories by means of intentional or unintentional human assistance 
that belong to families or groups covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or 
Russian Conventions. Elsewhere in today's Federal Register, we publish 
the revised list of nonnative bird species that are not protected under 
the MBTA. Note, though, that native species introduced into parts of 
the United States where they are not native are still protected under 
the MBTA regardless of where they occur in the United States or U.S. 
territories (e.g., cattle egrets in Hawaii).
    (2) Species native or nonnative to the United States or U.S. 
territories that either belong to families or groups not referred to in 
the Canada, Mexico, and Russia Conventions or are not included by 
species name in the Japan Convention. This includes the Tinamidae 
(tinamous), Megapodiidae (megapodes), Cracidae (chachalacas), 
Odontophoridae (New World quail), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and 
turkeys), Pteroclidae (sandgrouse), Heliornithidae (finfoots), 
Burhinidae (thick-knees), Glareolidae (pratincoles), Todidae (todies), 
Psittacidae (parrots), Psittaculidae (Old World parrots), Meliphagidae 
(honeyeaters), Dicruridae (drongos), Monarchidae (monarchs), 
Pycnonotidae (bulbuls), Scotocercidae (bush warblers and allies), 
Zosteropidae (white-eyes), Sturnidae (starlings, except as listed in 
Japanese treaty), Ploceidae (weavers), Estrildidae (estrildid finches), 
and Passeridae (Old World sparrows, including house or English 
sparrow), as well as numerous other families not represented in the 
United States or U.S. territories.

Summary of Comments and Responses

    On November 28, 2018, we published in the Federal Register (83 FR 
61288) a proposed rule to revise the list of migratory birds at 50 CFR 
10.13; we accepted public comments on the proposed rule for 60 days, 
ending January 28, 2019. We received eight comments in response to the 
proposed rule; seven were from private individuals, one was from an 
organization. Subsequently, on November 12, 2019, we published in the 
Federal Register (84 FR 60998) a revised proposed rule, and we accepted 
comments on our proposed revisions for 30 days, ending December 12, 
2019. We received two comments in response to the revised proposed 
rule; one was from a private individual, one was from an organization. 
The following text discusses the substantive comments we received and 
provides our responses.
    Comment (1): One individual requested that the list be available in 
a more user-friendly format.
    Response: As noted above, in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 
the list is provided in two formats for different needs. One format is 
ordered alphabetically by group (English) name and the other is in 
taxonomic order. For informational purposes only, we also provide a 
downloadable list online at https://www.fws.gov/birds/management/managed-species/migratory-bird-treaty-act-protected-species.php, in a 
spreadsheet format that includes multiple fields to allow for easy 
sorting and searching for users comfortable working with this format.
    Comment (2): One individual requested that we clarify why we are 
adding to the List the 16 species that we

[[Page 21289]]

say qualify for protection by the MBTA but have not been added 
previously.
    Response: For this update, the Service reviewed previously excluded 
AOS taxonomic updates using contemporary scientific literature to make 
its determinations. For species that we are adding based on evidence of 
natural distribution in the United States or U.S. territories, the 
Service reviewed historical scientific literature prompted by 
recommendations made by Service staff with ornithological expertise and 
knowledge of species' natural distribution.
    Comment (3): One individual commented on the importance of updating 
the List of Migratory Birds for the public to be informed of what 
species are protected and to provide clarification about the taxonomy 
of species.
    Response: The Service agrees that it is important to maintain a 
current List of Migratory Birds that reflects the best available 
science and can inform the American public of the species that are 
protected by the MBTA.
    Comment (4): One commenter made the following comments:
    [ssquf] The proposed action of the Service implicates the Just 
Compensation Clause of the Fifth Amendment; as a result, the action is 
not in compliance with Executive Order 12630 as it has significant 
takings implications.
    [ssquf] The Service has provided the public with no meaningful 
opportunity to comment due to incorrect citations.
    [ssquf] The Service has provided the public with no meaningful 
opportunity to comment because the correct citations are conclusory 
summations without details relating to the factual determinations.
    [ssquf] The Service has unlawfully delegated its decision-making 
authority to a private organization.
    [ssquf] The Service is unlawfully applying the MBTA by 
misinterpreting the plain language meaning of the term ``occurring.''
    Response: Regarding the first bullet, there are no takings 
implications stemming from this rulemaking. Under 50 CFR 21.2, 
migratory birds that are lawfully acquired prior to the effective date 
of Federal protection under the MBTA (in this case, their addition to 
the List of Migratory Birds at 50 CFR 10.13) may continue to be 
possessed or transported without a permit. However, 50 CFR 21.2 
prohibits import, export, purchase, sale, barter, or offer for 
purchase, sale, or barter of those species. The Supreme Court held in 
Andrus v. Allard, 444 U.S. 51, 65-68 (1979), that the prohibitions in 
50 CFR 21.2 do not amount to a regulatory taking that requires 
compensation under the Just Compensation Clause of the Fifth Amendment.
    Regarding the second bullet, we apologize for the incorrect 
citations in the November 28, 2018, proposed rule; they were corrected 
and described individually in the November 12, 2019, revised proposed 
rule, for which we accepted public comment for 30 days, and they are 
correct in this final rule.
    Regarding the third and fourth bullets, which we combine because 
they are interrelated with regard to the process the Service follows 
for determining species protected by the MBTA, the Service must rely on 
accepted scientific authorities and best available science when 
feasible. The Service has determined that the checklist published by 
the AOS is the best available science and a primary resource from which 
to reference updates in taxonomy and natural distribution for the 
reasons outlined above under What Scientific Authorities Are Used to 
Amend the List of Migratory Birds? The Service reviews and makes its 
own determinations for inclusion and updates to the list of protected 
migratory bird species, as evidenced by the Service not recognizing 
ackling Gogose, Branta hutchinsii, as a distinct species for protection 
until this update when the AOU made this determination in its 2004 
supplement (see our response to comments in 78 FR 65844, November 1, 
2013, at p. 78 FR 65849). Copies of the AOS checklist and supplements 
are publicly available, and these publications cite published resources 
used in the committee deliberations that are also considered by the 
Service for this rulemaking. Persons wishing to obtain more information 
about deliberations and evidence used by the AOS in their 
determinations should contact AOS directly. The Service also solicits 
public comments through a proposed rule when we make revisions to the 
list of protected species to obtain any additional information the 
public wishes to provide to aid us in our decision-making.
    Regarding the fifth bullet, the use of the word ``occurring'' is 
ambiguous in the legislative history, and there is no evidence that 
Congress was concerned with the number of records documenting a 
species' natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. Territories. 
There is also no established or accepted scientific process to 
determine a species is occurring in the United States or U.S. 
Territories based on an undefined threshold number of documented 
records. A single documented, reviewed, and accepted record of natural 
occurrence in the United States or U.S. Territories is thus the 
threshold to qualify a species for protection by the MBTA.

Required Determinations

Regulatory Planning and Review

    Executive Order (E.O.) 12866 provides that the Office of 
Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) in the Office of Management 
and Budget will review all significant rules. OIRA has determined that 
this rule is not significant.
    E.O. 13563 reaffirms the principles of E.O. 12866, while calling 
for improvements in the nation's regulatory system to promote 
predictability, to reduce uncertainty, and to use the best, most 
innovative, and least burdensome tools for achieving regulatory ends. 
E.O. 13563 directs agencies to consider regulatory approaches that 
reduce burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of choice for the 
public where these approaches are relevant, feasible, and consistent 
with regulatory objectives. E.O. 13563 emphasizes further that 
regulations must be based on the best available science and that the 
rulemaking process must allow for public participation and an open 
exchange of ideas. We have developed this rule in a manner consistent 
with these requirements.

Executive Order 13771--Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory 
Costs

    This rule is not an Executive Order (E.O.) 13771 (82 FR 9339, 
February 3, 2017) regulatory action because this rule is not 
significant under E.O. 12866.

Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.)

    Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., as 
amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act 
(SBREFA) of 1996 (5 U.S.C. 804(2)), whenever an agency is required to 
publish a notice of rulemaking for any proposed or final rule, it must 
prepare and make available for public comment a regulatory flexibility 
analysis that describes the effect of the rule on small entities (i.e., 
small businesses, small organizations, and small government 
jurisdictions). However, no regulatory flexibility analysis is required 
if the head of an agency certifies the rule will not have a significant 
economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.
    SBREFA amended the Regulatory Flexibility Act to require Federal 
agencies to provide the statement of the factual basis for certifying 
that a rule will not have a significant economic

[[Page 21290]]

impact on a substantial number of small entities. We have examined this 
rule's potential effects on small entities as required by the 
Regulatory Flexibility Act, and have determined that this action will 
not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small 
entities. This rule is an administrative action to update the list of 
migratory bird species protected under the Conventions. Consequently, 
we certify that this rule will not have a significant economic impact 
on a substantial number of small entities; therefore, a regulatory 
flexibility analysis is not required.
    This rule is not a major rule under SBREFA (5 U.S.C. 804(2)). It 
will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small 
entities.
    a. This rule will not have an annual effect on the economy of $100 
million or more.
    b. This rule will not cause a major increase in costs or prices for 
consumers, individual industries, Federal, State, or local government 
agencies, or geographic regions.
    c. This rule will not have significant adverse effects on 
competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or the 
ability of U.S.-based enterprises to compete with foreign-based 
enterprises.

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    In accordance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 
et seq.), we have determined the following:
    a. This rule will not ``significantly or uniquely'' affect small 
governments. A small government agency plan is not required. This rule 
is an administrative action to update the list of migratory bird 
species protected under the Conventions; it will not affect small 
government activities in any significant way.
    b. This rule will not produce a Federal mandate of $100 million or 
greater in any year; i.e., it is not a ``significant regulatory 
action'' under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.

Takings

    Under Executive Order 12630, this rule does not have significant 
takings implications. While certain activities that were previously 
unregulated will now be regulated, possession and transport of 
migratory bird species acquired prior to being added to the List of 
Migratory Birds in this rulemaking will remain unregulated under 
Federal law. Therefore, a takings implication assessment is not 
required.

Federalism

    This rule does not have sufficient Federalism effects to warrant 
preparation of a federalism summary impact statement under Executive 
Order 13132. It does not interfere with the States' ability to manage 
themselves or their funds. No significant economic impacts are expected 
to result from the updating of the list of migratory bird species.

Civil Justice Reform

    In accordance with Executive Order 12988, the Office of the 
Solicitor has determined that this rule does not unduly burden the 
judicial system and meets the requirements of sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) 
of the Order.

Paperwork Reduction Act

    This rule does not contain information collection requirements, and 
a submission to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the 
Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.) is not 
required. We may not conduct or sponsor and you are not required to 
respond to a collection of information unless it displays a currently 
valid OMB control number.

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

    Given that the revision of 50 CFR 10.13 is strictly administrative 
in nature and will have no or minor environmental effects, it is 
categorically excluded from further NEPA requirements (43 CFR 
46.210(i)).

Endangered Species Act (ESA)

    Of the species on the List of Migratory Birds, 102 species, 
subspecies, or distinct population segments are also listed as 
endangered or threatened under section 4 of the ESA of 1973, as amended 
(16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). No legal complications arise from the dual 
listing as the two lists are developed under separate authorities and 
for different purposes. Because this rule is strictly administrative in 
nature, it has no effect on endangered or threatened species. Thus, it 
does not require consultation under section 7 of the ESA.

Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes

    In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994, 
``Government-to-Government Relations with Native American tribal 
Governments'' (59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175, and 512 DM 2, we 
have evaluated potential effects on federally recognized Indian tribes 
and have determined that there are no potential effects. The revisions 
to existing regulations in this rule are purely administrative in 
nature and do not interfere with the tribes' ability to manage 
themselves or their funds or to regulate migratory bird activities on 
tribal lands.

Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (Executive Order 13211)

    On May 18, 2001, the President issued Executive Order 13211 
addressing regulations that significantly affect energy supply, 
distribution, or use. Executive Order 13211 requires agencies to 
prepare Statements of Energy Effects when undertaking certain actions. 
Because this rule will only affect the listing of protected species in 
the United States, it is not a significant regulatory action under 
Executive Order 12866, and does not significantly affect energy 
supplies, distribution, or use. Therefore, this action is not a 
significant energy action and no Statement of Energy Effects is 
required.

References Cited

    A complete list of all references cited is available on http://www.regulations.gov under Docket No. FWS-HQ-MB-2018-0047, and upon 
request (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT, above).

List of Subjects in Part 10

    Exports, Fish, Imports, Law enforcement, Plants, Transportation, 
Wildlife.

Regulation Promulgation

    For the reasons discussed in the preamble, we amend title 50, 
chapter I, subchapter B, part 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as 
follows:

PART 10--GENERAL PROVISIONS

0
1. The authority citation for part 10 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 16 U.S.C. 668a-d, 703-712, 742a-j-l, 1361-1384, 1401-
1407, 1531-1543, 3371-3378; 18 U.S.C. 42; 19 U.S.C. 1202.


0
2. Amend Sec.  [thinsp]10.13 by revising paragraph (c) to read as 
follows:


Sec.  10.13   List of Migratory Birds.

* * * * *
    (c) What species are protected as migratory birds? Species 
protected as migratory birds are listed in two formats to suit the 
varying needs of the user: Alphabetically in paragraph (c)(1) of this 
section and taxonomically in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Taxonomy 
and nomenclature generally follow the 7th edition of the American 
Ornithologists' Union's (AOU, now recognized as American Ornithological

[[Page 21291]]

Society (AOS)) Check-list of North American birds (1998, as amended 
through 2019). For species not treated by the AOS Check-list, we 
generally follow Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (Clements et 
al. 2017).
    (1) Alphabetical listing. Species are listed alphabetically by 
common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species 
following the common name.

