Pilot Professional Development, 10896-10935 [2020-01111]

Download as PDF 10896 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 61, 91, 121, and 135 [Docket No.: FAA–2014–0504; Amdt. Nos.: 61–144; 91–356; 121–382; and 135–142] RIN 2120–AJ87 Pilot Professional Development Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. AGENCY: This action amends the requirements primarily applicable to air carriers conducting domestic, flag, and supplemental operations to enhance the professional development of pilots in those operations. This action requires air carriers conducting domestic, flag, and supplemental operations to provide new-hire pilots with an opportunity to observe flight operations and become familiar with procedures before serving as a flightcrew member in operations; to revise the upgrade curriculum; and to provide leadership and command and mentoring training for all pilots in command. This final rule will mitigate incidents of unprofessional pilot behavior and reduce pilot errors that can lead to a catastrophic event. DATES: Effective April 27, 2020. The compliance date for the requirements in §§ 91.1063(b)(2), 121.419(c) and (g), 121.420, 121.424(b) and (g), 121.426, 121.435, and 135.3(d)(1) is April 27, 2022. The compliance date for the requirements in § 121.429 is April 27, 2023. ADDRESSES: For information on where to obtain copies of rulemaking documents and other information related to this final rule, see ‘‘How To Obtain Additional Information’’ in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sheri Pippin, Air Transportation Division (AFS–200), Flight Standards Service, Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20591; telephone: (202) 267–8166; email: sheri.pippin@faa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: SUMMARY: jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Contents I. Executive Summary II. Authority for This Rulemaking III. Background A. Statement of the Problem B. Related FAA Actions 1 81 C. National Transportation Safety Board Recommendations IV. Discussion of Public Comments and Final Rule A. General B. Applicability C. Effective Date and Compliance Date D. Operations Familiarization (§ 121.435) E. PIC Leadership and Command Training 1. General 2. Distance Instruction F. PIC Mentoring Training G. SIC to PIC Upgrade (§§ 121.420 and 121.426) 1. Performance-Based Curriculum 2. Revised Upgrade Curriculum Requirements 3. Upgrade Proficiency Check Requirements 4. Effect of Revised Upgrade Curriculum on Recurrent Training H. Training for Pilots Currently Serving as PIC (§ 121.429) I. Recurrent PIC Leadership and Command and Mentoring Training (§§ 121.409(b) and 121.427) J. Leadership and Command Training and Mentoring Training for SICs Serving in Operations That Require Three or More Pilots K. Pilot Professional Development Committee (Proposed § 121.17) L. Pilot Recurrent Ground Training Content and Programmed Hours (§ 121.427) M. Part 135 Operators and Part 91 Subpart K Program Managers Complying With Part 121, Subparts N and O N. Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD) Conforming Changes O. SIC Training and Checking Conforming Changes P. Other Conforming and Miscellaneous Changes Q. Costs and Benefits R. Other Out-of-Scope Comments V. Regulatory Notices and Analyses A. Regulatory Evaluation B. Regulatory Flexibility Determination C. International Trade Impact Assessment D. Unfunded Mandates Assessment E. Paperwork Reduction Act F. International Compatibility and Cooperation G. Environmental Analysis VI. Executive Order Determinations A. Executive Order 13132, Federalism B. Executive Order 13211, Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use C. Executive Order 13609, Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation D. Executive Order 13771, Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs VII. How To Obtain Additional Information A. Rulemaking Documents B. Comments Submitted to the Docket C. Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act List of Abbreviations and Acronyms Frequently Used in This Document AC Advisory Circular ACSPT ARC Air Carrier Safety and Pilot Training Aviation Rulemaking Committee AQP Advanced Qualification Program ARC Aviation Rulemaking Committee ATP Airline Transport Pilot ATP–CTP Airline Transport Pilot Certification Training Program CFR Code of Federal Regulations CRM Crew Resource Management FFS Full Flight Simulator FSTD Flight Simulation Training Device FTD Flight Training Device InFO Information for Operators LOFT Line-Oriented Flight Training MLP ARC Flight Crewmember Mentoring, Leadership, and Professional Development Aviation Rulemaking Committee NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking OF Operations Familiarization PIC Pilot in Command PDSC Professional Development Steering Committee PPDC Pilot Professional Development Committee SAFO Safety Alert for Operators SIC Second in Command SOP Standard Operating Procedures THRR ARC Flightcrew Member Training Hours Requirement Review Aviation Rulemaking Committee 91K Part 91, subpart K of 14 CFR. I. Executive Summary On October 7, 2016, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to propose amendments to requirements for air carriers and pilots operating under part 121 to enhance the professional development of part 121 pilots.1 The proposed amendments included additional air carrier training for pilots in command (PIC), additional air carrier qualification for newly hired pilots, and a requirement for air carriers to establish and maintain a pilot professional development committee to develop, administer, and oversee formal pilot mentoring programs. The comment period for the NPRM closed on January 5, 2017, and the FAA received 44 unique comments. Only two of the comments opposed the rule, and 22 comments supported the rule without change. Twelve comments supported the rule generally but suggested changes. After review of the comments, the FAA is issuing this final rule, which contains a number of changes from the NPRM, to enhance the professional development of part 121 pilots. Table 1, Summary of Final Rule Provisions, provides additional detail regarding the final rule provisions incorporated into part 121. FR 69908. VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00002 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations 10897 TABLE 1—SUMMARY OF FINAL RULE PROVISIONS Provision Summary of NPRM provision Major changes from NPRM Operations familiarization for new-hire pilots (§ 121.435). • Operations familiarization must include a minimum of 2 operating cycles. A new-hire pilot completing operations familiarization must occupy the flight deck observer seat. • Upgrade ground and flight training requirements have been updated based on the qualification and experience that all upgrading pilots now have as a result of the Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations rule requirements. • Leadership and command and mentoring training must be included in the upgrade curriculum. Leadership and command and mentoring training are required subjects for upgrade ground training. Leadership and command training must also be incorporated into flight training through scenario-based training. (Note: For those air carriers that use an initial curriculum to qualify pilots to serve as PICs, leadership and command and mentoring training must be provided as part of that initial curriculum (§§ 121.419 and 121.424)). Leadership and command and mentoring ground training for pilots currently serving as PIC (§ 121.429). • All pilots currently serving as PIC must complete ground training on leadership and command and mentoring. • The Administrator may credit previous training completed by the pilot at that air carrier. • PICs must complete recurrent leadership and command and mentoring ground training every 36 months. • Recurrent Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) must provide an opportunity for PICs to demonstrate leadership and command. • SICs required to be fully qualified to act as PIC, due to serving in an operation that requires 3 or more pilots, are not required to complete leadership and command and mentoring training. • Pilot recurrent ground training has been aligned with the pilot initial ground training requirements for pilots who have completed the Airline Transport Pilot Certification Training Program (ATP– CTP). As a result, the existing content and corresponding programmed hours for recurrent ground training have been reduced. • Part 135 operators and part 91 subpart K (91K) program managers complying with part 121 subparts N and O would continue to use the existing upgrade curriculum requirements and the proposed leadership and command and mentoring training would only apply to PICs serving in operations that use two or more pilots. • Part 121, subparts N and O and appendices E, F, and H are updated as follows: (1) Reflect the terminology currently used to identify FSTDs approved for use in part 121 training programs; (2) Remove references to simulation technology that no longer exists; and (3) Remove requirement for FAA certification of training and remove pilot experience prerequisites for using a Level C full flight simulator (FFS) to reflect advances in current FSTD technology. • Adds requirement that operations familiarization may be completed during or after basic indoctrination training, but must be completed before beginning operating experience. • No changes. Upgrade training curriculum requirements (§§ 121.420 and 121.426). Recurrent PIC leadership and command and mentoring training (§§ 121.409(b) and 121.427). Leadership and command training for SICs serving in an operation that requires 3 or more pilots (§ 121.432). Pilot recurrent ground training content and programmed hours (§ 121.427). Part 135 Operators and Part 91 Subpart K Program Managers Complying with Part 121, Subparts N and O (§§ 91.1063 and 135.3). jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD) Conforming Changes (Part 121, subparts N and O and appendices E, F, and H). VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00003 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 • Adds limitation that the FAA will only allow credit for previous training completed within 36 calendar months prior to the effective date of the final rule. • No changes. • Adds requirement for these SICs to complete leadership and command training. (These SICs are not required to complete mentoring training). • No changes. • Adds exception for part 135 operators and part 91K program managers, that choose to comply with part 121 subparts N and O, are not required to comply with the operations familiarization required in § 121.435. No changes. E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 10898 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations TABLE 1—SUMMARY OF FINAL RULE PROVISIONS—Continued Provision Summary of NPRM provision SIC Training and Checking Conforming Changes (Part 121 appendices E and F). • Part 121 appendices E and F are updated to align with the current 14 CFR 61.71 requirements for SICs to obtain a type rating in a part 121 training program. Initial, conversion, and transition SIC training and checking must include the few training and checking maneuvers and procedures formerly designated in appendices E and F as PIC-only. • Air carriers must establish and maintain a PPDC to develop, administer, and oversee formal pilot mentoring programs. The PPDC must consist of at least one management representative and one pilot representative. The PPDC must meet on a regular basis. The frequency of such meetings would be determined by the air carrier, but must occur at least annually. • Pilot transition ground training has been aligned with the pilot initial ground training for pilots who have completed the ATP–CTP. • The term used to identify the training provided to flight engineers qualifying as SICs on the same airplane type has been changed from ‘‘upgrade’’ to ‘‘conversion’’. • Conversion ground training for flight engineers who have completed the ATP–CTP has been aligned with the pilot initial ground training for pilots who have completed the ATP–CTP. • Part 121 appendices E and F and § 121.434 are amended to allow for pictorial means for the training and checking of preflight visual inspections of the exterior and interior of the airplane. Pilot professional development committee (PPDC) (§ 121.17). Other Conforming and Miscellaneous Changes. The cost of the rule is attributed to training requirements that will reduce the risk of unprofessional pilot behavior and help avoid situations that can lead to a catastrophic event. The estimated cost of the rule to the impacted entities Major changes from NPRM • No changes. • Not adopted in the final rule. • No changes. is $90.0 million over a 10-year period. When discounted using a 7-percent discount rate, the rule is estimated to result in costs of $62.2 million over the same period. The rule will also generate cost savings to operators of $95.5 million over a 10-year period. When discounted using a 7-percent discount rate, the rule will result in savings of $61.2 million over the same period. The total cost and cost savings are shown in the table below. TABLE 2—COMPARISON OF COSTS AND COST SAVINGS [Millions of 2016 dollars] Present value at 7% Total Costs ....................................................................................................... Total Cost Savings .......................................................................................... Net Costs ......................................................................................................... jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 II. Authority for This Rulemaking The FAA’s authority to issue rules on aviation safety is found in Title 49 of the United States Code. Subtitle I, section 106 describes the authority of the FAA Administrator. Subtitle VII, Aviation Programs, describes in more detail the scope of the FAA’s authority. This rulemaking is promulgated under the general authority described in 49 U.S.C. 106(f) and 44701(a) and the specific authority found in section 206 of Public Law 111–216, the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act of 2010 (Aug. 1, 2010) (49 U.S.C. 44701 note), which directed the VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 $62.17 61.22 0.94 FAA to convene an aviation rulemaking committee (ARC) and conduct a rulemaking proceeding based on the ARC’s recommendations pertaining to mentoring, professional development, and leadership and command training for pilots serving in part 121 operations. Section 206 further required that the FAA include in leadership and command training instruction on compliance with flightcrew member duties under 14 CFR 121.542 (sterile flight deck rule). PO 00000 Frm 00004 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 Annualized at 7% Present value at 3% $8.29 8.16 0.13 $76.25 78.32 ¥2.07 Annualized at 3% $8.24 8.46 ¥0.22 III. Background A. Statement of the Problem As recognized by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the overall safety and reliability of the national airspace system demonstrates that most pilots conduct operations with a high degree of professionalism.2 2 See Crash of Pinnacle Airlines Flight 3701, Bombardier CL–600–2B19, N8396A, Jefferson City, Missouri, October 14, 2004, Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR–07/01 (Washington, DC: NTSB, 2007) (hereinafter ‘‘Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/ AAR–07/01’’) available at https://www.ntsb.gov/ investigations/AccidentReports/Pages/ AAR0701.aspx. E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Nevertheless, a problem still exists in the aviation industry with some pilots acting unprofessionally and not adhering to standard operating procedures (‘‘SOP’’), including the sterile flight deck rule.3 The NTSB has continued to cite inadequate leadership in the flight deck, pilots’ unprofessional behavior, and pilots’ failure to comply with the sterile flight deck rule as factors in multiple accidents and incidents, including Pinnacle Airlines flight 3701 and Colgan Air,4 Inc., flight 3407.5 On October 14, 2004, a Pinnacle Airlines Bombardier CL–600–2B19, operating as Northwest Airlink flight 3701, crashed into a residential area about 2.5 miles from the Jefferson City Memorial Airport, Jefferson City, Missouri. During the flight, both engines flamed out after a pilot-induced aerodynamic stall and were unable to be restarted. Both pilots were killed, and the airplane was destroyed. The NTSB determined the probable causes of this accident were (1) the pilots’ unprofessional behavior, deviation from SOP, and poor airmanship, which resulted in an in-flight emergency from which the pilots were unable to recover, in part because of their inadequate training; (2) the pilots’ failure to prepare for an emergency landing in a timely 3 See Loss of Control on Approach, Colgan Air, Inc., Operating as Continental Connection Flight 3407, Bombardier DHC–8–400, N200WQ, Clarence Center, New York, February 12, 2009, Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR–10/01 (Washington, DC: NTSB, 2010) (hereinafter ‘‘Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR–10/01’’) available at https:// www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/ Pages/AAR1001.aspx. 4 Some contributing factors to this accident were also mitigated by the following rules: Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements (77 FR 330, January 4, 2012, RIN 2120–AJ58) with a 0.5 effective mitigation; Qualification, Service, and Use of Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers (78 FR 67800, November 12, 2013, RIN 2120–AJ00) with a 0.2 effective mitigation; Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations (78 FR 42324, July 15, 2013, RIN 2120– AJ67) with a 0.2 effective mitigation; and Safety Management Systems for Domestic, Flag, and Supplemental Operations Certificate Holders (80 FR 1307, January 8, 2015, RIN 2120–AJ86) with a 0.05 effective mitigation. 5 More recently, on October 27, 2016 Eastern Airlines flight 3452, a Boeing 737–700, ran off runway 22 during the landing roll at LaGuardia Airport, Flushing, Queens, New York. The NTSB determined the probable cause of this incident was the SIC’s failure to attain the proper touchdown point and the flight crew’s failure to call for a goaround, which resulted in the airplane landing more than halfway down the runway. Contributing to the incident was the PIC’s lack of command authority. See the NTSB Aviation Incident Final Report, Incident Number DCA17IA020, available at https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/Pages/2016_ queens_ny.aspx. While this incident does not form a basis for the issuance of this rule, it illustrates that leadership and command training remains an important component of an effective pilot training program. VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 manner; and (3) the pilots’ improper management of the double engine failure checklist. The NTSB noted that at the time of the accident, Pinnacle Airlines provided 2 hours of leadership training during second in command (SIC) to pilot in command (PIC) upgrade training with topics covering leadership authority, responsibility, and leadership styles. The NTSB also noted that after the accident and as a result of a high initial failure rate for pilots upgrading to PIC (22% failure rate in July 2004), Pinnacle revised the leadership training to 8 hours with modules on leadership, authority, and responsibility; briefing and debriefing scenarios; decisionmaking processes, including those during an emergency; dry run lineoriented flight training scenarios; and risk management and resource utilization. In October 2006, Pinnacle reported to the NTSB that the pass rate for pilots upgrading to PIC had improved to 92% first attempt and 95% overall. On the evening of February 12, 2009, a Colgan Air, Inc., Bombardier DHC–8– 400, operating as Continental Connection flight 3407, was on approach to Buffalo-Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, New York, when it crashed into a residence in Clarence Center, New York, about five nautical miles northeast of the airport. The two pilots, two flight attendants, all 45 passengers aboard the airplane, and one person on the ground were killed, and the airplane was destroyed by impact forces and a postcrash fire. The NTSB determined that the probable cause of this accident was the PIC’s inappropriate response to the stall warning which eventually led to a stall from which the airplane did not recover. Contributing to the accident were (1) the pilots’ failure to monitor airspeed; (2) the pilots’ failure to adhere to sterile flight deck procedures; (3) the PIC’s failure to effectively manage the flight; and (4) Colgan Air’s inadequate procedures for airspeed selection and management during approaches in icing conditions. The NTSB noted that at the time of the accident the Colgan Air crew resource management (CRM) training was consistent with Advisory Circular (AC) 120–51E, Crew Resource Management Training and addressed command, leadership and leadership styles, communication, and decisionmaking. The NTSB also noted that the Colgan Air SIC to PIC upgrade training included a one-day course on leadership; however, the training focused on the administrative duties associated with becoming a PIC and did PO 00000 Frm 00005 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 10899 not contain significant content applicable to developing leadership skills, management oversight, and command authority. The NTSB concluded that specific leadership training for pilots upgrading to PIC would help standardize and reinforce the critical command authority skills needed by a PIC during air carrier operations. The Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111–216), enacted August 1, 2010, includes a number of requirements to convene advisory groups and conduct rulemakings related to the results of the NTSB investigation of the Colgan Air accident. Section 206 directs the FAA to convene an ARC to develop procedures for each part 121 air carrier pertaining to mentoring, professional development, and leadership and command training for pilots serving in part 121 operations and to issue an NPRM and final rule based on the ARC recommendations. In accordance with sections 204, 206, and 209 of Public Law 111–216, the FAA chartered the Air Carrier Safety and Pilot Training (ACSPT) ARC, the Flight Crewmember Mentoring, Leadership, and Professional Development (MLP) ARC and the Flightcrew Member Training Hours Requirement Review (THRR) ARC, respectively, in September 2010. The MLP ARC provided recommendations in November 2010. At the same time as the MLP ARC worked to develop its recommendations, a number of related rulemakings required by Public Law 111–216 were already underway, including the Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations rulemaking and the Qualification, Service, and Use of Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers rulemaking. This final rule is the culmination of the FAA’s analysis of (1) the rulemaking requirements of section 206 of Public Law 111–216; (2) the recommendations provided by the MLP ARC, the THRR ARC, and the ACSPT ARC; (3) the part 121 pilot qualification and experience requirements provided in the Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations final rule (78 FR 42324, July 15, 2013); 6 (4) the Qualification, Service, and Use of Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers final rule (78 FR 67800, November 12, 2013); 7 (5) the current part 121 PIC role and responsibilities; and (6) the comments received in response to the NPRM. This final rule furthers the 6 RIN 7 RIN E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 2120–AJ67. 2120–AJ00. 25FER3 10900 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations FAA’s safety mission, satisfies the requirement for rulemaking in section 206 of Public Law 111–216, and accounts for the recent changes to pilot certification and qualifications to serve as a PIC in part 121 operations. The FAA has determined that this final rule can be effectively implemented by air carriers and will reduce the risk of unprofessional pilot behavior and help avoid situations that can lead to a catastrophic event.8 B. Related FAA Actions jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 To promote pilot professionalism and standardization, the FAA has taken a number of actions through rulemakings and guidance. The FAA first issued the sterile flight deck rule (§ 121.542) to prohibit the performance of nonessential duties by flightcrew members during critical phases of flight, including all ground operations involving taxi, take-off and landing, and other flight operations conducted below 10,000 feet, except cruise flight (46 FR 5500, January 19, 1981). On February 12, 2014, the FAA amended the sterile flight deck rule to prohibit flightcrew members from using a personal wireless communications device or laptop computer for personal use while at their duty station while the aircraft is being operated (Prohibition on Personal Use of Electronic Devices on the Flight Deck final rule, 79 FR 8257).9 On January 10, 2017, the FAA issued revised AC 120–71B, Standard Operating Procedures and Pilot Monitoring Duties for Flight Deck Crewmembers, which stresses that safety in commercial operations depends on good crew performance founded on clear, comprehensive, and readily available SOP.10 The AC provides guidance for the design, development, implementation, evaluation, and updating of SOP, as well as guidance for training of pilot 8 The FAA notes that section 206 of Public Law 111–216 references both ‘‘flight crewmembers’’ and ‘‘pilots.’’ Section 201 of Public Law 111–216 states, ‘‘The term ‘flight crewmember’ has the meaning given the term ‘flightcrew member’ in part 1 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations.’’ Part 1 defines ‘‘flightcrew member’’ as ‘‘a pilot, flight engineer, or flight navigator assigned to duty in an aircraft during flight time.’’ However, because section 206 uses the terms ‘‘flight crewmember’’ and ‘‘pilot’’ interchangeably, the FAA assumes that Congress intended the rulemaking requirements of this section to apply to pilots only. Further, because no accidents have been attributed to flight engineer performance and the FAA has not identified any issues related to flight engineer training or professionalism, this final rule applies to pilots only. 9 RIN 2120–AJ17. 10 http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/ advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/ document.information/documentID/1030486. VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 monitoring duties and integration of pilot monitoring duties into SOP. In response to NTSB Safety Recommendation A–06–7, the FAA issued Safety Alert for Operators (SAFO) 06004 on April 28, 2006, to emphasize the importance of sterile flight deck discipline and fatigue countermeasures, especially during approach and landing.11 On July 3, 2007, the FAA issued Safety Alert for Operators (SAFO) 07006, to address procedural intentional non-compliance (PINC) because multiple accidents revealed pilots not adhering to established procedures and airplane limitations when conducting positioning flights.12 On April 26, 2010, the FAA issued Information for Operators (InFO) 10003, to address flight deck distractions because recent incidents and accidents revealed pilots using laptop computers and mobile telephones for personal activities unrelated to the duties and responsibilities required for conduct of a safe flight.13 To address the significance of human performance factors such as communication, decision-making, and leadership, the FAA issued the Air Carrier and Commercial Operator Training Programs final rule requiring crew resource management (CRM) training for flightcrew members and flight attendants as well as dispatcher resource management (DRM) training for aircraft dispatchers (60 FR 65940, December 20, 1995).14 The FAA also published AC 120–51B Crew Resource Management Training and AC 121–32 Dispatch Resource Management Training to provide guidance on establishing CRM and DRM training under the broad requirement established by the final rule. The current version, AC 120–51E,15 stresses that CRM training should focus on the functioning of crewmembers as teams and should include all operational personnel. During the time since publication of the CRM final rule, the agency has revised AC 120–51 three times to address evolving research and concepts of CRM. 11 http://www.faa.gov/other_visit/aviation_ industry/airline_operators/airline_safety/safo/all_ safos/media/2006/safo06004.pdf. 12 Positioning flights include nonrevenue flights, flights to pick up passengers, and ferry flights for maintenance. See http://www.faa.gov/other_visit/ aviation_industry/airline_operators/airline_safety/ safo/all_safos/media/2007/SAFO07006.pdf. 13 http://www.faa.gov/other_visit/aviation_ industry/airline_operators/airline_safety/info/all_ infos/media/2010/info10003.pdf. 14 RIN 2120–AC79. 15 http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/ advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/ document.information/documentID/22879. PO 00000 Frm 00006 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 The FAA recognizes the need to continue to review air carrier training and qualification regulations, policies, and guidance to ensure they are current and relevant and address new technology and research. Therefore, in January 2014, the FAA chartered the Air Carrier Training ARC to provide a forum for the U.S. aviation community to continue to discuss, prioritize, and provide recommendations to the FAA concerning air carrier training. C. National Transportation Safety Board Recommendations This final rule addresses the following NTSB recommendations from Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR–07/01 and Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR– 10/01 for air carriers operating under part 121: • A–07–6: Require regional air carriers operating under 14 CFR part 121 to provide specific guidance on expectations for professional conduct to pilots who operate nonrevenue flights. • A–10–13: Issue an advisory circular with guidance on leadership training for upgrading captains at 14 CFR part 121, 135, and 91K operators, including methods and techniques for effective leadership; professional standards of conduct; strategies for briefing and debriefing; reinforcement and correction skills; and other knowledge, skills, and abilities that are critical for air carrier operations.16 • A–10–14: Require all 14 CFR part 121, 135, and 91K operators to provide a specific course on leadership training to their upgrading captains that is consistent with the advisory circular requested in Safety Recommendation A–10–13. IV. Discussion of Public Comments and Final Rule A. General Airbus, the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA), NetJets Aviation (NetJets), and 16 individuals generally agreed with the proposal. Airlines for America (A4A) generally supported the proposal but provided comments on and suggested changes to specific provisions, which are discussed in more detail in the section-by-section analysis below. The International Air Transport Association generally agreed with the comments submitted by A4A except for the comments related to training of SICs serving in augmented operations, stating that A4A’s position is inconsistent with existing European requirements. The NTSB largely concurred with the overall intent of the proposal. However, 16 ‘‘Captain’’ is an industry term that refers to the PIC. E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 the NTSB noted that neither the proposed rule nor the draft AC Leadership and Command Training for Pilots in Command addresses the content or intent of NTSB Safety Recommendation A–10–15, which recommended the development and distribution of multimedia guidance materials.17 At this time, the FAA is not developing and distributing new multimedia guidance materials on professionalism in aircraft operations. As explained in the NPRM, a prerequisite eligibility requirement for an airline transport pilot (ATP) certificate is the completion of an airline transport pilot certification training program (ATP–CTP). The ATP–CTP provides foundational knowledge in many subject areas, including professionalism. In addition to the draft ACs published in the docket, the FAA previously published AC 61–138 Airline Transport Pilot Certification Training Program. These ACs all contain references to other useful documents for the development of training. Additionally, the FAA posted these ACs for public comment and considered those comments before final publication. Therefore, the FAA believes the intent of NTSB recommendation A–10–15 has been met and that sufficient resources are already available for training on these topics. The FAA has removed NTSB recommendation A–10–15 from preamble section III.C. discussing the NTSB recommendations. Jet Blue Airways (Jet Blue) commented that there is great value in promoting leadership, command, and mentoring training for all air carrier pilots. However, Jet Blue stated that the proposal failed to recognize other qualitative advancements such as the Advanced Qualification Program (AQP), the utilization of advanced simulation opportunities, and alternative vehicles to obtain command and leadership knowledge through operational experience. Jet Blue strongly recommended that rather than directing additional resources toward implementing regulations that duplicate existing programs and efforts, the FAA 17 NTSB Recommendation A–10–15: Develop and distribute to all pilots, multimedia guidance materials on professionalism in aircraft operations that contain standards of performance for professionalism; best practices for sterile cockpit adherence; techniques for assessing and correcting pilot deviations; examples and scenarios; and a detailed review of accidents involving breakdowns in sterile cockpit and other procedures, including the Colgan Air, Inc. flight 3407 accident. Obtain the input of operators and air carrier and general aviation pilot groups in the development and distribution of these guidance materials. VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 re-direct its efforts toward developing guidance for inclusion within existing AQPs and other approved programs. As described in the NPRM, the proposal was responsive to a statutory requirement for the FAA to convene an ARC to develop procedures for air carriers pertaining to pilot mentoring, professional development, and leadership and command training and to issue an NPRM and final rule based on those recommendations. Therefore, Jet Blue’s recommendation would not be consistent with the statutory requirement. However, the FAA proposed to allow credit toward all or part of the requirements for leadership and command and mentoring training previously completed by a PIC at that air carrier. The FAA is maintaining this allowance, with modification, in the final rule. Since each air carrier’s training program is unique, the FAA will evaluate each specific request for credit, including the supporting documentation, to determine if the previously provided training meets the intent of some or all of the leadership and command and mentoring training. The Aviation Accreditation Board International (AABI) recommended that the FAA reconsider adopting the MLP ARC recommendation for including professionalism and mentoring as required subjects for new-hire pilot indoctrination training. A4A and American Airlines (American) agreed that amendments to basic indoctrination training are not needed and are appropriately addressed by recent regulatory changes. ALPA stated that guidance should exist ensuring new hire training includes exposure to the operations of other airline departments such as dispatch, maintenance, and scheduling. ALPA stated that for leadership and command training to be effective in the flight deck, new-hires must receive training on their role in the context of the leadership and command training that PICs receive. The FAA is not making any amendments to basic indoctrination training. As explained in the NPRM, ATP applicants must complete an ATP– CTP, which provides the foundational knowledge in several subject areas including leadership and command and professional development. The recommendation that new-hire training should include exposure to the operations of other airline departments such as dispatch, maintenance, and scheduling is outside the scope of this rulemaking. The FAA expects each individual air carrier will determine if exposure to other airline departments is beneficial to its operation. PO 00000 Frm 00007 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 10901 An individual commenter did not agree that air carriers should have to train crewmembers on professionalism and safety because this individual believed these skills should be taught before the pilot applies for an air carrier. Another individual did not agree that pilots need to be trained on how to be more professional. One individual identified as a college student opined that this proposal could be seen as an unnecessary mandate in an already extensive training curriculum. In contrast, an individual identified as an associate college professor stated that the proposal could be successful in inculcating and reinforcing the highest standards of technical performance, airmanship, and professionalism. Another individual wrote that the proposal would result in safety benefits and address the NTSB recommendations and statutory requirement for rulemaking. As described in the NPRM, most pilots conduct operations with a high degree of professionalism. However, the NTSB has continued to cite inadequate leadership in the flight deck, pilots’ unprofessional behavior, and pilots’ failure to comply with the sterile flight deck rule as factors in multiple accidents and incidents. The FAA concurs with the NTSB recommendation to require leadership training for air carrier pilots and has concluded that the proposed training is warranted. With regard to a comment that the proposal should be focused on interpersonal skills and attitude management training, the FAA notes that the AC PIC Leadership and Command Training and AC 120–51 Crew Resource Management Training address these topics. One individual commented that there should be a shorter version of training for senior pilots and that pilots from this pool can be chosen to help conduct the additional training. The FAA does not agree that there should be a shorter version of the training for senior pilots. As discussed further below, the FAA will allow credit toward all or part of the requirements for initial leadership and command and mentoring training previously completed by a PIC at that air carrier. In general, this credit will allow more senior pilots to more quickly meet new initial training requirements. B. Applicability In the NPRM, the FAA stated that the proposal would affect certificate holders that train and qualify pilots in accordance with part 121, including air carriers that train and qualify pilots in accordance with the provisions of current subparts N and O or under an E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 10902 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 AQP in accordance with subpart Y of part 121. Additionally, the FAA explained that the proposal affects some certificate holders conducting part 135 commuter operations 18 and part 91K program managers or part 135 operators authorized to voluntarily comply with subparts N and O of part 121. The NTSB commented that the FAA should consider expanding the scope to include additional part 135 and 91K operators. An individual identified as a private pilot suggested the proposal would be more relevant to smaller carriers, particularly part 135 carriers. The recommendation to include additional part 135 operators and 91K program managers would exceed the scope of this rulemaking. Therefore, applicability of the final rule is as proposed. C. Effective Date and Compliance Date In the NPRM the FAA proposed an effective date of 60 days after publication of a final rule in the Federal Register. However, the FAA proposed a delayed compliance date of 24 months after the effective date for the proposals pertaining to operations familiarization, leadership and command training, mentoring training, the revised upgrade curriculum, and the Pilot Professional Development Committee. A4A and American recommended a delayed compliance date of 36 months, and UPS Airlines (UPS) recommended a delayed compliance date of 48 months after the effective date for the leadership and command and mentoring training for current PICs proposed in § 121.429. A4A and American stated that training modules will need to be developed and approved, instructors trained, and committees formed within the proposed 24-month timeframe. UPS stated that it would require 24 months for training modules to be developed and approved. A4A and UPS noted that there may be several thousand PICs who will require training, which can be completed only after courseware is approved and the trainers trained. American stated that it will have over six thousand pilots who must complete training. UPS also identified other recently mandated training requirements (e.g., upset recovery) under development in part 121 operations. The FAA concurs with the recommendation to extend the compliance date to 36 months for the leadership and command and mentoring 18 In accordance with 14 CFR 135.3, a certificate holder that conducts commuter operations under part 135 with airplanes in which two pilots are required by the type certification rules must comply with subparts N and O of part 121 instead of the requirements of subparts E, G, and H of part 135. VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 ground training for current PICs. As indicated by commenters, there are several thousand PICs who must complete the training by the compliance date. Additionally, the FAA understands that carriers are in various stages of compliance with training all pilots in accordance with the enhanced pilot training requirements of the Qualification, Service, and Use of Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers final rule. The FAA agrees that extending the compliance date by 12 months will provide sufficient time for carriers to develop the training, have the training approved by the FAA, train the instructors, and then complete training of all the current PICs. Further, a 36month timeframe is consistent with the recurrent training frequency for these topics. The compliance date for the other proposals pertaining to operations familiarization, leadership and command training, mentoring training, and the revised upgrade curriculum remains 24 months after the effective date. The effective date remains 60 days after publication in the Federal Register. D. Operations Familiarization (§ 121.435) The FAA proposed to require newly hired pilots to complete operations familiarization (OF) before beginning operating experience and serving as a pilot in part 121 operations for the air carrier. A newly hired pilot is a person who has no previous experience with the air carrier.19 The FAA proposed that the OF must include at least two operating cycles 20 during part 121 operations conducted by the air carrier while the newly hired pilot occupies the flight deck observer seat and uses a headset to listen to the communications between the required flightcrew members and air traffic control. The FAA proposed that the OF may occur in any airplane type operated by the air carrier in part 121 operations. In recognition that certain airplanes used in part 121 operations do not have an observer seat in the flight deck, the FAA proposed a process for an air carrier to request a deviation from the OF 19 The FAA clarifies that a person completing conversion training after serving as a flight engineer for the air carrier is not a ‘‘newly hired pilot.’’ This person is completing training to serve in a new flightcrew member duty position but is not ‘‘newly hired’’ by the air carrier. 20 Section 121.431(b) defines operating cycle as ‘‘a complete flight segment consisting of a takeoff, climb, enroute portion, descent, and a landing.’’ PO 00000 Frm 00008 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 requirements to meet the learning objectives through another means. A4A, AABI, American, Jet Blue, the NTSB, one individual identified as an associate college professor, and several individuals identified as college students or pilots agreed with the proposed OF. The individuals believed the OF would provide benefits such as allowing new-hires to observe SOP and real life situations. A4A, American, and Jet Blue agreed with a minimum of two cycles. However, the NTSB believed the minimum number of operating cycles should be increased to provide the newhire pilot with an increased opportunity to observe different operational events and crew interactions. A4A, American, and Jet Blue agreed that that the OF can be performed in any aircraft because the processes on all fleet types are similar. However, ALPA stated that OF should be required in the aircraft type the new-hire will be scheduled to fly to enhance the benefits of the experience. The NTSB believed some consideration should be given to the minimum experience of the crew being observed to provide increased value of the observational opportunity to newhire pilots. As explained in the NPRM, the objective of OF is to provide the pilot an introduction to an air carrier’s operations and company procedures. Therefore, the FAA expects that this objective can be met with a minimum of two operating cycles on any airplane type operated by the air carrier in part 121 operations. The FAA also trusts that the objective of OF can be met by observation of any crew at that air carrier because all crews conducting line operations must have satisfactorily met the training and qualification standards at that air carrier. The FAA also expects that all air carrier crews follow the air carrier’s SOP and conduct operations professionally regardless of whether or not they are being observed. Additionally, as explained in the NPRM, the FAA has determined this final rule will mitigate unprofessional pilot behavior. AABI recommended that proposed § 121.432 specify that the OF should occur during or after basic indoctrination training and before operating experience. Jet Blue requested clarification in the final rule that OF can occur at any time prior to commencement of operating experience to include any point before or after aircraft qualification is obtained. As described in the NPRM, the FAA expects OF to be completed during or soon after the completion of basic E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations indoctrination training. The FAA did not intend that OF could be completed by college students or other pilots who are not newly hired pilots at that air carrier. The FAA is clarifying the OF requirements in a new § 121.435 to provide flexibility for OF to be completed during or after basic indoctrination training, but before beginning operating experience. E. PIC Leadership and Command Training jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 1. General In the NPRM, the FAA proposed to require all PICs serving in part 121 operations to complete leadership and command training. Specifically, the FAA proposed that this training be included during ground and flight training in the PIC upgrade curriculum (or the initial curriculum for the limited circumstance of a new-hire PIC), as well as the PIC recurrent curriculum. The FAA further proposed that all pilots qualified to serve as PIC prior to the compliance date must complete the PIC upgrade ground training on leadership and command. The NTSB stated that the proposals for leadership training ‘‘would likely satisfy the intent’’ of NTSB recommendations A–10–13 and A–10– 14 as they related to part 121 operations. The NTSB strongly supported the proposed requirements for leadership and command training to be included in PIC upgrade ground and flight training, as well as the proposed requirement for all current PICs to complete leadership and command training and for the training to be included in the recurrent curriculum. The NTSB also strongly supported the emphasis on scenariobased instruction during ground and flight training. AABI and one individual generally agreed with leadership and command training for all PICs. One individual identified as a college student stated that leadership and command training conducted before future PICs enter the real flight crew environment could result in fewer accidents based on pilot decision-making errors. A4A and American agreed that the proposal for leadership and command training should not be overly prescriptive. UPS supported the FAA’s position in not requiring the leadership and command training to be separate from the upgrade syllabus. Jet Blue strongly recommended that the FAA allow each carrier to develop leadership and command training within the existing framework of their approved training programs. Jet Blue also stated that final determination of VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 the curriculum scope, form, and content should remain with management as approved by the FAA. A4A and American suggested that leadership and command training for pilots upgrading from SIC to PIC should be completed ‘‘on or around the time of upgrade’’ instead of being required to be included in the upgrade curriculum. A4A, American, and UPS noted that under an AQP there may be a few items that are accomplished a short time after PIC upgrade/assignment in order to review and discuss lessons learned during some of the first flights as PIC. As explained in the NPRM, the purpose of leadership and command training is to provide PICs with the leadership and command skills necessary to manage the crew (including flight attendants, if applicable), communications, workload, and decision-making in a manner that promotes professionalism and adherence to SOP. Therefore, the FAA maintains that this training must be included in the upgrade curriculum prior to a pilot serving as a PIC. However, the FAA notes that in accordance with part 121 subpart Y, air carriers using an AQP may submit for FAA approval an upgrade curriculum that includes an alternative method to conduct leadership and command training that provides an equivalent level of safety. Ameristar believed that leadership and command training should only be required during initial PIC and upgrade training. As explained in the NPRM, the purpose of recurrent training is to ensure that flightcrew members remain competent in the performance of their assigned duties. Therefore, the FAA maintains that recurrent leadership and command training is necessary to ensure PICs remain competent in the performance of their duties. Additionally, Public Law 111–216 specifically directed that recurrent training for PICs include leadership and command training. Ameristar believed CRM and leadership training are closely tied together. Ameristar suggested that rather than having two or more regulations added, leadership and command training should be combined with CRM in § 121.404. As described in the NPRM, the FAA agrees that leadership and command and CRM are related ‘‘soft skills.’’ To ensure leadership and command training is included in ground training and flight training for all appropriate curriculums, the structure of part 121 subpart N requires leadership and command training requirements to be PO 00000 Frm 00009 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 10903 included in multiple regulations. Therefore, the FAA does not agree that leadership and command training should be combined with CRM in § 121.404. However, the FAA agrees that leadership and command and CRM are closely related and notes that that some carriers may choose to comply with this rule by including robust leadership and command training in their CRM curricula. Ameristar also commented that proposed §§ 121.419(c), 121.420(a)(3) and 121.427(d)(1) should not include references to § 121.542, which addresses activities that may interfere with flight crewmember duties. Ameristar believed the inclusion of § 121.542 implies that leadership and command are only geared or weighted toward that regulation, lowering the perceived importance of other regulations. The FAA confirms that leadership and command training is not geared toward or weighted toward only § 121.542, and the reference to § 121.542 in §§ 121.419(c)(1), 121.420(b)(1) and 121.427(d)(1) results from Public Law 111–216, which specifically directed PIC leadership and command training to include instruction on compliance with § 121.542. AABI recommended that the final rule state that facilitation is the preferred method for leadership and command ground training. As described in the draft AC Leadership and Command Training for Pilots in Command published in the docket, the FAA agrees that an instructor-led facilitated discussion is an important component of leadership and command ground training. Therefore, as further explained in the section regarding PIC Leadership and Command Training—Distance Instruction, the FAA is revising proposed §§ 121.419(c)(1), 121.420(a)(3) (now, 121.420(b)(1)), and 121.427(d)(1) to specifically require facilitated discussion during leadership and command ground training. ALPA and the NTSB encouraged minimum qualification, pilot line experience, and training requirements for the instructors who conduct leadership and command training. The FAA does not agree that the final rule should include specific training or qualification requirements for instructors who conduct leadership and command training. Air carriers are required to provide properly qualified ground instructors to conduct the training required by part 121 subpart N. See § 121.401(a)(2). Additionally, air carriers are required to provide comprehensive training of flight instructors. See § 121.414. Further, in E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 10904 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations accordance with § 121.401(a)(1), air carriers are required to have a training program that ensures each flight instructor is adequately trained to perform the assigned duties. Therefore, the FAA expects that each air carrier can best determine the training and qualifications necessary for its instructors to effectively conduct training under the carrier’s program. However, in the associated AC Leadership and Command Training for Pilots in Command accompanying this final rule, the FAA will include suggested training topics for instructors who will conduct leadership and command training. ALPA stated that for leadership and command training to be effective in the flight deck, new-hires must receive training on their role in the context of the leadership and command training that PICs receive. The FAA does not agree that it is necessary to include a specific requirement for new-hires to receive training in the context of the leadership and command training that PICs receive. As explained in the NPRM, a prerequisite eligibility requirement for an ATP certificate is the completion of an ATP–CTP. The ATP–CTP provides foundational knowledge in many subject areas, including leadership and command. Additionally, basic indoctrination training is currently required to include duties and responsibilities of crewmembers and applicable portions of the carrier’s manual. See § 121.415(a)(1). Therefore, the FAA has determined the combination of the ATP–CTP and the basic indoctrination training at the air carrier sufficiently encompasses training on leadership and command for newhires. ALPA contended that grading pilots based upon soft skills such as leadership and command would pose issues as pilots and their instructors come from diverse backgrounds and experiences. Therefore, ALPA stated that pass/fail grading should not be based solely on leadership and command skills unless clear, unambiguous, objective, measurable standards exist at that airline for those skills. The FAA did not propose to evaluate leadership and command skills during a proficiency check. In accordance with § 121.401, air carriers are required to have a training program that ensures each PIC is adequately trained to perform the assigned duties. The FAA expects that air carriers will use their current processes to develop the necessary method(s) to ensure that PICs are adequately trained in leadership and VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 command skills. The FAA will include suggested training topics in the AC Leadership and Command Training for Pilots in Command, accompanying this final rule. 2. Distance Instruction In the NPRM, the FAA did not propose placing restrictions on distance instruction as long as the leadership and command training objectives could be satisfied. However, the FAA sought comment on whether restrictions on distance instruction are necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the leadership and command components of PIC training. The FAA also sought comment on whether the curriculum in which leadership and command training is required (e.g., PIC initial, upgrade, recurrent) constitutes a basis for differentiating any restrictions on distance instruction. A4A, AABI, American, Jet Blue, and UPS agreed that there should not be restrictions on distance instruction. A4A, American, Jet Blue, and UPS stated that the types and methods of training used by air carriers continue to evolve with additional software and hardware improvements. They also stated that the evolution in technology coupled with the goals of the specific training and the level/type of pilot experience at a specific airline will dictate the appropriate training format. NetJets concurred that a major portion of the leadership and command ground instruction modules can be accomplished via distance instruction. However, NetJets believed that the decision-making exercises and discussions of positive and negative learning experiences need to be accomplished in facilitated instructorled training sessions. ALPA recommended limiting the leadership and command ground training administered through distance instruction methods to 50% of the total training. ALPA believed that leadership and command training would be far more effective in a classroom setting and should have an active, vibrant, hands-on training process with appropriate role-playing scenarios and having facilitated group discussions. The NTSB believed that because of the importance of this training and its inherently interpersonal topic that the training should only be done in-person through facilitated discussion and interaction. An individual identified as an associate college professor stated that limitations on distance instruction are necessary to guarantee the success of the leadership and command training. As described in the draft AC Leadership and Command Training for PO 00000 Frm 00010 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 Pilots in Command published in the docket, the FAA agrees that an instructor-led facilitated discussion including practical decision-making exercises and discussion of positive and negative leadership experiences is an important component of leadership and command ground training. The FAA has determined that a facilitated discussion can be accomplished with existing technology. With current technology, there are various systems that can be used for distance instruction: From simple presentations reviewed individually by a student to fully interactive video conferencing with instructors and students in multiple locations. There are several universities that have developed the necessary technology for students to effectively complete entire degree programs using distance instruction. However, not all distance instruction systems would be effective in conducting a facilitated discussion and meet the objectives of the leadership and command ground training. Additionally, as noted by commenters, technology continues to evolve. Therefore, the FAA does not want to impose unnecessary restrictions on the use of evolving technology which could provide enhanced capabilities in the future. Thus, the final rule does not restrict the use of distance instruction for leadership and command ground training. However, to ensure the objectives of the training are met, the FAA is specifically requiring facilitated discussion during leadership and command ground training in §§ 121.419(c), 121.420(b), and 121.427(d)(1). F. PIC Mentoring Training In the NPRM, the FAA proposed to require training on mentoring skills for all PICs serving in part 121 operations to establish the mentoring environment recommended by the MLP ARC. The proposed mentoring training would include techniques for instilling and reinforcing the highest standards of technical performance, airmanship, and professionalism in newly hired pilots. The FAA proposed that this training would be included in the PIC upgrade curriculum (or the initial curriculum for the limited circumstance of a new-hire PIC) and PIC recurrent ground training. The FAA further proposed that all pilots qualified to serve as PIC prior to the compliance date must complete the PIC upgrade ground training on mentoring skills to create a comprehensive and consistent mentoring environment. AABI, the NTSB, and one individual generally agreed with the mentoring training for all PICs. Jet Blue stated it has had a mentoring program for all new E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations hire pilots for several years and further believed that all PICs should undergo formal training in mentoring skills. ALPA encouraged minimum qualification, pilot line experience, and training required for instructors who conduct mentoring training. The FAA does not agree that the final rule should include specific training or qualification requirements for instructors who will conduct mentoring training. As discussed earlier, the FAA expects that each air carrier can best determine the training and qualifications necessary for their ground instructors to effectively conduct training under the carrier’s program. However, in the associated AC Air Carrier Pilot Mentoring, the FAA will include suggested training topics for instructors who conduct mentoring training. ALPA asserted that for PIC mentoring training to be effective, new-hires must also receive training on the role of mentoring and what is expected of them. The FAA does not agree that a specific requirement for new-hires to receive training on the role of mentoring is necessary. As discussed earlier, the FAA has determined the combination of the ATP–CTP and the basic indoctrination training at the air carrier sufficiently incorporates any necessary training on mentoring for new-hires. ALPA stated that pass/fail grading should not be based solely on mentoring skills unless clear, unambiguous, objective, measurable standards exist at that airline for those skills. As discussed earlier, the FAA expects that air carriers will use their current processes to develop the necessary method(s) to ensure that PICs are adequately trained in mentoring skills. The FAA will include suggested training topics in the AC Air Carrier Pilot Mentoring, accompanying this final rule. ALPA recommended limiting the mentoring ground training administered through distance instruction methods to 25% of the total training. ALPA stated that PIC mentoring training must use group discussion and interactive roleplaying scenarios, actual examples of effective and ineffective mentoring, and the incorporation of CRM. AABI recommended that the final rule should state that facilitation is the preferred method for mentoring ground training. As described in the draft AC Air Carrier Pilot Mentoring published in the docket, the FAA agrees that role-playing exercises are an important component of mentoring training. The FAA also agrees that a facilitated discussion is the most appropriate method to conduct the role- VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 playing exercises. However, as further explained in the section regarding PIC Leadership and Command Training— Distance Instruction, the FAA believes that a facilitated discussion can be accomplished with existing technology. Additionally, the FAA does not want to impose unnecessary restrictions on the use of evolving technology which could provide enhanced capabilities in the future. Thus, the final rule does not restrict the use of distance instruction for mentoring training. However, to ensure the objectives of the training are met the FAA is specifically requiring facilitated discussion during mentoring ground training in §§ 121.419(c), 121.420, and 121.427(d)(1). ALPA further suggested including a definition of long-term mentoring. ALPA also suggested that mentor programs should have clearly defined boundaries, rules, and understandings between the mentor and prote´ge´. As described in the NPRM, the FAA did not propose long term mentoring as recommended by the MLP ARC. Therefore, the FAA is not including a definition of long-term mentoring. G. SIC to PIC Upgrade (§§ 121.420 and 121.426) In the NPRM, the FAA proposed to revise upgrade training requirements to account for the evolution in SIC qualification and experience requirements. See 81 FR at 69919. The proposed upgrade training would ensure technical knowledge and skills while focusing on the decision-making and leadership skills required of a PIC serving in part 121 operations. Ameristar suggested the following text be added: ‘‘completed initial SIC training and has served as SIC’’ or similar language to avoid potential confusion in proposed § 121.400. The FAA does not agree with the suggested revision to the definition of upgrade training in § 121.400 and is adopting the language as proposed. A pilot that has only completed initial PIC training is not eligible to complete SIC operating experience or serve as an SIC. A person cannot serve as an SIC unless that person has satisfactorily completed for that type airplane and SIC crewmember position, approved ground and flight training, a proficiency check, operating experience, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. See §§ 121.433, 121.434, and 121.441. Therefore, as proposed, a pilot is only eligible for upgrade training if the pilot has qualified and served as an SIC on that type airplane. PO 00000 Frm 00011 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 10905 1. Performance-Based Curriculum The FAA proposed a performancebased upgrade curriculum. The proposal removed the requirement to include all existing upgrade ground training subjects required by § 121.419(a) and the § 121.424 requirement to include all appendix E maneuvers and procedures during upgrade flight training. Instead, the proposal refocused upgrade ground and flight training to include subjects, maneuvers, and procedures specific to the duties and responsibilities the pilot will have as PIC at that air carrier. However, consistent with existing upgrade curriculum requirements, the proposed upgrade flight training continued to include rare, but high-risk scenarios. Because the FAA proposed to remove the requirement to train the entire range of § 121.419 subjects and appendix E maneuvers and procedures in upgrade training, the FAA believed that the revised upgrade ground training could be completed in less time than the programmed hours currently identified in each air carrier’s approved training program, and the upgrade flight training could be completed within the same or less time than currently identified in each air carrier’s approved training program. One individual stated that the proposed upgrade training will ensure technical skills and knowledge are facilitated while concentrating on the leadership and decision-making skills required for a professional pilot. ALPA suggested requiring all the PIC upgrade ground and flight training that had been required before the Pilot Certification rule. ALPA opposed the FAA approving any reduction in the current upgrade flight training footprints based on the Pilot Certification rule and/or this final rule. The FAA does not agree that upgrade training should include all the ground and flight training that had been required before the Pilot Certification rule. As explained in the NPRM, the current role served by an SIC in part 121 operations as well as the current SIC qualification requirements no longer support the foundation for upgrade training requirements in current subpart N. As further explained in the NPRM, the FAA has determined that the revised upgrade ground training can be completed in less time than the programmed hours currently identified in each air carrier’s approved training program, and the upgrade flight training can be completed within the same or less time than currently identified in each air carrier’s approved training program. See 81 FR at 69919. E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 10906 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations ALPA recommended requiring PIC initial and upgrade ground training to include all the requirements in § 121.419(a) and (b) because that material may have been learned many years earlier. The FAA does not agree with the suggested revision to § 121.419(c) to require PIC initial ground training to include all the requirements in § 121.419(a) and (b). As explained in the NPRM, in the Pilot Certification rule, the FAA recognized that a number of the general knowledge elements that are included in pilot initial ground training in § 121.419(a)(1) are now addressed by the ATP–CTP academic requirements. Therefore, in § 121.419(b), the Pilot Certification rule revised the part 121 initial ground training requirements by removing the generic elements for pilots who have completed the ATP–CTP. See 81 FR at 69923. The FAA’s position has not changed; the general knowledge elements that are addressed by an ATP– CTP do not need to be repeated by a pilot during initial ground training with an air carrier. The FAA does not agree with the suggested revision to § 121.420 to require upgrade ground training to include all the requirements in § 121.419(a) and (b). As explained in the NPRM, to serve as a pilot in part 121 operations, a pilot must satisfactorily complete recurrent ground training within 12 calendar months preceding service as a pilot. See §§ 121.427 and 121.433(c). Further, as explained in the NPRM, § 121.427 requires recurrent ground training to include instruction in the subjects required for initial ground training. See 81 FR at 69923. Therefore, the FAA does not agree that review of all the material in § 121.419(a) and (b) is warranted during upgrade training because these subjects would have been routinely reviewed during recurrent ground training. ALPA suggested requiring all maneuvers and procedures in Appendix E to be completed during upgrade flight training. The FAA does not agree that upgrade flight training should require all maneuvers and procedures in Appendix E to be completed. As explained in the NPRM, with the changes to SIC qualification requirements as a result of the Pilot Certification rule, an SIC will have already demonstrated technical mastery of that airplane type at the ATP certificate level when he or she begins upgrade training. The FAA does not agree that upgrading pilots would need to complete all maneuvers and procedures in Appendix E in order to demonstrate that they can meet the performance standards while VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 simultaneously applying leadership and command skills. The final rule maintains the proposed performancebased upgrade curriculum. Among other requirements, upgrade flight training must include sufficient training to ensure the pilot has attained the knowledge and skills to proficiently operate the airplane as a PIC. As explained in the NPRM, the air carrier must determine the specific maneuvers and procedures for each airplane type considering its operational factors and authorizations and identified risks. See 81 FR at 69919. ALPA suggested requiring additional/ supplemental facilitated ground school and Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) for leadership and command training and mentoring training when a new hire is hired directly as a PIC or upgrades to PIC within a new hire probation period. ALPA stated that this training should place emphasis on the culture of the carrier, challenges of being a new PIC at that carrier while flying with experienced SICs, resources of the carrier and union (if applicable), making the best use of being mentored by experienced PICs at that carrier, etc. The FAA does not agree that requiring additional ground school and LOFT is warranted when a new hire is hired directly as a PIC or upgrades to PIC within a new hire probation period. In accordance with § 121.401(a)(1), an air carrier’s training program must ensure that each PIC is adequately trained to perform his or her assigned duties. Therefore, the FAA expects the training program of air carriers who hire PICs or upgrade pilots to PIC within their new hire probationary periods to include any additional training determined necessary by the air carrier to ensure the pilots are adequately trained to perform PIC duties. Additionally, § 121.436 requires a pilot to have 1,000 hours of air carrier experience before serving as a PIC in part 121 operations. ALPA stated that guidance should exist ensuring upgrade training includes exposure to the operations of other airline departments such as dispatch, maintenance, and scheduling. The recommendation that upgrade training should include exposure to the operations of other airline departments such as dispatch, maintenance, and scheduling is outside the scope of this rulemaking. The FAA expects each individual air carrier will determine if exposure to other airline departments is beneficial to its operation. PO 00000 Frm 00012 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 2. Revised Upgrade Curriculum Requirements i. Seat Dependent and Duty Position Maneuvers and Procedures The FAA proposed that the upgrade ground and flight training must include seat dependent maneuvers and procedures as well as duty position maneuvers and procedures. See 81 FR at 69920. Ameristar questioned why seat dependent training would be required for a pilot upgrading from SIC to PIC. Ameristar recommended combining proposed § 121.420 with proposed § 121.429 without seat dependent training and duty position procedures because these items are redundant and unnecessary. Ameristar also stated that proposed § 121.426(a)(1) and (2) are not necessary because if a pilot is being trained as a PIC, the pilot will get seat dependent training and duty position flight training without prescriptive rules. The FAA does not agree with these comments. As explained in the NPRM, seat dependent maneuvers and procedures include the use of systems with controls that are not centrally located, or are accessible or operable from only the left or from only the right pilot seat as identified by the airplane manufacturer, air carrier, or the Administrator as seat dependent tasks. Typically, the PIC is assigned to and operates the airplane from the left seat, and the SIC is assigned to and operates the airplane from the right seat. An SIC who has been serving in the right seat of an aircraft would not know the characteristics of the left seat. Therefore, seat dependent training is required during upgrade training. As explained in the NPRM, duty position maneuvers and procedures include tasks specified by the airplane manufacturer, air carrier, or the Administrator, as PIC or SIC only tasks. A pilot serving as SIC would not have been previously trained and qualified on PIC only tasks. Therefore, duty position maneuvers and procedures are required during upgrade training. The FAA is adopting, as proposed, the requirement that upgrade ground and flight training must include seat dependent maneuvers and procedures as well as duty position maneuvers and procedures. ii. Leadership and Command and CRM The FAA proposed that upgrade ground training must include leadership and command, as well as CRM. CRM training includes decision-making, authority and responsibility, and conflict resolution. The FAA also E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations proposed that upgrade flight training must include scenario-based training structured to incorporate CRM and leadership and command. See 81 FR at 69920. AABI and Jet Blue agreed that leadership and command must be demonstrated during the flight training portion of the upgrade curriculum. AABI also agreed with the requirement to incorporate leadership and command into flight training through scenariobased training. Ameristar sought clarification on the definition of ‘‘sufficient scenario based training incorporating CRM and leadership and command skills,’’ as used in proposed §§ 121.424(b) and 121.426(a)(5). In the final rule, the FAA maintains a performance-based upgrade curriculum, and therefore specifying standards for ‘‘sufficient scenario based training’’ is unnecessary in §§ 121.424(b) and 121.426(a)(5). As explained in the NPRM, the FAA has determined this approach will allow air carriers to develop a robust upgrade curriculum specific to their operations, airplane types, and identified risks. As further explained in the NPRM, scenario-based training should address specific training objectives based on technical and soft skills, may consist of full or partial flight segments, and would necessarily vary, depending on the training objectives. Additionally, the FAA has determined this scenario-based training ensures the effective integration of these ‘‘soft skills’’ with technical skills. Therefore, an air carrier can combine the maneuvers and procedures in appendix E with the scenario-based training required by §§ 121.424(b) and 121.426(a)(5) as long as the training meets the objectives and requirements of both appendix E and §§ 121.424(b) and 121.426(a)(5). The FAA recognizes that a carrier may choose to include leadership and command training in its SIC to PIC upgrade CRM curriculum that may satisfy the requirements of this final rule. If a carrier develops and conducts enhanced CRM training that includes additional instruction and facilitated discussion specifically designed to provide PICs with the necessary leadership and command skills, that carrier may meet the requirements under part 121 subpart N related to leadership and command training. The FAA will consider the training aids, devices, methods, and procedures used by the carrier as well as the content of the carrier’s enhanced CRM training to determine whether the enhanced CRM training meets the requirements for leadership and command training. VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 iii. Mentoring The FAA proposed that upgrade ground training must include mentoring, to include techniques for instilling and reinforcing the highest standards of technical performance, airmanship, and professionalism in newly hired pilots. See 81 FR at 69920. AABI agreed with the requirement for mentoring training for pilots upgrading to PIC. ALPA stated that upgrade flight training should also include mentoring training. The FAA does not agree that upgrade flight training should include mentoring training because it cannot be incorporated into upgrade flight training effectively. An opportunity for mentoring would have to be artificially introduced during scenario-based flight training, which would reduce the effectiveness of that training because the scenario would no longer be realistic. iv. Low-Altitude Windshear and Extended Envelope Flight Training In the NPRM, the FAA proposed that upgrade flight training must continue to include training in the rare, but high risk scenarios specified in § 121.423 as well as the carrier’s approved lowaltitude windshear flight training program. The FAA did not receive any comments regarding low-altitude windshear and extended envelope flight training and is adopting those requirements as proposed. v. Additional Flight Training The FAA also proposed that the upgrade curriculum must include sufficient flight training to ensure the pilot has attained the knowledge and skills to proficiently operate the airplane as a PIC. Under the proposed upgrade curriculum, the air carrier must determine the specific maneuvers and procedures for each airplane type considering its operational factors and authorizations, risks identified through its safety management system, and other risks identified through programs such as an Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP), Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA), and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA).21 Additionally, the FAA proposed that the training must ensure the pilot has developed the visual and psychomotor acuity necessary to operate the airplane from the seat position to be occupied while 21 ASAP, FOQA, and LOSA are voluntary programs implemented by many air carriers. Analysis of the data provided by these voluntary programs has contributed to increased safety including improvements to training and operational procedures. PO 00000 Frm 00013 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 10907 serving as PIC, typically the left pilot seat. The FAA did not receive any comments on the proposed additional flight training during upgrade and is adopting the requirements as proposed. 