ACCENTOR, Siberian, Prunella montanella
[revaps]AKEKE[revaps]E, Loxops caeruleirostris
[revaps]AKEPA, Hawaii, Loxops coccineus
    Maui, Loxops ochraceus
    O[revaps]ahu, Loxops wolstenholmei
[revaps]AKIALOA, Kauai, Akialoa stejnegeri
    Maui Nui, Akialoa lanaiensis
    O[revaps]ahu, Akialoa ellisiana
[revaps]AKIAPOLA[revaps]AU, Hemignathus wilsoni
[revaps]AKIKIKI, Oreomystis bairdi
[revaps]AKOHEKOHE, Palmeria dolei
[revaps]ALAUAHIO, Maui, Paroreomyza montana
    O[revaps]ahu, Paroreomyza maculata
ALBATROSS, Black-browed, Thalassarche melanophris
    Black-footed, Phoebastria nigripes
    Chatham, Thalassarche eremita
    Laysan, Phoebastria immutabilis
    Light-mantled, Phoebetria palpebrata
    Salvin's, Thalassarche salvini
    Short-tailed, Phoebastria albatrus
    Wandering, Diomedea exulans
    White-capped, Thalassarche cauta
    Yellow-nosed, Thalassarche chlororhynchos
[revaps]AMAKIHI, Hawaii, Chlorodrepanis virens
    Kauai, Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri
    O[revaps]ahu, Chlorodrepanis flava
ANHINGA, Anhinga anhinga
ANI, Groove-billed, Crotophaga sulcirostris
    Smooth-billed, Crotophaga ani
[revaps]ANIANIAU, Magumma parva
[revaps]APAPANE, Himatione sanguinea
AUKLET, Cassin's, Ptychoramphus aleuticus
    Crested, Aethia cristatella
    Least, Aethia pusilla
    Parakeet, Aethia psittacula
    Rhinoceros, Cerorhinca monocerata
    Whiskered, Aethia pygmaea
AVOCET, American, Recurvirostra americana
BANANAQUIT, Coereba flaveola
BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis
    Tundra, Anser serrirostris
BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET, Northern, Camptostoma imberbe
BECARD, Gray-collared, Pachyramphus major
    Rose-throated, Pachyramphus aglaiae
BITTERN, American, Botaurus lentiginosus
    Black, Ixobrychus flavicollis
    Least, Ixobrychus exilis
    Schrenck's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus
    Yellow, Ixobrychus sinensis
BLACKBIRD, Brewer's, Euphagus cyanocephalus
    Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus
    Rusty, Euphagus carolinus
    Tawny-shouldered, Agelaius humeralis
    Tricolored, Agelaius tricolor
    Yellow-headed, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
    Yellow-shouldered, Agelaius xanthomus
BLUEBIRD, Eastern, Sialia sialis
    Mountain, Sialia currucoides
    Western, Sialia mexicana
BLUETAIL, Red-flanked, Tarsiger cyanurus
BLUETHROAT, Cyanecula svecica
BOBOLINK, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
BOOBOOK, Northern, Ninox japonica
BOOBY, Abbott's, Papasula abbotti
    Blue-footed, Sula nebouxii
    Brown, Sula leucogaster
    Masked, Sula dactylatra
    Nazca, Sula granti
    Red-footed, Sula sula
BRAMBLING, Fringilla montifringilla
BRANT, Branta bernicla
BUFFLEHEAD, Bucephala albeola
BULLFINCH, Eurasian, Pyrrhula pyrrhula
    Puerto Rican, Melopyrrha portoricensis
BUNTING, Blue, Cyanocompsa parellina
    Gray, Emberiza variabilis
    Indigo, Passerina cyanea
    Lark, Calamospiza melanocorys
    Lazuli, Passerina amoena
    Little, Emberiza pusilla
    McKay's, Plectrophenax hyperboreus
    Painted, Passerina ciris
    Pallas's, Emberiza pallasi
    Pine, Emberiza leucocephalos
    Reed, Emberiza schoeniclus
    Rustic, Emberiza rustica
    Snow, Plectrophenax nivalis
    Varied, Passerina versicolor
    Yellow-breasted, Emberiza aureola
    Yellow-browed, Emberiza chrysophrys
    Yellow-throated, Emberiza elegans
BUSHTIT, Psaltriparus minimus
BUZZARD, Gray-faced, Butastur indicus
CANVASBACK, Aythya valisineria
CARACARA, Crested, Caracara cheriway
CARDINAL, Northern, Cardinalis cardinalis
CARIB, Green-throated, Eulampis holosericeus
    Purple-throated, Eulampis jugularis
CATBIRD, Black, Melanoptila glabrirostris
    Gray, Dumetella carolinensis
CHAFFINCH, Common, Fringilla coelebs
CHAT, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens
CHICKADEE, Black-capped, Poecile atricapillus
    Boreal, Poecile hudsonicus
    Carolina, Poecile carolinensis
    Chestnut-backed, Poecile rufescens
    Gray-headed, Poecile cinctus
    Mexican, Poecile sclateri
    Mountain, Poecile gambeli
CHIFFCHAFF, Common, Phylloscopus collybita
CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW, Antrostomus carolinensis
CONDOR, California, Gymnogyps californianus
COOT, American, Fulica americana
    Eurasian, Fulica atra
    Hawaiian, Fulica alai
CORMORANT, Brandt's, Phalacrocorax penicillatus
    Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auritus
    Great, Phalacrocorax carbo
    Little Pied, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
    Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus
    Pelagic, Phalacrocorax pelagicus
    Red-faced, Phalacrocorax urile
COWBIRD, Bronzed, Molothrus aeneus
    Brown-headed, Molothrus ater
    Shiny, Molothrus bonariensis
CRAKE, Corn, Crex crex
    Paint-billed, Neocrex erythrops
    Spotless, Porzana tabuensis
    Yellow-breasted, Hapalocrex flaviventer
CRANE, Common, Grus grus
    Sandhill, Antigone canadensis
    Whooping, Grus americana
CREEPER, Brown, Certhia americana
    Hawaii, Loxops mana
CROSSBILL, Cassia, Loxia sinesciuris
    Red, Loxia curvirostra
    White-winged, Loxia leucoptera
CROW, American, Corvus brachyrhynchos
    Fish, Corvus ossifragus
    Hawaiian, Corvus hawaiiensis
    Mariana, Corvus kubaryi
    Northwestern, Corvus caurinus
    Tamaulipas, Corvus imparatus
    White-necked, Corvus leucognaphalus
CUCKOO, Black-billed, Coccyzus erythropthalmus
    Common, Cuculus canorus
    Mangrove, Coccyzus minor
    Oriental, Cuculus optatus
    Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus
CURLEW, Bristle-thighed, Numenius tahitiensis
    Eskimo, Numenius borealis
    Eurasian, Numenius arquata
    Far Eastern, Numenius madagascariensis
    Little, Numenius minutus
    Long-billed, Numenius americanus
DICKCISSEL, Spiza americana
DIPPER, American, Cinclus mexicanus
DOTTEREL, Eurasian, Charadrius morinellus

[[Page 21292]]

DOVE, Common Ground, Columbina passerina
    Inca, Columbina inca
    Mourning, Zenaida macroura
    Ruddy Ground, Columbina talpacoti
    White-tipped, Leptotila verreauxi
    White-winged, Zenaida asiatica
    Zenaida, Zenaida aurita
DOVEKIE, Alle alle
DOWITCHER, Long-billed, Limnodromus scolopaceus
    Short-billed, Limnodromus griseus
DUCK, American Black, Anas rubripes
    Eastern Spot-billed, Anas zonorhyncha
    Falcated, Mareca falcata
    Harlequin, Histrionicus histrionicus
    Hawaiian, Anas wyvilliana
    Laysan, Anas laysanensis
    Long-tailed, Clangula hyemalis
    Masked, Nomonyx dominicus
    Mottled, Anas fulvigula
    Muscovy, Cairina moschata
    Pacific Black, Anas superciliosa
    Ring-necked, Aythya collaris
    Ruddy, Oxyura jamaicensis
    Tufted, Aythya fuligula
    Wood, Aix sponsa
DUNLIN, Calidris alpina
EAGLE, Bald, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
    Golden, Aquila chrysaetos
    White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla
EGRET, Cattle, Bubulcus ibis
    Chinese, Egretta eulophotes
    Great, Ardea alba
    Intermediate, Ardea intermedia
    Little, Egretta garzetta
    Reddish, Egretta rufescens
    Snowy, Egretta thula
EIDER, Common, Somateria mollissima
    King, Somateria spectabilis
    Spectacled, Somateria fischeri
    Steller's, Polysticta stelleri
ELAENIA, Caribbean, Elaenia martinica
    Greenish, Myiopagis viridicata
    White-crested, Elaenia albiceps
EMERALD, Puerto Rican, Chlorostilbon maugaeus
EUPHONIA, Antillean, Euphonia musica
FALCON, Amur, Falco amurensis
    Aplomado, Falco femoralis
    Peregrine, Falco peregrinus
    Prairie, Falco mexicanus
    Red-footed, Falco vespertinus
FIELDFARE, Turdus pilaris
FINCH, Cassin's, Haemorhous cassinii
    House, Haemorhous mexicanus
    Laysan, Telespiza cantans
    Nihoa, Telespiza ultima
    Purple, Haemorhous purpureus
FLAMINGO, American, Phoenicopterus ruber
FLICKER, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides
    Northern, Colaptes auratus
FLYCATCHER, Acadian, Empidonax virescens
    Alder, Empidonax alnorum
    Ash-throated, Myiarchus cinerascens
    Asian Brown, Muscicapa dauurica
    Brown-crested, Myiarchus tyrannulus
    Buff-breasted, Empidonax fulvifrons
    Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis
    Crowned Slaty, Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus
    Dark-sided, Muscicapa sibirica
    Dusky, Empidonax oberholseri
    Dusky-capped, Myiarchus tuberculifer
    Fork-tailed, Tyrannus savana
    Gray, Empidonax wrightii
    Gray-streaked, Muscicapa griseisticta
    Great Crested, Myiarchus crinitus
    Hammond's, Empidonax hammondii
    La Sagra's, Myiarchus sagrae
    Least, Empidonax minimus
    Mugimaki, Ficedula mugimaki
    Narcissus, Ficedula narcissina
    Nutting's, Myiarchus nuttingi
    Olive-sided, Contopus cooperi
    Pacific-slope, Empidonax difficilis
    Pine, Empidonax affinis
    Piratic, Legatus leucophaius
    Puerto Rican, Myiarchus antillarum
    Scissor-tailed, Tyrannus forficatus
    Social, Myiozetetes similis
    Spotted, Muscicapa striata
    Sulphur-bellied, Myiodynastes luteiventris
    Taiga, Ficedula albicilla
    Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus
    Variegated, Empidonomus varius
    Vermilion, Pyrocephalus rubinus
    Willow, Empidonax traillii
    Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris
FOREST-FALCON, Collared, Micrastur semitorquatus
FRIGATEBIRD, Great, Fregata minor
    Lesser, Fregata ariel
    Magnificent, Fregata magnificens
FRUIT-DOVE, Crimson-crowned, Ptilinopus porphyraceus
    Many-colored, Ptilinopus perousii
    Mariana, Ptilinopus roseicapilla
FULMAR, Northern, Fulmarus glacialis
GADWALL, Mareca strepera
GALLINULE, Azure, Porphyrio flavirostris
    Common, Gallinula galeata
    Purple, Porphyrio martinicus
GANNET, Northern, Morus bassanus
GARGANEY, Spatula querquedula
GNATCATCHER, Black-capped, Polioptila nigriceps
    Black-tailed, Polioptila melanura
    Blue-Gray, Polioptila caerulea
    California, Polioptila californica
GODWIT, Bar-tailed, Limosa lapponica
    Black-tailed, Limosa limosa
    Hudsonian, Limosa haemastica
    Marbled, Limosa fedoa
GOLDENEYE, Barrow's, Bucephala islandica
    Common, Bucephala clangula
GOLDEN-PLOVER, American, Pluvialis dominica
    European, Pluvialis apricaria
    Pacific, Pluvialis fulva
GOLDFINCH, American, Spinus tristis
    Lawrence's, Spinus lawrencei
    Lesser, Spinus psaltria
GOOSE, Barnacle, Branta leucopsis
    Cackling, Branta hutchinsii
    Canada, Branta canadensis
    Emperor, Anser canagicus
    Greater White-fronted, Anser albifrons
    Hawaiian, Branta sandvicensis
    Lesser White-fronted, Anser erythropus
    Pink-footed, Anser brachyrhynchus
    Ross's, Anser rossii
    Snow, Anser caerulescens
GOSHAWK, Northern, Accipiter gentilis
GRACKLE, Boat-tailed, Quiscalus major
    Common, Quiscalus quiscula
    Greater Antillean, Quiscalus niger
    Great-tailed, Quiscalus mexicanus
GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER, Middendorff's, Locustella ochotensis
GRASSQUIT, Black-faced, Melanospiza bicolor
    Yellow-faced, Tiaris olivaceus
GREBE, Clark's, Aechmophorus clarkii
    Eared, Podiceps nigricollis
    Horned, Podiceps auritus
    Least, Tachybaptus dominicus
    Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps
    Red-necked, Podiceps grisegena
    Western, Aechmophorus occidentalis
GREENFINCH, Oriental, Chloris sinica
GREENSHANK, Common, Tringa nebularia
    Nordmann's, Tringa guttifer
GROSBEAK, Black-headed, Pheucticus melanocephalus
    Blue, Passerina caerulea
    Crimson-collared, Rhodothraupis celaeno
    Evening, Coccothraustes vespertinus
    Pine, Pinicola enucleator
    Rose-breasted, Pheucticus ludovicianus
    Yellow, Pheucticus chrysopeplus
GROUND-DOVE, Shy, Alopecoenas stairi
    White-throated, Alopecoenas xanthonurus
GUILLEMOT, Black, Cepphus grylle
    Pigeon, Cepphus columba
GULL, Belcher's, Larus belcheri
    Black-headed, Chroicocephalus ridibundus
    Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris
    Bonaparte's, Chroicocephalus philadelphia
    California, Larus californicus
    Franklin's, Leucophaeus pipixcan
    Glaucous, Larus hyperboreus
    Glaucous-winged, Larus glaucescens
    Gray-hooded, Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus
    Great Black-backed, Larus marinus
    Heermann's, Larus heermanni
    Herring, Larus argentatus
    Iceland, Larus glaucoides
    Ivory, Pagophila eburnea

[[Page 21293]]

    Kelp, Larus dominicanus
    Laughing, Leucophaeus atricilla
    Lesser Black-backed, Larus fuscus
    Little, Hydrocoloeus minutus
    Mew, Larus canus
    Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis
    Ross's, Rhodostethia rosea
    Sabine's, Xema sabini
    Slaty-backed, Larus schistisagus
    Swallow-tailed, Creagrus furcatus
    Western, Larus occidentalis
    Yellow-footed, Larus livens
    Yellow-legged, Larus michahellis
GYRFALCON, Falco rusticolus
HARRIER, Northern, Circus hudsonius
HAWFINCH, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
HAWK, Broad-winged, Buteo platypterus
    Common Black, Buteogallus anthracinus
    Cooper's, Accipiter cooperii
    Crane, Geranospiza caerulescens
    Ferruginous, Buteo regalis
    Gray, Buteo plagiatus
    Great Black, Buteogallus urubitinga
    Harris's, Parabuteo unicinctus
    Hawaiian, Buteo solitarius
    Red-shouldered, Buteo lineatus
    Red-tailed, Buteo jamaicensis
    Roadside, Rupornis magnirostris
    Rough-legged, Buteo lagopus
    Sharp-shinned, Accipiter striatus
    Short-tailed, Buteo brachyurus
    Swainson's, Buteo swainsoni
    White-tailed, Geranoaetus albicaudatus
    Zone-tailed, Buteo albonotatus
HAWK-CUCKOO, Hodgson's, Hierococcyx nisicolor
HERON, Gray, Ardea cinerea
    Great Blue, Ardea herodias
    Green, Butorides virescens
    Little Blue, Egretta caerulea
    Tricolored, Egretta tricolor
HOBBY, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo
HONEYCREEPER, Laysan, Himatione fraithii
    Red-legged, Cyanerpes cyaneus
HOOPOE, Eurasian, Upupa epops
HOUSE-MARTIN, Common, Delichon urbicum
HUMMINGBIRD, Allen's, Selasphorus sasin
    Anna's, Calypte anna
    Antillean Crested, Orthorhyncus cristatus
    Berylline, Amazilia beryllina
    Black-chinned, Archilochus alexandri
    Broad-billed, Cynanthus latirostris
    Broad-tailed, Selasphorus platycercus
    Buff-bellied, Amazilia yucatanensis
    Bumblebee, Atthis heloisa
    Calliope, Selasphorus calliope
    Cinnamon, Amazilia rutila
    Costa's, Calypte costae
    Lucifer, Calothorax lucifer
    Rivoli's, Eugenes fulgens
    Ruby-throated, Archilochus colubris
    Rufous, Selasphorus rufus
    Vervain, Mellisuga minima
    Violet-crowned, Amazilia violiceps
    White-eared, Hylocharis leucotis
    Xantus's, Hylocharis xantusii
IBIS, Glossy, Plegadis falcinellus
    Scarlet, Eudocimus ruber
    White, Eudocimus albus
    White-faced, Plegadis chihi
[revaps]I[revaps]IWI, Drepanis coccinea
IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Pacific, Ducula pacifica
JABIRU, Jabiru mycteria
JACANA, Northern, Jacana spinosa
JACKDAW, Eurasian, Corvus monedula
JAEGER, Long-tailed, Stercorarius longicaudus
    Parasitic, Stercorarius parasiticus
    Pomarine, Stercorarius pomarinus
JAY, Blue, Cyanocitta cristata
    Brown, Psilorhinus morio
    Canada, Perisoreus canadensis
    Green, Cyanocorax yncas
    Mexican, Aphelocoma wollweberi
    Pinyon, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus
    Steller's, Cyanocitta stelleri
JUNCO, Dark-eyed, Junco hyemalis
    Yellow-eyed, Junco phaeonotus
K[Amacr]K[Amacr]WAHIE, Paroreomyza flammea
K[Amacr]MA`O, Myadestes myadestinus
KESTREL, American, Falco sparverius
    Eurasian, Falco tinnunculus
KILLDEER, Charadrius vociferus
KINGBIRD, Cassin's, Tyrannus vociferans
    Couch's, Tyrannus couchii
    Eastern, Tyrannus tyrannus
    Gray, Tyrannus dominicensis
    Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus
    Thick-billed, Tyrannus crassirostris
    Tropical, Tyrannus melancholicus
    Western, Tyrannus verticalis
KINGFISHER, Amazon, Chloroceryle amazona
    Belted, Megaceryle alcyon
    Common, Alcedo atthis
    Green, Chloroceryle americana
    Guam, Todiramphus cinnamominus
    Mariana, Todiramphus albicilla
    Pacific, Todiramphus sacer
    Ringed, Megaceryle torquata
KINGLET, Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa
    Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula
KISKADEE, Great, Pitangus sulphuratus
KITE, Black, Milvus migrans
    Double-toothed, Harpagus bidentatus
    Hook-billed, Chondrohierax uncinatus
    Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis
    Snail, Rostrhamus sociabilis
    Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus
    White-tailed, Elanus leucurus
KITTIWAKE, Black-legged, Rissa tridactyla
    Red-legged, Rissa brevirostris
KNOT, Great, Calidris tenuirostris
    Red, Calidris canutus
KOEL, Long-tailed, Urodynamis taitensis
LAPWING, Northern, Vanellus vanellus
LARK, Horned, Eremophila alpestris
LIMPKIN, Aramus guarauna
LIZARD-CUCKOO, Puerto Rican, Coccyzus vieilloti
LONGSPUR, Chestnut-collared, Calcarius ornatus
    Lapland, Calcarius lapponicus
    McCown's, Rhynchophanes mccownii
    Smith's, Calcarius pictus
LOON, Arctic, Gavia arctica
    Common, Gavia immer
    Pacific, Gavia pacifica
    Red-throated, Gavia stellata
    Yellow-billed, Gavia adamsii
MAGPIE, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia
    Yellow-billed, Pica nuttalli
MALLARD, Anas platyrhynchos
MANGO, Antillean, Anthracothorax dominicus
    Green, Anthracothorax viridis
    Green-breasted, Anthracothorax prevostii
MARSH-HARRIER, Eastern, Circus spilonotus
MARTIN, Brown-chested, Progne tapera
    Caribbean, Progne dominicensis
    Cuban, Progne cryptoleuca
    Gray-breasted, Progne chalybea
    Purple, Progne subis
    Southern, Progne elegans
MEADOWLARK, Eastern, Sturnella magna
    Western, Sturnella neglecta
MERGANSER, Common, Mergus merganser
    Hooded, Lophodytes cucullatus
    Red-breasted, Mergus serrator
MERLIN, Falco columbarius
MILLERBIRD, Acrocephalus familiaris
MOCKINGBIRD, Bahama, Mimus gundlachii
    Blue, Melanotis caerulescens
    Northern, Mimus polyglottos
MOORHEN, Common, Gallinula chloropus
MOUNTAIN-GEM, Amethyst-throated, Lampornis amethystinus
    Blue-throated, Lampornis clemenciae
MURRE, Common, Uria aalge
    Thick-billed, Uria lomvia
MURRELET, Ancient, Synthliboramphus antiquus
    Craveri's, Synthliboramphus craveri
    Guadalupe, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus
    Kittlitz's, Brachyramphus brevirostris
    Long-billed, Brachyramphus perdix
    Marbled, Brachyramphus marmoratus
    Scripps's, Synthliboramphus scrippsi
NEEDLETAIL, White-throated, Hirundapus caudacutus
NIGHTHAWK, Antillean, Chordeiles gundlachii
    Common, Chordeiles minor
    Lesser, Chordeiles acutipennis
NIGHT-HERON, Black-crowned, Nycticorax nycticorax
    Japanese, Gorsachius goisagi

[[Page 21294]]

    Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus
    Rufous, Nycticorax caledonicus
    Yellow-crowned, Nyctanassa violacea
NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH, Black-headed, Catharus mexicanus
    Orange-billed, Catharus aurantiirostris
NIGHTJAR, Buff-collared, Antrostomus ridgwayi
    Gray, Caprimulgus jotaka
    Puerto Rican, Antrostomus noctitherus
    White-tailed, Hydropsalis cayennensis
NODDY, Black, Anous minutus
    Blue-gray, Anous ceruleus
    Brown, Anous stolidus
NUKUPU[revaps]U, Kauai, Hemignathus hanapepe
    Maui, Hemignathus affinis
    O[revaps]ahu, Hemignathus lucidus
NUTCRACKER, Clark's, Nucifraga columbiana
NUTHATCH, Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla
    Pygmy, Sitta pygmaea
    Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis
    White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis
OLOMA[revaps]O, Myadestes lanaiensis
[revaps][Omacr]MA[revaps]O, Myadestes obscurus
ORIOLE, Altamira, Icterus gularis
    Audubon's, Icterus graduacauda
    Baltimore, Icterus galbula
    Black-backed, Icterus abeillei
    Black-vented, Icterus wagleri
    Bullock's, Icterus bullockii
    Hooded, Icterus cucullatus
    Orchard, Icterus spurius
    Puerto Rican, Icterus portoricensis
    Scott's, Icterus parisorum
    Streak-backed, Icterus pustulatus
OSPREY, Pandion haliaetus
[revaps][Omacr][revaps][Umacr], Psittirostra psittacea
OVENBIRD, Seiurus aurocapilla
OWL, Barn, Tyto alba
    Barred, Strix varia
    Boreal, Aegolius funereus
    Burrowing, Athene cunicularia
    Elf, Micrathene whitneyi
    Flammulated, Psiloscops flammeolus
    Great Gray, Strix nebulosa
    Great Horned, Bubo virginianus
    Long-eared, Asio otus
    Mottled, Ciccaba virgata
    Northern Hawk, Surnia ulula
    Northern Saw-whet, Aegolius acadicus
    Short-eared, Asio flammeus
    Snowy, Bubo scandiacus
    Spotted, Strix occidentalis
    Stygian, Asio stygius
OYSTERCATCHER, American, Haematopus palliatus
    Black, Haematopus bachmani
    Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus
PALILA, Loxioides bailleui
PALM-SWIFT, Antillean, Tachornis phoenicobia
PARROTBILL, Maui, Pseudonestor xanthophrys
PARULA, Northern, Setophaga americana
    Tropical, Setophaga pitiayumi
PAURAQUE, Common, Nyctidromus albicollis
PELICAN, American White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
    Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis
PETREL, Bermuda, Pterodroma cahow
    Black-capped, Pterodroma hasitata
    Black-winged, Pterodroma nigripennis
    Bonin, Pterodroma hypoleuca
    Bulwer's, Bulweria bulwerii
    Cook's, Pterodroma cookii
    Fea's, Pterodroma feae
    Gould's, Pterodroma leucoptera
    Gray-faced, Pterodroma gouldi
    Hawaiian, Pterodroma sandwichensis
    Herald, Pterodroma heraldica
    Jouanin's, Bulweria fallax
    Juan Fernandez, Pterodroma externa
    Kermadec, Pterodroma neglecta
    Mottled, Pterodroma inexpectata
    Murphy's, Pterodroma ultima
    Parkinson's, Procellaria parkinsoni
    Phoenix, Pterodroma alba
    Providence, Pterodroma solandri
    Stejneger's, Pterodroma longirostris
    Tahiti, Pseudobulweria rostrata
    Trindade, Pterodroma arminjoniana
    White-chinned, Procellaria aequinoctialis
    White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis
    Zino's, Pterodroma madeira
PEWEE, Cuban, Contopus caribaeus
    Greater, Contopus pertinax
    Hispaniolan, Contopus hispaniolensis
    Lesser Antillean, Contopus latirostris
PHAINOPEPLA, Phainopepla nitens
PHALAROPE, Red, Phalaropus fulicarius
    Red-necked, Phalaropus lobatus
    Wilson's, Phalaropus tricolor
PHOEBE, Black, Sayornis nigricans
    Eastern, Sayornis phoebe
    Say's, Sayornis saya
PIGEON, Band-tailed, Patagioenas fasciata
    Plain, Patagioenas inornata
    Red-billed, Patagioenas flavirostris
    Scaly-naped, Patagioenas squamosa
    White-crowned, Patagioenas leucocephala
PINTAIL, Northern, Anas acuta
    White-cheeked, Anas bahamensis
PIPIT, American, Anthus rubescens
    Olive-backed, Anthus hodgsoni
    Pechora, Anthus gustavi
    Red-throated, Anthus cervinus
    Sprague's, Anthus spragueii
    Tree, Anthus trivialis
PLOVER, Black-bellied, Pluvialis squatarola
    Collared, Charadrius collaris
    Common Ringed, Charadrius hiaticula
    Kentish, Charadrius alexandrinus
    Little Ringed, Charadrius dubius
    Mountain, Charadrius montanus
    Piping, Charadrius melodus
    Semipalmated, Charadrius semipalmatus
    Snowy, Charadrius nivosus
    Wilson's, Charadrius wilsonia
POCHARD, Baer's, Aythya baeri
    Common, Aythya ferina
POND-HERON, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus
POORWILL, Common, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii
PO[revaps]OULI, Melamprosops phaeosoma
PUAIOHI, Myadestes palmeri
PUFFIN, Atlantic, Fratercula arctica
    Horned, Fratercula corniculata
    Tufted, Fratercula cirrhata
PYGMY-OWL, Ferruginous, Glaucidium brasilianum
    Northern, Glaucidium gnoma
PYRRHULOXIA, Cardinalis sinuatus
QUAIL-DOVE, Bridled, Geotrygon mystacea
    Key West, Geotrygon chrysia
    Ruddy, Geotrygon montana
QUETZAL, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus
RAIL, Black, Laterallus jamaicensis
    Buff-banded, Gallirallus philippensis
    Clapper, Rallus crepitans
    Guam, Gallirallus owstoni
    King, Rallus elegans
    Ridgway's, Rallus obsoletus
    Spotted, Pardirallus maculatus
    Virginia, Rallus limicola
    Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis
RAVEN, Chihuahuan, Corvus cryptoleucus
    Common, Corvus corax
RAZORBILL, Alca torda
REDHEAD, Aythya americana
REDPOLL, Common, Acanthis flammea
    Hoary, Acanthis hornemanni
REDSHANK, Common, Tringa totanus
    Spotted, Tringa erythropus
REDSTART, American, Setophaga ruticilla
    Common, Phoenicurus phoenicurus
    Painted, Myioborus pictus
    Slate-throated, Myioborus miniatus
REDWING, Turdus iliacus
REEF-HERON, Pacific, Egretta sacra
    Western, Egretta gularis
ROADRUNNER, Greater, Geococcyx californianus
ROBIN, American, Turdus migratorius
    European, Erithacus rubecula
    Rufous-backed, Turdus rufopalliatus
    Rufous-tailed, Larvivora sibilans
    Siberian Blue, Larvivora cyane
ROCK-THRUSH, Blue, Monticola solitarius
ROSEFINCH, Common, Carpodacus erythrinus
    Pallas's, Carpodacus roseus
ROSY-FINCH, Asian, Leucosticte arctoa
    Black, Leucosticte atrata
    Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis
    Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis
RUBYTHROAT, Siberian, Calliope calliope