3. Upgrade Proficiency Check Requirements To ensure a proficient PIC, the FAA proposed to revise the waiver provisions for a § 121.441 proficiency check completed after upgrade ground and flight training. See 81 FR at 69920. Ameristar stated that all the events in Appendix E applicable to upgrade training are waivable during the proficiency check, thereby invalidating the rationale for not allowing events to be waived on the proficiency check after upgrade training. Ameristar also commented that because compliance with either proposed § 121.441(d)(3)(i) or (ii) is allowed, compliance with § 121.441(d)(3)(i) would include upgrade training completed six months earlier making § 121.441(d)(3)(ii) unnecessary. As explained in the NPRM, the proposed upgrade training requirements do not require pilots to complete all maneuvers and procedures in appendix E during training. Appendix E designates the airplane or FSTD, as appropriate, that may be used for maneuvers and procedures required for upgrade training in accordance with proposed § 121.426. Therefore, to ensure a proficient PIC, proficiency must be demonstrated for all maneuvers and procedures in appendix F during the proficiency check completed after upgrade training. Proposed § 121.441(d)(3)(ii) is necessary because proposed § 121.441(d)(3)(i) does not include upgrade training completed within the previous six months. Section 121.441(d)(3)(i) applies to a pilot currently qualified for part 121 operations in a particular type airplane and flightcrew member position. Proposed § 121.441(d)(3)(ii) applies to a pilot who has satisfactorily completed an approved training curriculum within the preceding six months, except for an upgrade training curriculum in accordance with proposed §§ 121.420 and 121.426. A pilot who has only completed upgrade training is not currently qualified for part 121 operations as PIC in that type airplane because the pilot has not completed the qualification requirements in part 121 subpart O, including the proficiency check, operating experience, consolidation of knowledge and skills and the line check. Therefore, as proposed, waiver authority is not E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 10908 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations allowed on a proficiency check for a pilot who has completed the upgrade training curriculum in accordance with proposed §§ 121.420 and 121.426. The FAA is adopting the revised waiver provisions as proposed. jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 4. Effect of Revised Upgrade Curriculum on Recurrent Training In the NPRM, the FAA explained that an air carrier may continue to reset a pilot’s ‘‘base’’ month for recurrent flight training if the pilot satisfactorily completes the proposed upgrade flight training and proficiency check. An air carrier may only reset a pilot’s base month for recurrent ground training based upon completion of upgrade ground training if the air carrier’s upgrade curriculum includes all recurrent ground training requirements of § 121.427. See 81 FR at 69921. The FAA did not receive any comments on this explanation. H. Training for Pilots Currently Serving as PIC (§ 121.429) The FAA proposed that all pilots qualified to serve as PIC prior to the compliance date must complete the PIC upgrade ground training on leadership and command and mentoring. However, the FAA also proposed to allow credit toward all or part of the requirements for leadership and command and mentoring training for current PICs based on leadership and command and mentoring training previously completed by these PICs at that air carrier. The FAA sought comment on the proposal to allow credit, specifically: (1) Whether and to what extent air carriers were already providing leadership and command training and/ or mentoring training for current PICs as described in the draft ACs included in the docket for the rulemaking; (2) Whether the previous training must have been provided as part of a training program approved by the FAA for that air carrier; (3) Whether the previous training must have been completed within a certain period of time prior to the effective date of the final rule; (4) What criteria and documentation the FAA should consider in determining whether all or part of the requirements have been met with previous training; and (5) What criteria and documentation the FAA should consider in determining whether a PIC completed all or part of the previous training at that air carrier. Comments from A4A and several air carriers indicated that numerous air carriers provide training in some or all of the items addressed in the draft ACs VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 on leadership and command and mentoring training, and that some airlines have been providing this training for well over 20 years. Portions of the training is part of an FAAapproved training curriculum, but some air carriers may have included this training as part of specialized carrierspecific training that is not FAAapproved. A4A, American, and Jet Blue did not believe there should be a specific timeframe when this training should have been completed in order to be creditable. In contrast, ALPA believed credit should not be provided if the training occurred more than 24 months prior to the publication of the final rule. The NTSB strongly disagreed with the proposal to allow credit for training completed before the effective date of the final rule because that training may not be equivalent to the final rule requirements. A4A stated that whether or not the training was part of an FAAapproved training program does not negate the fact that the training took place and should not be a factor in determining if credit for the training will be allowed. A4A, American, and UPS contended that airline records, courseware, and training module outlines are the appropriate criteria to determine the extent and subject matter of previous training and whether a PIC completed training. Jet Blue did not believe that specific criteria or documentation are necessary for the FAA to determine if all or part of the requirements have been met. American and UPS requested that the FAA leave as much latitude as possible for establishing that training was accomplished for air carriers with long records of voluntarily covering the proposed topics. ALPA believed that previous mentoring, leadership and command training should only be credited if effective and recent. ALPA suggested using data such as participants’ critiques, LOSA, ASAP, line checks, etc. to determine if the training was effective. ALPA also stated that proper record keeping should reflect that the pilot participated in the entire course for which credit is being sought. An individual identified as an associate college professor stated that the FAA should allow partial credit toward the requirements for leadership and command and mentoring training for current PICs based on leadership and command and mentoring training previously completed at that air carrier. Ameristar stated that current PICs who have completed an air carrier’s PO 00000 Frm 00014 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 CRM should not have to complete initial one-time training. As explained in the NPRM, the FAA has determined that it is unnecessarily burdensome for PICs to complete the one-time training on leadership and command and mentoring if the PIC has previously completed training that is duplicative of the proposed requirements. As indicated by commenters, several air carriers are already providing some or all of this training. Therefore, the final rule retains the allowance for credit for training previously completed at that air carrier. However, the FAA will only allow credit for training completed within 36 calendar months prior to the effective date of the final rule. As described in the section on Recurrent PIC Leadership and Command and Mentoring Training, leadership and command are perishable skills that require recurrent training; in the final rule, the frequency for recurrent ground training on leadership and command and mentoring for PICs remains every 36 calendar months, as proposed. Therefore, the FAA has determined it is appropriate to use the same timeframe for credit for training. Since this training was previously voluntary, the FAA agrees with commenters that credit should be allowed even if the training was not included in the FAA-approved training program, where the air carrier has appropriate records. The FAA also agrees with commenters that curricula, training modules, and lesson plans combined with a record for an individual pilot are the appropriate documentation to allow credit for some or all of the training. In the draft ACs, the FAA had proposed that the POI for each carrier would evaluate the carrier’s request and determine whether to allow credit for some or all of the training. However, to ensure a consistent determination of whether the previous training met some or all of the requirements, the FAA is establishing a focus team, consisting of FAA subject matter experts, to evaluate all requests for credit. This process will be described in the final version of the ACs accompanying this final rule. The FAA does not agree that if a pilot has completed CRM training at that carrier, one-time training on leadership and command and mentoring should not be required. As described in the NPRM, although CRM contains some elements of the desired leadership training, it is not designed with the express intent of aiding the PIC in assuming a leadership role in the aircraft. See 81 FR at 69916. CRM focuses on the use of all resources available to the pilot and the E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 functioning of crewmembers as teams (addressing team behaviors and effectiveness), whereas the leadership and command training required in this final rule is intended for the development of the individual PIC’s leadership skills, management oversight, and command authority prior to overall crewmember-integrated CRM training. CRM is also not designed to provide PICs with mentoring skills. Despite this distinction, the FAA recognizes that a carrier may choose to include leadership and command training in its CRM curriculum that may satisfy the requirements of this final rule. If a carrier develops and conducts enhanced CRM training that includes additional instruction and facilitated discussion specifically designed to provide PICs with the necessary leadership and command skills, that carrier may seek credit for that training. The FAA will consider the training aids, devices, methods, and procedures used by the carrier as well as the content of the carrier’s enhanced CRM training to determine whether the enhanced CRM training meets the requirements for leadership and command training. I. Recurrent PIC Leadership and Command and Mentoring Training (§§ 121.409(b) and 121.427) In the NPRM, the FAA proposed to require recurrent training on leadership and command and mentoring skills for all PICs serving in part 121 operations. The FAA proposed to require recurrent ground training on leadership and command and mentoring for PICs every 36 calendar months. The FAA also proposed to modify the requirements in § 121.409 to require that the recurrent LOFT scenario must provide each PIC an opportunity to demonstrate leadership and command. AABI and Jet Blue agreed with the requirement for leadership and command and mentoring training for PIC recurrent training. They also agreed with the requirement that leadership and command must be demonstrated during the flight training portion of recurrent training. Several individuals also agreed with the proposal. ALPA asserted that recurrent leadership and command and mentoring training needs to be conducted every 12 months rather than every 36 months. As explained in the NPRM, the FAA has previously recognized that the necessary frequency for recurrent training is not the same for all subject areas and tasks. The FAA agrees that mentoring, leadership and command are perishable skills that require recurrent training. However, the FAA has determined that because these skills are VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 used regularly during every flight they are less susceptible to degradation. Therefore, the frequency for recurrent ground training on leadership and command and mentoring for PICs is every 36 calendar months, as proposed. Ameristar thought that requiring leadership and command training during recurrent LOFT implies that a LOFT would be required during recurrent training. Ameristar believed that distance learning should suffice for recurrent training. The FAA proposed only to modify the existing recurrent LOFT scenario requirements in § 121.409. The FAA did not intend any implication that a LOFT would be required during recurrent training. As currently allowed, air carriers may choose to substitute LOFT that meets the requirements of § 121.409 for the recurrent proficiency check requirement specified in § 121.441, but air carriers are not required to do so. The FAA recognizes that a carrier may choose to include leadership and command training in its recurrent CRM curriculum that may satisfy the requirements of this final rule. If a carrier develops and conducts enhanced CRM training that includes additional instruction and facilitated discussion specifically designed to provide PICs with the necessary leadership and command skills, that carrier may meet the requirements under part 121 subpart N related to leadership and command training. The FAA will consider the training aids, devices, methods, and procedures used by the carrier as well as the content of the carrier’s enhanced CRM training to determine whether the enhanced CRM training meets the requirements for leadership and command training. J. Leadership and Command Training and Mentoring Training for SICs Serving in Operations That Require Three or More Pilots In the NPRM, the FAA explained that it was considering requiring leadership and command training and mentoring training for SICs that serve as SIC in an operation that requires three or more pilots who are required by § 121.432(a) to be fully qualified to act as PIC of that operation (except for operating experience). The FAA sought comment on: (1) Whether the PIC leadership and command training should be included in the qualification requirements for pilots serving as the SIC in an augmented flightcrew; 22 22 An augmented flightcrew is a flightcrew that consists of more than the minimum number of flightcrew members required by the airplane type PO 00000 Frm 00015 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 10909 (2) Whether mentoring training should be included in the qualification requirements for pilots serving as the SIC in an augmented flightcrew; (3) Whether providing training in only one of the new subject areas (i.e., only leadership and command training or only mentoring training) would reduce the effectiveness of the training for these SICs; and (4) Whether providing training in only one of the new subject areas (i.e., only leadership and command training or only mentoring training) would reduce the effectiveness of the requirement for the SIC in an augmented flightcrew to be fully qualified to act as PIC. A4A, American, and UPS argued that there should be no requirement for leadership and command and mentoring training for pilots serving as the SIC in an augmented crew. They stated that the PIC is there as the leader on the flight and is available to deal with requirements associated with leadership and command. They also stated that there should not be an expectation on the flight deck that anyone will mentor other than the PIC. A4A, American, and UPS noted that leadership and command training and mentoring training can be mutually exclusive so that one topic could be taught without any reduction in the SIC’s effectiveness if the other topic is not taught. Delta Air Lines commented that a full PIC command course should not be required for SICs. However, Delta stated that fundamentals of command training within established chain of command may be constructive. ALPA stated that all SICs performing in augmented operations should receive the PIC leadership and command training and mentoring training. ALPA believed that SICs being trained in only one of the subjects would reduce the effectiveness of the SIC training and potentially their ability to be fully qualified to act as PIC in augmented operations. Since 1970, § 121.432(a) has stated that a pilot who serves as SIC in an operation that requires three or more pilots must be fully qualified to act as PIC of that operation. In the 1970 Training Programs final rule, the FAA indicated that the qualification requirements for the assigned SIC in a crew of three or more were not limited to one particular aspect of PIC qualification, and that the provision was intended to cover broader PIC qualification requirements.23 The FAA’s certificate to operate the airplane to allow a flightcrew member to be replaced by another qualified flightcrew member for inflight rest. 23 See 35 FR 84, 87 (Jan. 3, 1970). E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 10910 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 position has not changed. Therefore, the FAA has determined that SICs who serve in an operation that requires three or more pilots must complete leadership and command training to be fully qualified to act as PIC of that operation. As described in the NPRM, the purpose of leadership and command training is to provide the skills necessary to manage the crew, communications, workload, and decision-making in a manner that promotes adherence to SOP. Since these SICs may be required to act as PIC while the assigned PIC is taking an inflight rest break, the FAA has determined these SICs need the same leadership and command skills. The FAA notes that, in accordance with § 121.401, these SICs will not be required to repeat the leadership and command training when they upgrade to PIC. The FAA has determined these SICs do not need to complete mentoring training to be fully qualified to act as PIC of an augmented operation under § 121.432(a). As described above, the FAA is requiring mentoring training for all PICs serving in part 121 operations to establish the mentoring environment recommended by the MLP ARC. As further explained in the NPRM, the FAA has determined the increased experience requirements of the Pilot Certification rule together with the mentoring training requirement of this rule ensures every newly hired pilot is paired, on every flight, with an experienced pilot who can serve as a mentor. See 81 FR at 69919. Because the PIC of the augmented flight can serve as this mentor, an SIC who serves in an operation that requires three or more pilots would not ordinarily be expected to serve as a mentor to other pilots. Moreover, unlike with leadership and command skills, the PIC’s mentoring responsibilities during an augmented operation would not ordinarily be interrupted merely by an inflight rest period. K. Pilot Professional Development Committee (Proposed § 121.17) In the NPRM, the FAA proposed to add a requirement for certificate holders conducting operations under part 121 to establish and maintain a pilot professional development committee (PPDC) to develop, administer, and oversee a formal pilot mentoring program. Additionally, the FAA proposed to require the PPDC to meet frequently enough to accomplish the objectives of the committee, but at least once a year. Further, the FAA proposed that the PPDC must consist of at least one management representative and at least one representative of the air VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 carrier’s pilots. The FAA proposed that the management representative must (1) have at least one year of experience serving as a PIC in part 121 operations, and (2) be qualified through training, experience, and expertise relevant to the PPDC’s responsibilities. Along with the NPRM, the FAA drafted an AC that provided attributes for a PPDC to consider to develop, administer, and oversee a formal pilot mentoring program. The FAA included a copy of this document in the docket for this rulemaking and sought comments. The FAA also sought comment on whether a PPDC and a formal pilot mentoring program are necessary in light of the FAA’s proposal to require all PICs to complete mentoring training, including recurrent mentoring training. Although addressed in the ‘‘PIC Mentoring Training’’ discussion, by providing training on mentoring to all PICs, all newly hired SICs would be paired with a pilot who is prepared and has been trained to instill and reinforce the professionalism, skill, and knowledge expected of all pilots serving in part 121 operations. AABI agreed with establishing a PPDC, the minimum committee composition, and the minimum meeting requirements. The NTSB strongly supported the proposed PPDC. Several individuals, many identified as college students, agreed with the mentoring program and believed it would provide benefits such as improving CRM and communications between pilots, aiding the progression of new pilots, and providing good experience for mentors. A4A, American, Jet Blue, and UPS contended the necessity and role of the PPDC are limited considering mentoring training requirements and processes for reporting issues. A4A, American, and UPS also stated that the need for a PPDC would vary depending on factors at the airline such as size, maturity, pilot hiring parameters, training quality, and management capability. A4A and Jet Blue stated that some of the items listed for the PPDC to consider may fall under management responsibilities. A4A, UPS, and Jet Blue stated that the draft AC must clearly highlight the difference between the role of the PPDC and that of airline management. A4A, American, UPS, and Jet Blue also noted that several airlines already have joint committees with union/pilot representation and believed that the limited oversight proposed for the PPDC could readily be performed by these existing committees. Jet Blue further argued that some of the proposed language may cause conflicts of interest in certain phases of PO 00000 Frm 00016 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 the collective bargaining process as defined by the Railway Labor Act. ALPA emphasized that it is a statutory mandate for the FAA to require a PPDC and a formal long-term mentoring program as well as mentoring for new hires during every flight. ALPA stated that the proposal did not address many issues regarding the PPDC and a formal long-term pilot mentoring program, including: Selection and deselection of mentors; whether the mentors will be volunteers or will hold paid positions; impact on part 117 duty time due to mentoring; mentor qualifications; mentor initial and recurrent training; frequency and method of communication; how mentors will be assigned to new hires; mentor burn out; uncooperative new hires; length of mentoring; record keeping; minimum topics for discussion; boundaries for mentoring; roles and responsibilities of the pilot union; consequences of a mentor not adhering to the program guidelines and responsibilities; and regular feedback. The FAA also received several other comments concerning the roles and functions of the proposed PPDC, its composition and meeting requirements, its interplay with existing labormanagement structures, and the potential undue burden and costs associated with PPDC development and administration. In addition, the comments included recommendations on requirements for formal mentoring programs, the qualifications of mentors, and the scope of the mentor-mentee relationship. The FAA agrees with some air carrier commenters that, as proposed, the PPDC could create uncertainty between the role of the PPDC and the regulatory operational and management responsibilities of the air carrier. The FAA has determined that a formal pilot mentoring program cannot function independently from the operation of the air carrier. The development, administration, and oversight of a formal pilot mentoring program would impact many other aspects of the operation of the air carrier, such as pilot duty and rest, training, recordkeeping, ‘‘hiring’’ of mentors, and funding for the program. In accordance with U.S.C. 44701(b) and (d), the FAA may prescribe minimum safety standards for air carriers in consideration of the duty of an air carrier to provide service with the highest possible degree of safety in the public interest. Therefore, the responsibility for the safe operation of the air carrier, including the pilot mentoring program, ultimately remains with the air carrier. E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Additionally, the FAA agrees that the need for a PPDC is limited because all PICs are required to complete mentoring training. Lastly, in January 2015, the FAA issued the Safety Management Systems for Domestic, Flag, and Supplemental Operations for Certificate Holders final rule (SMS).24 The SMS final rule was in response to (1) section 215 of Public Law 111–216 that directed the FAA to require all part 121 air carriers to implement an SMS, (2) NTSB recommendation A–07–10 for the FAA to require all part 121 air carriers to establish an SMS, and (3) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 6, in which member states agreed to establish SMS requirements for air carriers. SMS is a comprehensive, process-oriented approach to managing safety throughout an organization. An SMS includes an organization-wide safety policy; formal methods for identifying hazards, controlling, and continually assessing risk and safety performance; and promotion of a safety culture. When systematically applied, SMS provides a set of decision-making tools that air carriers can use to improve safety. SMS stresses not only compliance with technical standards but also increased emphasis on the overall safety performance of the organization. In accordance with the SMS final rule, air carriers must have implemented an SMS that meets the requirements of 14 CFR part 5 no later than March 2018. The FAA has thoroughly considered the MLP ARC recommendations in context with the SMS final rule, the PIC mentoring training required by this final rule, as well as the comments submitted in response to this rulemaking, and the FAA has determined that it would not be feasible or achievable for the PPDC to develop, administer, and oversee an effective formal pilot mentoring program. The FAA has determined that the goals of improving pilot airmanship, decision-making, and professionalism at each air carrier can be achieved through the PIC mentoring training required by this final rule and the use of each air carrier’s SMS. The FAA is not adopting the proposal for the establishment of a PPDC. L. Pilot Recurrent Ground Training Content and Programmed Hours (§ 121.427) The FAA proposed to remove from the pilot recurrent ground training requirements, certain foundational knowledge elements that are no longer necessary in light of the maturity of air 24 80 FR 1308 (Jan. 8, 2015). VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 carrier training programs and the increase in pilot experience and qualification.25 The FAA further proposed a one hour reduction in the required minimum programmed hours for pilot recurrent ground training. The FAA did not receive any comments regarding the proposed changes to pilot recurrent ground training content and programmed hours. Therefore, these changes are adopted as proposed. M. Part 135 Operators and Part 91 Subpart K Program Managers Complying With Part 121, Subparts N and O In the NPRM, the FAA explained that some part 135 operators and part 91K program managers use pilot training and qualification programs that comply with subparts N and O of part 121. However, the FAA explained that some of the proposed revisions to part 121 in the NPRM were not compatible with all part 135 and 91K operations because of differences between the requirements for minimum flight crew and pilot certification. Therefore, for part 135 operators and fractional ownership program managers who use a part 121 subparts N and O training and qualification program, the FAA proposed to retain the existing upgrade curriculum requirements and to limit the applicability of the leadership and command and mentoring training to PICs serving in operations that require two or more pilots. The FAA further explained that the remaining proposed amendments to subparts N and O of part 121 would apply to these other operators and program managers. See 81 FR at 69923. NetJets requested that the final rule specifically note that the proposed OF requirement not apply to part 135 ondemand certificate holders or part 91, subpart K fractional ownership program managers that choose to comply with part 121 subparts N and O training and testing requirements. NetJets stated that few of its aircraft are equipped with a flight deck observer seat and would qualify for the deviation in proposed § 121.432(d). The FAA agrees that the requirement for OF should not apply to part 135 operators or part 91K program managers that choose to comply with part 121 subparts N and O because the airplanes 25 To implement the proposed amendments to recurrent ground training content for pilots, the FAA proposed revisions to § 121.427(b), that separate the recurrent ground training requirements by training population. Additionally, the FAA proposed to remove from § 121.427(b), the reference to § 121.805 because of the requirement in § 121.415(a)(3) to complete § 121.805 training. PO 00000 Frm 00017 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 10911 used in these operations are generally too small to accommodate a flight deck observer seat. Additionally, Public Law 111–216 and the associated MLP ARC recommendations are specifically directed at part 121 air carriers. Therefore, as adopted in §§ 91.1063(b) and 121.435(a) part 135 operators or part 91K program managers that choose to comply with part 121 subparts N and O are not required to comply with OF. NetJets stated that in accordance with § 135.3(c), the operating experience required by § 121.434 is not applicable to NetJets because § 135.3(c) provides that certificate holders conducting part 135 operations who comply with part 121 subparts N and O requirements, instead of the part 135 subparts E, G, and H requirements, may choose to comply with the operating experience requirements of § 135.244 instead of the requirements of § 121.434. NetJets believed that, because a proficiency check of a visual inspection using pictorial means is certified by a check pilot, it is unnecessary to certify the pilot’s proficiency a second time before the pilot completes operating experience. As proposed in § 121.434(b)(3), if pictorial means was used to conduct the preflight visual inspection during the proficiency check, the pilot must demonstrate proficiency on at least one complete visual inspection of a static airplane before the completion of the operating experience required by § 121.434. The FAA did not propose any changes to § 135.244. Therefore, that requirement would only apply to a part 135 operator who complies with part 121 subparts N and O and chooses to comply with § 121.434. If the part 135 operator chooses to comply with § 135.244 instead, the requirement for the pilot to conduct the visual inspection of a static airplane during the operating experience does not apply. The proposals to retain the existing upgrade curriculum requirements and to limit the applicability of the leadership and command and mentoring training to PICs serving in operations that require two or more pilots are adopted in the final rule for part 135 operators and fractional ownership program managers who use a part 121 subparts N and O training and qualification program. N. Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD) Conforming Changes In the NPRM, the FAA proposed changes to part 121 subparts N and O and appendices E and F to reflect current terminology with respect to the use of flight simulators and other training devices. Specifically, references to visual simulators (Level A FFS) and E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 10912 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations advanced simulators (Level B, C, and D FFS) were proposed to be removed and updated to reflect current terminology and additionally, all references to simulation technology that no longer exists were removed. American agreed with the proposed FSTD conforming changes, including the proposed change to amend Appendices E and F to allow pictorial means for the conduct of the preflight visual inspection. Delta Air Lines commented that in both proposed Appendix E and proposed Appendix F, the maneuver/ procedure categories and descriptive terminology do not match related categories and description in accordance with 14 CFR part 60, Tables A1B and B1B (Table of Tasks vs. Simulator/FTD Level). Delta also noted that in proposed Appendix E and proposed Appendix F, the ‘‘FTD’’ column does not reflect the maneuvers for which Flight Training Devices (FTDs), specifically level 7 FTDs, can be certified for flight training and proficiency checking as qualified in part 60, Tables A1B and B1B. The FAA agrees with Delta’s comment that the maneuvers and procedures in Appendix E and Appendix F do not directly align with the tasks listed in part 60 Tables A1B and B1B and also do not fully address all of the FFS and FTD levels that are currently defined in part 60. Since the time the tables in Appendix E and Appendix F were originally written several years ago, other device levels within the ‘‘FFS’’ and ‘‘FTD’’ categories have been defined in the simulator qualification standards, and these tables in part 121 no longer reflect the current capabilities of all device levels which may be qualified for use in training under part 60. While the FAA agrees that Appendix E and Appendix F do not capture the capabilities of all of the available FSTD levels as currently defined in part 60, the FAA concludes that conducting extensive changes to these appendices in the final rule would exceed the scope of this rulemaking. The FAA has initiated a separate rulemaking to align the pilot training tasks and authorized FSTD levels used in part 121 training programs to the technical FSTD qualification standards that are defined in part 60.26 26 RIN 2120–AL14 Flight Simulation Training Device Usage in Training Programs. See the Department of Transportation semi-annual regulatory agenda at www.reginfo.gov for more information on this rulemaking. VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 O. SIC Training and Checking Conforming Changes The FAA proposed amendments to the SIC training requirements in Appendix E to part 121, amendments to the SIC proficiency check requirements in Appendix F to part 121, and an amendment to § 61.71 to clarify that a pilot obtaining a type rating within a part 121 training program must satisfactorily accomplish the same tasks and maneuvers required by § 121.424 to serve as PIC. See 81 FR at 69925. The FAA did not receive any comments on these proposed amendments and is adopting them as proposed. P. Other Conforming and Miscellaneous Changes In the NPRM, the FAA proposed amendments to the pilot transition ground training content in § 121.419; a new term in § 121.400 to identify flight engineer to SIC training as ‘‘conversion’’ training instead of ‘‘upgrade’’ training; amendments to the ground training content in § 121.419 for flight engineer to SIC training; and an amendment to § 121.434, Appendix E to part 121, and Appendix F to part 121 to allow preflight visual inspection using pictorial means during pilot training and checking. See 81 FR at 69926. Ameristar suggested, that because proposed Appendices E and F refer to an ‘‘approved’’ pictorial means for completing preflight, proposed § 121.434(b)(3) should include the term ‘‘approved.’’ The FAA agrees with the suggestion, and § 121.434(b)(3) clarifies that the pictorial means must be approved. The FAA will continue to provide relief through exemptions for preflight visual inspection using pictorial means until April 27, 2021, to allow sufficient time for certificate holders to obtain approval under the regulations from their Principal Operations Inspector. The FAA did not receive any other comments on these proposed amendments and is adopting them as proposed. Q. Costs and Benefits The FAA received a few comments concerning the potential costs and benefits of the proposed rule. Jet Blue stated that the proposed OF requirements may delay the training of a class of 30 pilots for up to an entire calendar week, resulting in significant costs to the airline. With Jet Blue’s projected pilot hiring of 500 pilots in 2018, this delay represented a potential additional cost of $1,718,640 per year in system staffing costs versus PO 00000 Frm 00018 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 approximately $245,520 for a single-day flexible addition within the existing training footprint. As further explained in the section regarding Operations Familiarization, the FAA has revised the proposed OF requirements to clarify that OF can be completed during or after basic indoctrination training. This change reduces staffing costs. An individual commenter stated that the proposed OF requirement would increase operating costs to the airlines, and does not help prevent the pilot shortage in the U.S. As described in the NPRM, the intent of OF is to provide newly hired pilots with an opportunity to observe from the flight deck in a real world environment, the unique characteristics of the air carrier’s operations, and the specialized processes learned during basic indoctrination training. One individual provided positive comment on the cost savings benefits to operators. This individual further stated that the cost of $72 million over a 10year period is much more feasible as it balances the expected overall benefits. Another individual noted that due to economic factors and further unknown variables, air carrier budgets could be impacted on a larger or smaller scale than what was estimated in the NPRM. One individual identified as a pilot suggested that if the savings are higher than or equal to the cost to implement, the NPRM should be implemented. This individual further calculated that even with the 10-year 7% discount rate that if the cost ends up only being about $1 million or less of an expense to air carriers, the NPRM should still be implemented so long as the expenses are not shifted on to the pilots. The FAA addresses the estimated costs and benefits of the rule in the Regulatory Evaluation section. R. Other Out-of-Scope Comments Ameristar believed § 121.436 should be amended to allow all flight time acquired in a turbojet aircraft in a part 135 operation to count towards the 1000-hour requirement of § 121.436(a)(3). Referencing proposed § 121.427(b)(4), Ameristar believed that CRM scenarios can be built into recurrent proficiency checks as well as LOFT sessions. The FAA also received several other comments concerning pilots’ wages at regional air carriers, stress and fatigue, and optimal working environment. In addition, the comments included recommendations for general aviation pilot training and qualifications, as well as a recommendation to target regulations to E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations general aviation and other forms of transit. These comments are out of the scope of this rulemaking. While there are many other factors that contribute to aviation accidents, Public Law 111–216 and this rule specifically address pilot professional development through leadership and command training and pilot mentoring. The new requirements are designed to enhance the professional development of pilots and are therefore not intended as substitutes for pilot qualifications or other pilot training regimes. V. Regulatory Notices and Analyses A. Regulatory Evaluation Changes to Federal regulations must undergo several economic analyses. First, Executive Order 12866 and Executive Order 13563 direct that each Federal agency shall propose or adopt a regulation only upon a reasoned determination that the benefits of the intended regulation justify its costs. Second, the Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96–354) requires agencies to analyze the economic impact of regulatory changes on small entities. Third, the Trade Agreements Act (Pub. L. 96–39 as amended) prohibits agencies from setting standards that create unnecessary obstacles to the foreign commerce of the United States. In developing U.S. standards, the Trade Agreements Act requires agencies to consider international standards and, where appropriate, that they be the basis of U.S. standards. Fourth, the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104–4) requires agencies to prepare a written assessment of the costs, benefits, and other effects of proposed or final rules that include a Federal mandate likely to result in the expenditure by State, local, or tribal governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector, of $100 million or more annually (adjusted for inflation with base year of 1995). This portion of the preamble summarizes the FAA’s analysis of the economic impacts of this final rule. We suggest readers seeking greater detail read the full regulatory evaluation, a copy of which we have placed in the docket for this rulemaking. In conducting these analyses, FAA has determined this final rule has benefits that justify its costs, and is a ‘‘significant regulatory action’’ as defined in section 3(f) of Executive Order 12866 because it raises novel policy issues contemplated under that executive order. The rule is also ‘‘significant’’ as defined in DOT’s Regulatory Policies and Procedures. The final rule, if adopted, will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities, will not create unnecessary obstacles to international trade, and will not impose an unfunded mandate on state, local, or tribal governments, or on the private sector. Total Benefits and Costs of This Rule The overall safety and reliability of the NAS demonstrates that most pilots conduct operations with a high degree of professionalism. Nevertheless, a problem still exists in the aviation industry with some pilots acting unprofessionally and not adhering to 10913 standard operating procedures (‘‘SOP’’), including the sterile flight deck rule. This rule requires: • Operations familiarization for newhire pilots; • Revised ground and flight training for upgrading pilots that includes mentoring, leadership, and command training; • Mentoring, leadership, and command ground training for current PICs; • Mentoring, leadership, and command recurrent training for PICs; and • Leadership and command training for certain SICs serving in an operation that requires 3 or more pilots. The benefits of the training in the final rule include an increased level of safety from mitigation of unprofessional pilot behavior which the FAA has determined reduces pilot error that can lead to a catastrophic event. In addition, the rule responds to NTSB recommendations and satisfies the statutory requirement for a rulemaking in Public Law 111–216. The estimated cost of the rule to air carriers is $90.0 million over a 10-year period. When discounted using a 7percent discount rate, the rule is estimated to result in costs of $62.2 million over the same period. The total and annualized costs and cost savings are shown in the table below. The rule will also generate savings to operators of $95.5 million over a 10-year period. When discounted using a 7percent discount rate, the rule will result in savings of $61.2 million over the same period. TOTAL COSTS AND COST SAVINGS [Millions of 2016 dollars, 2018–2027] * Present value at 7% Nominal Total Costs ........................................................................... Total Cost Savings ............................................................... Net Costs ............................................................................. $90.04 95.53 ¥5.49 Annualized at 7% $62.17 61.22 0.94 $8.29 8.16 0.13 Present value at 3% $76.25 78.32 ¥2.07 Annualized at 3% $8.24 8.46 ¥0.22 * Table values have been rounded. Totals may not add due to rounding. More detailed benefit and cost information follows below. qualification programs that comply with part 121 subparts N and O (2).27 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Who is potentially affected by this rule? The rule applies to all part 121 air carriers (77) and, for some provisions, to part 135 operators conducting commuter operations in airplanes type certificated for two pilots and are required to use pilot training and VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 27 In addition to part 135 operators conducting commuter operations, if authorized by the Administrator, part 91, subpart K (part 91K) program managers, and other part 135 operators may voluntarily comply with the training program requirements in subparts N and O of part 121 instead of the training program requirements of part 91K or part 135. Given that part 121 compliance is voluntary for part 91K program managers and part 135 operators (other than those conducting commuter operations), this pilot segment is not included in this analysis. PO 00000 Frm 00019 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 Assumptions • Discount Rates: 28 7% and 3% • Period of Analysis: 2018–2027 • Monetary values expressed in 2016 dollars • Discounting calculations use 2016 as the base year 28 Office of Management and Budget, OMB Circular No. A–4, New Guidelines for the Conduct of Regulatory Analysis, Mar. 2, 2004. E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 10914 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Other key assumptions used to complete the regulatory evaluation are as follows: • Pilot Retirement Rate: 2.5% • Pilot Attrition Rate Due to Medical Reasons: 0.5% • Pilot Growth Rate: 0.5% • Growth rate of SIC Pilots Qualified as PIC: 3.4% per year 29 • Ground Instructors Needed: 1 instructor for every 200 pilots • Class Size: 20 pilots per class Changes From the NPRM to the Final Rule The final rule differs from the proposed rule in the following ways. The FAA is not requiring a pilot professional development committee (PPDC) as suggested in the NPRM. The FAA is also requiring leadership and command training for SICs serving in operations that require three or more pilots. Benefits of This Rule The benefits of the required training include an increased level of safety from mitigation of unprofessional pilot behavior which the FAA has determined reduces pilot error that can lead to a catastrophic event. The October 14, 2004, crash of Pinnacle Airlines flight 3701 in Jefferson City, Missouri, and the February 12, 2009, crash of Colgan Air flight 3407 near Buffalo, New York, are examples of past accidents where unprofessional pilot behavior contributed to the accident. In addition, the rule responds to National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) recommendations and satisfies the statutory requirement for rulemaking in Public Law 111–216. Costs of This Rule The costs of the rule are associated with the following requirements: • Operations familiarization for newhire pilots; • Revised ground and flight training for upgrading pilots that includes mentoring, leadership, and command training; • Mentoring, leadership, and command ground training for current PICs; • Mentoring, leadership, and command recurrent training for PICs; and • Leadership and command training for certain SICs serving in an operation that requires 3 or more pilots. The rule has some additional conforming and miscellaneous changes that do not impact either the costs or benefits of the rule (see Sections N, O, and P of the preamble to the final rule). COMPLIANCE COSTS FOR THE RULE BY PROVISION (2018–2027) Total compliance costs (millions of 2016 dollars) Cost Present value Total 7 percent 3 percent New-Hire Pilot Operations Familiarization (§ 121.435) ............................................................... Upgrade Training (§§ 121.420 and 121.426) .............................................................................. One-Time and Recurrent PIC Training (§ 121.429, § 121.409(b), and § 121.427) ..................... One-Time and Recurrent SICs Qualified as PICs Training ........................................................ Recordkeeping ............................................................................................................................. $6.514 13.991 66.391 3.133 0.009 $3.962 8.649 47.439 2.108 0.007 $5.227 11.300 57.095 2.623 0.008 Total ...................................................................................................................................... 90.039 62.165 76.254 * Table values have been rounded. Totals may not add due to rounding. Cost Savings of This Rule The rule also contains cost saving benefits based on changes to ground training that are possible due to changes already implemented in the Pilot Certification Rule. The recent Pilot Certification final rule ensures technical proficiency in those subjects via other means.30 These changes will lead to a reduction in the time required to complete recurrent and upgrade training and will not compromise safety. TOTAL AND PRESENT VALUES OF COST SAVINGS (2018–2027) * Total costs savings (millions of 2016 dollars) Cost saving benefits Present value Total 7 percent 3 percent Recurrent Ground Training (§ 121.427) ....................................................................................... Upgrade Ground Training (§ 121.420) ......................................................................................... $67.323 28.205 $44.068 17.155 $55.687 22.631 Total ...................................................................................................................................... 95.529 61.223 78.318 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 * Table values have been rounded. Totals may not add due to rounding. 29 FAA Aerospace Forecast 2017–2037. Table 5: U.S. Commercial Carriers Total Scheduled U.S. Passenger Traffic, 2016–2037. https://www.faa.gov/ data_research/aviation/aerospace_forecasts/. Accessed April 2017. 30 The Pilot Certification rule requires all SIC serving in part 121 operations to hold an ATP certificate with a type rating and requires pilots to VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 complete a minimum of 1,000 hours of relevant operational experience prior to serving as a PIC in part 121 operations. Additionally, the Pilot Certification rule requires pilots, who will serve in part 121 operations, to complete the ATP–CTP prior to ATP certification. Thus, the Pilot Certification rule requirements raise the baseline knowledge and experience level for pilots prior to serving at an air PO 00000 Frm 00020 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 carrier. See Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations; Final Rule, published by the Federal Aviation Administration on July 15, 2013 (78 FR 42324). https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2013/07/ 15/2013-16849/pilot-certification-and-qualificationrequirements-for-air-carrier-operations. E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 10915 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Alternatives Considered The FAA considered an alternative proposal representing the MLP ARC recommendations as presented to the FAA. The FAA carefully considered the MLP ARC recommendations when developing the rule, and many of the recommendations are incorporated into the rule albeit with less prescriptive requirements. The main drivers of the cost differences between the MLP ARC recommendations and the final rule are the MLP ARC recommendations for a full-time professional development position, PPDC, and longer amount of time required for leadership and command training during upgrade training and during PIC recurrent training. The FAA adopts the proposed requirements, except the PPDC, as cost of the MLP ARC recommendations are substantially greater than the cost of this final rule. B. Regulatory Flexibility Determination The Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96–354) (RFA) establishes ‘‘as a principle of regulatory issuance that agencies shall endeavor, consistent with the objectives of the rule and of applicable statutes, to fit regulatory and informational requirements to the scale of the businesses, organizations, and governmental jurisdictions subject to regulation. To achieve this principle, agencies are required to solicit and consider flexible regulatory proposals and to explain the rationale for their actions to assure that such proposals are given serious consideration.’’ The RFA covers a wide-range of small entities, including small businesses, not-forprofit organizations, and small governmental jurisdictions. Agencies must perform a review to determine whether a rule will have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. If the agency determines that it will, the agency must prepare a regulatory flexibility analysis as described in the RFA. However, if an agency determines that a rule is not expected to have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities, section 605(b) of the RFA provides that the head of the agency may so certify and a regulatory flexibility analysis is not required. The certification must include a statement providing the factual basis for this determination, and the reasoning should be clear. The Small Business Administration (SBA) categorizes airlines with 1,500 or fewer employees as small businesses. Of the 77 carriers that operate under part 121, 52 had fewer than 1,500 total employees based on National Vital Information Subsystem (NVIS) data from February and November 2017. Of the two part 135 operators required to use pilot training and qualification programs that comply with part 121 subparts N and O, both have fewer than 1,500 total employees based on NVIS data. The count of pilots for the 52 small part 121 air carriers and the two small part 135 operators are shown in the table below. TABLE 4—TOTAL NUMBER OF IMPACTED PILOTS, PICS, AND SICS FROM SMALL CARRIERS IN 2017 AND 2027 Year Pilot category 2017 2027 Annual growth (%) PIC ............................................................................................................................................... SIC qualified as PIC .................................................................................................................... SIC—Other .................................................................................................................................. 3,270 115 2,901 3,437 161 3,049 0.5 3.4 0.5 Total Pilots ............................................................................................................................ 6,286 6,647 0.5 Based on these pilot counts, the analysis used to conduct the Pilot Professional Development Regulatory Evaluation was recalculated for small air carriers only. A summary of the costs and cost savings of the rule on small air carriers is shown below. TABLE 5—TOTAL COSTS AND COST SAVINGS OF THE RULE FOR SMALL CARRIERS [2018–2027] Total costs and cost savings (millions of 2016 dollars) Costs and cost savings Present value Total 7 Percent Total Costs ................................................................................................................................... Total Cost Savings ...................................................................................................................... $6.873 6.969 $4.763 4.457 $5.830 5.709 Total Net Costs ..................................................................................................................... ¥0.096 0.306 0.121 The total cost of the rule on small carriers, and the corresponding per jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 3 Percent VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 small carrier cost, by provision, is shown in the table below. PO 00000 Frm 00021 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 10916 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations TABLE 6—TOTAL AND PER CARRIER COSTS OF THE RULE FOR SMALL CARRIERS BY PROVISION [2018–2027] Total compliance costs (millions of 2016 dollars) Provisions Carriers impacted Total New-Hire SIC Operations Familiarization (§ 121.435) ................................................................ Upgrade Training (Mentoring, Leadership, and Command for SICs or Mentoring Training for SICs qualified as PICs) (§§ 121.420 and 121.426) ................................................................. One-Time and Recurrent PIC Training (Mentoring, Leadership, and Command) (§ 121.409(b), 121.427, and 121.429) ............................................................................................................. One-Time and Recurrent Training SICs Qualified as PICs (Leadership and Command) .......... Recordkeeping ............................................................................................................................. Total ...................................................................................................................................... jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 The total cost per carrier of $88,000 for the rule, over the 10-year analysis period, implies an annual average per carrier cost of approximately $8,800. The FAA believes that such an economic cost is not economically significant. BTS Form 41 Financial data is available for 40 small air carriers.31 Operating revenues, in 2016, for 34 of the 40 carriers is reported as $20 million or more. The remaining 6 carriers have operating revenue ranging from $5 million to $16 million. Based on these figures, the estimated annual average per carrier cost of the rule is less than 1% of the operating revenue where data is available. If an agency determines that a rulemaking will not result in a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities, the head of the agency may so certify under section 605(b) of the RFA. Therefore, as provided in section 605(b), the FAA Administrator certifies that this rulemaking will not result in a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. C. International Trade Impact Assessment The Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (Pub. L. 96–39), as amended by the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (Pub. L. 103–465), prohibits Federal agencies from establishing standards or engaging in related activities that create unnecessary obstacles to the foreign commerce of the United States. Pursuant to these Acts, the establishment of standards is not considered an unnecessary obstacle to the foreign commerce of the United States, so long as the standard has a legitimate domestic objective, such as the protection of safety, and does not 31 Bureau of Transportation Statistics Air Carrier Financial Reports (Form 41 Financial Data) Database. Schedules P–1.1 and P–1.2. https:// www.transtats.bts.gov. VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 operate in a manner that excludes imports that meet this objective. The statute also requires consideration of international standards and, where appropriate, that they be the basis for U.S. standards. The FAA has assessed the potential effect of this final rule and determined that it will respond to a statutorily mandated safety objective and is not considered an unnecessary obstacle to the foreign commerce of the United States. D. Unfunded Mandates Assessment Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104–4) requires each Federal agency to prepare a written statement assessing the effects of any Federal mandate in a proposed or final agency rule that may result in an expenditure of $100 million or more (in 1995 dollars) in any one year by State, local, and tribal governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector; such a mandate is deemed to be a ‘‘significant regulatory action.’’ The FAA currently uses an inflation-adjusted value of $155 million in lieu of $100 million. This final rule does not contain such a mandate; therefore, the requirements of Title II of the Act do not apply. E. Paperwork Reduction Act The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3507(d)) requires that the FAA consider the impact of paperwork and other information collection burdens imposed on the public. According to the 1995 amendments to the Paperwork Reduction Act (5 CFR 1320.8(b)(2)(vi)), an agency may not collect or sponsor the collection of information, nor may it impose an information collection requirement unless it displays a currently valid Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number. This final rule will impose the following new information collection requirements. As required by the PO 00000 Frm 00022 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 Per carrier total cost $0.28 54 $0.005 0.61 54 0.011 3.80 0.08 0.001 54 54 54 0.002 0.002 0.000 4.763 ........................ 0.088 Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3507(d)), the FAA has submitted these information collection amendments to OMB for its review. Summary: The final rule requires the development and approval of new and revised training curriculums for the following: • Leadership and command and mentoring ground training for pilots currently serving as PIC (§ 121.429) and recurrent PIC leadership and command and mentoring training (§§ 121.409(b) and 121.427); • Leadership and command training and recurrent leadership and command training for pilots serving as SIC in operations that require three or more pilots (§ 121.432(a)); • Upgrade training curriculum requirements (§§ 121.420 and 121.426); • Part 121 appendix H requirements; and • Approval of Qualification Standards Document for certificate holders using an Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) (§ 121.909). The final rule also requires some additional recordkeeping related to maintaining records of pilots completing the following: • Leadership and command and mentoring ground training for pilots currently serving as PIC (§ 121.429); • Leadership and command training and recurrent leadership and command training for pilots serving as SIC in operations that require three or more pilots (§ 121.432(a)); • Recurrent PIC leadership and command and mentoring ground training (§ 121.427); and • Operations familiarization for newhire pilots (§ 121.435). Public comments: The FAA did not receive any comments on the information collection requirements. Use: This information will be used to ensure safety-of-flight by making certain E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations that adequate training is obtained and maintained by those who operate under part 121. The FAA will review the respondents’ training programs and training courseware through routine certification, inspection and surveillance of certificate holders using part 121 pilot training and qualification programs to ensure compliance and adherence to regulations and, where necessary, to take enforcement action. Respondents (including number of): The relevant provisions of the rule apply to certificate holders using part 121 pilot training and qualification programs. As of February 2017, there were 79 such certificate holders who collectively employed 39,122 PICs and 42,227 SICs. Frequency: The development and approval of new and revised curriculums will be a one-time occurrence for each certificate holder. The documentation regarding training in leadership and command and mentoring for current PICs will be a one-time occurrence. Similarly, the documentation regarding training in leadership and command for current SICs serving in operations that require three or more pilots will be a one-time occurrence. The documentation of operations familiarization for new-hire pilots will occur once for each new-hire pilot. The documentation of recurrent PIC leadership and command and mentoring training will occur every three years for each PIC. The documentation of recurrent leadership and command training for SICs serving in operations that require three or more pilots will occur every three years for each such SIC. Annual Burden Estimate: These amendments to part 121 set out prerequisites and levy requirements that must be met by certificate holders using part 121 pilot training and qualification programs and by those individuals who serve in given capacities for those certificate holders. The estimates for hours and costs are broken down by development and approval of new and revised training curriculums followed by pilot training recordkeeping. The FAA anticipates that certificate holders will incur costs for the following groups of provisions: • Operations familiarization for newhire pilots (§ 121.435); • Leadership and command and mentoring ground training for pilots currently serving as PIC (§ 121.429); • Leadership and command training and recurrent leadership and command training for pilots serving as SIC in operations that require three or more pilots (§ 121.432(a)); VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 • Upgrade training curriculum requirements (§§ 121.420 and 121.426); • Recurrent PIC leadership and command and mentoring ground training (§§ 121.409(b) and 121.427); • Part 121, appendix H requirements; and • Approval of Qualification Standards Document for certificate holders using an AQP (§ 121.909). 1. Development and Approval of New and Revised Training Curriculums For the development and approval of new and revised training curriculums, the FAA estimated the paperwork costs for these provisions by multiplying the hourly rate of the person responsible by the number of estimated hours to develop and submit the new or revised training curriculum. (In all cases we assume that a ground instructor would develop and submit the new or revised training curriculum, and that the ground instructor fully burdened wage is $53 per hour.32) We then multiplied these costs by the number of certificate holders affected by the provision. a. Leadership and Command and Mentoring Ground Training for Pilots Currently Serving as PIC (§ 121.429) and Recurrent PIC Leadership and Command and Mentoring Training (§§ 121.409(b) and 121.427) Section 121.429 requires one-time development of a training course for leadership and command and mentoring for current PICs. This course must be submitted to the FAA for approval. Revisions to §§ 121.409(b) and 121.427 require one-time revision to the certificate holder’s approved recurrent PIC training curriculum. This revised curriculum must be submitted to the FAA for approval. The FAA estimates a total of 40 hours of ground instructor time for development and submission of both the curriculum for current PICs and the revision to the recurrent PIC training curriculum. Assuming 79 affected certificate holders, the FAA estimates that these provisions result in a one-time total cost of $167,480 for all affected certificate holders. 32 Training instructor hourly wage rate of $36.60 multiplied by 1.435 to account for costs of employer provided benefits. Wage based on 2016 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Occupational Employment Statistics for Air Transportation Industry. (http:// www.bls.gov/oes/current/naics4_481100.htm): Training and Development Specialists (13–1151). Wage multiplier from BLS, Employer costs for Employee compensation—December 2016, Table 5, Private Industry. (https://www.bls.gov/news.release/ archives/ecec_03172017.pdf). PO 00000 Frm 00023 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 10917 b. Leadership and Command Training and Recurrent Leadership and Command Training for Pilots Serving as SIC in Operations That Require Three or More Pilots (§ 121.432(a) SICs serving in operations that require three or more pilots complete the same one-time training and recurrent training in leadership and command as PICs. Therefore, no additional revisions are necessary to the training curriculums. The FAA expects that the program updates to reflect this change are minimal and are subsumed in the paperwork costs for the collective amendments made to the training provisions in this final rule. The FAA estimates there are no costs for this provision. c. Upgrade Training Curriculum Requirements (§§ 121.420 and 121.426) Sections 121.420 and 121.426 require one-time revision to the certificate holder’s approved SIC to PIC upgrade training curriculum. This revised curriculum must be submitted to the FAA for approval. The FAA estimates a total of 80 hours of ground instructor time for development and submission of the revised SIC to PIC upgrade training curriculum. Assuming 79 affected certificate holders, the FAA estimates that these provisions result in a one-time cost of $334,960 for all affected certificate holders. d. Part 121 Appendix H Requirements The revision to part 121 appendix H requires one-time revision to the certificate holder’s approved training program to remove the pilot experience prerequisites for using a Level C FFS during training and checking. This revised training program must be submitted to the FAA for approval. The FAA expects that the program updates to reflect this change are minimal and are subsumed in the paperwork costs for the collective amendments made to the training provisions in this final rule. The FAA estimates there are no costs for this provision. e. Approval of Qualification Standards Document for Certificate Holders Using an AQP (§ 121.909) Although the final rule does not make any changes to § 121.909, when the new subparts N and O training requirements become effective, certificate holders that use an AQP must review their training programs to make sure they address the new subparts N and O requirements. It is possible that certificate holders may make a one-time revision to their Qualifications Standards Document E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 10918 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations required by § 121.909 during this process to address the revised subparts N and O requirements. This is a cost that only applies to certificate holders that use an AQP for pilot training because only those certificate holders must meet the § 121.909 requirements. Therefore, this provision does not apply to certificate holders who only train their pilots in accordance with subparts N and O. For each of the 25 certificate holders with an approved AQP, the FAA estimates 3 hours of ground instructor time for development and submission of the revised Qualification Standards Document. The FAA estimates that this provision results in one-time costs of $3,975 across all certificate holders who train their pilots under an AQP. 2. Recordkeeping For the pilot training recordkeeping, the FAA estimated the paperwork costs for these provisions by first multiplying the number of required entries by the estimated number of pilots affected. Second, we multiplied the total number of entries by .001 hours (the time required to make each entry). Lastly, we multiplied the total time to make all entries by the hourly rate of the person responsible for making the entries. In all cases, the FAA assumes that the person making the entries is a clerical employee with an estimated fullyburdened wage of $29 per hour.33 a. Leadership and Command and Mentoring Ground Training for Pilots Currently Serving as PIC (§ 121.429) A record showing compliance with this requirement for current PICs must be retained in accordance with § 121.683(a)(1). This is a one-time burden. jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 33 The clerk hourly wage rate of $20.29 multiplied by 1.435 to account for costs of employer provided benefits. Wage based on 2016 BLS Occupational Employment Statistics for Air Transportation Industry. (http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/naics4_ 481100.htm): Information and Record Clerks (43– 4000). Wage multiplier from BLS, Employer costs for Employee compensation—December 2016, Table 5, Private Industry. (https://www.bls.gov/ news.release/archives/ecec_03172017.pdf). VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 The FAA assumes that this cost is incurred in 2019, the year prior to the compliance date of the rule and estimates that during that year 39,515 pilots are affected and require one record. The FAA estimates 40 hours of clerical time for entry of these records. The FAA estimates that this provision adds a one-time cost of $1,160 for all affected certificate holders. b. Leadership and Command for SICs Serving in Operations That Require Three or More Pilots (§ 121.432(a)) A record showing compliance with this requirement for SICs currently serving in operations that require three or more pilots must be retained in accordance with § 121.683(a)(1). This is a one-time burden. The FAA assumes that the majority of this cost is incurred in the year prior to the compliance date of the rule, however new SIC pilots serving in operations that require three or more pilots will also receive this initial training. The FAA estimates that 5,498 pilots are affected and require one record. The FAA estimates 5 hours of clerical time for entry of these records. The FAA estimates that this provision adds a one-time cost of $145 for all affected certificate holders. c. Recurrent PIC Leadership and Command and Mentoring Ground Training (§ 121.427) A record showing compliance with this requirement for current PICs must be retained in accordance with § 121.683(a)(1), in addition to the current recordkeeping burden approved under OMB Control Number 2120–0008. PICs are required to complete the recurrent training every 3 years. Over the 10-year analysis period, the FAA estimates that there are 109,874 instances of PICs undergoing recurrent training involving leadership and command and mentoring. Each instance requires one record. The FAA estimates 110 hours of clerical time for entry of these records. The FAA estimates that this provision results in costs of $3,190 over the analysis period for all affected certificate holders. PO 00000 Frm 00024 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 d. Recurrent Leadership and Command Ground Training for SICs Serving in Operations That Require Three or More Pilots (§§ 121.427 and 121.432(a)) A record showing compliance with this requirement for SICs serving in operations that require three or more pilots must be retained in accordance with § 121.683(a)(1), in addition to the current recordkeeping burden approved under OMB Control Number 2120–0008. These SICs are required to complete the recurrent training every 3 years. Over the 10-year analysis period, the FAA estimates that there are 8,267 instances of SICs undergoing recurrent training involving leadership and command. Each instance requires one record. The FAA estimates 8 hours of clerical time for entry of these records. The FAA estimates that this provision results in costs of $232 over the analysis period for all affected certificate holders. e. Operations Familiarization for NewHire Pilots (§ 121.435) Section 121.435 implements a new qualification requirement for new-hire pilots to complete operations familiarization consisting of 2 operating cycles. A record showing compliance with this requirement for each new-hire pilot must be retained in accordance with § 121.683(a)(1), in addition to the current recordkeeping burden approved under OMB Control Number 2120–0008. The FAA estimates all affected certificate holders have a total of 23,517 new-hire pilots over the analysis period. Each of the estimated 23,517 pilots affected requires one record. The FAA estimates 24 hours of clerical time for entry of these records. The FAA estimates that this provision results in costs of $696 across the analysis period for all affected certificate holders. 3. Summary of Estimated Paperwork Costs The total cost burden is $511,838 ($445,883 discounted at 7 percent) over the 10-year analysis period. BILLING CODE P E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 BILLING CODE C VerDate Sep<11>2014 F. International Compatibility and Cooperation In keeping with U.S. obligations under the Convention on International 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00025 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 10919 Civil Aviation, it is FAA policy to conform to International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standards and Recommended Practices to the E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 ER25FE20.000</GPH> jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations 10920 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations maximum extent practicable. The FAA has reviewed the corresponding ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices and has identified no differences with these proposed regulations. G. Environmental Analysis FAA Order 1050.1F identifies FAA actions that are categorically excluded from preparation of an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement under the National Environmental Policy Act in the absence of extraordinary circumstances. The FAA has determined this rulemaking action qualifies for the categorical exclusion identified in paragraph 5–6.6 and involves no extraordinary circumstances. VI. Executive Order Determinations A. Executive Order 13132, Federalism The FAA has analyzed this final rule under the principles and criteria of Executive Order 13132, Federalism. The agency determined that this action will not have a substantial direct effect on the States, or the relationship between the Federal Government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government, and, therefore, does not have Federalism implications. B. Executive Order 13211, Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use The FAA analyzed this final rule under Executive Order 13211, Actions Concerning Regulations that Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (May 18, 2001). The agency has determined that it is not a ‘‘significant energy action’’ under the executive order, and it is not likely to have a significant adverse effect on the supply, distribution, or use of energy. jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 C. Executive Order 13609, Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation Executive Order 13609, Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation, promotes international regulatory cooperation to meet shared challenges involving health, safety, labor, security, environmental, and other issues and to reduce, eliminate, or prevent unnecessary differences in regulatory requirements. The FAA has analyzed this action under the policies and agency responsibilities of Executive Order 13609, and has determined that this action will have no effect on international regulatory cooperation. VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 D. Executive Order 13771, Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs This rule is not subject to the requirements of E.O. 13771 because this rule results in no more than de minimis costs or cost savings. VII. How To Obtain Additional Information A. Rulemaking Documents An electronic copy of a rulemaking document may be obtained by using the internet— 1. Search the Federal eRulemaking Portal (http://www.regulations.gov); 2. Visit the FAA’s Regulations and Policies web page at http:// www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/ or 3. Access the Government Publishing Office’s web page at http:// www.gpo.gov/fdsys/. Copies may also be obtained by sending a request (identified by notice, amendment, or docket number of this rulemaking) to the Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Rulemaking, ARM–1, 800 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20591, or by calling (202) 267–9677. B. Comments Submitted to the Docket Comments received may be viewed by going to http://www.regulations.gov and following the online instructions to search the docket number for this action. Anyone is able to search the electronic form of all comments received into any of the FAA’s dockets by the name of the individual submitting the comment (or signing the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). C. Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act The Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA) of 1996 requires FAA to comply with small entity requests for information or advice about compliance with statutes and regulations within its jurisdiction. A small entity with questions regarding this document, may contact its local FAA official, or the person listed under the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT heading at the beginning of the preamble. To find out more about SBREFA on the internet, visit http:// www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/ rulemaking/sbre_act/. List of Subjects 14 CFR Part 61 Aircraft, Airmen, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. PO 00000 Frm 00026 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 14 CFR Part 91 Aircraft, Airmen, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. 14 CFR Part 121 Air carriers, Aircraft, Airmen, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Safety, Transportation. 14 CFR Part 135 Aircraft, Airmen, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The Amendment In consideration of the foregoing, the Federal Aviation Administration amends chapter I of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations as follows: PART 61—CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS 1. The authority citation for part 61 continues to read as follows: ■ Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701–44703, 44707, 44709–44711, 44729, 44903, 45102–45103, 45301–45302, Sec. 2307 Pub. L. 114–190, 130 Stat. 615 (49 U.S.C. 44703 note). 2. Amend § 61.71 by revising paragraph (b)(1) to read as follows: ■ § 61.71 Graduates of an approved training program other than under this part: Special rules. * * * * * (b) * * * (1) Satisfactorily accomplished an approved training curriculum and a proficiency check for that airplane type that includes all the tasks and maneuvers required by §§ 121.424 and 121.441 of this chapter to serve as pilot in command in operations conducted under part 121 of this chapter; and * * * * * PART 91—GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES 3. The authority citation for part 91 continues to read as follows: ■ Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 1155, 40101, 40103, 40105, 40113, 40120, 44101, 44111, 44701, 44704, 44709, 44711, 44712, 44715, 44716, 44717, 44722, 46306, 46315, 46316, 46504, 46506–46507, 47122, 47508, 47528–47531, 47534, Pub. L. 114–190, 130 Stat. 615 (49 U.S.C. 44703 note); articles 12 and 29 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (61 Stat. 1180), (126 Stat. 11). 4. Amend § 91.1063 by revising paragraph (b) to read as follows: ■ E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations § 91.1063 Testing and training: Applicability and terms used. * * * * * (b) If authorized by the Administrator, a program manager may comply with the applicable training and testing sections of part 121, subparts N and O of this chapter instead of §§ 91.1065 through 91.1107, provided that the following additional limitations and allowances apply to program managers so authorized: (1) Operating experience and operations familiarization. Program managers are not required to comply with the operating experience requirements of § 121.434 or the operations familiarization requirements of § 121.435 of this chapter. (2) Upgrade training. (i) Each program manager must include in upgrade ground training for pilots, instruction in at least the subjects identified in § 121.419(a) of this chapter, as applicable to their assigned duties; and, for pilots serving in crews of two or more pilots, beginning on April 27, 2022, instruction and facilitated discussion in the subjects identified in § 121.419(c) of this chapter. (ii) Each program manager must include in upgrade flight training for pilots, flight training for the maneuvers and procedures required in § 121.424(a), (c), (e), and (f) of this chapter; and, for pilots serving in crews of two or more pilots, beginning on April 27, 2022, the flight training required in § 121.424(b) of this chapter. (3) Initial and recurrent leadership and command and mentoring training. Program managers are not required to include leadership and command training in §§ 121.409(b)(2)(ii)(B)(6), 121.419(c)(1), 121.424(b) and 121.427(d)(1) of this chapter, and mentoring training in §§ 121.419(c)(2) and 121.427(d)(1) of this chapter in initial and recurrent training for pilots in command who serve in operations that use only one pilot. (4) One-time leadership and command and mentoring training. Section 121.429 of this chapter does not apply to program managers conducting operations under this subpart when those operations use only one pilot. * * * * * jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 5. The authority citation for part 121 continues to read as follows: ■ Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40119, 41706, 42301 preceding note added by Pub. L. 112–95, sec. 412, 126 Stat. 89, 44101, 44701–44702, 44705, 44709– 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 6. Amend § 121.400 by: a. Revising paragraphs (a) and (c)(3); b. Redesignating paragraphs (c)(4) through (11) as paragraphs (c)(5) through (12), respectively; and ■ c. Adding a new paragraph (c)(4). The revisions and addition read as follows: ■ ■ ■ § 121.400 Applicability and terms used. (a) This subpart prescribes the requirements applicable to each certificate holder for establishing and maintaining a training program for crewmembers, aircraft dispatchers, and other operations personnel, and for the approval and use of flight simulation training devices and training equipment in the conduct of the program. * * * * * (c) * * * (3) Upgrade training. The training required for flightcrew members who have qualified and served as second in command on a particular airplane type, before they serve as pilot in command on that airplane. (4) Conversion training. The training required for flightcrew members who have qualified and served as flight engineer on a particular airplane type, before they serve as second in command on that airplane. * * * * * ■ 7. Amend § 121.401 by revising paragraph (a)(4) to read as follows: § 121.401 Training program: General. (a) * * * (4) Provide enough flight instructors and approved check airmen to conduct the flight training and checks required under this part. * * * * * § 121.403 [Amended] 8. Amend § 121.403(b)(4) by removing the words ‘‘airplane simulators or other training devices’’ and add in their place the word ‘‘FSTDs’’. ■ 9. Amend § 121.407 revising the section heading and paragraphs (a) introductory text and (b) through (e) to read as follows: ■ § 121.407 Training program: Approval of flight simulation training devices. PART 121—OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS VerDate Sep<11>2014 44711, 44713, 44716–44717, 44722, 44729, 44732; 46105; Pub. L. 111–216, 124 Stat. 2348 (49 U.S.C. 44701 note); Pub. L. 112–95, 126 Stat. 62 (49 U.S.C. 44732 note). (a) Each FSTD used to satisfy a training requirement of this part in an approved training program, must meet all of the following requirements: * * * * * (b) A particular FSTD may be approved for use by more than one certificate holder. PO 00000 Frm 00027 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 10921 (c) A Level B or higher FFS may be used instead of the airplane to satisfy the inflight requirements of §§ 121.439 and 121.441 and appendices E and F of this part, if the FFS— (1) Is approved under this section and meets the appropriate FFS requirements of appendix H of this part; and (2) Is used as part of an approved program that meets the training requirements of §§ 121.424 (a) and (c), 121.426, and appendix H of this part. (d) An FFS approved under this section must be used instead of the airplane to satisfy the pilot flight training requirements prescribed in the certificate holder’s approved lowaltitude windshear flight training program set forth in § 121.409(d) of this part. (e) An FFS approved under this section must be used instead of the airplane to satisfy the pilot flight training requirements prescribed in the extended envelope training set forth in § 121.423 of this part. Compliance with this paragraph is required no later than March 12, 2019. ■ 10. Amend § 121.409 by: ■ a. Revising the section heading and paragraphs (a), (b) introductory text, (b)(1), (b)(2)(ii)(B), and (b)(2)(ii)(B)(4) and (5); ■ b. Adding paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B)(6); ■ c. Removing the undesignated paragraph following paragraph (b)(3); and ■ d. Revising paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) and (d). The revisions and addition read as follows: § 121.409 Training courses using flight simulation training devices. (a) Training courses utilizing FSTDs may be included in the certificate holder’s approved training program for use as provided in this section. (b) Except for the airline transport pilot certification training program approved to satisfy the requirements of § 61.156 of this chapter, a course of training in an FFS may be included for use as provided in § 121.441 if that course— (1) Provides at least 4 hours of training at the pilot controls of an FFS as well as a proper briefing before and after the training. (2) * * * (ii) * * * (B) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B)(6) of this section, beginning on March 12, 2019 * * * * * (4) Is representative of two flight segments appropriate to the operations being conducted by the certificate holder; E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 10922 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations (5) Provides an opportunity to demonstrate workload management and pilot monitoring skills; and (6) Beginning on April 27, 2023, provides an opportunity for each pilot in command to demonstrate leadership and command skills. (c) * * * (1) A course of pilot training in an FFS as provided in § 121.424(d); or (2) A course of flight engineer training in an FSTD as provided in § 121.425(d). (d) Each certificate holder required to comply with § 121.358 of this part must use an approved FFS for each airplane type in each of its pilot training courses that provides training in at least the procedures and maneuvers set forth in the certificate holder’s approved lowaltitude windshear flight training program. The approved low-altitude windshear flight training, if applicable, must be included in each of the pilot flight training courses prescribed in §§ 121.409(b), 121.418, 121.424, 121.426, and 121.427 of this part. § 121.411 [Amended] 11. Amend § 121.411 in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) and (f)(1) and (2) by removing the words ‘‘flight simulator’’ and adding in their place the word ‘‘FFS’’ and in paragraph (b)(4) by removing the word ‘‘in-flight’’ and adding in its place the word ‘‘inflight’’. ■ § 121.412 12. Amend § 121.412 in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) and (f)(1) and (2) by removing the words ‘‘flight simulator’’ and adding in their place the word ‘‘FFS’’ and in paragraph (b)(4) by removing the word ‘‘in-flight’’ and adding in its place the word ‘‘inflight’’. [Amended] 13. Amend § 121.413: a. In paragraphs (a)(2), (c)(7) introductory text, (c)(7)(iv), (d)(2) introductory text, (d)(2)(iv), and (f) by removing the words ‘‘flight simulator’’ and adding in their place the word ‘‘FFS’’; ■ b. In paragraph (f), by removing the words ‘‘in flight’’ and adding in their place the word ‘‘inflight’’; ■ c. In paragraphs (g) introductory text and (g)(1) by removing the words ‘‘flight simulator’’ and adding in their place the word ‘‘FFS’’; ■ c. In paragraph (g)(2) by removing the words ‘‘flight simulators’’ and adding in their place ‘‘FFSs’’; and ■ d. In paragraph (h) by removing the words ‘‘flight simulator’’ and adding in their place the word ‘‘FFS’’. jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 ■ ■ § 121.414 ■ [Amended] 14. Amend § 121.414: VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 § 121.415 Crewmember and dispatcher training program requirements. * [Amended] ■ § 121.413 a. In paragraphs (a)(2), (c)(8) introductory text, (c)(8)(iv), (d)(2) introductory text, and (d)(2)(iv) by removing the words ‘‘flight simulator’’ and adding in their place the word ‘‘FFS’’; ■ b. In paragraph (e)(3)(i), by removing the word ‘‘In-flight’’ and adding in its place the word ‘‘Inflight’’; and ■ c. In paragraph (f), by removing the words ‘‘in flight’’ and adding in their place the word ‘‘inflight’’; ■ d. In paragraphs (f), (g) introductory text, (g)(1), and (h), by removing the words ‘‘flight simulator’’ and adding in their place the word ‘‘FFS’’. ■ e. In paragraph (g)(2), by removing the words ‘‘flight simulators’’ and adding in their place the word ‘‘FFSs’’; and ■ f. In paragraph (h), by removing the words ‘‘flight simulator’’ and adding in their place the word ‘‘FFS’’. ■ 15. Amend § 121.415 by: ■ a. Revising paragraphs (b) and (e); ■ b. Redesignating paragraphs (f) through (j) as paragraphs (g) through (k), respectively; ■ c. Adding a new paragraph (f); and ■ d. Revising newly redesignated paragraphs (g), (h) introductory text, (j), and (k). The revisions and addition read as follows: ■ Jkt 250001 * * * * (b) Each training program must provide the flight training specified in §§ 121.424 through 121.426, as applicable. * * * * * (e) Upgrade training: (1) Upgrade training as specified in §§ 121.420 and 121.426 for a particular type airplane may be included in the training program for flightcrew members who have qualified and served as second in command pilot on that airplane; or (2) Before April 27, 2022, upgrade training as specified in §§ 121.419 and 121.424 for a particular type airplane may be included in the training program for flightcrew members who have qualified and served as second in command pilot on that airplane. (f) Conversion training as specified in §§ 121.419 and 121.424 for a particular type airplane may be included in the training program for flightcrew members who have qualified and served as flight engineer on that airplane. (g) Particular subjects, maneuvers, procedures, or parts thereof specified in §§ 121.419, 121.420, 121.421, 121.422, 121.424, 121.425, and 121.426 for transition, conversion or upgrade training, as applicable, may be omitted, PO 00000 Frm 00028 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 or the programmed hours of ground instruction or inflight training may be reduced, as provided in § 121.405. (h) In addition to initial, transition, conversion, upgrade, recurrent and differences training, each training program must also provide ground and flight training, instruction, and practice as necessary to insure that each crewmember and aircraft dispatcher— * * * * * (j) Each training program must include methods for remedial training and tracking of pilots identified in the analysis performed in accordance with paragraph (i) of this section. (k) Compliance with paragraphs (i) and (j) of this section is required no later than March 12, 2019. § 121.417 [Amended] 16. Amend § 121.417 in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) by removing the words ‘‘in flight’’ and adding in their place the word ‘‘inflight’’. ■ 17. Amend § 121.418 by revising paragraphs (a)(2) and (c) to read as follows: ■ § 121.418 Differences training and related aircraft differences training. (a) * * * (2) Differences training for all variations of a particular type airplane may be included in initial, transition, conversion, upgrade, and recurrent training for the airplane. * * * * * (c) Approved related aircraft differences training. Approved related aircraft differences training for flightcrew members may be included in initial, transition, conversion, upgrade and recurrent training for the base aircraft. If the certificate holder’s approved training program includes related aircraft differences training in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, the training required by §§ 121.419, 121.420, 121.424, 121.425, 121.426, and 121.427, as applicable to flightcrew members, may be modified for the related aircraft. ■ 18. Amend § 121.419 by: ■ a. Revising the section heading and paragraphs (a) introductory text and (b) introductory text; ■ b. Redesignating paragraphs (c) through (e) as paragraphs (d) through (f), respectively; ■ c. Adding new paragraph (c); ■ d. Revising newly redesignated paragraph (f)(2); and ■ e. Adding paragraph (g). The revisions and additions read as follows: E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations § 121.419 Pilots and flight engineers: Initial, transition, conversion and upgrade ground training. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, initial and conversion ground training for pilots and initial and transition ground training for flight engineers, must include instruction in at least the following as applicable to their assigned duties: * * * * * (b) Initial and conversion ground training for pilots who have completed the airline transport pilot certification training program in § 61.156 of this chapter, and transition ground training for pilots, must include instruction in at least the following as applicable to their assigned duties: * * * * * (c) Beginning on April 27, 2022, and in addition to the requirements in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, as applicable, initial ground training for pilots in command must include instruction and facilitated discussion on the following: (1) Leadership and command, including flightcrew member duties under § 121.542; and (2) Mentoring, including techniques for instilling and reinforcing the highest standards of technical performance, airmanship, and professionalism in newly hired pilots. * * * * * (f) * * * (2) Beginning March 12, 2019, initial programmed hours applicable to pilots as specified in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section must include 2 additional hours. (g) Before April 27, 2022, upgrade ground training must include either the instruction specified in paragraph (a) of this section or the instruction specified in § 121.420. Beginning on April 27, 2022, upgrade ground training must include the instruction specified in § 121.420. ■ 19. Add § 121.420 to read as follows: jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 § 121.420 Pilots: Upgrade ground training. (a) Upgrade ground training must include instruction in at least the following subjects as applicable to the duties assigned to the pilot in command: (1) Seat dependent procedures, as applicable; (2) Duty position procedures, as applicable; and (3) Crew resource management, including decision making, authority and responsibility, and conflict resolution. (b) In addition to the requirements in paragraph (a) of this section, upgrade VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 ground training must include instruction and facilitated discussion on the following: (1) Leadership and command, including flightcrew member duties under § 121.542; and (2) Mentoring, including techniques for reinforcing the highest standards of technical performance, airmanship, and professional development in newly hired pilots. (c) Compliance date: Beginning on April 27, 2022, upgrade ground training must satisfy the requirements of this section. § 121.423 [Amended] 20. Amend § 121.423 in the section heading by removing the word ‘‘Pilot’’ and adding in its place the word ‘‘Pilots’’. ■ 21. Amend § 121.424 by: ■ a. Revising the section heading and paragraph (a) introductory text; ■ b. Redesignating paragraphs (b) through (e) as paragraphs (c) through (f), respectively; ■ c. Adding new paragraph (b); ■ d. Revising newly redesignated paragraphs (c)(1) and (3), (d) introductory text, (e) introductory text, (e)(1)(i) and (ii), and (e)(2); and ■ e. Adding paragraph (g). The revisions and additions read as follows: ■ § 121.424 Pilots: Initial, transition, conversion, and upgrade flight training. (a) Initial, transition, and conversion flight training for pilots must include the following: * * * * * (b) Beginning on April 27, 2022, in addition to the requirements in paragraph (a) of this section, initial flight training for pilots in command must include sufficient scenario-based training incorporating CRM and leadership and command skills, to ensure the pilot’s proficiency as pilot in command. The training required by this paragraph may be completed inflight or in an FSTD. (c) * * * (1) That windshear maneuvers and procedures must be performed in an FFS in which the maneuvers and procedures are specifically authorized to be accomplished; * * * * * (3) To the extent that certain other maneuvers and procedures may be performed in an FFS, an FTD, or a static airplane as permitted in appendix E to this part. (d) Except as permitted in paragraph (e) of this section, the initial flight training required by paragraph (a)(1) of PO 00000 Frm 00029 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 10923 this section must include at least the following programmed hours of inflight training and practice unless reduced under § 121.405; * * * * * (e) If the certificate holder’s approved training program includes a course of training utilizing an FFS under § 121.409 (c) and (d) of this part, each pilot must successfully complete— (1) * * * (i) Training and practice in the FFS in at least all of the maneuvers and procedures set forth in appendix E of this part for initial flight training that are capable of being performed in an FFS; and (ii) A proficiency check in the FFS or the airplane to the level of proficiency of a pilot in command or second in command, as applicable, in at least the maneuvers and procedures set forth in appendix F of this part that are capable of being performed in an FFS. (2) With respect to § 121.409(d) of this part, training and practice in at least the maneuvers and procedures set forth in the certificate holder’s approved lowaltitude windshear flight training program that are capable of being performed in an FFS in which the maneuvers and procedures are specifically authorized. * * * * * (g) Before April 27, 2022, upgrade flight training must be provided in accordance with paragraphs (a), (c), (e), and (f), of this section or § 121.426. Beginning on April 27, 2022, upgrade flight training must be provided as specified in § 121.426. ■ 22. Amend § 121.425 as follows: ■ a. In paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2)(iii), remove the comma after the word ‘‘inflight’’ and remove the words ‘‘in an airplane simulator, or in a training device’’ and add in their place the words ‘‘or in an FSTD’’; ■ b. By redesignating paragraphs (b) and (c) as paragraphs (c) and (d), respectively; ■ c. By designating the undesignated paragraph that follows paragraph (a)(2)(iii) as paragraph (b) and revising it; ■ d. In newly redesignated paragraph (c), by removing the reference to ‘‘paragraph (c)’’ and adding in its place ‘‘paragraph (d)’’; ■ e. In newly redesignated paragraph (d) introductory text, by removing the words ‘‘airplane simulator or other training device’’ and adding in their place the word ‘‘FSTD’’ and removing the words ‘‘simulator or other training device’’ and adding in their place the word ‘‘FSTD’’. The revision reads as follows: E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 10924 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations § 121.425 Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training. * * * * * (b) Flight engineers possessing a commercial pilot certificate with an instrument, category and class rating, or pilots already qualified as second in command and reverting to flight engineer, may complete the entire flight check, required by paragraph (a)(2) of this section, in an approved FFS. * * * * * ■ 23. Add § 121.426 to read as follows: jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 § 121.426 Pilots: Upgrade flight training. (a) Upgrade flight training for pilots must include the following: (1) Seat dependent maneuvers and procedures, as applicable; (2) Duty position maneuvers and procedures, as applicable; (3) Extended envelope training set forth in § 121.423; (4) Maneuvers and procedures set forth in the certificate holder’s low altitude windshear flight training program; (5) Sufficient scenario-based training incorporating CRM and leadership and command skills, to ensure the pilot’s proficiency as pilot in command; and (6) Sufficient training to ensure the pilot’s knowledge and skill with respect to the following: (i) The airplane, its systems and components; (ii) Proper control of airspeed, configuration, direction, altitude, and attitude in accordance with the Airplane Flight Manual, the certificate holder’s operations manual, checklists, or other approved material appropriate to the airplane type; and (iii) Compliance with ATC, instrument procedures, or other applicable procedures. (b) The training required by paragraph (a) of this section must be performed inflight except— (1) That windshear maneuvers and procedures must be performed in an FFS in which the maneuvers and procedures are specifically authorized to be accomplished; (2) That the extended envelope training required by § 121.423 must be performed in a Level C or higher FFS unless the Administrator has issued to the certificate holder a deviation in accordance with § 121.423(e); and (3) To the extent that certain other maneuvers and procedures may be performed in an FFS, an FTD, or a static airplane as permitted in Appendix E of this part. (c) If the certificate holder’s approved training program includes a course of training utilizing an FFS under VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 § 121.409(c) and (d), each pilot must successfully complete— (1) With respect to § 121.409(c)—A proficiency check in the FFS or the airplane to the level of proficiency of a pilot in command in at least the maneuvers and procedures set forth in Appendix F of this part that are capable of being performed in an FFS. (2) With respect to § 121.409(d), training and practice in at least the maneuvers and procedures set forth in the certificate holder’s approved lowaltitude windshear flight training program that are capable of being performed in an FFS in which the maneuvers and procedures are specifically authorized. (d) Compliance dates: Beginning on April 27, 2022, upgrade flight training must satisfy the requirements of this section. ■ 24. Amend § 121.427 as follows: ■ a. Revise paragraphs (a), (b)(2) and (4), and (c); ■ b. Redesignate paragraphs (d) and (e) as paragraphs (e) and (f), respectively; ■ c. Add new paragraph (d); and ■ d. Revise newly redesignated paragraphs (e)(1)(ii), (e)(2)(ii), and (f)(1). The revisions and additions read as follows: § 121.427 Recurrent training. (a) Recurrent training must ensure that each crewmember or aircraft dispatcher is adequately trained and currently proficient with respect to the type airplane (including differences training, if applicable) and crewmember position involved. (b) * * * (2) Instruction as necessary in the following: (i) For pilots, the subjects required for ground training by §§ 121.415(a)(1), (3), and (4) and 121.419(b); (ii) For flight engineers, the subjects required for ground training by §§ 121.415(a)(1), (3), and (4) and 121.419(a); (iii) For flight attendants, the subjects required for ground training by §§ 121.415(a)(1), (3), and (4) and 121.421(a); and (iv) For aircraft dispatchers, the subjects required for ground training by §§ 121.415(a)(1) and (4) and 121.422(a). * * * * * (4) For crewmembers, CRM training and for aircraft dispatchers, DRM training. For flightcrew members, CRM training or portions thereof may be accomplished during an approved FFS line-oriented flight training (LOFT) session. (c) Recurrent ground training for crewmembers and aircraft dispatchers PO 00000 Frm 00030 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 must consist of at least the following programmed hours of instruction in the required subjects specified in paragraph (b) of this section unless reduced under § 121.405: (1) For pilots— (i) Group I reciprocating powered airplanes, 15 hours; (ii) Group I turbopropeller powered airplanes, 19 hours; and (iii) Group II airplanes, 24 hours. (2) For flight engineers— (i) Group I, reciprocating powered airplanes, 16 hours; (ii) Group I turbopropeller powered airplanes, 20 hours; and (iii) Group II airplanes, 25 hours. (3) For flight attendants— (i) Group I reciprocating powered airplanes, 4 hours; (ii) Group I turbopropeller powered airplanes, 5 hours; and (iii) Group II airplanes, 12 hours. (4) For aircraft dispatchers— (i) Group I reciprocating powered airplanes, 8 hours; (ii) Group I turbopropeller powered airplanes, 10 hours; and (iii) Group II airplanes, 20 hours. (d) Recurrent ground training for pilots serving as pilot in command: (1) Within 36 months preceding service as pilot in command, each person must complete recurrent ground training on leadership and command and mentoring. This training is in addition to the ground training required in paragraph (b) of this section and the programmed hours required in paragraph (c) of this section. This training must include instruction and facilitated discussion on the following: (i) Leadership and command, including instruction on flightcrew member duties under § 121.542; and (ii) Mentoring, including techniques for instilling and reinforcing the highest standards of technical performance, airmanship, and professionalism in newly hired pilots. (2) The requirements of paragraph (d)(1) do not apply until after a pilot has completed ground training on leadership and command and mentoring, as required by §§ 121.419, 121.420 and 121.429, as applicable. (e) * * * (1) * * * (ii) Flight training in an approved FFS in maneuvers and procedures set forth in the certificate holder’s approved lowaltitude windshear flight training program and flight training in maneuvers and procedures set forth in Appendix F of this part, or in a flight training program approved by the Administrator, except as follows— * * * * * E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations (2) * * * (ii) The flight check, other than the preflight inspection, may be conducted in an FSTD. The preflight inspection may be conducted in an airplane, or by using an approved pictorial means that realistically portrays the location and detail of preflight inspection items and provides for the portrayal of abnormal conditions. Satisfactory completion of an approved line-oriented flight training may be substituted for the flight check. (f) * * * (1) Compliance with the requirements identified in paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section is required no later than March 12, 2019. * * * * * ■ 25. Add § 121.429 to subpart N to read as follows: § 121.429 Pilots in command: Leadership and command and mentoring training. (a) Beginning on April 27, 2023, no certificate holder may use a pilot as pilot in command in an operation under this part unless the pilot has completed the following ground training in accordance with the certificate holder’s approved training program: (1) Leadership and command training in § 121.419(c)(1) and mentoring training in § 121.419(c)(2); or (2) Leadership and command training in § 121.420(b)(1) and mentoring training in § 121.420(b)(2). (b) Credit for training provided by the certificate holder: (1) The Administrator may credit leadership and command training and mentoring training completed by the pilot, with that certificate holder, after April 27, 2017, and prior to April 27, 2020, toward all or part of the training required by paragraph (a) of this section. (2) In granting credit for the training required by paragraph (a) of this section, the Administrator may consider training aids, devices, methods, and procedures used by the certificate holder in voluntary leadership and command and mentoring instruction. ■ 26. Amend § 121.431 by revising paragraph (a)(1) to read as follows: jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 § 121.431 Applicability. (a) * * * (1) Prescribes crewmember qualifications for all certificate holders except where otherwise specified; and * * * * * ■ 27. Amend § 121.432 by revising paragraph (a) to read as follows: § 121.432 General. (a) Except in the case of operating experience under § 121.434 and ground training for mentoring required by VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 §§ 121.419, 121.420, 121.427, and 121.429, as applicable, a pilot who serves as second in command of an operation that requires three or more pilots must be fully qualified to act as pilot in command of that operation. * * * * * ■ 28. Amend § 121.433 by revising paragraphs (a)(2) and (c)(2) to read as follows: § 121.433 Training required. (a) * * * (2) Crewmembers who have qualified and served as second in command or flight engineer on a particular type airplane may serve as pilot in command or second in command, respectively, upon completion of upgrade or conversion training, as applicable, for that airplane as provided in § 121.415. * * * * * (c) * * * (2) For pilots, a proficiency check as provided in § 121.441 of this part may be substituted for the recurrent flight training required by this paragraph and the approved FFS course of training under § 121.409(b) of this part may be substituted for alternate periods of recurrent flight training required in that airplane, except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section. * * * * * ■ 29. Amend § 121.434 by revising paragraph (b)(3), adding paragraph (b)(4), and revising paragraphs (c)(1)(ii) and (c)(3)(iii) to read as follows: § 121.434 Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. * * * * * (b) * * * (3) In the case of a pilot who satisfactorily completed the preflight visual inspection of an aircraft by approved pictorial means during an initial, transition, conversion, or upgrade proficiency check, the pilot must also demonstrate proficiency to a check pilot on at least one complete preflight visual inspection of the interior and exterior of a static airplane. This demonstration of proficiency must be completed by the pilot and certified by the check pilot before the completion of operating experience. (4) The experience must be acquired inflight during operations under this part. However, in the case of an aircraft not previously used by the certificate holder in operations under this part, operating experience acquired in the aircraft during proving flights or ferry flights may be used to meet this requirement. (c) * * * PO 00000 Frm 00031 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 10925 (1) * * * (ii) For a qualifying pilot in command completing initial or upgrade training specified in § 121.424 or § 121.426, be observed in the performance of prescribed duties by an FAA inspector during at least one flight leg which includes a takeoff and landing. During the time that a qualifying pilot in command is acquiring the operating experience in paragraphs (c)(l)(i) and (ii) of this section, a check pilot who is also serving as the pilot in command must occupy a pilot station. However, in the case of a transitioning pilot in command the check pilot serving as pilot in command may occupy the observer’s seat, if the transitioning pilot has made at least two takeoffs and landings in the type airplane used, and has satisfactorily demonstrated to the check pilot that he is qualified to perform the duties of a pilot in command of that type of airplane. * * * * * (3) * * * (iii) In the case of transition training where the certificate holder’s approved training program includes a course of training in an FFS under § 121.409(c), each pilot in command must comply with the requirements prescribed in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section for initial training. * * * * * ■ 30. Add § 121.435 to read as follows: § 121.435 Pilots: Operations Familiarization. (a) Applicability. The operations familiarization requirements in paragraph (b) of this section apply to all persons newly hired by the certificate holder to serve as a pilot in part 121 operations and who began the certificate holder’s basic indoctrination ground training on or after April 27, 2022. The requirements in paragraph (b) of this section also apply to all certificate holders required to comply with this subpart, except for those certificate holders operating under part 135 of this chapter that have been authorized to comply with this subpart instead of the requirements of part 135, subparts E, G, and H, pursuant to § 135.3(c), and those fractional ownership program managers operating under part 91, subpart K, of this chapter that have been authorized to comply with this subpart instead of §§ 91.1065 through 91.1107, pursuant to § 91.1063(b) of this chapter. (b) Operations familiarization requirements. (1) No certificate holder may use, and no person may serve as, a pilot in operations under this part unless that person has completed the operations familiarization required by E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 10926 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations this paragraph (b). Operations familiarization may be completed during or after basic indoctrination training, but must be completed before the pilot begins operating experience under § 121.434. (2) Operations familiarization must include at least two operating cycles conducted by the certificate holder in accordance with the operating rules of this part. (3) All pilots completing operations familiarization must occupy the observer seat on the flight deck and have access to and use an operational headset. (c) Deviation. (1) A certificate holder who operates an aircraft that does not have an observer seat on the flight deck may submit a request to the Administrator for approval of a deviation from the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (2) A request for deviation from any of the requirements in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section must include the following information: (i) The total number and types of aircraft operated by the certificate holder in operations under this part that do not have an observer seat on the flight deck; (ii) The total number and types of aircraft operated by the certificate holder in operations under this part that do have an observer seat on the flight deck; and (iii) Alternative methods for achieving the objectives of this section. (3) A certificate holder may request an extension of a deviation issued under this section. (4) Deviations or extensions to deviations will be issued for a period not to exceed 12 months. ■ 31. Amend § 121.439 as follows: ■ a. Revise paragraphs (a), (b) introductory text, and (b)(1); ■ b. Remove and reserve paragraph (c); and ■ c. Revise paragraphs (d), (e), and (f)(2)(ii). The revisions read as follows: jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 § 121.439 Pilot qualification: Recent experience. (a) No certificate holder may use any person nor may any person serve as a required pilot flightcrew member, unless within the preceding 90 days, that person has made at least three takeoffs and landings in the type airplane in which that person is to serve. The takeoffs and landings required by this paragraph may be performed in a Level B or higher FFS approved under § 121.407 to include takeoff and landing maneuvers. In addition, any person who fails to make VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 the three required takeoffs and landings within any consecutive 90-day period must re-establish recency of experience as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) In addition to meeting all applicable training and checking requirements of this part, a required pilot flightcrew member who has not met the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section must re-establish recency of experience as follows: (1) Under the supervision of a check airman, make at least three takeoffs and landings in the type airplane in which that person is to serve or in a Level B or higher FFS. * * * * * (d) When using an FFS to accomplish any of the requirements of paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section, each required flightcrew member position must be occupied by an appropriately qualified person, and the FFS must be operated as if in a normal inflight environment without use of the repositioning features of the FFS. (e) A check airman who observes the takeoffs and landings prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall certify that the person being observed is proficient and qualified to perform flight duty in operations under this part and may require any additional maneuvers that are determined necessary to make this certifying statement. (f) * * * (2) * * * (ii) The number of takeoffs, landings, maneuvers, and procedures necessary to maintain or re-establish recency based on review of the related aircraft, the operation, and the duty position. * * * * * ■ 32. Amend § 121.441 by revising paragraphs (a) introductory text, (a)(1)(i)(B), (a)(1)(ii)(B), (a)(2)(i) and (ii), and (c) through (e) to read as follows: § 121.441 Proficiency checks. (a) No certificate holder may use any person nor may any person serve as a required pilot flight crewmember unless that person has satisfactorily completed either a proficiency check, or an approved FFS course of training under § 121.409, as follows: (1) * * * (i) * * * (B) In addition, within the preceding 6 calendar months, either a proficiency check or the approved FFS course of training. (ii) * * * (B) In addition, within the preceding 6 calendar months, either a proficiency check or the approved FFS course of training. PO 00000 Frm 00032 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 (2) * * * (i) Within the preceding 24 calendar months either a proficiency check or the line-oriented flight training course under § 121.409; and (ii) Within the preceding 12 calendar months, either a proficiency check or any FFS training course under § 121.409 * * * * * (c) An approved FFS or FTD may be used in the conduct of a proficiency check as provided in appendix F to this part. (d) A person giving a proficiency check may, in his or her discretion, waive any of the maneuvers or procedures for which a specific waiver authority is set forth in Appendix F of this part if the conditions in paragraphs (d)(1) through (3) of this section are satisfied: (1) The Administrator has not specifically required the particular maneuver or procedure to be performed. (2) The pilot being checked is, at the time of the check, employed by a certificate holder as a pilot. (3) The pilot being checked meets one of the following conditions: (i) The pilot is currently qualified for operations under this part in the particular type airplane and flightcrew member position. (ii) The pilot has, within the preceding six calendar months, satisfactorily completed an approved training curriculum, except for an upgrade training curriculum in accordance with §§ 121.420 and 121.426, for the particular type airplane. (e) If the pilot being checked fails any of the required maneuvers, the person giving the proficiency check may give additional training to the pilot during the course of the proficiency check. In addition to repeating the maneuvers failed, the person giving the proficiency check may require the pilot being checked to repeat any other maneuvers he finds are necessary to determine the pilot’s proficiency. If the pilot being checked is unable to demonstrate satisfactory performance to the person conducting the check, the certificate holder may not use him nor may he serve in operations under this part until he has satisfactorily completed a proficiency check. * * * * * ■ 33. Revise appendix E to part 121 to read as follows: Appendix E to Part 121—Flight Training Requirements (a) The maneuvers and procedures required by § 121.424 for pilot initial, transition, and conversion flight training are set forth in the certificate holder’s approved E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations low-altitude windshear flight training program, § 121.423 extended envelope training, and in this appendix. The maneuvers and procedures required for upgrade training in accordance with § 121.424 are set forth in this appendix and in the certificate holder’s approved lowaltitude windshear flight training program and § 121.423 extended envelope training. For the maneuvers and procedures required for upgrade training in accordance with § 121.426, this appendix designates the airplane or FSTD, as appropriate, that may be used. (b) All required maneuvers and procedures must be performed inflight except that windshear and extended envelope training maneuvers and procedures must be performed in a full flight simulator (FFS) in which the maneuvers and procedures are specifically authorized to be accomplished. Certain other maneuvers and procedures may be performed in an FFS, an FTD, or a static airplane as indicated by the appropriate symbol in the respective column opposite the maneuver or procedure. (c) Whenever a maneuver or procedure is authorized to be performed in an FTD, it may be performed in an FFS, and in some cases, a static airplane. Whenever the requirement may be performed in either an FTD or a static airplane, the appropriate symbols are entered in the respective columns. jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Maneuvers/procedures Inflight As appropriate to the airplane and the operation involved, flight training for pilots must include the following maneuvers and procedures. I. Preflight: (a) Visual inspection of the exterior and interior of the airplane, the location of each item to be inspected, and the purpose for inspecting it. The visual inspection may be conducted using an approved pictorial means that realistically portrays the location and detail of visual inspection items and provides for the portrayal of normal and abnormal conditions. (b) Use of the prestart checklist, appropriate control system checks, starting procedures, radio and electronic equipment checks, and the selection of proper navigation and communications radio facilities and frequencies prior to flight. (c)(1) Before March 12, 2019, taxiing, sailing, and docking procedures in compliance with instructions issued by ATC or by the person conducting the training. (2) Taxiing. Beginning March 12, 2019, this maneuver includes the following: (i) Taxiing, sailing, and docking procedures in compliance with instructions issued by ATC or by the person conducting the training. (ii) Use of airport diagram (surface movement chart) ......................... (iii) Obtaining appropriate clearance before crossing or entering active runways. (iv) Observation of all surface movement guidance control markings and lighting. (d)(1) Before March 12, 2019, pre-takeoff checks that include powerplant checks. (2) Beginning March 12, 2019, pre-takeoff procedures that include powerplant checks, receipt of takeoff clearance and confirmation of aircraft location, and FMS entry (if appropriate) for departure runway prior to crossing hold short line for takeoff. II. Takeoffs: Training in takeoffs must include the types and conditions listed below but more than one type may be combined where appropriate: (a) Normal takeoffs which, for the purpose of this maneuver, begin when the airplane is taxied into position on the runway to be used. (b) Takeoffs with instrument conditions simulated at or before reaching an altitude of 100′ above the airport elevation. (c)(1) Crosswind takeoffs ................................................................................... (2) Beginning March 12, 2019, crosswind takeoffs including crosswind takeoffs with gusts if practicable under the existing meteorological, airport, and traffic conditions. (d) Takeoffs with a simulated failure of the most critical powerplant— (1) At a point after V1 and before V2 that in the judgment of the person conducting the training is appropriate to the airplane type under the prevailing conditions; or (2) At a point as close as possible after V1 when V1 and V2 or V1 and VR are identical; or (3) At the appropriate speed for nontransport category airplanes ............. (e) Rejected takeoffs accomplished during a normal takeoff run after reaching a reasonable speed determined by giving due consideration to aircraft characteristics, runway length, surface conditions, wind direction and velocity, brake heat energy, and any other pertinent factors that may adversely affect safety or the airplane. VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00033 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 (d) A Level B or higher FFS may be used instead of the airplane to satisfy the inflight requirements if the FFS is approved under § 121.407 and is used as part of an approved program that meets the requirements for an Advanced Simulation Training Program in Appendix H of this part. (e) For the purpose of this appendix, the following symbols mean— I = Pilot in Command (PIC) and Second in Command (SIC) initial training T = PIC and SIC transition training U = SIC to PIC upgrade training C = Flight engineer (FE) to SIC conversion training Static airplane FFS ..................... I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. ..................... I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. ..................... 