[[Page 21295]]

RUFF, Calidris pugnax
SANDERLING, Calidris alba
SANDPIPER, Baird's, Calidris bairdii
    Broad-billed, Calidris falcinellus
    Buff-breasted, Calidris subruficollis
    Common, Actitis hypoleucos
    Curlew, Calidris ferruginea
    Green, Tringa ochropus
    Least, Calidris minutilla
    Marsh, Tringa stagnatilis
    Pectoral, Calidris melanotos
    Purple, Calidris maritima
    Rock, Calidris ptilocnemis
    Semipalmated, Calidris pusilla
    Sharp-tailed, Calidris acuminata
    Solitary, Tringa solitaria
    Spoon-billed, Calidris pygmea
    Spotted, Actitis macularius
    Stilt, Calidris himantopus
    Terek, Xenus cinereus
    Upland, Bartramia longicauda
    Western, Calidris mauri
    White-rumped, Calidris fuscicollis
    Wood, Tringa glareola
SAND-PLOVER, Greater, Charadrius leschenaultii
    Lesser, Charadrius mongolus
SAPSUCKER, Red-breasted, Sphyrapicus ruber
    Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis
    Williamson's, Sphyrapicus thyroideus
    Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius
SCAUP, Greater, Aythya marila
    Lesser, Aythya affinis
SCOPS-OWL, Oriental, Otus sunia
SCOTER, Black, Melanitta americana
    Common, Melanitta nigra
    Stejneger's, Melanitta stejnegeri
    Surf, Melanitta perspicillata
    White-winged, Melanitta deglandi
SCREECH-OWL, Eastern, Megascops asio
    Puerto Rican, Megascops nudipes
    Western, Megascops kennicottii
    Whiskered, Megascops trichopsis
SCRUB-JAY, California, Aphelocoma californica
    Florida, Aphelocoma coerulescens
    Island, Aphelocoma insularis
    Woodhouse's, Aphelocoma woodhouseii
SEA-EAGLE, Steller's, Haliaeetus pelagicus
SEEDEATER, Morelet's, Sporophila morelleti
SHEARWATER, Audubon's, Puffinus lherminieri
    Barolo, Puffinus baroli
    Black-vented, Puffinus opisthomelas
    Bryan's, Puffinus bryani
    Buller's, Ardenna bulleri
    Cape Verde, Calonectris edwardsii
    Christmas, Puffinus nativitatis
    Cory's, Calonectris diomedea
    Flesh-footed, Ardenna carneipes
    Great, Ardenna gravis
    Manx, Puffinus puffinus
    Newell's, Puffinus newelli
    Pink-footed, Ardenna creatopus
    Short-tailed, Ardenna tenuirostris
    Sooty, Ardenna grisea
    Streaked, Calonectris leucomelas
    Wedge-tailed, Ardenna pacifica
SHOVELER, Northern, Spatula clypeata
SHRIKE, Brown, Lanius cristatus
    Loggerhead, Lanius ludovicianus
    Northern, Lanius borealis
SILKY-FLYCATCHER, Gray, Ptiliogonys cinereus
SISKIN, Eurasian, Spinus spinus
    Pine, Spinus pinus
SKIMMER, Black, Rynchops niger
SKUA, Great, Stercorarius skua
    South Polar, Stercorarius maccormicki
SKYLARK, Eurasian, Alauda arvensis
SMEW, Mergellus albellus
SNIPE, Common, Gallinago gallinago
    Jack, Lymnocryptes minimus
    Pin-tailed, Gallinago stenura
    Solitary, Gallinago solitaria
    Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala
    Wilson's, Gallinago delicata
SOLITAIRE, Brown-backed, Myadestes occidentalis
    Townsend's, Myadestes townsendi
SORA, Porzana carolina
SPARROW, American Tree, Spizelloides arborea
    Bachman's, Peucaea aestivalis
    Baird's, Centronyx bairdii
    Bell's, Artemisiospiza belli
    Black-chinned, Spizella atrogularis
    Black-throated, Amphispiza bilineata
    Botteri's, Peucaea botterii
    Brewer's, Spizella breweri
    Cassin's, Peucaea cassinii
    Chipping, Spizella passerina
    Clay-colored, Spizella pallida
    Field, Spizella pusilla
    Five-striped, Amphispiza quinquestriata
    Fox, Passerella iliaca
    Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia atricapilla
    Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum
    Harris's, Zonotrichia querula
    Henslow's, Centronyx henslowii
    Lark, Chondestes grammacus
    LeConte's, Ammospiza leconteii
    Lincoln's, Melospiza lincolnii
    Nelson's, Ammospiza nelsoni
    Olive, Arremonops rufivirgatus
    Rufous-crowned, Aimophila ruficeps
    Rufous-winged, Peucaea carpalis
    Sagebrush, Artemisiospiza nevadensis
    Saltmarsh, Ammospiza caudacuta
    Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis
    Seaside, Ammospiza maritima
    Song, Melospiza melodia
    Swamp, Melospiza georgiana
    Vesper, Pooecetes gramineus
    White-crowned, Zonotrichia leucophrys
    White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis
    Worthen's, Spizella wortheni
SPARROWHAWK, Chinese, Accipiter soloensis
    Japanese, Accipiter gularis
SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis
    Western, Spindalis zena
SPOONBILL, Roseate, Platalea ajaja
STARLING, Chestnut-cheeked, Agropsar philippensis
    White-cheeked, Spodiopsar cineraceus
STARTHROAT, Plain-capped, Heliomaster constantii
STILT, Black-necked, Himantopus mexicanus
    Black-winged, Himantopus himantopus
STINT, Little, Calidris minuta
    Long-toed, Calidris subminuta
    Red-necked, Calidris ruficollis
    Temminck's, Calidris temminckii
STONECHAT, Saxicola torquatus
STORK, Wood, Mycteria americana
STORM-PETREL, Ashy, Hydrobates homochroa
    Band-rumped, Hydrobates castro
    Black, Hydrobates melania
    Black-bellied, Fregetta tropica
    European, Hydrobates pelagicus
    Fork-tailed, Hydrobates furcatus
    Leach's, Hydrobates leucorhous
    Least, Hydrobates microsoma
    Matsudaira's, Oceanodroma matsudairae
    Polynesian, Nesofregetta fuliginosa
    Ringed, Hydrobates hornbyi
    Swinhoe's, Hydrobates monorhis
    Townsend's, Hydrobates socorroensis
    Tristram's, Hydrobates tristrami
    Wedge-rumped, Hydrobates tethys
    White-bellied, Fregetta grallaria
    White-faced, Pelagodroma marina
    Wilson's, Oceanites oceanicus
SURFBIRD, Calidris virgata
SWALLOW, Bahama, Tachycineta cyaneoviridis
    Bank, Riparia riparia
    Barn, Hirundo rustica
    Cave, Petrochelidon fulva
    Cliff, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
    Mangrove, Tachycineta albilinea
    Northern Rough-winged, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
    Tree, Tachycineta bicolor
    Violet-green, Tachycineta thalassina
SWAMPHEN, Purple, Porphyrio porphyrio
SWAN, Trumpeter, Cygnus buccinator
    Tundra, Cygnus columbianus
    Whooper, Cygnus cygnus
SWIFT, Alpine, Apus melba
    Black, Cypseloides niger
    Chimney, Chaetura pelagica
    Common, Apus apus
    Fork-tailed, Apus pacificus
    Short-tailed, Chaetura brachyura
    Vaux's, Chaetura vauxi
    White-collared, Streptoprocne zonaris
    White-throated, Aeronautes saxatalis
SWIFTLET, Mariana, Aerodramus bartschi

[[Page 21296]]

    White-rumped, Aerodramus spodiopygius
TANAGER, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata
    Hepatic, Piranga flava
    Puerto Rican, Nesospingus speculiferus
    Scarlet, Piranga olivacea
    Summer, Piranga rubra
    Western, Piranga ludoviciana
TATTLER, Gray-tailed, Tringa brevipes
    Wandering, Tringa incana
TEAL, Baikal, Sibirionetta formosa
    Blue-winged, Spatula discors
    Cinnamon, Spatula cyanoptera
    Green-winged, Anas crecca
TERN, Aleutian, Onychoprion aleuticus
    Arctic, Sterna paradisaea
    Black, Chlidonias niger
    Black-naped, Sterna sumatrana
    Bridled, Onychoprion anaethetus
    Caspian, Hydroprogne caspia
    Common, Sterna hirundo
    Elegant, Thalasseus elegans
    Forster's, Sterna forsteri
    Gray-backed, Onychoprion lunatus
    Great Crested, Thalasseus bergii
    Gull-billed, Gelochelidon nilotica
    Large-billed, Phaetusa simplex
    Least, Sternula antillarum
    Little, Sternula albifrons
    Roseate, Sterna dougallii
    Royal, Thalasseus maximus
    Sandwich, Thalasseus sandvicensis
    Sooty, Onychoprion fuscatus
    Whiskered, Chlidonias hybrida
    White, Gygis alba
    White-winged, Chlidonias leucopterus
THRASHER, Bendire's, Toxostoma bendirei
    Brown, Toxostoma rufum
    California, Toxostoma redivivum
    Crissal, Toxostoma crissale
    Curve-billed, Toxostoma curvirostre
    LeConte's, Toxostoma lecontei
    Long-billed, Toxostoma longirostre
    Pearly-eyed, Margarops fuscatus
    Sage, Oreoscoptes montanus
THRUSH, Aztec, Ridgwayia pinicola
    Bicknell's, Catharus bicknelli
    Clay-colored, Turdus grayi
    Dusky, Turdus naumanni
    Eyebrowed, Turdus obscurus
    Gray-cheeked, Catharus minimus
    Hermit, Catharus guttatus
    Red-legged, Turdus plumbeus
    Swainson's, Catharus ustulatus
    Varied, Ixoreus naevius
    White-throated, Turdus assimilis
    Wood, Hylocichla mustelina
TIGER-HERON, Bare-throated, Tigrisoma mexicanum
TITMOUSE, Black-crested, Baeolophus atricristatus
    Bridled, Baeolophus wollweberi
    Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi
    Oak, Baeolophus inornatus
    Tufted, Baeolophus bicolor
TITYRA, Masked, Tityra semifasciata
TOWHEE, Abert's, Melozone aberti
    California, Melozone crissalis
    Canyon, Melozone fusca
    Eastern, Pipilo erythrophthalmus
    Green-tailed, Pipilo chlorurus
    Spotted, Pipilo maculatus
TROGON, Elegant, Trogon elegans
TROPICBIRD, Red-billed, Phaethon aethereus
    Red-tailed, Phaethon rubricauda
    White-tailed, Phaethon lepturus
TURNSTONE, Black, Arenaria melanocephala
    Ruddy, Arenaria interpres
TURTLE-DOVE, Oriental, Streptopelia orientalis
VEERY, Catharus fuscescens
VERDIN, Auriparus flaviceps
VIOLETEAR, Mexican, Colibri thalassinus
VIREO, Bell's, Vireo bellii
    Black-capped, Vireo atricapilla
    Black-whiskered, Vireo altiloquus
    Blue-headed, Vireo solitarius
    Cassin's, Vireo cassinii
    Cuban, Vireo gundlachii
    Gray, Vireo vicinior
    Hutton's, Vireo huttoni
    Philadelphia, Vireo philadelphicus
    Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus
    Puerto Rican, Vireo latimeri
    Red-eyed, Vireo olivaceus
    Thick-billed, Vireo crassirostris
    Warbling, Vireo gilvus
    White-eyed, Vireo griseus
    Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis
    Yellow-throated, Vireo flavifrons
    Yucatan, Vireo magister
VULTURE, Black, Coragyps atratus
    Turkey, Cathartes aura
WAGTAIL, Citrine, Motacilla citreola
    Eastern Yellow, Motacilla tschutschensis
    Gray, Motacilla cinerea
    White, Motacilla alba
WARBLER, Adelaide's, Setophaga adelaidae
    Aguiguan Reed, Acrocephalus nijoi
    Arctic, Phylloscopus borealis
    Bachman's, Vermivora bachmanii
    Bay-breasted, Setophaga castanea
    Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia
    Blackburnian, Setophaga fusca
    Blackpoll, Setophaga striata
    Black-throated Blue, Setophaga caerulescens
    Black-throated Gray, Setophaga nigrescens
    Black-throated Green, Setophaga virens
    Blue-winged, Vermivora cyanoptera
    Blyth's Reed, Acrocephalus dumetorum
    Canada, Cardellina canadensis
    Cape May, Setophaga tigrina
    Cerulean, Setophaga cerulea
    Chestnut-sided, Setophaga pensylvanica
    Colima, Leiothlypis crissalis
    Connecticut, Oporornis agilis
    Crescent-chested, Oreothlypis superciliosa
    Dusky, Phylloscopus fuscatus
    Elfin-woods, Setophaga angelae
    Fan-tailed, Basileuterus lachrymosus
    Golden-cheeked, Setophaga chrysoparia
    Golden-crowned, Basileuterus culicivorus
    Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera
    Grace's, Setophaga graciae
    Hermit, Setophaga occidentalis
    Hooded, Setophaga citrina
    Kamchatka Leaf, Phylloscopus examinandus
    Kentucky, Geothlypis formosa
    Kirtland's, Setophaga kirtlandii
    Lanceolated, Locustella lanceolata
    Lucy's, Leiothlypis luciae
    MacGillivray's, Geothlypis tolmiei
    Magnolia, Setophaga magnolia
    Mourning, Geothlypis philadelphia
    Nashville, Leiothlypis ruficapilla
    Nightingale Reed, Acrocephalus luscinius
    Olive, Peucedramus taeniatus
    Orange-crowned, Leiothlypis celata
    Pagan Reed, Acrocephalus yamashinae
    Pallas's Leaf, Phylloscopus proregulus
    Palm, Setophaga palmarum
    Pine, Setophaga pinus
    Prairie, Setophaga discolor
    Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea
    Red-faced, Cardellina rubrifrons
    River, Locustella fluviatilis
    Rufous-capped, Basileuterus rufifrons
    Saipan Reed, Acrocephalus hiwae
    Sedge, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus
    Swainson's, Limnothlypis swainsonii
    Tennessee, Leiothlypis peregrina
    Thick-billed, Arundinax aedon
    Townsend's, Setophaga townsendi
    Virginia's, Leiothlypis virginiae
    Willow, Phylloscopus trochilus
    Wilson's, Cardellina pusilla
    Wood, Phylloscopus sibilatrix
    Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorum
    Yellow, Setophaga petechia
    Yellow-browed, Phylloscopus inornatus
    Yellow-rumped, Setophaga coronata
    Yellow-throated, Setophaga dominica
WATERTHRUSH, Louisiana, Parkesia motacilla
    Northern, Parkesia noveboracensis
WAXWING, Bohemian, Bombycilla garrulus
    Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum
WHEATEAR, Northern, Oenanthe oenanthe
    Pied, Oenanthe pleschanka
WHIMBREL, Numenius phaeopus
WHIP-POOR-WILL, Eastern, Antrostomus vociferus