10927 I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 FTD 10928 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Maneuvers/procedures Inflight (f) Night takeoffs. For pilots in transition training, this requirement may be met during the operating experience required under § 121.434 by performing a normal takeoff at night when a check airman serving as PIC is occupying a pilot station. III. Flight Maneuvers and Procedures: (a) Turns with and without spoilers .................................................................... (b) Tuck and Mach buffet ................................................................................... (c) Maximum endurance and maximum range procedures ............................... (d) Operation of systems and controls at the flight engineer station ................ (e) Runaway and jammed stabilizer .................................................................. (f) Normal and abnormal or alternate operation of the following systems and procedures: (1) Pressurization ........................................................................................ (2) Pneumatic .............................................................................................. (3) Air conditioning ...................................................................................... (4) Fuel and oil ............................................................................................ (5) Electrical ................................................................................................ (6) Hydraulic ................................................................................................ (7) Flight control .......................................................................................... (8) Anti-icing and deicing ............................................................................ (9) Autopilot ................................................................................................. (10) Automatic or other approach aids ....................................................... (11) Stall warning devices, stall avoidance devices, and stability augmentation devices. (12) Airborne radar devices ........................................................................ (13) Any other systems, devices, or aids available .................................... (14) Electrical, hydraulic, flight control, and flight instrument system malfunctioning or failure. (15) Landing gear and flap systems failure or malfunction ........................ (16) Failure of navigation or communications equipment .......................... (g) Flight emergency procedures that include at least the following: (1) Powerplant, heater, cargo compartment, cabin, flight deck, wing, and electrical fires. (2) Smoke control ........................................................................................ (3) Powerplant failures ................................................................................ (4) Fuel jettisoning ...................................................................................... (5) Any other emergency procedures outlined in the appropriate flight manual. (h) Steep turns in each direction. Each steep turn must involve a bank angle of 45° with a heading change of at least 180° but not more than 360°. This maneuver is not required for Group I transition training. (i) Stall Prevention. For the purpose of this training the approved recovery procedure must be initiated at the first indication of an impending stall (buffet, stick shaker, aural warning). Stall prevention training must be conducted in at least the following configurations: (1) Takeoff configuration (except where the airplane uses only a zeroflap takeoff configuration). (2) Clean configuration ................................................................................ (3) Landing configuration ............................................................................ (j) Recovery from specific flight characteristics that are peculiar to the airplane type. (k) Instrument procedures that include the following: (1) Area departure and arrival .................................................................... (2) Use of navigation systems including adherence to assigned radials ... (3) Holding ................................................................................................... (l) ILS instrument approaches that include the following: (1) Normal ILS approaches ......................................................................... (2) Manually controlled ILS approaches with a simulated failure of one powerplant which occurs before initiating the final approach course and continues to touchdown or through the missed approach procedure. (m) Instrument approaches and missed approaches other than ILS which include the following: (1) Nonprecision approaches that the pilot is likely to use ........................ (2) In addition to subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, at least one other nonprecision approach and missed approach procedure that the pilot is likely to use. VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00034 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 Static airplane FFS FTD I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... I, I, I, I, I, ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C ..... I, T, U, C ..... I, T, U, C ..... I, T, U, C ..... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C ..... I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C ..... ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. ..................... I, T, U, C ..... ..................... I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C ..... ..................... I, T, U, C ..... ..................... ..................... I, T ............... ..................... I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. U, C. I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. I ................... ..................... T, U, C. ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... U, C ............. I, T, U, C. E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 T, T, T, T, T, U, U, U, U. U, C. C. C. C. I, I, I, I, I, I, I, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, U, U, U, U, U, U, U, C. C. C. C. C. C. C. I, T, U, C. I, T. 10929 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Maneuvers/procedures Inflight jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 In connection with paragraphs III(l) and III(m), each instrument approach must be performed according to any procedures and limitations approved for the approach facility used. The instrument approach begins when the airplane is over the initial approach fix for the approach procedure being used (or turned over to the final approach controller in the case of GCA approach) and ends when the airplane touches down on the runway or when transition to a missed approach configuration is completed. (n) Circling approaches which include the following: (1) That portion of the circling approach to the authorized minimum altitude for the procedure being used must be made under simulated instrument conditions. (2) The circling approach must be made to the authorized minimum circling approach altitude followed by a change in heading and the necessary maneuvering (by visual reference) to maintain a flight path that permits a normal landing on a runway at least 90° from the final approach course of the simulated instrument portion of the approach. (3) The circling approach must be performed without excessive maneuvering, and without exceeding the normal operating limits of the airplane. The angle of bank should not exceed 30°. Training in the circling approach maneuver is not required if the certificate holder’s manual prohibits a circling approach in weather conditions below 1000–3 (ceiling and visibility). (o) Zero-flap approaches. Training in this maneuver is not required for a particular airplane type if the Administrator has determined that the probability of flap extension failure on that type airplane is extremely remote due to system design. In making this determination, the Administrator determines whether training on slats only and partial flap approaches is necessary. (p) Missed approaches which include the following: (1) Missed approaches from ILS approaches ............................................ (2) Other missed approaches ..................................................................... (3) Missed approaches that include a complete approved missed approach procedure. (4) Missed approaches that include a powerplant failure ........................... IV. Landings and Approaches to Landings: Training in landings and approaches to landings must include the types and conditions listed below but more than one type may be combined where appropriate: (a) Normal landings ............................................................................................ (b) Landing and go around with the horizontal stabilizer out of trim ................. (c) Landing in sequence from an ILS instrument approach .............................. (d)(1) Crosswind landing .................................................................................... (2) Beginning March 12, 2019, crosswind landing, including crosswind landings with gusts if practicable under the existing meteorological, airport, and traffic conditions. (e) Maneuvering to a landing with simulated powerplant failure, as follows: (1) For 3-engine airplanes, maneuvering to a landing with an approved procedure that approximates the loss of two powerplants (center and one outboard engine). (2) For other multiengine airplanes, maneuvering to a landing with a simulated failure of 50 percent of available powerplants with the simulated loss of power on one side of the airplane. (f) Landing under simulated circling approach conditions (exceptions under III(n) applicable to this requirement). (g) Rejected landings that include a normal missed approach procedure after the landing is rejected. For the purpose of this maneuver the landing should be rejected at approximately 50 feet and approximately over the runway threshold. (h) Zero-flap landings if the Administrator finds that maneuver appropriate for training in the airplane. (i) Manual reversion ........................................................................................... (j) Night landings. For pilots in transition training, this requirement may be met during the operating experience required under § 121.434 by performing a normal landing at night when a check airman serving as PIC is occupying a pilot station. 34. Revise appendix F to part 121 to read as follows: ■ 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 Frm 00035 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 FTD I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. I, C .............. ..................... T, U. ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... I, T, U, C. ..................... ..................... T .................. T, U, C. I, C .............. ..................... T, U. I, C .............. ..................... T, U. I ................... ..................... T, U, C. I ................... ..................... T, U, C. I, C .............. ..................... T, U. ..................... I, T, U, C. ..................... I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. I, C .............. I ................... I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. Appendix F to Part 121—Proficiency Check Requirements PO 00000 FFS I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. (a) The maneuvers and procedures required by § 121.441 for pilot proficiency checks are set forth in this appendix. Except VerDate Sep<11>2014 Static airplane I, T, U, C. I, T, U, C. U. for the equipment examination, these maneuvers and procedures must be performed inflight. Certain maneuvers and procedures may be performed in an FFS or an FTD as indicated by the appropriate E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 10930 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations symbol in the respective column opposite the maneuver or procedure. (b) Whenever a maneuver or procedure is authorized to be performed in an FTD, it may be performed in an FFS. (c) A Level B or higher FFS may be used instead of the airplane to satisfy the inflight requirements if the FFS is approved under § 121.407 and is used as part of an approved program that meets the requirements for an Advanced Simulation Training Program in Appendix H of this part. (d) For the purpose of this appendix, the following symbols mean— B = Both Pilot in Command (PIC) and Second in Command (SIC). W = May be waived for both PIC and SIC, except during a proficiency check conducted to qualify a PIC after completing an upgrade training curriculum in accordance with §§ 121.420 and 121.426. * = A symbol and asterisk (B* or W*) indicates that a particular condition is specified in the maneuvers and procedures column. # = When a maneuver is preceded by this symbol it indicates the maneuver may be required in the airplane at the discretion of the person conducting the check. (e) Throughout the maneuvers and procedures prescribed in this appendix, good judgment commensurate with a high level of safety must be demonstrated. In determining whether such judgment has been shown, the person conducting the check considers adherence to approved procedures, actions based on analysis of situations for which there is no prescribed procedure or recommended practice, and qualities of prudence and care in selecting a course of action. Required jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Maneuvers/procedures The procedures and maneuvers set forth in this appendix must be performed in a manner that satisfactorily demonstrates knowledge and skill with respect to—. (1) The airplane, its systems and components; (2) Proper control of airspeed, configuration, direction, altitude, and attitude in accordance with procedures and limitations contained in the approved Airplane Flight Manual, the certificate holder’s operations manual, checklists, or other approved material appropriate to the airplane type; and (3) Compliance with approach, ATC, or other applicable procedures. I. Preflight: (a) Equipment examination (oral or written). As part of the proficiency check the equipment examination must be closely coordinated with, and related to, the flight maneuvers portion but may not be given during the flight maneuvers portion. The equipment examination must cover— (1) Subjects requiring a practical knowledge of the airplane, its powerplants, systems, components, operational and performance factors; (2) Normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures, and the operations and limitations relating thereto; and. (3) The appropriate provisions of the approved Airplane Flight Manual. The person conducting the check may accept, as equal to this equipment examination, an equipment examination given to the pilot in the certificate holder’s ground training within the preceding 6 calendar months. (b) Preflight inspection. The pilot must— (1) Conduct an actual visual inspection of the exterior and interior of the airplane, locating each item and explaining briefly the purpose for inspecting it. The visual inspection may be conducted using an approved pictorial means that realistically portrays the location and detail of visual inspection items and provides for the portrayal of normal and abnormal conditions. If a flight engineer is a required flightcrew member for the particular type airplane, the visual inspection may be waived under § 121.441(d) ....... (2) Demonstrate the use of the prestart checklist, appropriate control system checks, starting procedures, radio and electronic equipment checks, and the selection of proper navigation and communications radio facilities and frequencies prior to flight ................................................... (c)(1) Taxiing. Before March 12, 2019, this maneuver includes taxiing, sailing, or docking procedures in compliance with instructions issued by ATC or by the person conducting the check. SIC proficiency checks for a type rating must include taxiing. However, other SIC proficiency checks need only include taxiing to the extent practical from the seat position assigned to the SIC ...................................................................... VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00036 Permitted Simulated instrument conditions Inflight FFS FTD Waiver provisions of § 121.441(d) .................... .................... .................... B W* .................... .................... .................... B .................... B Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Required jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Maneuvers/procedures (c)(2) Taxiing. Beginning March 12, 2019, this maneuver includes the following: (i) Taxiing, sailing, or docking procedures in compliance with instructions issued by ATC or by the person conducting the check. (ii) Use of airport diagram (surface movement chart). (iii) Obtaining appropriate clearance before crossing or entering active runways. (iv) Observation of all surface movement guidance control markings and lighting. SIC proficiency checks for a type rating must include taxiing. However, other SIC proficiency checks need only include taxiing to the extent practical from the seat position assigned to the SIC .................................................................................. (d)(1) Powerplant checks. As appropriate to the airplane type ... (d)(2) Beginning March 12, 2019, pre-takeoff procedures that include powerplant checks, receipt of takeoff clearance and confirmation of aircraft location, and FMS entry (if appropriate), for departure runway prior to crossing hold short line for takeoff .................................................................................. II. Takeoff: Takeoffs must include the types listed below, but more than one type may be combined where appropriate: (a) Normal. One normal takeoff which, for the purpose of this maneuver, begins when the airplane is taxied into position on the runway to be used .............................................................. (b) Instrument. One takeoff with instrument conditions simulated at or before reaching an altitude of 100′ above the airport elevation ......................................................................................... (c)(1) Crosswind. Before March 12, 2019, one crosswind takeoff, if practicable, under the existing meteorological, airport, and traffic conditions ................................................................. (c)(2) Beginning March 12, 2019, one crosswind takeoff with gusts, if practicable, under the existing meteorological, airport, and traffic conditions ......................................................... #(d) Powerplant failure. One takeoff with a simulated failure of the most critical powerplant— (1) At a point after V1 and before V2 that in the judgment of the person conducting the check is appropriate to the airplane type under the prevailing conditions; ................... (2) At a point as close as possible after V1 when V1 and V2 or V1 and Vr are identical; or ....................................... (3) At the appropriate speed for nontransport category airplanes ................................................................................. (e) Rejected. A rejected takeoff may be performed in an airplane during a normal takeoff run after reaching a reasonable speed determined by giving due consideration to aircraft characteristics, runway length, surface conditions, wind direction and velocity, brake heat energy, and any other pertinent factors that may adversely affect safety or the airplane .......... III. Instrument procedures: (a) Area departure and area arrival. During each of these maneuvers the pilot must— (1) Adhere to actual or simulated ATC clearances (including assigned radials); and .................................................. (2) Properly use available navigation facilities ...................... Either area arrival or area departure, but not both, may be waived under § 121.441(d). (b) Holding. This maneuver includes entering, maintaining, and leaving holding patterns. It may be performed in connection with either area departure or area arrival ................................. (c) ILS and other instrument approaches. There must be the following: (1) At least one normal ILS approach ................................... (2) At least one manually controlled ILS approach with a simulated failure of one powerplant. The simulated failure should occur before initiating the final approach course and must continue to touchdown or through the missed approach procedure ........................................................... (3) At least one nonprecision approach procedure using a type of nonprecision approach procedure that the certificate holder is approved to use .......................................... VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00037 Permitted Simulated instrument conditions Inflight FFS .................... .................... B .................... B .................... .................... B .................... B* B .................... .................... B* .................... B* .................... .................... B .................... .................... B .................... .................... B .................... .................... B .................... .................... B Fmt 4701 10931 FTD Waiver provisions of § 121.441(d) B* .................... W .................... B .................... W* B B .................... .................... B B B .................... B .................... W B .................... B B B B .................... Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM B* B 25FER3 10932 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Required jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Maneuvers/procedures (4) At least one nonprecision approach procedure using a different type of nonprecision approach procedure than performed under subparagraph (3) of this paragraph that the certificate holder is approved to use ........................... (5) For each type of EFVS operation the certificate holder is authorized to conduct, at least one instrument approach must be made using an EFVS .............................. Each instrument approach must be performed according to any procedures and limitations approved for the approach procedure used. The instrument approach begins when the airplane is over the initial approach fix for the approach procedure being used (or turned over to the final approach controller in the case of GCA approach) and ends when the airplane touches down on the runway or when transition to a missed approach configuration is completed. Instrument conditions need not be simulated below 100′ above touchdown zone elevation. (d) Circling approaches. If the certificate holder is approved for circling minimums below 1000–3 (ceiling and visibility), at least one circling approach must be made under the following conditions— (1) The portion of the approach to the authorized minimum circling approach altitude must be made under simulated instrument conditions ......................................................... (2) The approach must be made to the authorized minimum circling approach altitude followed by a change in heading and the necessary maneuvering (by visual reference) to maintain a flight path that permits a normal landing on a runway at least 90° from the final approach course of the simulated instrument portion of the approach ................................................................................ (3) The circling approach must be performed without excessive maneuvering, and without exceeding the normal operating limits of the airplane. The angle of bank should not exceed 30° ................................................................... If local conditions beyond the control of the pilot prohibit the maneuver or prevent it from being performed as required, it may be waived as provided in § 121.441(d). However, the maneuver may not be waived under this provision for two successive proficiency checks. Except for a SIC proficiency check for a type rating, the circling approach maneuver is not required for a SIC if the certificate holder’s manual prohibits a SIC from performing a circling approach in operations under this part. (e) Missed approach. (1) At least one missed approach from an ILS approach ..... (2) At least one additional missed approach for SIC proficiency checks for a type rating and for all PIC proficiency checks ................................................................... A complete approved missed approach procedure must be accomplished at least once. At the discretion of the person conducting the check a simulated powerplant failure may be required during any of the missed approaches. These maneuvers may be performed either independently or in conjunction with maneuvers required under Sections III or V of this appendix. At least one missed approach must be performed inflight. IV. Inflight Maneuvers: (a) Steep turns. For SIC proficiency checks for a type rating and for all PIC proficiency checks, at least one steep turn in each direction must be performed. Each steep turn must involve a bank angle of 45° with a heading change of at least 180° but not more than 360° .................................................... (b) Stall Prevention. For the purpose of this maneuver the approved recovery procedure must be initiated at the first indication of an impending stall (buffet, stick shaker, aural warning). Except as provided below there must be at least three stall prevention recoveries as follows: ...................................... (1) Takeoff configuration (except where the airplane uses only a zero-flap takeoff configuration) ............................... (2) Clean configuration .......................................................... (3) Landing configuration ....................................................... VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00038 Permitted Simulated instrument conditions Inflight FFS FTD B .................... .................... B B B* .................... .................... B* .................... B .................... B* .................... .................... B* .................... .................... B* .................... .................... B* .................... .................... B* B .................... B B .................... B B B B .................... .................... .................... B B B Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 Waiver provisions of § 121.441(d) W* W .................... W* Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Required jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 Maneuvers/procedures At the discretion of the person conducting the check, one stall prevention recovery must be performed in one of the above configurations while in a turn with the bank angle between 15° and 30°. Two out of the three stall prevention recoveries required by this paragraph may be waived. If the certificate holder is authorized to dispatch or flight release the airplane with a stall warning device inoperative the device may not be used during this maneuver. (c) Specific flight characteristics. Recovery from specific flight characteristics that are peculiar to the airplane type ................ (d) Powerplant failures. In addition to specific requirements for maneuvers with simulated powerplant failures, the person conducting the check may require a simulated powerplant failure at any time during the check ......................................... V. Landings and Approaches to Landings: Notwithstanding the authorizations for combining and waiving maneuvers and for the use of an FFS, at least two actual landings (one to a full stop) must be made for all PIC proficiency checks, all initial SIC proficiency checks, and all SIC proficiency checks for a type rating. Landings and approaches to landings must include the types listed below, but more than one type may be combined where appropriate: (a) Normal landing ........................................................................ (b) Landing in sequence from an ILS instrument approach except that if circumstances beyond the control of the pilot prevent an actual landing, the person conducting the check may accept an approach to a point where in his judgment a landing to a full stop could have been made .................................. (c)(1) Crosswind landing, if practical under existing meteorological, airport, and traffic conditions ............................................. (c)(2) Beginning March 12, 2019, crosswind landing with gusts, if practical under existing meteorological, airport, and traffic conditions .................................................................................. (d) Maneuvering to a landing with simulated powerplant failure as follows: (1) In the case of 3-engine airplanes, maneuvering to a landing with an approved procedure that approximates the loss of two powerplants (center and one outboard engine); or .............................................................................. (2) In the case of other multiengine airplanes, maneuvering to a landing with a simulated failure of 50 percent of available powerplants, with the simulated loss of power on one side of the airplane ................................................ Notwithstanding the requirements of subparagraphs (d) (1) and (2) of this paragraph, for an SIC proficiency check, except for an SIC proficiency check for a type rating, the simulated loss of power may be only the most critical powerplant. In addition, a PIC may omit the maneuver required by subparagraph (d)(1) or (d)(2) of this paragraph during a required proficiency check or FFS course of training if he satisfactorily performed that maneuver during the preceding proficiency check, or during the preceding approved FFS course of training under the observation of a check airman, whichever was completed later. (e) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, if the certificate holder is approved for circling minimums below 1000–3 (ceiling and visibility), a landing under simulated circling approach conditions. However, when performed in an airplane, if circumstances beyond the control of the pilot prevent a landing, the person conducting the check may accept an approach to a point where, in his judgment, a landing to a full stop could have been made ................................................ #(f) A rejected landing, including a normal missed approach procedure, that is rejected approximately 50′ over the runway and approximately over the runway threshold. This maneuver may be combined with instrument, circling, or missed approach procedures, but instrument conditions need not be simulated below 100 feet above the runway ............................ VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 PO 00000 Frm 00039 10933 Permitted Simulated instrument conditions Inflight FFS FTD Waiver provisions of § 121.441(d) .................... .................... B .................... W .................... .................... B .................... B .................... B* .................... B* .................... B* .................... .................... B* .................... .................... B* .................... .................... B* .................... .................... B Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 10934 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations Required Maneuvers/procedures (g) If the certificate holder is authorized to conduct EFVS operations to touchdown and rollout, at least one instrument approach to a landing must be made using an EFVS, including the use of enhanced flight vision from 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation to touchdown and rollout ............... (h) If the certificate holder is authorized to conduct EFVS operations to 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation, at least one instrument approach to a landing must be made using an EFVS, including the transition from enhanced flight vision to natural vision at 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation .................................................................................... VI. Normal and Abnormal Procedures: Each pilot must demonstrate the proper use of as many of the systems and devices listed below as the person conducting the check finds are necessary to determine that the person being checked has a practical knowledge of the use of the systems and devices appropriate to the airplane type: (a) Anti-icing and deicing systems ............................................... (b) Autopilot systems .................................................................... (c) Automatic or other approach aid systems .............................. (d) Stall warning devices, stall avoidance devices, and stability augmentation devices ............................................................... (e) Airborne radar devices ............................................................ (f) Any other systems, devices, or aids available ........................ (g) Hydraulic and electrical system failures and malfunctions ..... (h) Landing gear and flap systems failure or malfunction ............ (i) Failure of navigation or communications equipment ............... VII. Emergency Procedures: Each pilot must demonstrate the proper emergency procedures for as many of the emergency situations listed below as the person conducting the check finds are necessary to determine that the person being checked has an adequate knowledge of, and ability to perform, such procedure: (a) Fire in flight ............................................................................. (b) Smoke control ......................................................................... (c) Rapid decompression .............................................................. (d) Emergency descent ................................................................ (e) Any other emergency procedures outlined in the approved Airplane Flight Manual .............................................................. 35. Revise appendix H to part 121 to read as follows: ■ Appendix H to Part 121—Advanced Simulation jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 This appendix prescribes criteria for use of Level B or higher FFSs to satisfy the inflight requirements of Appendices E and F of this part and the requirements of § 121.439. The criteria in this appendix are in addition to the FFS approval requirements in § 121.407. Each FFS used under this appendix must be approved as a Level B, C, or D FFS, as appropriate. Advanced Simulation Training Program For a certificate holder to conduct Level C or D training under this appendix all required FFS instruction and checks must be conducted under an advanced simulation training program approved by the Administrator for the certificate holder. This program must also ensure that all instructors and check airmen used in Appendix H training and checking are highly qualified to provide the training required in the training program. The advanced simulation training program must include the following: VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 Permitted Simulated instrument conditions Inflight B B* B B* .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... B B B .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... B B B .................... .................... B .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... B B B B .................... .................... B 1. The certificate holder’s initial, transition, conversion, upgrade, and recurrent FFS training programs and its procedures for re-establishing recency of experience in the FFS. 2. How the training program will integrate Level B, C, and D FFSs with other FSTDs to maximize the total training, checking, and certification functions. 3. Documentation that each instructor and check airman has served for at least 1 year in that capacity in a certificate holder’s approved program or has served for at least 1 year as a pilot in command or second in command in an airplane of the group in which that pilot is instructing or checking. 4. A procedure to ensure that each instructor and check airman actively participates in either an approved regularly scheduled line flying program as a flightcrew member or an approved line observation program in the same airplane type for which that person is instructing or checking. 5. A procedure to ensure that each instructor and check airman is given a minimum of 4 hours of training each year to become familiar with the certificate holder’s advanced simulation training program, or changes to it, and to emphasize their PO 00000 Frm 00040 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 FFS FTD Waiver provisions of § 121.441(d) B B respective roles in the program. Training for instructors and check airmen must include training policies and procedures, instruction methods and techniques, operation of FFS controls (including environmental and trouble panels), limitations of the FFS, and minimum equipment required for each course of training. 6. A special Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) program to facilitate the transition from the FFS to line flying. This LOFT program must consist of at least a 4-hour course of training for each flightcrew. It also must contain at least two representative flight segments of the certificate holder’s operations. One of the flight segments must contain strictly normal operating procedures from push back at one airport to arrival at another. Another flight segment must contain training in appropriate abnormal and emergency flight operations. After March 12, 2019, the LOFT must provide an opportunity for the pilot to demonstrate workload management and pilot monitoring skills. E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / Rules and Regulations FFS Training, Checking and Qualification Permitted 1. Level B FFS a. Recent experience (§ 121.439). b. Training in night takeoffs and landings (Appendix E of this part). c. Except for EFVS operations, landings in a proficiency check (Appendix F of this part). 2. Level C and D FFS a. Recent experience (§ 121.439). b. All pilot flight training and checking required by this part except the following: i. The operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills requirements of § 121.434; ii. The line check required by § 121.440; and iii. The visual inspection of the exterior and interior of the airplane required by appendices E and F. c. The practical test requirements of § 61.153(h) of this chapter, except the visual inspection of the exterior and interior of the airplane. PART 135—OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT 36. The authority citation for part 135 continues to read as follows: jbell on DSKJLSW7X2PROD with RULES3 ■ VerDate Sep<11>2014 21:31 Feb 24, 2020 Jkt 250001 Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 41706, 44701–44702, 44705, 44709, 44711– 44713, 44715–44717, 44722, 44730, 45101– 45105; Pub. L. 112–95, 126 Stat. 58 (49 U.S.C. 44730). 37. Amend § 135.3 by adding paragraph (d) to read as follows: ■ § 135.3 Rules applicable to operations subject to this part. * * * * * (d) Additional limitations applicable to certificate holders that are required by paragraph (b) of this section or authorized in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section, to comply with part 121, subparts N and O of this chapter instead of subparts E, G, and H of this part. (1) Upgrade training. (i) Each certificate holder must include in upgrade ground training for pilots, instruction in at least the subjects identified in § 121.419(a) of this chapter, as applicable to their assigned duties; and, for pilots serving in crews of two or more pilots, beginning on April 27, 2022, instruction and facilitated discussion in the subjects identified in § 121.419(c) of this chapter. (ii) Each certificate holder must include in upgrade flight training for pilots, flight training for the maneuvers and procedures required in § 121.424(a), PO 00000 Frm 00041 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 9990 10935 (c), (e), and (f) of this chapter; and, for pilots serving in crews of two or more pilots, beginning on April 27, 2022, the flight training required in § 121.424(b) of this chapter. (2) Initial and recurrent leadership and command and mentoring training. Certificate holders are not required to include leadership and command training in §§ 121.409(b)(2)(ii)(B)(6), 121.419(c)(1), 121.424(b) and 121.427(d)(1) of this chapter and mentoring training in §§ 121.419(c)(2) and 121.427(d)(1) of this chapter in initial and recurrent training for pilots in command who serve in operations that use only one pilot. (3) One-time leadership and command and mentoring training. Section 121.429 of this chapter does not apply to certificate holders conducting operations under this part when those operations use only one pilot. Issued under authority provided by 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 44701(a), and Sec. 206 of Public Law 111–216, 124 Stat. 2348 (49 U.S.C. 44701 note) in Washington, DC, on January 13, 2020. Steve Dickson, Administrator. [FR Doc. 2020–01111 Filed 2–24–20; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–13–P E:\FR\FM\25FER3.SGM 25FER3

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 85, Number 37 (Tuesday, February 25, 2020)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 10896-10935]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2020-01111]



[[Page 10895]]

Vol. 85

Tuesday,

No. 37

February 25, 2020

Part IV





 Department of Transportation





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Federal Aviation Administration





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14 CFR Parts 61, 91, 121, and 135





 Pilot Professional Development; Final Rule

Federal Register / Vol. 85 , No. 37 / Tuesday, February 25, 2020 / 
Rules and Regulations

[[Page 10896]]


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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Parts 61, 91, 121, and 135

[Docket No.: FAA-2014-0504; Amdt. Nos.: 61-144; 91-356; 121-382; and 
135-142]
RIN 2120-AJ87


Pilot Professional Development

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION: Final rule.

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SUMMARY: This action amends the requirements primarily applicable to 
air carriers conducting domestic, flag, and supplemental operations to 
enhance the professional development of pilots in those operations. 
This action requires air carriers conducting domestic, flag, and 
supplemental operations to provide new-hire pilots with an opportunity 
to observe flight operations and become familiar with procedures before 
serving as a flightcrew member in operations; to revise the upgrade 
curriculum; and to provide leadership and command and mentoring 
training for all pilots in command. This final rule will mitigate 
incidents of unprofessional pilot behavior and reduce pilot errors that 
can lead to a catastrophic event.

DATES: Effective April 27, 2020. The compliance date for the 
requirements in Sec. Sec.  91.1063(b)(2), 121.419(c) and (g), 121.420, 
121.424(b) and (g), 121.426, 121.435, and 135.3(d)(1) is April 27, 
2022. The compliance date for the requirements in Sec.  121.429 is 
April 27, 2023.

ADDRESSES: For information on where to obtain copies of rulemaking 
documents and other information related to this final rule, see ``How 
To Obtain Additional Information'' in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION 
section of this document.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sheri Pippin, Air Transportation 
Division (AFS-200), Flight Standards Service, Federal Aviation 
Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20591; 
telephone: (202) 267-8166; email: [email protected].

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Contents

I. Executive Summary
II. Authority for This Rulemaking
III. Background
    A. Statement of the Problem
    B. Related FAA Actions
    C. National Transportation Safety Board Recommendations
IV. Discussion of Public Comments and Final Rule
    A. General
    B. Applicability
    C. Effective Date and Compliance Date
    D. Operations Familiarization (Sec.  121.435)
    E. PIC Leadership and Command Training
    1. General
    2. Distance Instruction
    F. PIC Mentoring Training
    G. SIC to PIC Upgrade (Sec. Sec.  121.420 and 121.426)
    1. Performance-Based Curriculum
    2. Revised Upgrade Curriculum Requirements
    3. Upgrade Proficiency Check Requirements
    4. Effect of Revised Upgrade Curriculum on Recurrent Training
    H. Training for Pilots Currently Serving as PIC (Sec.  121.429)
    I. Recurrent PIC Leadership and Command and Mentoring Training 
(Sec. Sec.  121.409(b) and 121.427)
    J. Leadership and Command Training and Mentoring Training for 
SICs Serving in Operations That Require Three or More Pilots
    K. Pilot Professional Development Committee (Proposed Sec.  
121.17)
    L. Pilot Recurrent Ground Training Content and Programmed Hours 
(Sec.  121.427)
    M. Part 135 Operators and Part 91 Subpart K Program Managers 
Complying With Part 121, Subparts N and O
    N. Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD) Conforming Changes
    O. SIC Training and Checking Conforming Changes
    P. Other Conforming and Miscellaneous Changes
    Q. Costs and Benefits
    R. Other Out-of-Scope Comments
V. Regulatory Notices and Analyses
    A. Regulatory Evaluation
    B. Regulatory Flexibility Determination
    C. International Trade Impact Assessment
    D. Unfunded Mandates Assessment
    E. Paperwork Reduction Act
    F. International Compatibility and Cooperation
    G. Environmental Analysis
VI. Executive Order Determinations
    A. Executive Order 13132, Federalism
    B. Executive Order 13211, Regulations That Significantly Affect 
Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use
    C. Executive Order 13609, Promoting International Regulatory 
Cooperation
    D. Executive Order 13771, Reducing Regulation and Controlling 
Regulatory Costs
VII. How To Obtain Additional Information
    A. Rulemaking Documents
    B. Comments Submitted to the Docket
    C. Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act

List of Abbreviations and Acronyms Frequently Used in This Document

AC Advisory Circular
ACSPT ARC Air Carrier Safety and Pilot Training Aviation Rulemaking 
Committee
AQP Advanced Qualification Program
ARC Aviation Rulemaking Committee
ATP Airline Transport Pilot
ATP-CTP Airline Transport Pilot Certification Training Program
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CRM Crew Resource Management
FFS Full Flight Simulator
FSTD Flight Simulation Training Device
FTD Flight Training Device
InFO Information for Operators
LOFT Line-Oriented Flight Training
MLP ARC Flight Crewmember Mentoring, Leadership, and Professional 
Development Aviation Rulemaking Committee
NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
OF Operations Familiarization
PIC Pilot in Command
PDSC Professional Development Steering Committee
PPDC Pilot Professional Development Committee
SAFO Safety Alert for Operators
SIC Second in Command
SOP Standard Operating Procedures
THRR ARC Flightcrew Member Training Hours Requirement Review 
Aviation Rulemaking Committee
91K Part 91, subpart K of 14 CFR.

I. Executive Summary

    On October 7, 2016, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) 
published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to propose amendments 
to requirements for air carriers and pilots operating under part 121 to 
enhance the professional development of part 121 pilots.\1\ The 
proposed amendments included additional air carrier training for pilots 
in command (PIC), additional air carrier qualification for newly hired 
pilots, and a requirement for air carriers to establish and maintain a 
pilot professional development committee to develop, administer, and 
oversee formal pilot mentoring programs. The comment period for the 
NPRM closed on January 5, 2017, and the FAA received 44 unique 
comments. Only two of the comments opposed the rule, and 22 comments 
supported the rule without change. Twelve comments supported the rule 
generally but suggested changes. After review of the comments, the FAA 
is issuing this final rule, which contains a number of changes from the 
NPRM, to enhance the professional development of part 121 pilots. Table 
1, Summary of Final Rule Provisions, provides additional detail 
regarding the final rule provisions incorporated into part 121.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \1\ 81 FR 69908.

[[Page 10897]]



                Table 1--Summary of Final Rule Provisions
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 Summary of NPRM     Major changes from
          Provision                 provision               NPRM
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Operations familiarization     Operations    Adds
 for new-hire pilots (Sec.     familiarization       requirement that
 121.435).                     must include a        operations
                               minimum of 2          familiarization may
                               operating cycles. A   be completed during
                               new-hire pilot        or after basic
                               completing            indoctrination
                               operations            training, but must
                               familiarization       be completed before
                               must occupy the       beginning operating
                               flight deck           experience.
                               observer seat.
Upgrade training curriculum    Upgrade       No changes.
 requirements (Sec.  Sec.      ground and flight
 121.420 and 121.426).         training
                               requirements have
                               been updated based
                               on the
                               qualification and
                               experience that all
                               upgrading pilots
                               now have as a
                               result of the Pilot
                               Certification and
                               Qualification
                               Requirements for
                               Air Carrier
                               Operations rule
                               requirements.
                               Leadership
                               and command and
                               mentoring training
                               must be included in
                               the upgrade
                               curriculum.
                               Leadership and
                               command and
                               mentoring training
                               are required
                               subjects for
                               upgrade ground
                               training.
                               Leadership and
                               command training
                               must also be
                               incorporated into
                               flight training
                               through scenario-
                               based training.
                               (Note: For those
                               air carriers that
                               use an initial
                               curriculum to
                               qualify pilots to
                               serve as PICs,
                               leadership and
                               command and
                               mentoring training
                               must be provided as
                               part of that
                               initial curriculum
                               (Sec.  Sec.
                               121.419 and
                               121.424)).
                               Leadership and
                               command and
                               mentoring ground
                               training for pilots
                               currently serving
                               as PIC (Sec.
                               121.429).
                               All pilots    Adds
                               currently serving     limitation that the
                               as PIC must           FAA will only allow
                               complete ground       credit for previous
                               training on           training completed
                               leadership and        within 36 calendar
                               command and           months prior to the
                               mentoring.            effective date of
                               The           the final rule.
                               Administrator may
                               credit previous
                               training completed
                               by the pilot at
                               that air carrier.
Recurrent PIC leadership and   PICs must     No changes.
 command and mentoring         complete recurrent
 training (Sec.  Sec.          leadership and
 121.409(b) and 121.427).      command and
                               mentoring ground
                               training every 36
                               months.
                               Recurrent
                               Line-Oriented
                               Flight Training
                               (LOFT) must provide
                               an opportunity for
                               PICs to demonstrate
                               leadership and
                               command.
Leadership and command         SICs          Adds
 training for SICs serving     required to be        requirement for
 in an operation that          fully qualified to    these SICs to
 requires 3 or more pilots     act as PIC, due to    complete leadership
 (Sec.   121.432).             serving in an         and command
                               operation that        training. (These
                               requires 3 or more    SICs are not
                               pilots, are not       required to
                               required to           complete mentoring
                               complete leadership   training).
                               and command and
                               mentoring training.
Pilot recurrent ground         Pilot         No changes.
 training content and          recurrent ground
 programmed hours (Sec.        training has been
 121.427).                     aligned with the
                               pilot initial
                               ground training
                               requirements for
                               pilots who have
                               completed the
                               Airline Transport
                               Pilot Certification
                               Training Program
                               (ATP-CTP). As a
                               result, the
                               existing content
                               and corresponding
                               programmed hours
                               for recurrent
                               ground training
                               have been reduced.
Part 135 Operators and Part    Part 135      Adds
 91 Subpart K Program          operators and part    exception for part
 Managers Complying with       91 subpart K (91K)    135 operators and
 Part 121, Subparts N and O    program managers      part 91K program
 (Sec.  Sec.   91.1063 and     complying with part   managers, that
 135.3).                       121 subparts N and    choose to comply
                               O would continue to   with part 121
                               use the existing      subparts N and O,
                               upgrade curriculum    are not required to
                               requirements and      comply with the
                               the proposed          operations
                               leadership and        familiarization
                               command and           required in Sec.
                               mentoring training    121.435.
                               would only apply to
                               PICs serving in
                               operations that use
                               two or more pilots.
Flight Simulation Training     Part 121,    No changes.
 Device (FSTD) Conforming      subparts N and O
 Changes (Part 121, subparts   and appendices E,
 N and O and appendices E,     F, and H are
 F, and H).                    updated as follows:
                              (1) Reflect the
                               terminology
                               currently used to
                               identify FSTDs
                               approved for use in
                               part 121 training
                               programs;.
                              (2) Remove
                               references to
                               simulation
                               technology that no
                               longer exists; and.
                              (3) Remove
                               requirement for FAA
                               certification of
                               training and remove
                               pilot experience
                               prerequisites for
                               using a Level C
                               full flight
                               simulator (FFS) to
                               reflect advances in
                               current FSTD
                               technology.

[[Page 10898]]

 
SIC Training and Checking      Part 121      No changes.
 Conforming Changes (Part      appendices E and F
 121 appendices E and F).      are updated to
                               align with the
                               current 14 CFR
                               61.71 requirements
                               for SICs to obtain
                               a type rating in a
                               part 121 training
                               program. Initial,
                               conversion, and
                               transition SIC
                               training and
                               checking must
                               include the few
                               training and
                               checking maneuvers
                               and procedures
                               formerly designated
                               in appendices E and
                               F as PIC-only.
Pilot professional             Air           Not adopted
 development committee         carriers must         in the final rule.
 (PPDC) (Sec.   121.17).       establish and
                               maintain a PPDC to
                               develop,
                               administer, and
                               oversee formal
                               pilot mentoring
                               programs. The PPDC
                               must consist of at
                               least one
                               management
                               representative and
                               one pilot
                               representative. The
                               PPDC must meet on a
                               regular basis. The
                               frequency of such
                               meetings would be
                               determined by the
                               air carrier, but
                               must occur at least
                               annually.
Other Conforming and           Pilot         No changes.
 Miscellaneous Changes.        transition ground
                               training has been
                               aligned with the
                               pilot initial
                               ground training for
                               pilots who have
                               completed the ATP-
                               CTP.
                               The term
                               used to identify
                               the training
                               provided to flight
                               engineers
                               qualifying as SICs
                               on the same
                               airplane type has
                               been changed from
                               ``upgrade'' to
                               ``conversion''.
                               Conversion
                               ground training for
                               flight engineers
                               who have completed
                               the ATP-CTP has
                               been aligned with
                               the pilot initial
                               ground training for
                               pilots who have
                               completed the ATP-
                               CTP.
                               Part 121
                               appendices E and F
                               and Sec.   121.434
                               are amended to
                               allow for pictorial
                               means for the
                               training and
                               checking of
                               preflight visual
                               inspections of the
                               exterior and
                               interior of the
                               airplane.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The cost of the rule is attributed to training requirements that 
will reduce the risk of unprofessional pilot behavior and help avoid 
situations that can lead to a catastrophic event. The estimated cost of 
the rule to the impacted entities is $90.0 million over a 10-year 
period. When discounted using a 7-percent discount rate, the rule is 
estimated to result in costs of $62.2 million over the same period. The 
rule will also generate cost savings to operators of $95.5 million over 
a 10-year period. When discounted using a 7-percent discount rate, the 
rule will result in savings of $61.2 million over the same period. The 
total cost and cost savings are shown in the table below.

                                  Table 2--Comparison of Costs and Cost Savings
                                           [Millions of 2016 dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Present value   Annualized at   Present value   Annualized at
                                                       at 7%            7%             at 3%            3%
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total Costs.....................................          $62.17           $8.29          $76.25           $8.24
Total Cost Savings..............................           61.22            8.16           78.32            8.46
Net Costs.......................................            0.94            0.13           -2.07           -0.22
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

II. Authority for This Rulemaking

    The FAA's authority to issue rules on aviation safety is found in 
Title 49 of the United States Code. Subtitle I, section 106 describes 
the authority of the FAA Administrator. Subtitle VII, Aviation 
Programs, describes in more detail the scope of the FAA's authority. 
This rulemaking is promulgated under the general authority described in 
49 U.S.C. 106(f) and 44701(a) and the specific authority found in 
section 206 of Public Law 111-216, the Airline Safety and Federal 
Aviation Administration Extension Act of 2010 (Aug. 1, 2010) (49 U.S.C. 
44701 note), which directed the FAA to convene an aviation rulemaking 
committee (ARC) and conduct a rulemaking proceeding based on the ARC's 
recommendations pertaining to mentoring, professional development, and 
leadership and command training for pilots serving in part 121 
operations. Section 206 further required that the FAA include in 
leadership and command training instruction on compliance with 
flightcrew member duties under 14 CFR 121.542 (sterile flight deck 
rule).

III. Background

A. Statement of the Problem

    As recognized by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), 
the overall safety and reliability of the national airspace system 
demonstrates that most pilots conduct operations with a high degree of 
professionalism.\2\

[[Page 10899]]

Nevertheless, a problem still exists in the aviation industry with some 
pilots acting unprofessionally and not adhering to standard operating 
procedures (``SOP''), including the sterile flight deck rule.\3\ The 
NTSB has continued to cite inadequate leadership in the flight deck, 
pilots' unprofessional behavior, and pilots' failure to comply with the 
sterile flight deck rule as factors in multiple accidents and 
incidents, including Pinnacle Airlines flight 3701 and Colgan Air,\4\ 
Inc., flight 3407.\5\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \2\ See Crash of Pinnacle Airlines Flight 3701, Bombardier CL-
600-2B19, N8396A, Jefferson City, Missouri, October 14, 2004, 
Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR-07/01 (Washington, DC: NTSB, 2007) 
(hereinafter ``Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR-07/01'') available 
at https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Pages/AAR0701.aspx.
    \3\ See Loss of Control on Approach, Colgan Air, Inc., Operating 
as Continental Connection Flight 3407, Bombardier DHC-8-400, N200WQ, 
Clarence Center, New York, February 12, 2009, Aircraft Accident 
Report NTSB/AAR-10/01 (Washington, DC: NTSB, 2010) (hereinafter 
``Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR-10/01'') available at https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Pages/AAR1001.aspx.
    \4\ Some contributing factors to this accident were also 
mitigated by the following rules: Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest 
Requirements (77 FR 330, January 4, 2012, RIN 2120-AJ58) with a 0.5 
effective mitigation; Qualification, Service, and Use of Crewmembers 
and Aircraft Dispatchers (78 FR 67800, November 12, 2013, RIN 2120-
AJ00) with a 0.2 effective mitigation; Pilot Certification and 
Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations (78 FR 42324, 
July 15, 2013, RIN 2120-AJ67) with a 0.2 effective mitigation; and 
Safety Management Systems for Domestic, Flag, and Supplemental 
Operations Certificate Holders (80 FR 1307, January 8, 2015, RIN 
2120-AJ86) with a 0.05 effective mitigation.
    \5\ More recently, on October 27, 2016 Eastern Airlines flight 
3452, a Boeing 737-700, ran off runway 22 during the landing roll at 
LaGuardia Airport, Flushing, Queens, New York. The NTSB determined 
the probable cause of this incident was the SIC's failure to attain 
the proper touchdown point and the flight crew's failure to call for 
a go-around, which resulted in the airplane landing more than 
halfway down the runway. Contributing to the incident was the PIC's 
lack of command authority. See the NTSB Aviation Incident Final 
Report, Incident Number DCA17IA020, available at https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/Pages/2016_queens_ny.aspx. While this 
incident does not form a basis for the issuance of this rule, it 
illustrates that leadership and command training remains an 
important component of an effective pilot training program.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    On October 14, 2004, a Pinnacle Airlines Bombardier CL-600-2B19, 
operating as Northwest Airlink flight 3701, crashed into a residential 
area about 2.5 miles from the Jefferson City Memorial Airport, 
Jefferson City, Missouri. During the flight, both engines flamed out 
after a pilot-induced aerodynamic stall and were unable to be 
restarted. Both pilots were killed, and the airplane was destroyed. The 
NTSB determined the probable causes of this accident were (1) the 
pilots' unprofessional behavior, deviation from SOP, and poor 
airmanship, which resulted in an in-flight emergency from which the 
pilots were unable to recover, in part because of their inadequate 
training; (2) the pilots' failure to prepare for an emergency landing 
in a timely manner; and (3) the pilots' improper management of the 
double engine failure checklist.
    The NTSB noted that at the time of the accident, Pinnacle Airlines 
provided 2 hours of leadership training during second in command (SIC) 
to pilot in command (PIC) upgrade training with topics covering 
leadership authority, responsibility, and leadership styles. The NTSB 
also noted that after the accident and as a result of a high initial 
failure rate for pilots upgrading to PIC (22% failure rate in July 
2004), Pinnacle revised the leadership training to 8 hours with modules 
on leadership, authority, and responsibility; briefing and debriefing 
scenarios; decision-making processes, including those during an 
emergency; dry run line-oriented flight training scenarios; and risk 
management and resource utilization. In October 2006, Pinnacle reported 
to the NTSB that the pass rate for pilots upgrading to PIC had improved 
to 92% first attempt and 95% overall.
    On the evening of February 12, 2009, a Colgan Air, Inc., Bombardier 
DHC-8-400, operating as Continental Connection flight 3407, was on 
approach to Buffalo-Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, New York, 
when it crashed into a residence in Clarence Center, New York, about 
five nautical miles northeast of the airport. The two pilots, two 
flight attendants, all 45 passengers aboard the airplane, and one 
person on the ground were killed, and the airplane was destroyed by 
impact forces and a post-crash fire. The NTSB determined that the 
probable cause of this accident was the PIC's inappropriate response to 
the stall warning which eventually led to a stall from which the 
airplane did not recover. Contributing to the accident were (1) the 
pilots' failure to monitor airspeed; (2) the pilots' failure to adhere 
to sterile flight deck procedures; (3) the PIC's failure to effectively 
manage the flight; and (4) Colgan Air's inadequate procedures for 
airspeed selection and management during approaches in icing 
conditions.
    The NTSB noted that at the time of the accident the Colgan Air crew 
resource management (CRM) training was consistent with Advisory 
Circular (AC) 120-51E, Crew Resource Management Training and addressed 
command, leadership and leadership styles, communication, and decision-
making. The NTSB also noted that the Colgan Air SIC to PIC upgrade 
training included a one-day course on leadership; however, the training 
focused on the administrative duties associated with becoming a PIC and 
did not contain significant content applicable to developing leadership 
skills, management oversight, and command authority. The NTSB concluded 
that specific leadership training for pilots upgrading to PIC would 
help standardize and reinforce the critical command authority skills 
needed by a PIC during air carrier operations.
    The Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administration Extension 
Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-216), enacted August 1, 2010, includes a 
number of requirements to convene advisory groups and conduct 
rulemakings related to the results of the NTSB investigation of the 
Colgan Air accident. Section 206 directs the FAA to convene an ARC to 
develop procedures for each part 121 air carrier pertaining to 
mentoring, professional development, and leadership and command 
training for pilots serving in part 121 operations and to issue an NPRM 
and final rule based on the ARC recommendations.
    In accordance with sections 204, 206, and 209 of Public Law 111-
216, the FAA chartered the Air Carrier Safety and Pilot Training 
(ACSPT) ARC, the Flight Crewmember Mentoring, Leadership, and 
Professional Development (MLP) ARC and the Flightcrew Member Training 
Hours Requirement Review (THRR) ARC, respectively, in September 2010. 
The MLP ARC provided recommendations in November 2010. At the same time 
as the MLP ARC worked to develop its recommendations, a number of 
related rulemakings required by Public Law 111-216 were already 
underway, including the Pilot Certification and Qualification 
Requirements for Air Carrier Operations rulemaking and the 
Qualification, Service, and Use of Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers 
rulemaking.
    This final rule is the culmination of the FAA's analysis of (1) the 
rulemaking requirements of section 206 of Public Law 111-216; (2) the 
recommendations provided by the MLP ARC, the THRR ARC, and the ACSPT 
ARC; (3) the part 121 pilot qualification and experience requirements 
provided in the Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for 
Air Carrier Operations final rule (78 FR 42324, July 15, 2013); \6\ (4) 
the Qualification, Service, and Use of Crewmembers and Aircraft 
Dispatchers final rule (78 FR 67800, November 12, 2013); \7\ (5) the 
current part 121 PIC role and responsibilities; and (6) the comments 
received in response to the NPRM. This final rule furthers the

[[Page 10900]]

FAA's safety mission, satisfies the requirement for rulemaking in 
section 206 of Public Law 111-216, and accounts for the recent changes 
to pilot certification and qualifications to serve as a PIC in part 121 
operations. The FAA has determined that this final rule can be 
effectively implemented by air carriers and will reduce the risk of 
unprofessional pilot behavior and help avoid situations that can lead 
to a catastrophic event.\8\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \6\ RIN 2120-AJ67.
    \7\ RIN 2120-AJ00.
    \8\ The FAA notes that section 206 of Public Law 111-216 
references both ``flight crewmembers'' and ``pilots.'' Section 201 
of Public Law 111-216 states, ``The term `flight crewmember' has the 
meaning given the term `flightcrew member' in part 1 of title 14, 
Code of Federal Regulations.'' Part 1 defines ``flightcrew member'' 
as ``a pilot, flight engineer, or flight navigator assigned to duty 
in an aircraft during flight time.'' However, because section 206 
uses the terms ``flight crewmember'' and ``pilot'' interchangeably, 
the FAA assumes that Congress intended the rulemaking requirements 
of this section to apply to pilots only. Further, because no 
accidents have been attributed to flight engineer performance and 
the FAA has not identified any issues related to flight engineer 
training or professionalism, this final rule applies to pilots only.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

B. Related FAA Actions

    To promote pilot professionalism and standardization, the FAA has 
taken a number of actions through rulemakings and guidance. The FAA 
first issued the sterile flight deck rule (Sec.  121.542) to prohibit 
the performance of nonessential duties by flightcrew members during 
critical phases of flight, including all ground operations involving 
taxi, take-off and landing, and other flight operations conducted below 
10,000 feet, except cruise flight (46 FR 5500, January 19, 1981). On 
February 12, 2014, the FAA amended the sterile flight deck rule to 
prohibit flightcrew members from using a personal wireless 
communications device or laptop computer for personal use while at 
their duty station while the aircraft is being operated (Prohibition on 
Personal Use of Electronic Devices on the Flight Deck final rule, 79 FR 
8257).\9\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \9\ RIN 2120-AJ17.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    On January 10, 2017, the FAA issued revised AC 120-71B, Standard 
Operating Procedures and Pilot Monitoring Duties for Flight Deck 
Crewmembers, which stresses that safety in commercial operations 
depends on good crew performance founded on clear, comprehensive, and 
readily available SOP.\10\ The AC provides guidance for the design, 
development, implementation, evaluation, and updating of SOP, as well 
as guidance for training of pilot monitoring duties and integration of 
pilot monitoring duties into SOP.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \10\ http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1030486.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    In response to NTSB Safety Recommendation A-06-7, the FAA issued 
Safety Alert for Operators (SAFO) 06004 on April 28, 2006, to emphasize 
the importance of sterile flight deck discipline and fatigue 
countermeasures, especially during approach and landing.\11\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \11\ http://www.faa.gov/other_visit/aviation_industry/airline_operators/airline_safety/safo/all_safos/media/2006/safo06004.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    On July 3, 2007, the FAA issued Safety Alert for Operators (SAFO) 
07006, to address procedural intentional non-compliance (PINC) because 
multiple accidents revealed pilots not adhering to established 
procedures and airplane limitations when conducting positioning 
flights.\12\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \12\ Positioning flights include nonrevenue flights, flights to 
pick up passengers, and ferry flights for maintenance. See http://www.faa.gov/other_visit/aviation_industry/airline_operators/airline_safety/safo/all_safos/media/2007/SAFO07006.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    On April 26, 2010, the FAA issued Information for Operators (InFO) 
10003, to address flight deck distractions because recent incidents and 
accidents revealed pilots using laptop computers and mobile telephones 
for personal activities unrelated to the duties and responsibilities 
required for conduct of a safe flight.\13\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \13\ http://www.faa.gov/other_visit/aviation_industry/airline_operators/airline_safety/info/all_infos/media/2010/info10003.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    To address the significance of human performance factors such as 
communication, decision-making, and leadership, the FAA issued the Air 
Carrier and Commercial Operator Training Programs final rule requiring 
crew resource management (CRM) training for flightcrew members and 
flight attendants as well as dispatcher resource management (DRM) 
training for aircraft dispatchers (60 FR 65940, December 20, 1995).\14\ 
The FAA also published AC 120-51B Crew Resource Management Training and 
AC 121-32 Dispatch Resource Management Training to provide guidance on 
establishing CRM and DRM training under the broad requirement 
established by the final rule. The current version, AC 120-51E,\15\ 
stresses that CRM training should focus on the functioning of 
crewmembers as teams and should include all operational personnel. 
During the time since publication of the CRM final rule, the agency has 
revised AC 120-51 three times to address evolving research and concepts 
of CRM.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \14\ RIN 2120-AC79.
    \15\ http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/22879.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The FAA recognizes the need to continue to review air carrier 
training and qualification regulations, policies, and guidance to 
ensure they are current and relevant and address new technology and 
research. Therefore, in January 2014, the FAA chartered the Air Carrier 
Training ARC to provide a forum for the U.S. aviation community to 
continue to discuss, prioritize, and provide recommendations to the FAA 
concerning air carrier training.

C. National Transportation Safety Board Recommendations

    This final rule addresses the following NTSB recommendations from 
Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR-07/01 and Aircraft Accident Report 
NTSB/AAR-10/01 for air carriers operating under part 121:
     A-07-6: Require regional air carriers operating under 14 
CFR part 121 to provide specific guidance on expectations for 
professional conduct to pilots who operate nonrevenue flights.
     A-10-13: Issue an advisory circular with guidance on 
leadership training for upgrading captains at 14 CFR part 121, 135, and 
91K operators, including methods and techniques for effective 
leadership; professional standards of conduct; strategies for briefing 
and debriefing; reinforcement and correction skills; and other 
knowledge, skills, and abilities that are critical for air carrier 
operations.\16\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \16\ ``Captain'' is an industry term that refers to the PIC.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

     A-10-14: Require all 14 CFR part 121, 135, and 91K 
operators to provide a specific course on leadership training to their 
upgrading captains that is consistent with the advisory circular 
requested in Safety Recommendation A-10-13.