[[Page 21297]]

    Mexican, Antrostomus arizonae
WHISTLING-DUCK, Black-bellied, Dendrocygna autumnalis
    Fulvous, Dendrocygna bicolor
    West Indian, Dendrocygna arborea
WHITETHROAT, Lesser, Sylvia curruca
WIGEON, American, Mareca americana
    Eurasian, Mareca penelope
WILLET, Tringa semipalmata
WOODCOCK, American, Scolopax minor
    Eurasian, Scolopax rusticola
WOODPECKER, Acorn, Melanerpes formicivorus
    American Three-toed, Picoides dorsalis
    Arizona, Dryobates arizonae
    Black-backed, Picoides arcticus
    Downy, Dryobates pubescens
    Gila, Melanerpes uropygialis
    Golden-fronted, Melanerpes aurifrons
    Great Spotted, Dendrocopos major
    Hairy, Dryobates villosus
    Ivory-billed, Campephilus principalis
    Ladder-backed, Dryobates scalaris
    Lewis's, Melanerpes lewis
    Nuttall's, Dryobates nuttallii
    Pileated, Dryocopus pileatus
    Puerto Rican, Melanerpes portoricensis
    Red-bellied, Melanerpes carolinus
    Red-cockaded, Dryobates borealis
    Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus
    White-headed, Dryobates albolarvatus
WOOD-PEWEE, Eastern, Contopus virens
    Western, Contopus sordidulus
WOOD-RAIL, Rufous-necked, Aramides axillaris
WOODSTAR, Bahama, Nesophlox evelynae
WREN, Bewick's, Thryomanes bewickii
    Cactus, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus
    Canyon, Catherpes mexicanus
    Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus
    House, Troglodytes aedon
    Marsh, Cistothorus palustris
    Pacific, Troglodytes pacificus
    Rock, Salpinctes obsoletus
    Sedge, Cistothorus platensis
    Sinaloa, Thryophilus sinaloa
    Winter, Troglodytes hiemalis
WRENTIT, Chamaea fasciata
WRYNECK, Eurasian, Jynx torquilla
YELLOWLEGS, Greater, Tringa melanoleuca
    Lesser, Tringa flavipes
YELLOWTHROAT, Common, Geothlypis trichas
    Gray-crowned, Geothlypis poliocephala

    (2) Taxonomic listing. Species are listed in phylogenetic sequence 
by scientific name, with the common (English) name following the 
scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, we also list 
the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily.

Order ANSERIFORMES
Family ANATIDAE
Subfamily DENDROCYGNINAE
    Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-Duck
Subfamily ANSERINAE
    Anser canagicus, Emperor Goose
    Anser caerulescens, Snow Goose
    Anser rossii, Ross's Goose
    Anser albifrons, Greater White-fronted Goose
    Anser erythropus, Lesser White-fronted Goose
    Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose
    Anser serrirostris, Tundra Bean-Goose
    Anser brachyrhynchus, Pink-footed Goose
    Branta bernicla, Brant
    Branta leucopsis, Barnacle Goose
    Branta hutchinsii, Cackling Goose
    Branta canadensis, Canada Goose
    Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian Goose
    Cygnus buccinator, Trumpeter Swan
    Cygnus columbianus, Tundra Swan
    Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan
Subfamily ANATINAE
    Cairina moschata, Muscovy Duck
    Aix sponsa, Wood Duck
    Sibirionetta formosa, Baikal Teal
    Spatula querquedula, Garganey
    Spatula discors, Blue-winged Teal
    Spatula cyanoptera, Cinnamon Teal
    Spatula clypeata, Northern Shoveler
    Mareca strepera, Gadwall
    Mareca falcata, Falcated Duck
    Mareca penelope, Eurasian Wigeon
    Mareca americana, American Wigeon
    Anas laysanensis, Laysan Duck
    Anas wyvilliana, Hawaiian Duck
    Anas zonorhyncha, Eastern Spot-billed Duck
    Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard
    Anas rubripes, American Black Duck
    Anas fulvigula, Mottled Duck
    Anas superciliosa, Pacific Black Duck
    Anas bahamensis, White-cheeked Pintail
    Anas acuta, Northern Pintail
    Anas crecca, Green-winged Teal
    Aythya valisineria, Canvasback
    Aythya americana, Redhead
    Aythya ferina, Common Pochard
    Aythya baeri, Baer's Pochard
    Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck
    Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck
    Aythya marila, Greater Scaup
    Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup
    Polysticta stelleri, Steller's Eider
    Somateria fischeri, Spectacled Eider
    Somateria spectabilis, King Eider
    Somateria mollissima, Common Eider
    Histrionicus histrionicus, Harlequin Duck
    Melanitta perspicillata, Surf Scoter
    Melanitta deglandi, White-winged Scoter
    Melanitta stejnegeri, Stejneger's Scoter
    Melanitta nigra, Common Scoter
Melanitta americana, Black Scoter
Clangula hyemalis, Long-tailed Duck
Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead
    Bucephala clangula, Common Goldeneye
    Bucephala islandica, Barrow's Goldeneye
    Mergellus albellus, Smew
    Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser
    Mergus merganser, Common Merganser
    Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser
    Nomonyx dominicus, Masked Duck
    Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck
Order PHOENICOPTERIFORMES
Family PHOENICOPTERIDAE
    Phoenicopterus ruber, American Flamingo
Order PODICIPEDIFORMES
Family PODICIPEDIDAE
    Tachybaptus dominicus, Least Grebe
    Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe
    Podiceps auritus, Horned Grebe
    Podiceps grisegena, Red-necked Grebe
    Podiceps nigricollis, Eared Grebe
    Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe
    Aechmophorus clarkii, Clark's Grebe
Order COLUMBIFORMES
Family COLUMBIDAE
    Patagioenas squamosa, Scaly-naped Pigeon
    Patagioenas leucocephala, White-crowned Pigeon
    Patagioenas flavirostris, Red-billed Pigeon
    Patagioenas inornata, Plain Pigeon
    Patagioenas fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon
    Streptopelia orientalis, Oriental Turtle-Dove
    Alopecoenas xanthonurus, White-throated Ground-Dove
    Alopecoenas stairi, Shy Ground-Dove
    Columbina inca, Inca Dove
    Columbina passerina, Common Ground Dove
    Columbina talpacoti, Ruddy Ground Dove
    Geotrygon montana, Ruddy Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon chrysia, Key West Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon mystacea, Bridled Quail-Dove
    Leptotila verreauxi, White-tipped Dove
    Zenaida asiatica, White-winged Dove

[[Page 21298]]

    Zenaida aurita, Zenaida Dove
    Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove
    Ptilinopus perousii, Many-colored Fruit-Dove
    Ptilinopus porphyraceus, Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove
    Ptilinopus roseicapilla, Mariana Fruit-Dove
    Ducula pacifica, Pacific Imperial-Pigeon
Order CUCULIFORMES
Family CUCULIDAE
Subfamily CROTOPHAGINAE
    Crotophaga ani, Smooth-billed Ani
    Crotophaga sulcirostris, Groove-billed Ani
Subfamily NEOMORPHINAE
    Geococcyx californianus, Greater Roadrunner
Subfamily CUCULINAE
    Urodynamis taitensis, Long-tailed Koel
    Hierococcyx nisicolor, Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo
    Cuculus canorus, Common Cuckoo
    Cuculus optatus, Oriental Cuckoo
    Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus minor, Mangrove Cuckoo
    Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Black-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus vieilloti, Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo
Order CAPRIMULGIFORMES
Family CAPRIMULGIDAE
Subfamily CHORDEILINAE
    Chordeiles acutipennis, Lesser Nighthawk
    Chordeiles minor, Common Nighthawk
    Chordeiles gundlachii, Antillean Nighthawk
Subfamily CAPRIMULGINAE
    Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Pauraque
    Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Common Poorwill
    Antrostomus carolinensis, Chuck-will's-widow
    Antrostomus ridgwayi, Buff-collared Nightjar
    Antrostomus vociferus, Eastern Whip-poor-will
    Antrostomus arizonae, Mexican Whip-poor-will
    Antrostomus noctitherus, Puerto Rican Nightjar
    Hydropsalis cayennensis, White-tailed Nightjar
    Caprimulgus jotaka, Gray Nightjar
Order APODIFORMES
Family APODIDAE
Subfamily CYPSELOIDINAE
    Cypseloides niger, Black Swift
    Streptoprocne zonaris, White-collared Swift
Subfamily CHAETURINAE
    Chaetura pelagica, Chimney Swift
    Chaetura vauxi, Vaux's Swift
    Chaetura brachyura, Short-tailed Swift
    Hirundapus caudacutus, White-throated Needletail
    Aerodramus spodiopygius, White-rumped Swiftlet
    Aerodramus bartschi, Mariana Swiftlet
Subfamily APODINAE
    Apus apus, Common Swift
    Apus pacificus, Fork-tailed Swift
    Apus melba, Alpine Swift
    Aeronautes saxatalis, White-throated Swift
    Tachornis phoenicobia, Antillean Palm-Swift
Family TROCHILIDAE
Subfamily TROCHILINAE
    Colibri thalassinus, Mexican Violetear
    Anthracothorax prevostii, Green-breasted Mango
    Anthracothorax dominicus, Antillean Mango
    Anthracothorax viridis, Green Mango
    Eulampis jugularis, Purple-throated Carib
    Eulampis holosericeus, Green-throated Carib
    Eugenes fulgens, Rivoli's Hummingbird
    Heliomaster constantii, Plain-capped Starthroat
    Lampornis amethystinus, Amethyst-throated Mountain-gem
    Lampornis clemenciae, Blue-throated Mountain-gem
    Calothorax lucifer, Lucifer Hummingbird
    Archilochus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird
    Archilochus alexandri, Black-chinned Hummingbird
    Mellisuga minima, Vervain Hummingbird
    Nesophlox evelynae, Bahama Woodstar
    Calypte anna, Anna's Hummingbird
    Calypte costae, Costa's Hummingbird
    Atthis heloisa, Bumblebee Hummingbird
    Selasphorus platycercus, Broad-tailed Hummingbird
    Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird
    Selasphorus sasin, Allen's Hummingbird
    Selasphorus calliope, Calliope Hummingbird
    Chlorostilbon maugaeus, Puerto Rican Emerald
    Cynanthus latirostris, Broad-billed Hummingbird
    Orthorhyncus cristatus, Antillean Crested Hummingbird
    Amazilia beryllina, Berylline Hummingbird
    Amazilia yucatanensis, Buff-bellied Hummingbird
    Amazilia rutila, Cinnamon Hummingbird
    Amazilia violiceps, Violet-crowned Hummingbird
    Hylocharis leucotis, White-eared Hummingbird
    Hylocharis xantusii, Xantus's Hummingbird
Order GRUIFORMES
Family RALLIDAE
    Coturnicops noveboracensis, Yellow Rail
    Laterallus jamaicensis, Black Rail
    Gallirallus philippensis, Buff-banded Rail
    Gallirallus owstoni, Guam Rail
    Crex crex, Corn Crake
    Rallus obsoletus, Ridgway's Rail
    Rallus crepitans, Clapper Rail
    Rallus elegans, King Rail
    Rallus limicola, Virginia Rail
    Aramides axillaris, Rufous-necked Wood-Rail
    Porzana carolina, Sora
    Porzana tabuensis, Spotless Crake
    Hapalocrex flaviventer, Yellow-breasted Crake
    Neocrex erythrops, Paint-billed Crake
    Pardirallus maculatus, Spotted Rail
    Porphyrio martinicus, Purple Gallinule
    Porphyrio flavirostris, Azure Gallinule
    Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Swamphen
    Gallinula galeata, Common Gallinule
    Gallinula chloropus, Common Moorhen
    Fulica atra, Eurasian Coot
    Fulica alai, Hawaiian Coot
    Fulica americana, American Coot
Family ARAMIDAE
    Aramus guarauna, Limpkin
Family GRUIDAE
Subfamily GRUINAE
    Antigone canadensis, Sandhill Crane
    Grus grus, Common Crane
    Grus americana, Whooping Crane
Order CHARADRIIFORMES
Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE
    Himantopus himantopus, Black-winged Stilt
    Himantopus mexicanus, Black-necked Stilt
    Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet
Family HAEMATOPODIDAE
    Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian Oystercatcher
    Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher
    Haematopus bachmani, Black Oystercatcher
Family CHARADRIIDAE
Subfamily VANELLINAE
    Vanellus vanellus, Northern Lapwing
Subfamily CHARADRIINAE
    Pluvialis squatarola, Black-bellied Plover
    Pluvialis apricaria, European Golden-Plover

[[Page 21299]]

    Pluvialis dominica, American Golden-Plover
    Pluvialis fulva, Pacific Golden-Plover
    Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Dotterel
    Charadrius vociferus, Killdeer
    Charadrius hiaticula, Common Ringed Plover
    Charadrius semipalmatus, Semipalmated Plover
    Charadrius melodus, Piping Plover
    Charadrius dubius, Little Ringed Plover
    Charadrius mongolus, Lesser Sand-Plover
    Charadrius leschenaultii, Greater Sand-Plover
    Charadrius wilsonia, Wilson's Plover
    Charadrius collaris, Collared Plover
    Charadrius montanus, Mountain Plover
    Charadrius alexandrinus, Kentish Plover
    Charadrius nivosus, Snowy Plover
Family JACANIDAE
    Jacana spinosa, Northern Jacana
Family SCOLOPACIDAE
Subfamily NUMENIINAE
    Bartramia longicauda, Upland Sandpiper
    Numenius tahitiensis, Bristle-thighed Curlew
    Numenius phaeopus, Whimbrel
    Numenius minutus, Little Curlew
    Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew
    Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew
    Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew
    Numenius arquata, Eurasian Curlew
Subfamily LIMOSINAE
    Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit
    Limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit
    Limosa haemastica, Hudsonian Godwit
    Limosa fedoa, Marbled Godwit
Subfamily ARENARIINAE
    Arenaria interpres, Ruddy Turnstone
    Arenaria melanocephala, Black Turnstone
    Calidris tenuirostris, Great Knot
    Calidris canutus, Red Knot
    Calidris virgata, Surfbird
    Calidris pugnax, Ruff
    Calidris falcinellus, Broad-billed Sandpiper
    Calidris acuminata, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper
    Calidris himantopus, Stilt Sandpiper
    Calidris ferruginea, Curlew Sandpiper
    Calidris temminckii, Temminck's Stint
    Calidris subminuta, Long-toed Stint
    Calidris pygmea, Spoon-billed Sandpiper
    Calidris ruficollis, Red-necked Stint
    Calidris alba, Sanderling
    Calidris alpina, Dunlin
    Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper
    Calidris maritima, Purple Sandpiper
    Calidris bairdii, Baird's Sandpiper
    Calidris minuta, Little Stint
    Calidris minutilla, Least Sandpiper
    Calidris fuscicollis, White-rumped Sandpiper
    Calidris subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper
    Calidris melanotos, Pectoral Sandpiper
    Calidris pusilla, Semipalmated Sandpiper
    Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper
Subfamily SCOLOPACINAE
    Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher
    Limnodromus scolopaceus, Long-billed Dowitcher
    Lymnocryptes minimus, Jack Snipe
    Scolopax rusticola, Eurasian Woodcock
    Scolopax minor, American Woodcock
    Gallinago solitaria, Solitary Snipe
    Gallinago stenura, Pin-tailed Snipe
    Gallinago megala, Swinhoe's Snipe
    Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe
    Gallinago delicata, Wilson's Snipe
Subfamily TRINGINAE
    Xenus cinereus, Terek Sandpiper
    Actitis hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper
    Actitis macularius, Spotted Sandpiper
    Tringa ochropus, Green Sandpiper
    Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper
    Tringa brevipes, Gray-tailed Tattler
    Tringa incana, Wandering Tattler
    Tringa flavipes, Lesser Yellowlegs
    Tringa semipalmata, Willet
    Tringa erythropus, Spotted Redshank
    Tringa nebularia, Common Greenshank
    Tringa guttifer, Nordmann's Greenshank
    Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs
    Tringa totanus, Common Redshank
    Tringa glareola, Wood Sandpiper
    Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper
    Phalaropus tricolor, Wilson's Phalarope
    Phalaropus lobatus, Red-necked Phalarope
    Phalaropus fulicarius, Red Phalarope
Family STERCORARIIDAE
    Stercorarius skua, Great Skua
    Stercorarius maccormicki, South Polar Skua
    Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Jaeger
    Stercorarius parasiticus, Parasitic Jaeger
    Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger
Family ALCIDAE
    Alle alle, Dovekie
    Uria aalge, Common Murre
    Uria lomvia, Thick-billed Murre
    Alca torda, Razorbill
    Cepphus grylle, Black Guillemot
    Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot
    Brachyramphus perdix, Long-billed Murrelet
    Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet
    Brachyramphus brevirostris, Kittlitz's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus scrippsi, Scripps's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Guadalupe Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus craveri, Craveri's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus antiquus, Ancient Murrelet
    Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin's Auklet
    Aethia psittacula, Parakeet Auklet
    Aethia pusilla, Least Auklet
    Aethia pygmaea, Whiskered Auklet
    Aethia cristatella, Crested Auklet
    Cerorhinca monocerata, Rhinoceros Auklet
    Fratercula arctica, Atlantic Puffin
    Fratercula corniculata, Horned Puffin
    Fratercula cirrhata, Tufted Puffin
Family LARIDAE
Subfamily LARINAE
    Creagrus furcatus, Swallow-tailed Gull
    Rissa tridactyla, Black-legged Kittiwake
    Rissa brevirostris, Red-legged Kittiwake
    Pagophila eburnea, Ivory Gull
    Xema sabini, Sabine's Gull
    Chroicocephalus philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull
    Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus, Gray-hooded Gull
    Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Black-headed Gull
    Hydrocoloeus minutus, Little Gull
    Rhodostethia rosea, Ross's Gull
    Leucophaeus atricilla, Laughing Gull
    Leucophaeus pipixcan, Franklin's Gull
    Larus belcheri, Belcher's Gull
    Larus crassirostris, Black-tailed Gull
    Larus heermanni, Heermann's Gull
    Larus canus, Mew Gull
    Larus delawarensis, Ring-billed Gull
    Larus occidentalis, Western Gull
    Larus livens, Yellow-footed Gull
    Larus californicus, California Gull
    Larus argentatus, Herring Gull
    Larus michahellis, Yellow-legged Gull
    Larus glaucoides, Iceland Gull
    Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull
    Larus schistisagus, Slaty-backed Gull
    Larus glaucescens, Glaucous-winged Gull
    Larus hyperboreus, Glaucous Gull
    Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull
    Larus dominicanus, Kelp Gull
Subfamily STERNINAE
    Anous stolidus, Brown Noddy

[[Page 21300]]

    Anous minutus, Black Noddy
    Anous ceruleus, Blue-gray Noddy
    Gygis alba, White Tern
    Onychoprion fuscatus, Sooty Tern
    Onychoprion lunatus, Gray-backed Tern
    Onychoprion anaethetus, Bridled Tern
    Onychoprion aleuticus, Aleutian Tern
    Sternula albifrons, Little Tern
    Sternula antillarum, Least Tern
    Phaetusa simplex, Large-billed Tern
    Gelochelidon nilotica, Gull-billed Tern
    Hydroprogne caspia, Caspian Tern
    Chlidonias niger, Black Tern
    Chlidonias leucopterus, White-winged Tern
    Chlidonias hybrida, Whiskered Tern
    Sterna dougallii, Roseate Tern
    Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern
    Sterna hirundo, Common Tern
    Sterna paradisaea, Arctic Tern
    Sterna forsteri, Forster's Tern
    Thalasseus maximus, Royal Tern
    Thalasseus bergii, Great Crested Tern
    Thalasseus sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern
    Thalasseus elegans, Elegant Tern
Subfamily RYNCHOPINAE
    Rynchops niger, Black Skimmer
Order PHAETHONTIFORMES
Family PHAETHONTIDAE
    Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird
    Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird
    Phaethon rubricauda, Red-tailed Tropicbird
Order GAVIIFORMES
Family GAVIIDAE
    Gavia stellata, Red-throated Loon
    Gavia arctica, Arctic Loon
    Gavia pacifica, Pacific Loon
    Gavia immer, Common Loon
    Gavia adamsii, Yellow-billed Loon
Order PROCELLARIIFORMES
Family DIOMEDEIDAE
    Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Yellow-nosed Albatross
    Thalassarche cauta, White-capped Albatross
    Thalassarche eremita, Chatham Albatross
    Thalassarche salvini, Salvin's Albatross
    Thalassarche melanophris, Black-browed Albatross
    Phoebetria palpebrata, Light-mantled Albatross
    Diomedea exulans, Wandering Albatross
    Phoebastria immutabilis, Laysan Albatross
    Phoebastria nigripes, Black-footed Albatross
    Phoebastria albatrus, Short-tailed Albatross
Family OCEANITIDAE
    Oceanites oceanicus, Wilson's Storm-Petrel
    Pelagodroma marina, White-faced Storm-Petrel
    Fregetta tropica, Black-bellied Storm-Petrel
Family HYDROBATIDAE
    Hydrobates pelagicus, European Storm-Petrel
    Fregetta grallaria, White-bellied Storm-Petrel
    Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Polynesian Storm-Petrel
    Hydrobates furcatus, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel
    Hydrobates hornbyi, Ringed Storm-Petrel
    Hydrobates monorhis, Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel
    Hydrobates leucorhous, Leach's Storm-Petrel
    Hydrobates socorroensis, Townsend's Storm-Petrel
    Hydrobates homochroa, Ashy Storm-Petrel
    Hydrobates castro, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Hydrobates tethys, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma matsudairae, Matsudaira's Storm-Petrel
    Hydrobates melania, Black Storm-Petrel
    Hydrobates tristrami, Tristram's Storm-Petrel
    Hydrobates microsoma, Least Storm-Petrel
Family PROCELLARIIDAE
    Fulmarus glacialis, Northern Fulmar
    Pterodroma gouldi, Gray-faced Petrel
    Pterodroma solandri, Providence Petrel
    Pterodroma neglecta, Kermadec Petrel
    Pterodroma arminjoniana, Trindade Petrel
    Pterodroma heraldica, Herald Petrel
    Pterodroma ultima, Murphy's Petrel
    Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel
    Pterodroma cahow, Bermuda Petrel
    Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel
    Pterodroma externa, Juan Fernandez Petrel
    Pterodroma sandwichensis, Hawaiian Petrel
    Pterodroma cervicalis, White-necked Petrel
    Pterodroma hypoleuca, Bonin Petrel
    Pterodroma nigripennis, Black-winged Petrel
    Pterodroma feae, Fea's Petrel
    Pterodroma madeira, Zino's Petrel
    Pterodroma cookii, Cook's Petrel
    Pterodroma longirostris, Stejneger's Petrel
    Pterodroma alba, Phoenix Petrel
    Pterodroma leucoptera, Gould's Petrel
    Pseudobulweria rostrata, Tahiti Petrel
    Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer's Petrel
    Bulweria fallax, Jouanin's Petrel
    Procellaria aequinoctialis, White-chinned Petrel
    Procellaria parkinsoni, Parkinson's Petrel
    Calonectris leucomelas, Streaked Shearwater
    Calonectris diomedea, Cory's Shearwater
    Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Shearwater
    Ardenna pacifica, Wedge-tailed Shearwater
    Ardenna bulleri, Buller's Shearwater
    Ardenna tenuirostris, Short-tailed Shearwater
    Ardenna grisea, Sooty Shearwater
    Ardenna gravis, Great Shearwater
    Ardenna creatopus, Pink-footed Shearwater
    Ardenna carneipes, Flesh-footed Shearwater
    Puffinus nativitatis, Christmas Shearwater
    Puffinus puffinus, Manx Shearwater
    Puffinus newelli, Newell's Shearwater
    Puffinus bryani, Bryan's Shearwater
    Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented Shearwater
    Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon's Shearwater
    Puffinus baroli, Barolo Shearwater
Order CICONIIFORMES
Family CICONIIDAE
    Jabiru mycteria, Jabiru
    Mycteria americana, Wood Stork
Order SULIFORMES
Family FREGATIDAE
    Fregata ariel, Lesser Frigatebird
    Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird
    Fregata minor, Great Frigatebird
Family SULIDAE
    Sula dactylatra, Masked Booby
    Sula granti, Nazca Booby
    Sula nebouxii, Blue-footed Booby
    Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby
    Sula sula, Red-footed Booby
    Papasula abbotti, Abbott's Booby
    Morus bassanus, Northern Gannet
Family PHALACROCORACIDAE
    Phalacrocorax melanoleucos, Little Pied Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt's Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Neotropic Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax auritus, Double-crested Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax carbo, Great Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax urile, Red-faced Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pelagic Cormorant
Family ANHINGIDAE
    Anhinga anhinga, Anhinga
Order PELECANIFORMES
Family PELECANIDAE

[[Page 21301]]

    Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, American White Pelican
    Pelecanus occidentalis, Brown Pelican
Family ARDEIDAE
    Botaurus lentiginosus, American Bittern
    Ixobrychus sinensis, Yellow Bittern
    Ixobrychus exilis, Least Bittern
    Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Schrenck's Bittern
    Ixobrychus flavicollis, Black Bittern
    Tigrisoma mexicanum, Bare-throated Tiger-Heron
    Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron
    Ardea cinerea, Gray Heron
    Ardea alba, Great Egret
    Ardea intermedia, Intermediate Egret
    Egretta eulophotes, Chinese Egret
    Egretta garzetta, Little Egret
    Egretta sacra, Pacific Reef-Heron
    Egretta gularis, Western Reef-Heron
    Egretta thula, Snowy Egret
    Egretta caerulea, Little Blue Heron
    Egretta tricolor, Tricolored Heron
    Egretta rufescens, Reddish Egret
    Bubulcus ibis, Cattle Egret
    Ardeola bacchus, Chinese Pond-Heron
    Butorides virescens, Green Heron
    Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron
    Nycticorax caledonicus, Rufous Night-Heron
    Nyctanassa violacea, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron
    Gorsachius goisagi, Japanese Night-Heron
    Gorsachius melanolophus, Malayan Night-Heron
Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE
Subfamily THRESKIORNITHINAE
    Eudocimus albus, White Ibis
    Eudocimus ruber, Scarlet Ibis
    Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis
    Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis
Subfamily PLATALEINAE
    Platalea ajaja, Roseate Spoonbill
Order CARTHARTIFORMES
Family CATHARTIDAE
    Coragyps atratus, Black Vulture
    Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture
    Gymnogyps californianus, California Condor
Order ACCIPITRIFORMES
Family PANDIONIDAE
    Pandion haliaetus, Osprey
Family ACCIPITRIDAE
Subfamily ELANINAE
    Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite
Subfamily GYPAETINAE
    Chondrohierax uncinatus, Hook-billed Kite
    Elanoides forficatus, Swallow-tailed Kite
Subfamily ACCIPITRINAE
    Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle
    Harpagus bidentatus, Double-toothed Kite
    Circus spilonotus, Eastern Marsh-Harrier
    Circus hudsonius, Northern Harrier
    Accipiter soloensis, Chinese Sparrowhawk
    Accipiter gularis, Japanese Sparrowhawk
    Accipiter striatus, Sharp-shinned Hawk
    Accipiter cooperii, Cooper's Hawk
    Accipiter gentilis, Northern Goshawk
    Milvus migrans, Black Kite
    Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle
    Haliaeetus albicilla, White-tailed Eagle
    Haliaeetus pelagicus, Steller's Sea-Eagle
    Ictinia mississippiensis, Mississippi Kite
    Butastur indicus, Gray-faced Buzzard
    Geranospiza caerulescens, Crane Hawk
    Rostrhamus sociabilis, Snail Kite
    Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black Hawk
    Buteogallus urubitinga, Great Black Hawk
    Rupornis magnirostris, Roadside Hawk
    Parabuteo unicinctus, Harris's Hawk
    Geranoaetus albicaudatus, White-tailed Hawk
    Buteo plagiatus, Gray Hawk
    Buteo lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk
    Buteo platypterus, Broad-winged Hawk
    Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian Hawk
    Buteo brachyurus, Short-tailed Hawk
    Buteo swainsoni, Swainson's Hawk
    Buteo albonotatus, Zone-tailed Hawk
    Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk
    Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Hawk
    Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk
Order STRIGIFORMES
Family TYTONIDAE
    Tyto alba, Barn Owl
Family STRIGIDAE
    Otus sunia, Oriental Scops-Owl
    Psiloscops flammeolus, Flammulated Owl
    Megascops kennicottii, Western Screech-Owl
    Megascops asio, Eastern Screech-Owl
    Megascops trichopsis, Whiskered Screech-Owl
    Megascops nudipes, Puerto Rican Screech-Owl
    Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl
    Bubo scandiacus, Snowy Owl
    Surnia ulula, Northern Hawk Owl
    Glaucidium gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl
    Glaucidium brasilianum, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl
    Micrathene whitneyi, Elf Owl
    Athene cunicularia, Burrowing Owl
    Ciccaba virgata, Mottled Owl
    Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl
    Strix varia, Barred Owl
    Strix nebulosa, Great Gray Owl
    Asio otus, Long-eared Owl
    Asio stygius, Stygian Owl
    Asio flammeus, Short-eared Owl
    Aegolius funereus, Boreal Owl
    Aegolius acadicus, Northern Saw-whet Owl
    Ninox japonica, Northern Boobook
Order TROGONIFORMES
Family TROGONIDAE
Subfamily TROGONINAE
    Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon
    Euptilotis neoxenus, Eared Quetzal
Order UPUPIFORMES
Family UPUPIDAE
    Upupa epops, Eurasian Hoopoe
Order CORACIIFORMES
Family ALCEDINIDAE
Subfamily ALCEDININAE
    Alcedo atthis, Common Kingfisher
Subfamily HALCYONINAE
    Todiramphus sacer, Pacific Kingfisher
    Todiramphus cinnamominus, Guam Kingfisher
    Todiramphus albicilla, Mariana Kingfisher
Subfamily CERYLINAE
    Megaceryle torquata, Ringed Kingfisher
    Megaceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher
    Chloroceryle amazona, Amazon Kingfisher
    Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher
Order PICIFORMES
Family PICIDAE
Subfamily JYNGINAE
    Jynx torquilla, Eurasian Wryneck
Subfamily PICINAE
    Melanerpes lewis, Lewis's Woodpecker
    Melanerpes portoricensis, Puerto Rican Woodpecker
    Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Red-headed Woodpecker
    Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker
    Melanerpes uropygialis, Gila Woodpecker
    Melanerpes aurifrons, Golden-fronted Woodpecker
    Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker
    Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Williamson's Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus nuchalis, Red-naped Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker
    Picoides dorsalis, American Three-toed Woodpecker
    Picoides arcticus, Black-backed Woodpecker
    Dendrocopos major, Great Spotted Woodpecker
    Dryobates pubescens, Downy Woodpecker

[[Page 21302]]

    Dryobates nuttallii, Nuttall's Woodpecker
    Dryobates scalaris, Ladder-backed Woodpecker
    Dryobates borealis, Red-cockaded Woodpecker
    Dryobates villosus, Hairy Woodpecker
    Dryobates albolarvatus, White-headed Woodpecker
    Dryobates arizonae, Arizona Woodpecker
    Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker
    Colaptes chrysoides, Gilded Flicker
    Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker
    Campephilus principalis, Ivory-billed Woodpecker
Order FALCONIFORMES
Family FALCONIDAE
Subfamily HERPETOTHERINAE
    Micrastur semitorquatus, Collared Forest-Falcon
Subfamily FALCONINAE
    Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara
    Falco tinnunculus, Eurasian Kestrel
    Falco sparverius, American Kestrel
    Falco vespertinus, Red-footed Falcon
    Falco amurensis, Amur Falcon
    Falco columbarius, Merlin
    Falco subbuteo, Eurasian Hobby
    Falco femoralis, Aplomado Falcon
    Falco rusticolus, Gyrfalcon
    Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon
    Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon
Order PASSERIFORMES
Family TITYRIDAE
    Tityra semifasciata, Masked Tityra
    Pachyramphus major, Gray-collared Becard
    Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard
Family TYRANNIDAE
Subfamily ELAENIINAE
    Camptostoma imberbe, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet
    Myiopagis viridicata, Greenish Elaenia
    Elaenia martinica, Caribbean Elaenia
    Elaenia albiceps, White-crested Elaenia
Subfamily FLUVICOLINAE
    Mitrephanes phaeocercus, Tufted Flycatcher
    Contopus cooperi, Olive-sided Flycatcher
    Contopus pertinax, Greater Pewee
    Contopus sordidulus, Western Wood-Pewee
    Contopus virens, Eastern Wood-Pewee
    Contopus caribaeus, Cuban Pewee
    Contopus hispaniolensis, Hispaniolan Pewee
    Contopus latirostris, Lesser Antillean Pewee
    Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
    Empidonax virescens, Acadian Flycatcher
    Empidonax alnorum, Alder Flycatcher
    Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher
    Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher
    Empidonax hammondii, Hammond's Flycatcher
    Empidonax wrightii, Gray Flycatcher
    Empidonax oberholseri, Dusky Flycatcher
    Empidonax affinis, Pine Flycatcher
    Empidonax difficilis, Pacific-slope Flycatcher
    Empidonax occidentalis, Cordilleran Flycatcher
    Empidonax fulvifrons, Buff-breasted Flycatcher
    Sayornis nigricans, Black Phoebe
    Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe
    Sayornis saya, Say's Phoebe
    Pyrocephalus rubinus, Vermilion Flycatcher
Subfamily TYRANNINAE
    Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher
    Myiarchus cinerascens, Ash-throated Flycatcher
    Myiarchus nuttingi, Nutting's Flycatcher
    Myiarchus crinitus, Great Crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus tyrannulus, Brown-crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus sagrae, La Sagra's Flycatcher
    Myiarchus antillarum, Puerto Rican Flycatcher
    Pitangus sulphuratus, Great Kiskadee
    Myiozetetes similis, Social Flycatcher
    Myiodynastes luteiventris, Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher
    Legatus leucophaius, Piratic Flycatcher
    Empidonomus varius, Variegated Flycatcher
    Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus, Crowned Slaty Flycatcher
    Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird
    Tyrannus couchii, Couch's Kingbird
    Tyrannus vociferans, Cassin's Kingbird
    Tyrannus crassirostris, Thick-billed Kingbird
    Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird
    Tyrannus tyrannus, Eastern Kingbird
    Tyrannus dominicensis, Gray Kingbird
    Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Loggerhead Kingbird
    Tyrannus forficatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
    Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher
Family LANIIDAE
    Lanius cristatus, Brown Shrike
    Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike
    Lanius borealis, Northern Shrike
Family VIREONIDAE
    Vireo atricapilla, Black-capped Vireo
    Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo
    Vireo crassirostris, Thick-billed Vireo
    Vireo latimeri, Puerto Rican Vireo
    Vireo gundlachii, Cuban Vireo
    Vireo bellii, Bell's Vireo
    Vireo vicinior, Gray Vireo
    Vireo huttoni, Hutton's Vireo
    Vireo flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo
    Vireo cassinii, Cassin's Vireo
    Vireo solitarius, Blue-headed Vireo
    Vireo plumbeus, Plumbeous Vireo
    Vireo philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo
    Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo
    Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo
    Vireo flavoviridis, Yellow-green Vireo
    Vireo altiloquus, Black-whiskered Vireo
    Vireo magister, Yucatan Vireo
Family CORVIDAE
    Perisoreus canadensis, Canada Jay
    Psilorhinus morio, Brown Jay
    Cyanocorax yncas, Green Jay
    Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Pinyon Jay
    Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller's Jay
    Cyanocitta cristata, Blue Jay
    Aphelocoma coerulescens, Florida Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma insularis, Island Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma californica, California Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma woodhouseii, Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma wollweberi, Mexican Jay
    Nucifraga columbiana, Clark's Nutcracker
    Pica hudsonia, Black-billed Magpie
    Pica nuttalli, Yellow-billed Magpie
    Corvus monedula, Eurasian Jackdaw
    Corvus kubaryi, Mariana Crow
    Corvus brachyrhynchos, American Crow
    Corvus caurinus, Northwestern Crow
    Corvus leucognaphalus, White-necked Crow
    Corvus imparatus, Tamaulipas Crow
    Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow
    Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian Crow
    Corvus cryptoleucus, Chihuahuan Raven
    Corvus corax, Common Raven
Family ALAUDIDAE
    Alauda arvensis, Eurasian Skylark
    Eremophila alpestris, Horned Lark
Family HIRUNDINIDAE
Subfamily HIRUNDININAE
    Riparia riparia, Bank Swallow
    Tachycineta bicolor, Tree Swallow
    Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Bahama Swallow
    Tachycineta thalassina, Violet-green Swallow
    Tachycineta albilinea, Mangrove Swallow
    Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Northern

[[Page 21303]]

Rough-winged Swallow
    Progne tapera, Brown-chested Martin
    Progne dominicensis, Caribbean Martin
    Progne subis, Purple Martin
    Progne cryptoleuca, Cuban Martin
    Progne chalybea, Gray-breasted Martin
    Progne elegans, Southern Martin
    Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow
    Delichon urbicum, Common House-Martin
    Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow
    Petrochelidon fulva, Cave Swallow
Family PARIDAE
    Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee
    Poecile atricapillus, Black-capped Chickadee
    Poecile gambeli, Mountain Chickadee
    Poecile sclateri, Mexican Chickadee
    Poecile rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee
    Poecile hudsonicus, Boreal Chickadee
    Poecile cinctus, Gray-headed Chickadee
    Baeolophus wollweberi, Bridled Titmouse
    Baeolophus inornatus, Oak Titmouse
    Baeolophus ridgwayi, Juniper Titmouse
    Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse
    Baeolophus atricristatus, Black-crested Titmouse
Family REMIZIDAE
    Auriparus flaviceps, Verdin
Family AEGITHALIDAE
    Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit
Family SITTIDAE
Subfamily SITTINAE
    Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta pygmaea, Pygmy Nuthatch
    Sitta pusilla, Brown-headed Nuthatch
Family CERTHIIDAE
Subfamily CERTHIINAE
    Certhia americana, Brown Creeper
Family TROGLODYTIDAE
    Salpinctes obsoletus, Rock Wren
    Catherpes mexicanus, Canyon Wren
    Troglodytes aedon, House Wren
    Troglodytes pacificus, Pacific Wren
    Troglodytes hiemalis, Winter Wren
    Cistothorus platensis, Sedge Wren
    Cistothorus palustris, Marsh Wren
    Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren
    Thryomanes bewickii, Bewick's Wren
    Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren
    Thryophilus sinaloa, Sinaloa Wren
Family POLIOPTILIDAE
    Polioptila caerulea, Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila californica, California Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher
Family CINCLIDAE
    Cinclus mexicanus, American Dipper
Family REGULIDAE
    Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet
    Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned Kinglet
Family PHYLLOSCOPIDAE
    Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler
    Phylloscopus collybita, Common Chiffchaff
    Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Wood Warbler
    Phylloscopus fuscatus, Dusky Warbler
    Phylloscopus proregulus, Pallas's Leaf Warbler
    Phylloscopus inornatus, Yellow-browed Warbler
    Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler
    Phylloscopus examinandus, Kamchatka Leaf Warbler
Family SYLVIIDAE
    Sylvia curruca, Lesser Whitethroat
    Chamaea fasciata, Wrentit
Family ACROCEPHALIDAE
    Arundinax aedon, Thick-billed Warbler
    Acrocephalus luscinius, Nightingale Reed Warbler
    Acrocephalus hiwae, Saipan Reed Warbler
    Acrocephalus nijoi, Aguiguan Reed Warbler
    Acrocephalus yamashinae, Pagan Reed Warbler
    Acrocephalus familiaris, Millerbird
    Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Sedge Warbler
    Acrocephalus dumetorum, Blyth's Reed Warbler
Family LOCUSTELLIDAE
    Locustella ochotensis, Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler
    Locustella fluviatilis, River Warbler
    Locustella lanceolata, Lanceolated Warbler
Family MUSCICAPIDAE
    Muscicapa griseisticta, Gray-streaked Flycatcher
    Muscicapa dauurica, Asian Brown Flycatcher
    Muscicapa striata, Spotted Flycatcher
    Muscicapa sibirica, Dark-sided Flycatcher
    Erithacus rubecula, European Robin
    Larvivora cyane, Siberian Blue Robin
    Larvivora sibilans, Rufous-tailed Robin
    Cyanecula svecica, Bluethroat
    Calliope calliope, Siberian Rubythroat
    Tarsiger cyanurus, Red-flanked Bluetail
    Ficedula narcissina, Narcissus Flycatcher
    Ficedula mugimaki, Mugimaki Flycatcher
    Ficedula albicilla, Taiga Flycatcher
    Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Common Redstart
    Saxicola torquatus, Stonechat
    Oenanthe oenanthe, Northern Wheatear
    Oenanthe pleschanka, Pied Wheatear
    Family TURDIDAE
    Monticola solitarius, Blue Rock-Thrush
    Sialia sialis, Eastern Bluebird
    Sialia mexicana, Western Bluebird
    Sialia currucoides, Mountain Bluebird
    Myadestes townsendi, Townsend's Solitaire
    Myadestes occidentalis, Brown-backed Solitaire
    Myadestes myadestinus, K[amacr]ma[revaps]o
    Myadestes lanaiensis, Olomao
    Myadestes obscurus, [Omacr]ma[revaps]o
    Myadestes palmeri, Puaiohi
    Catharus aurantiirostris, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush
    Catharus mexicanus, Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush
    Catharus fuscescens, Veery
    Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush
    Catharus bicknelli, Bicknell's Thrush
    Catharus ustulatus, Swainson's Thrush
    Catharus guttatus, Hermit Thrush
    Hylocichla mustelina, Wood Thrush
    Turdus obscurus, Eyebrowed Thrush
    Turdus naumanni, Dusky Thrush
    Turdus pilaris, Fieldfare
    Turdus iliacus, Redwing
    Turdus grayi, Clay-colored Thrush
    Turdus assimilis, White-throated Thrush
    Turdus rufopalliatus, Rufous-backed Robin
    Turdus migratorius, American Robin
    Turdus plumbeus, Red-legged Thrush
    Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush
    Ridgwayia pinicola, Aztec Thrush
Family MIMIDAE
    Melanotis caerulescens, Blue Mockingbird
    Melanoptila glabrirostris, Black Catbird
    Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird
    Margarops fuscatus, Pearly-eyed Thrasher
    Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma rufum, Brown Thrasher
    Toxostoma longirostre, Long-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma bendirei, Bendire's Thrasher
    Toxostoma redivivum, California Thrasher
    Toxostoma lecontei, LeConte's Thrasher
    Toxostoma crissale, Crissal Thrasher

[[Page 21304]]

    Oreoscoptes montanus, Sage Thrasher
    Mimus gundlachii, Bahama Mockingbird
    Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird
Family STURNIDAE
    Agropsar philippensis, Chestnut-cheeked Starling
    Spodiopsar cineraceus, White-cheeked Starling
Family BOMBYCILLIDAE
    Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing
    Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing
Family PTILIOGONATIDAE
    Ptiliogonys cinereus, Gray Silky-flycatcher
    Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla
Family PEUCEDRAMIDAE
    Peucedramus taeniatus, Olive Warbler
Family PRUNELLIDAE
    Prunella montanella, Siberian Accentor
Family MOTACILLIDAE
    Motacilla tschutschensis, Eastern Yellow Wagtail
    Motacilla citreola, Citrine Wagtail
    Motacilla cinerea, Gray Wagtail
    Motacilla alba, White Wagtail
    Anthus trivialis, Tree Pipit
    Anthus hodgsoni, Olive-backed Pipit
    Anthus gustavi, Pechora Pipit
    Anthus cervinus, Red-throated Pipit
    Anthus rubescens, American Pipit
    Anthus spragueii, Sprague's Pipit
Family FRINGILLIDAE
Subfamily FRINGILLINAE
    Fringilla coelebs, Common Chaffinch
    Fringilla montifringilla, Brambling
    Subfamily EUPHONIINAE
    Euphonia musica, Antillean Euphonia
    Subfamily CARDUELINAE
    Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak
    Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Hawfinch
    Carpodacus erythrinus, Common Rosefinch
    Carpodacus roseus, Pallas's Rosefinch
    Melamprosops phaeosoma, Po[revaps]ouli
    Oreomystis bairdi, [revaps]Akikiki
    Paroreomyza maculata, O[revaps]ahu [revaps]Alauahio
    Paroreomyza flammea,K[amacr]k[amacr]wahie
    Paroreomyza montana, Maui [revaps]Alauahio
    Loxioides bailleui, Palila
    Telespiza cantans, Laysan Finch
    Telespiza ultima, Nihoa Finch
    Palmeria dolei, [revaps]Akohekohe
    Himatione fraithii, Laysan Honeycreeper
    Himatione sanguinea, [revaps]Apapane
    Drepanis coccinea, [revaps]I[revaps]iwi
    Psittirostra psittacea, [revaps][Omacr][revaps][umacr]
    Pseudonestor xanthophrys, Maui Parrotbill
    Hemignathus hanapepe, Kauai Nukupu[revaps]u
    Hemignathus lucidus, O[revaps]ahu Nukupu[revaps]u
    Hemignathus affinis, Maui Nukupu[revaps]u
    Hemignathus wilsoni, [revaps]Akiapola[revaps]au
    Akialoa stejnegeri, Kauai [revaps]Akialoa
    Akialoa ellisiana, O[revaps]ahu [revaps]Akialoa
    Akialoa lanaiensis, Maui Nui [revaps]Akialoa
    Magumma parva, [revaps]Anianiau
    Chlorodrepanis virens, Hawaii [revaps]Amakihi
    Chlorodrepanis flava, O[revaps]ahu [revaps]Amakihi
    Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri, Kauai [revaps]Amakihi
    Loxops mana, Hawaii Creeper
    Loxops caeruleirostris, [revaps]Akeke[revaps]e
    Loxops wolstenholmei, O[revaps]ahu [revaps]Akepa
    Loxops ochraceus, Maui [revaps]Akepa
    Loxops coccineus, Hawaii [revaps]Akepa
    Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak
    Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Eurasian Bullfinch
    Leucosticte arctoa, Asian Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte tephrocotis, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte atrata, Black Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte australis, Brown-capped Rosy-Finch
    Haemorhous mexicanus, House Finch
    Haemorhous purpureus, Purple Finch
    Haemorhous cassinii, Cassin's Finch
    Chloris sinica, Oriental Greenfinch
    Acanthis flammea, Common Redpoll
    Acanthis hornemanni, Hoary Redpoll
    Loxia curvirostra, Red Crossbill
    Loxia sinesciuris, Cassia Crossbill
    Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill
    Spinus spinus, Eurasian Siskin
    Spinus pinus, Pine Siskin
    Spinus psaltria, Lesser Goldfinch
    Spinus lawrencei, Lawrence's Goldfinch
    Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch
Family CALCARIIDAE
    Calcarius lapponicus, Lapland Longspur
    Calcarius ornatus, Chestnut-collared Longspur
    Calcarius pictus, Smith's Longspur
    Rhynchophanes mccownii, McCown's Longspur
    Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting
    Plectrophenax hyperboreus, McKay's Bunting
Family EMBERIZIDAE
    Emberiza leucocephalos, Pine Bunting
    Emberiza chrysophrys, Yellow-browed Bunting
    Emberiza pusilla, Little Bunting
    Emberiza rustica, Rustic Bunting
    Emberiza elegans, Yellow-throated Bunting
    Emberiza aureola, Yellow-breasted Bunting
    Emberiza variabilis, Gray Bunting
    Emberiza pallasi, Pallas's Bunting
    Emberiza schoeniclus, Reed Bunting
Family PASSERELLIDAE
    Peucaea carpalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow
    Peucaea botterii, Botteri's Sparrow
    Peucaea cassinii, Cassin's Sparrow
    Peucaea aestivalis, Bachman's Sparrow
    Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow
    Arremonops rufivirgatus, Olive Sparrow
    Amphispiza quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow
    Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow
    Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow
    Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting
    Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow
    Spizella pallida, Clay-colored Sparrow
    Spizella atrogularis, Black-chinned Sparrow
    Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow
    Spizella breweri, Brewer's Sparrow
    Spizella wortheni, Worthen's Sparrow
    Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow
    Spizelloides arborea, American Tree Sparrow
    Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco
    Junco phaeonotus, Yellow-eyed Junco
    Zonotrichia leucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow
    Zonotrichia atricapilla, Golden-crowned Sparrow
    Zonotrichia querula, Harris's Sparrow
    Zonotrichia albicollis, White-throated Sparrow
    Artemisiospiza nevadensis, Sagebrush Sparrow
    Artemisiospiza belli, Bell's Sparrow
    Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow
    Ammospiza leconteii, LeConte's Sparrow
    Ammospiza maritima, Seaside Sparrow
    Ammospiza nelsoni, Nelson's Sparrow
    Ammospiza caudacuta, Saltmarsh Sparrow
    Centronyx bairdii, Baird's Sparrow
    Centronyx henslowii, Henslow's Sparrow
    Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow
    Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow
    Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln's Sparrow
    Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow
    Melozone fusca, Canyon Towhee
    Melozone aberti, Abert's Towhee
    Melozone crissalis, California Towhee
    Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow
    Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee
    Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee
    Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee
Family NESOSPINGIDAE

[[Page 21305]]

    Nesospingus speculiferus, Puerto Rican Tanager
Family SPINDALIDAE
    Spindalis zena, Western Spindalis
    Spindalis portoricensis, Puerto Rican Spindalis
Family ICTERIIDAE
    Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat
Family ICTERIDAE
Subfamily XANTHOCEPHALINAE
    Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Yellow-headed Blackbird
Subfamily DOLICHONYCHINAE
    Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink
Subfamily STURNELLINAE
    Sturnella magna, Eastern Meadowlark
    Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark
Subfamily ICTERINAE
    Icterus portoricensis, Puerto Rican Oriole
    Icterus wagleri, Black-vented Oriole
    Icterus spurius, Orchard Oriole
    Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole
    Icterus pustulatus, Streak-backed Oriole
    Icterus bullockii, Bullock's Oriole
    Icterus gularis, Altamira Oriole
    Icterus graduacauda, Audubon's Oriole
    Icterus galbula, Baltimore Oriole
    Icterus abeillei, Black-backed Oriole
    Icterus parisorum, Scott's Oriole
Subfamily AGELAIINAE
    Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird
    Agelaius tricolor, Tricolored Blackbird
    Agelaius humeralis, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird
    Agelaius xanthomus, Yellow-shouldered Blackbird
    Molothrus bonariensis, Shiny Cowbird
    Molothrus aeneus, Bronzed Cowbird
    Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird
    Euphagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird
    Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer's Blackbird
    Quiscalus quiscula, Common Grackle
    Quiscalus major, Boat-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus mexicanus, Great-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus niger, Greater Antillean Grackle
Family PARULIDAE
    Seiurus aurocapilla, Ovenbird
    Helmitheros vermivorum, Worm-eating Warbler
    Parkesia motacilla, Louisiana Waterthrush
    Parkesia noveboracensis, Northern Waterthrush
    Vermivora bachmanii, Bachman's Warbler
    Vermivora chrysoptera, Golden-winged Warbler
    Vermivora cyanoptera, Blue-winged Warbler
    Mniotilta varia, Black-and-white Warbler
    Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler
    Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson's Warbler
    Oreothlypis superciliosa, Crescent-chested Warbler
    Leiothlypis peregrina, Tennessee Warbler
    Leiothlypis celata, Orange-crowned Warbler
    Leiothlypis crissalis, Colima Warbler
    Leiothlypis luciae, Lucy's Warbler
    Leiothlypis ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler
    Leiothlypis virginiae, Virginia's Warbler
    Oporornis agilis, Connecticut Warbler
    Geothlypis poliocephala, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat
    Geothlypis tolmiei, MacGillivray's Warbler
    Geothlypis philadelphia, Mourning Warbler
    Geothlypis formosa, Kentucky Warbler
    Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat
    Setophaga angelae, Elfin-woods Warbler
    Setophaga citrina, Hooded Warbler
    Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart
    Setophaga kirtlandii, Kirtland's Warbler
    Setophaga tigrina, Cape May Warbler
    Setophaga cerulea, Cerulean Warbler
    Setophaga americana, Northern Parula
    Setophaga pitiayumi, Tropical Parula
    Setophaga magnolia, Magnolia Warbler
    Setophaga castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler
    Setophaga fusca, Blackburnian Warbler
    Setophaga petechia, Yellow Warbler
    Setophaga pensylvanica, Chestnut-sided Warbler
    Setophaga striata, Blackpoll Warbler
    Setophaga caerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler
    Setophaga palmarum, Palm Warbler
    Setophaga pinus, Pine Warbler
    Setophaga coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler
    Setophaga dominica, Yellow-throated Warbler
    Setophaga discolor, Prairie Warbler
    Setophaga adelaidae, Adelaide's Warbler
    Setophaga graciae, Grace's Warbler
    Setophaga nigrescens, Black-throated Gray Warbler
    Setophaga townsendi, Townsend's Warbler
    Setophaga occidentalis, Hermit Warbler
    Setophaga chrysoparia, Golden-cheeked Warbler
    Setophaga virens, Black-throated Green Warbler
    Basileuterus lachrymosus, Fan-tailed Warbler
    Basileuterus rufifrons, Rufous-capped Warbler
    Basileuterus culicivorus, Golden-crowned Warbler
    Cardellina canadensis, Canada Warbler
    Cardellina pusilla, Wilson's Warbler
    Cardellina rubrifrons, Red-faced Warbler
    Myioborus pictus, Painted Redstart
    Myioborus miniatus, Slate-throated Redstart
Family CARDINALIDAE
    Piranga flava, Hepatic Tanager
    Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager
    Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager
    Piranga ludoviciana, Western Tanager
    Piranga bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager
    Rhodothraupis celaeno, Crimson-collared Grosbeak
    Cardinalis cardinalis, Northern Cardinal
    Cardinalis sinuatus, Pyrrhuloxia
    Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Yellow Grosbeak
    Pheucticus ludovicianus, Rose-breasted Grosbeak
    Pheucticus melanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak
    Cyanocompsa parellina, Blue Bunting
    Passerina caerulea, Blue Grosbeak
    Passerina amoena, Lazuli Bunting
    Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting
    Passerina versicolor, Varied Bunting
    Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting
    Spiza americana, Dickcissel
Family THRAUPIDAE
Subfamily DACNINAE
    Cyanerpes cyaneus, Red-legged Honeycreeper
Subfamily COEREBINAE
    Coereba flaveola, Bananaquit
    Tiaris olivaceus, Yellow-faced Grassquit
    Melanospiza bicolor, Black-faced Grassquit
    Melopyrrha portoricensis, Puerto Rican Bullfinch
Subfamily SPOROPHILINAE
    Sporophila morelleti, Morelet's Seedeater
* * * * *

George Wallace,
Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks.
[FR Doc. 2020-06779 Filed 4-15-20; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4333-15-P