IV. Discussion of Public Comments and Final Rule

A. General

    Airbus, the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA), NetJets Aviation 
(NetJets), and 16 individuals generally agreed with the proposal. 
Airlines for America (A4A) generally supported the proposal but 
provided comments on and suggested changes to specific provisions, 
which are discussed in more detail in the section-by-section analysis 
below. The International Air Transport Association generally agreed 
with the comments submitted by A4A except for the comments related to 
training of SICs serving in augmented operations, stating that A4A's 
position is inconsistent with existing European requirements.
    The NTSB largely concurred with the overall intent of the proposal. 
However,

[[Page 10901]]

the NTSB noted that neither the proposed rule nor the draft AC 
Leadership and Command Training for Pilots in Command addresses the 
content or intent of NTSB Safety Recommendation A-10-15, which 
recommended the development and distribution of multimedia guidance 
materials.\17\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \17\ NTSB Recommendation A-10-15: Develop and distribute to all 
pilots, multimedia guidance materials on professionalism in aircraft 
operations that contain standards of performance for 
professionalism; best practices for sterile cockpit adherence; 
techniques for assessing and correcting pilot deviations; examples 
and scenarios; and a detailed review of accidents involving 
breakdowns in sterile cockpit and other procedures, including the 
Colgan Air, Inc. flight 3407 accident. Obtain the input of operators 
and air carrier and general aviation pilot groups in the development 
and distribution of these guidance materials.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    At this time, the FAA is not developing and distributing new 
multimedia guidance materials on professionalism in aircraft 
operations. As explained in the NPRM, a prerequisite eligibility 
requirement for an airline transport pilot (ATP) certificate is the 
completion of an airline transport pilot certification training program 
(ATP-CTP). The ATP-CTP provides foundational knowledge in many subject 
areas, including professionalism. In addition to the draft ACs 
published in the docket, the FAA previously published AC 61-138 Airline 
Transport Pilot Certification Training Program. These ACs all contain 
references to other useful documents for the development of training. 
Additionally, the FAA posted these ACs for public comment and 
considered those comments before final publication. Therefore, the FAA 
believes the intent of NTSB recommendation A-10-15 has been met and 
that sufficient resources are already available for training on these 
topics. The FAA has removed NTSB recommendation A-10-15 from preamble 
section III.C. discussing the NTSB recommendations.
    Jet Blue Airways (Jet Blue) commented that there is great value in 
promoting leadership, command, and mentoring training for all air 
carrier pilots. However, Jet Blue stated that the proposal failed to 
recognize other qualitative advancements such as the Advanced 
Qualification Program (AQP), the utilization of advanced simulation 
opportunities, and alternative vehicles to obtain command and 
leadership knowledge through operational experience. Jet Blue strongly 
recommended that rather than directing additional resources toward 
implementing regulations that duplicate existing programs and efforts, 
the FAA re-direct its efforts toward developing guidance for inclusion 
within existing AQPs and other approved programs.
    As described in the NPRM, the proposal was responsive to a 
statutory requirement for the FAA to convene an ARC to develop 
procedures for air carriers pertaining to pilot mentoring, professional 
development, and leadership and command training and to issue an NPRM 
and final rule based on those recommendations. Therefore, Jet Blue's 
recommendation would not be consistent with the statutory requirement. 
However, the FAA proposed to allow credit toward all or part of the 
requirements for leadership and command and mentoring training 
previously completed by a PIC at that air carrier. The FAA is 
maintaining this allowance, with modification, in the final rule. Since 
each air carrier's training program is unique, the FAA will evaluate 
each specific request for credit, including the supporting 
documentation, to determine if the previously provided training meets 
the intent of some or all of the leadership and command and mentoring 
training.
    The Aviation Accreditation Board International (AABI) recommended 
that the FAA reconsider adopting the MLP ARC recommendation for 
including professionalism and mentoring as required subjects for new-
hire pilot indoctrination training. A4A and American Airlines 
(American) agreed that amendments to basic indoctrination training are 
not needed and are appropriately addressed by recent regulatory 
changes.
    ALPA stated that guidance should exist ensuring new hire training 
includes exposure to the operations of other airline departments such 
as dispatch, maintenance, and scheduling. ALPA stated that for 
leadership and command training to be effective in the flight deck, 
new-hires must receive training on their role in the context of the 
leadership and command training that PICs receive.
    The FAA is not making any amendments to basic indoctrination 
training. As explained in the NPRM, ATP applicants must complete an 
ATP-CTP, which provides the foundational knowledge in several subject 
areas including leadership and command and professional development. 
The recommendation that new-hire training should include exposure to 
the operations of other airline departments such as dispatch, 
maintenance, and scheduling is outside the scope of this rulemaking. 
The FAA expects each individual air carrier will determine if exposure 
to other airline departments is beneficial to its operation.
    An individual commenter did not agree that air carriers should have 
to train crewmembers on professionalism and safety because this 
individual believed these skills should be taught before the pilot 
applies for an air carrier. Another individual did not agree that 
pilots need to be trained on how to be more professional. One 
individual identified as a college student opined that this proposal 
could be seen as an unnecessary mandate in an already extensive 
training curriculum. In contrast, an individual identified as an 
associate college professor stated that the proposal could be 
successful in inculcating and reinforcing the highest standards of 
technical performance, airmanship, and professionalism. Another 
individual wrote that the proposal would result in safety benefits and 
address the NTSB recommendations and statutory requirement for 
rulemaking.
    As described in the NPRM, most pilots conduct operations with a 
high degree of professionalism. However, the NTSB has continued to cite 
inadequate leadership in the flight deck, pilots' unprofessional 
behavior, and pilots' failure to comply with the sterile flight deck 
rule as factors in multiple accidents and incidents. The FAA concurs 
with the NTSB recommendation to require leadership training for air 
carrier pilots and has concluded that the proposed training is 
warranted. With regard to a comment that the proposal should be focused 
on interpersonal skills and attitude management training, the FAA notes 
that the AC PIC Leadership and Command Training and AC 120-51 Crew 
Resource Management Training address these topics.
    One individual commented that there should be a shorter version of 
training for senior pilots and that pilots from this pool can be chosen 
to help conduct the additional training. The FAA does not agree that 
there should be a shorter version of the training for senior pilots. As 
discussed further below, the FAA will allow credit toward all or part 
of the requirements for initial leadership and command and mentoring 
training previously completed by a PIC at that air carrier. In general, 
this credit will allow more senior pilots to more quickly meet new 
initial training requirements.

B. Applicability

    In the NPRM, the FAA stated that the proposal would affect 
certificate holders that train and qualify pilots in accordance with 
part 121, including air carriers that train and qualify pilots in 
accordance with the provisions of current subparts N and O or under an

[[Page 10902]]

AQP in accordance with subpart Y of part 121. Additionally, the FAA 
explained that the proposal affects some certificate holders conducting 
part 135 commuter operations \18\ and part 91K program managers or part 
135 operators authorized to voluntarily comply with subparts N and O of 
part 121.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \18\ In accordance with 14 CFR 135.3, a certificate holder that 
conducts commuter operations under part 135 with airplanes in which 
two pilots are required by the type certification rules must comply 
with subparts N and O of part 121 instead of the requirements of 
subparts E, G, and H of part 135.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The NTSB commented that the FAA should consider expanding the scope 
to include additional part 135 and 91K operators. An individual 
identified as a private pilot suggested the proposal would be more 
relevant to smaller carriers, particularly part 135 carriers.
    The recommendation to include additional part 135 operators and 91K 
program managers would exceed the scope of this rulemaking. Therefore, 
applicability of the final rule is as proposed.

C. Effective Date and Compliance Date

    In the NPRM the FAA proposed an effective date of 60 days after 
publication of a final rule in the Federal Register. However, the FAA 
proposed a delayed compliance date of 24 months after the effective 
date for the proposals pertaining to operations familiarization, 
leadership and command training, mentoring training, the revised 
upgrade curriculum, and the Pilot Professional Development Committee.
    A4A and American recommended a delayed compliance date of 36 
months, and UPS Airlines (UPS) recommended a delayed compliance date of 
48 months after the effective date for the leadership and command and 
mentoring training for current PICs proposed in Sec.  121.429. A4A and 
American stated that training modules will need to be developed and 
approved, instructors trained, and committees formed within the 
proposed 24-month timeframe. UPS stated that it would require 24 months 
for training modules to be developed and approved. A4A and UPS noted 
that there may be several thousand PICs who will require training, 
which can be completed only after courseware is approved and the 
trainers trained. American stated that it will have over six thousand 
pilots who must complete training. UPS also identified other recently 
mandated training requirements (e.g., upset recovery) under development 
in part 121 operations.
    The FAA concurs with the recommendation to extend the compliance 
date to 36 months for the leadership and command and mentoring ground 
training for current PICs. As indicated by commenters, there are 
several thousand PICs who must complete the training by the compliance 
date. Additionally, the FAA understands that carriers are in various 
stages of compliance with training all pilots in accordance with the 
enhanced pilot training requirements of the Qualification, Service, and 
Use of Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers final rule.
    The FAA agrees that extending the compliance date by 12 months will 
provide sufficient time for carriers to develop the training, have the 
training approved by the FAA, train the instructors, and then complete 
training of all the current PICs. Further, a 36-month timeframe is 
consistent with the recurrent training frequency for these topics.
    The compliance date for the other proposals pertaining to 
operations familiarization, leadership and command training, mentoring 
training, and the revised upgrade curriculum remains 24 months after 
the effective date. The effective date remains 60 days after 
publication in the Federal Register.

D. Operations Familiarization (Sec.  121.435)

    The FAA proposed to require newly hired pilots to complete 
operations familiarization (OF) before beginning operating experience 
and serving as a pilot in part 121 operations for the air carrier. A 
newly hired pilot is a person who has no previous experience with the 
air carrier.\19\ The FAA proposed that the OF must include at least two 
operating cycles \20\ during part 121 operations conducted by the air 
carrier while the newly hired pilot occupies the flight deck observer 
seat and uses a headset to listen to the communications between the 
required flightcrew members and air traffic control. The FAA proposed 
that the OF may occur in any airplane type operated by the air carrier 
in part 121 operations. In recognition that certain airplanes used in 
part 121 operations do not have an observer seat in the flight deck, 
the FAA proposed a process for an air carrier to request a deviation 
from the OF requirements to meet the learning objectives through 
another means.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \19\ The FAA clarifies that a person completing conversion 
training after serving as a flight engineer for the air carrier is 
not a ``newly hired pilot.'' This person is completing training to 
serve in a new flightcrew member duty position but is not ``newly 
hired'' by the air carrier.
    \20\ Section 121.431(b) defines operating cycle as ``a complete 
flight segment consisting of a takeoff, climb, enroute portion, 
descent, and a landing.''
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    A4A, AABI, American, Jet Blue, the NTSB, one individual identified 
as an associate college professor, and several individuals identified 
as college students or pilots agreed with the proposed OF. The 
individuals believed the OF would provide benefits such as allowing 
new-hires to observe SOP and real life situations.
    A4A, American, and Jet Blue agreed with a minimum of two cycles. 
However, the NTSB believed the minimum number of operating cycles 
should be increased to provide the new-hire pilot with an increased 
opportunity to observe different operational events and crew 
interactions.
    A4A, American, and Jet Blue agreed that that the OF can be 
performed in any aircraft because the processes on all fleet types are 
similar. However, ALPA stated that OF should be required in the 
aircraft type the new-hire will be scheduled to fly to enhance the 
benefits of the experience.
    The NTSB believed some consideration should be given to the minimum 
experience of the crew being observed to provide increased value of the 
observational opportunity to new-hire pilots.
    As explained in the NPRM, the objective of OF is to provide the 
pilot an introduction to an air carrier's operations and company 
procedures. Therefore, the FAA expects that this objective can be met 
with a minimum of two operating cycles on any airplane type operated by 
the air carrier in part 121 operations. The FAA also trusts that the 
objective of OF can be met by observation of any crew at that air 
carrier because all crews conducting line operations must have 
satisfactorily met the training and qualification standards at that air 
carrier. The FAA also expects that all air carrier crews follow the air 
carrier's SOP and conduct operations professionally regardless of 
whether or not they are being observed. Additionally, as explained in 
the NPRM, the FAA has determined this final rule will mitigate 
unprofessional pilot behavior.
    AABI recommended that proposed Sec.  121.432 specify that the OF 
should occur during or after basic indoctrination training and before 
operating experience. Jet Blue requested clarification in the final 
rule that OF can occur at any time prior to commencement of operating 
experience to include any point before or after aircraft qualification 
is obtained.
    As described in the NPRM, the FAA expects OF to be completed during 
or soon after the completion of basic

[[Page 10903]]

indoctrination training. The FAA did not intend that OF could be 
completed by college students or other pilots who are not newly hired 
pilots at that air carrier. The FAA is clarifying the OF requirements 
in a new Sec.  121.435 to provide flexibility for OF to be completed 
during or after basic indoctrination training, but before beginning 
operating experience.

E. PIC Leadership and Command Training

1. General
    In the NPRM, the FAA proposed to require all PICs serving in part 
121 operations to complete leadership and command training. 
Specifically, the FAA proposed that this training be included during 
ground and flight training in the PIC upgrade curriculum (or the 
initial curriculum for the limited circumstance of a new-hire PIC), as 
well as the PIC recurrent curriculum. The FAA further proposed that all 
pilots qualified to serve as PIC prior to the compliance date must 
complete the PIC upgrade ground training on leadership and command.
    The NTSB stated that the proposals for leadership training ``would 
likely satisfy the intent'' of NTSB recommendations A-10-13 and A-10-14 
as they related to part 121 operations. The NTSB strongly supported the 
proposed requirements for leadership and command training to be 
included in PIC upgrade ground and flight training, as well as the 
proposed requirement for all current PICs to complete leadership and 
command training and for the training to be included in the recurrent 
curriculum. The NTSB also strongly supported the emphasis on scenario-
based instruction during ground and flight training.
    AABI and one individual generally agreed with leadership and 
command training for all PICs. One individual identified as a college 
student stated that leadership and command training conducted before 
future PICs enter the real flight crew environment could result in 
fewer accidents based on pilot decision-making errors.
    A4A and American agreed that the proposal for leadership and 
command training should not be overly prescriptive. UPS supported the 
FAA's position in not requiring the leadership and command training to 
be separate from the upgrade syllabus.
    Jet Blue strongly recommended that the FAA allow each carrier to 
develop leadership and command training within the existing framework 
of their approved training programs. Jet Blue also stated that final 
determination of the curriculum scope, form, and content should remain 
with management as approved by the FAA.
    A4A and American suggested that leadership and command training for 
pilots upgrading from SIC to PIC should be completed ``on or around the 
time of upgrade'' instead of being required to be included in the 
upgrade curriculum. A4A, American, and UPS noted that under an AQP 
there may be a few items that are accomplished a short time after PIC 
upgrade/assignment in order to review and discuss lessons learned 
during some of the first flights as PIC.
    As explained in the NPRM, the purpose of leadership and command 
training is to provide PICs with the leadership and command skills 
necessary to manage the crew (including flight attendants, if 
applicable), communications, workload, and decision-making in a manner 
that promotes professionalism and adherence to SOP. Therefore, the FAA 
maintains that this training must be included in the upgrade curriculum 
prior to a pilot serving as a PIC. However, the FAA notes that in 
accordance with part 121 subpart Y, air carriers using an AQP may 
submit for FAA approval an upgrade curriculum that includes an 
alternative method to conduct leadership and command training that 
provides an equivalent level of safety.
    Ameristar believed that leadership and command training should only 
be required during initial PIC and upgrade training.
    As explained in the NPRM, the purpose of recurrent training is to 
ensure that flightcrew members remain competent in the performance of 
their assigned duties. Therefore, the FAA maintains that recurrent 
leadership and command training is necessary to ensure PICs remain 
competent in the performance of their duties. Additionally, Public Law 
111-216 specifically directed that recurrent training for PICs include 
leadership and command training.
    Ameristar believed CRM and leadership training are closely tied 
together. Ameristar suggested that rather than having two or more 
regulations added, leadership and command training should be combined 
with CRM in Sec.  121.404.
    As described in the NPRM, the FAA agrees that leadership and 
command and CRM are related ``soft skills.'' To ensure leadership and 
command training is included in ground training and flight training for 
all appropriate curriculums, the structure of part 121 subpart N 
requires leadership and command training requirements to be included in 
multiple regulations. Therefore, the FAA does not agree that leadership 
and command training should be combined with CRM in Sec.  121.404. 
However, the FAA agrees that leadership and command and CRM are closely 
related and notes that that some carriers may choose to comply with 
this rule by including robust leadership and command training in their 
CRM curricula.
    Ameristar also commented that proposed Sec. Sec.  121.419(c), 
121.420(a)(3) and 121.427(d)(1) should not include references to Sec.  
121.542, which addresses activities that may interfere with flight 
crewmember duties. Ameristar believed the inclusion of Sec.  121.542 
implies that leadership and command are only geared or weighted toward 
that regulation, lowering the perceived importance of other 
regulations. The FAA confirms that leadership and command training is 
not geared toward or weighted toward only Sec.  121.542, and the 
reference to Sec.  121.542 in Sec. Sec.  121.419(c)(1), 121.420(b)(1) 
and 121.427(d)(1) results from Public Law 111-216, which specifically 
directed PIC leadership and command training to include instruction on 
compliance with Sec.  121.542.
    AABI recommended that the final rule state that facilitation is the 
preferred method for leadership and command ground training.
    As described in the draft AC Leadership and Command Training for 
Pilots in Command published in the docket, the FAA agrees that an 
instructor-led facilitated discussion is an important component of 
leadership and command ground training. Therefore, as further explained 
in the section regarding PIC Leadership and Command Training--Distance 
Instruction, the FAA is revising proposed Sec. Sec.  121.419(c)(1), 
121.420(a)(3) (now, 121.420(b)(1)), and 121.427(d)(1) to specifically 
require facilitated discussion during leadership and command ground 
training.
    ALPA and the NTSB encouraged minimum qualification, pilot line 
experience, and training requirements for the instructors who conduct 
leadership and command training.
    The FAA does not agree that the final rule should include specific 
training or qualification requirements for instructors who conduct 
leadership and command training. Air carriers are required to provide 
properly qualified ground instructors to conduct the training required 
by part 121 subpart N. See Sec.  121.401(a)(2). Additionally, air 
carriers are required to provide comprehensive training of flight 
instructors. See Sec.  121.414. Further, in

[[Page 10904]]

accordance with Sec.  121.401(a)(1), air carriers are required to have 
a training program that ensures each flight instructor is adequately 
trained to perform the assigned duties. Therefore, the FAA expects that 
each air carrier can best determine the training and qualifications 
necessary for its instructors to effectively conduct training under the 
carrier's program. However, in the associated AC Leadership and Command 
Training for Pilots in Command accompanying this final rule, the FAA 
will include suggested training topics for instructors who will conduct 
leadership and command training.
    ALPA stated that for leadership and command training to be 
effective in the flight deck, new-hires must receive training on their 
role in the context of the leadership and command training that PICs 
receive.
    The FAA does not agree that it is necessary to include a specific 
requirement for new-hires to receive training in the context of the 
leadership and command training that PICs receive. As explained in the 
NPRM, a prerequisite eligibility requirement for an ATP certificate is 
the completion of an ATP-CTP. The ATP-CTP provides foundational 
knowledge in many subject areas, including leadership and command. 
Additionally, basic indoctrination training is currently required to 
include duties and responsibilities of crewmembers and applicable 
portions of the carrier's manual. See Sec.  121.415(a)(1). Therefore, 
the FAA has determined the combination of the ATP-CTP and the basic 
indoctrination training at the air carrier sufficiently encompasses 
training on leadership and command for new-hires.
    ALPA contended that grading pilots based upon soft skills such as 
leadership and command would pose issues as pilots and their 
instructors come from diverse backgrounds and experiences. Therefore, 
ALPA stated that pass/fail grading should not be based solely on 
leadership and command skills unless clear, unambiguous, objective, 
measurable standards exist at that airline for those skills.
    The FAA did not propose to evaluate leadership and command skills 
during a proficiency check. In accordance with Sec.  121.401, air 
carriers are required to have a training program that ensures each PIC 
is adequately trained to perform the assigned duties. The FAA expects 
that air carriers will use their current processes to develop the 
necessary method(s) to ensure that PICs are adequately trained in 
leadership and command skills. The FAA will include suggested training 
topics in the AC Leadership and Command Training for Pilots in Command, 
accompanying this final rule.
2. Distance Instruction
    In the NPRM, the FAA did not propose placing restrictions on 
distance instruction as long as the leadership and command training 
objectives could be satisfied. However, the FAA sought comment on 
whether restrictions on distance instruction are necessary to ensure 
the effectiveness of the leadership and command components of PIC 
training. The FAA also sought comment on whether the curriculum in 
which leadership and command training is required (e.g., PIC initial, 
upgrade, recurrent) constitutes a basis for differentiating any 
restrictions on distance instruction.
    A4A, AABI, American, Jet Blue, and UPS agreed that there should not 
be restrictions on distance instruction. A4A, American, Jet Blue, and 
UPS stated that the types and methods of training used by air carriers 
continue to evolve with additional software and hardware improvements. 
They also stated that the evolution in technology coupled with the 
goals of the specific training and the level/type of pilot experience 
at a specific airline will dictate the appropriate training format.
    NetJets concurred that a major portion of the leadership and 
command ground instruction modules can be accomplished via distance 
instruction. However, NetJets believed that the decision-making 
exercises and discussions of positive and negative learning experiences 
need to be accomplished in facilitated instructor-led training 
sessions.
    ALPA recommended limiting the leadership and command ground 
training administered through distance instruction methods to 50% of 
the total training. ALPA believed that leadership and command training 
would be far more effective in a classroom setting and should have an 
active, vibrant, hands-on training process with appropriate role-
playing scenarios and having facilitated group discussions.
    The NTSB believed that because of the importance of this training 
and its inherently interpersonal topic that the training should only be 
done in-person through facilitated discussion and interaction. An 
individual identified as an associate college professor stated that 
limitations on distance instruction are necessary to guarantee the 
success of the leadership and command training.
    As described in the draft AC Leadership and Command Training for 
Pilots in Command published in the docket, the FAA agrees that an 
instructor-led facilitated discussion including practical decision-
making exercises and discussion of positive and negative leadership 
experiences is an important component of leadership and command ground 
training. The FAA has determined that a facilitated discussion can be 
accomplished with existing technology. With current technology, there 
are various systems that can be used for distance instruction: From 
simple presentations reviewed individually by a student to fully 
interactive video conferencing with instructors and students in 
multiple locations. There are several universities that have developed 
the necessary technology for students to effectively complete entire 
degree programs using distance instruction. However, not all distance 
instruction systems would be effective in conducting a facilitated 
discussion and meet the objectives of the leadership and command ground 
training. Additionally, as noted by commenters, technology continues to 
evolve. Therefore, the FAA does not want to impose unnecessary 
restrictions on the use of evolving technology which could provide 
enhanced capabilities in the future. Thus, the final rule does not 
restrict the use of distance instruction for leadership and command 
ground training. However, to ensure the objectives of the training are 
met, the FAA is specifically requiring facilitated discussion during 
leadership and command ground training in Sec. Sec.  121.419(c), 
121.420(b), and 121.427(d)(1).

F. PIC Mentoring Training

    In the NPRM, the FAA proposed to require training on mentoring 
skills for all PICs serving in part 121 operations to establish the 
mentoring environment recommended by the MLP ARC. The proposed 
mentoring training would include techniques for instilling and 
reinforcing the highest standards of technical performance, airmanship, 
and professionalism in newly hired pilots. The FAA proposed that this 
training would be included in the PIC upgrade curriculum (or the 
initial curriculum for the limited circumstance of a new-hire PIC) and 
PIC recurrent ground training. The FAA further proposed that all pilots 
qualified to serve as PIC prior to the compliance date must complete 
the PIC upgrade ground training on mentoring skills to create a 
comprehensive and consistent mentoring environment.
    AABI, the NTSB, and one individual generally agreed with the 
mentoring training for all PICs. Jet Blue stated it has had a mentoring 
program for all new

[[Page 10905]]

hire pilots for several years and further believed that all PICs should 
undergo formal training in mentoring skills.
    ALPA encouraged minimum qualification, pilot line experience, and 
training required for instructors who conduct mentoring training.
    The FAA does not agree that the final rule should include specific 
training or qualification requirements for instructors who will conduct 
mentoring training. As discussed earlier, the FAA expects that each air 
carrier can best determine the training and qualifications necessary 
for their ground instructors to effectively conduct training under the 
carrier's program. However, in the associated AC Air Carrier Pilot 
Mentoring, the FAA will include suggested training topics for 
instructors who conduct mentoring training.
    ALPA asserted that for PIC mentoring training to be effective, new-
hires must also receive training on the role of mentoring and what is 
expected of them.
    The FAA does not agree that a specific requirement for new-hires to 
receive training on the role of mentoring is necessary. As discussed 
earlier, the FAA has determined the combination of the ATP-CTP and the 
basic indoctrination training at the air carrier sufficiently 
incorporates any necessary training on mentoring for new-hires.
    ALPA stated that pass/fail grading should not be based solely on 
mentoring skills unless clear, unambiguous, objective, measurable 
standards exist at that airline for those skills.
    As discussed earlier, the FAA expects that air carriers will use 
their current processes to develop the necessary method(s) to ensure 
that PICs are adequately trained in mentoring skills. The FAA will 
include suggested training topics in the AC Air Carrier Pilot 
Mentoring, accompanying this final rule.
    ALPA recommended limiting the mentoring ground training 
administered through distance instruction methods to 25% of the total 
training. ALPA stated that PIC mentoring training must use group 
discussion and interactive role-playing scenarios, actual examples of 
effective and ineffective mentoring, and the incorporation of CRM. AABI 
recommended that the final rule should state that facilitation is the 
preferred method for mentoring ground training.
    As described in the draft AC Air Carrier Pilot Mentoring published 
in the docket, the FAA agrees that role-playing exercises are an 
important component of mentoring training. The FAA also agrees that a 
facilitated discussion is the most appropriate method to conduct the 
role-playing exercises. However, as further explained in the section 
regarding PIC Leadership and Command Training--Distance Instruction, 
the FAA believes that a facilitated discussion can be accomplished with 
existing technology. Additionally, the FAA does not want to impose 
unnecessary restrictions on the use of evolving technology which could 
provide enhanced capabilities in the future. Thus, the final rule does 
not restrict the use of distance instruction for mentoring training. 
However, to ensure the objectives of the training are met the FAA is 
specifically requiring facilitated discussion during mentoring ground 
training in Sec. Sec.  121.419(c), 121.420, and 121.427(d)(1).
    ALPA further suggested including a definition of long-term 
mentoring. ALPA also suggested that mentor programs should have clearly 
defined boundaries, rules, and understandings between the mentor and 
prot[eacute]g[eacute].
    As described in the NPRM, the FAA did not propose long term 
mentoring as recommended by the MLP ARC. Therefore, the FAA is not 
including a definition of long-term mentoring.

G. SIC to PIC Upgrade (Sec. Sec.  121.420 and 121.426)

    In the NPRM, the FAA proposed to revise upgrade training 
requirements to account for the evolution in SIC qualification and 
experience requirements. See 81 FR at 69919. The proposed upgrade 
training would ensure technical knowledge and skills while focusing on 
the decision-making and leadership skills required of a PIC serving in 
part 121 operations.
    Ameristar suggested the following text be added: ``completed 
initial SIC training and has served as SIC'' or similar language to 
avoid potential confusion in proposed Sec.  121.400.
    The FAA does not agree with the suggested revision to the 
definition of upgrade training in Sec.  121.400 and is adopting the 
language as proposed. A pilot that has only completed initial PIC 
training is not eligible to complete SIC operating experience or serve 
as an SIC. A person cannot serve as an SIC unless that person has 
satisfactorily completed for that type airplane and SIC crewmember 
position, approved ground and flight training, a proficiency check, 
operating experience, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. See 
Sec. Sec.  121.433, 121.434, and 121.441. Therefore, as proposed, a 
pilot is only eligible for upgrade training if the pilot has qualified 
and served as an SIC on that type airplane.
1. Performance-Based Curriculum
    The FAA proposed a performance-based upgrade curriculum. The 
proposal removed the requirement to include all existing upgrade ground 
training subjects required by Sec.  121.419(a) and the Sec.  121.424 
requirement to include all appendix E maneuvers and procedures during 
upgrade flight training. Instead, the proposal refocused upgrade ground 
and flight training to include subjects, maneuvers, and procedures 
specific to the duties and responsibilities the pilot will have as PIC 
at that air carrier. However, consistent with existing upgrade 
curriculum requirements, the proposed upgrade flight training continued 
to include rare, but high-risk scenarios. Because the FAA proposed to 
remove the requirement to train the entire range of Sec.  121.419 
subjects and appendix E maneuvers and procedures in upgrade training, 
the FAA believed that the revised upgrade ground training could be 
completed in less time than the programmed hours currently identified 
in each air carrier's approved training program, and the upgrade flight 
training could be completed within the same or less time than currently 
identified in each air carrier's approved training program.
    One individual stated that the proposed upgrade training will 
ensure technical skills and knowledge are facilitated while 
concentrating on the leadership and decision-making skills required for 
a professional pilot.
    ALPA suggested requiring all the PIC upgrade ground and flight 
training that had been required before the Pilot Certification rule. 
ALPA opposed the FAA approving any reduction in the current upgrade 
flight training footprints based on the Pilot Certification rule and/or 
this final rule.
    The FAA does not agree that upgrade training should include all the 
ground and flight training that had been required before the Pilot 
Certification rule. As explained in the NPRM, the current role served 
by an SIC in part 121 operations as well as the current SIC 
qualification requirements no longer support the foundation for upgrade 
training requirements in current subpart N. As further explained in the 
NPRM, the FAA has determined that the revised upgrade ground training 
can be completed in less time than the programmed hours currently 
identified in each air carrier's approved training program, and the 
upgrade flight training can be completed within the same or less time 
than currently identified in each air carrier's approved training 
program. See 81 FR at 69919.

[[Page 10906]]

    ALPA recommended requiring PIC initial and upgrade ground training 
to include all the requirements in Sec.  121.419(a) and (b) because 
that material may have been learned many years earlier.
    The FAA does not agree with the suggested revision to Sec.  
121.419(c) to require PIC initial ground training to include all the 
requirements in Sec.  121.419(a) and (b). As explained in the NPRM, in 
the Pilot Certification rule, the FAA recognized that a number of the 
general knowledge elements that are included in pilot initial ground 
training in Sec.  121.419(a)(1) are now addressed by the ATP-CTP 
academic requirements. Therefore, in Sec.  121.419(b), the Pilot 
Certification rule revised the part 121 initial ground training 
requirements by removing the generic elements for pilots who have 
completed the ATP-CTP. See 81 FR at 69923. The FAA's position has not 
changed; the general knowledge elements that are addressed by an ATP-
CTP do not need to be repeated by a pilot during initial ground 
training with an air carrier.
    The FAA does not agree with the suggested revision to Sec.  121.420 
to require upgrade ground training to include all the requirements in 
Sec.  121.419(a) and (b). As explained in the NPRM, to serve as a pilot 
in part 121 operations, a pilot must satisfactorily complete recurrent 
ground training within 12 calendar months preceding service as a pilot. 
See Sec. Sec.  121.427 and 121.433(c). Further, as explained in the 
NPRM, Sec.  121.427 requires recurrent ground training to include 
instruction in the subjects required for initial ground training. See 
81 FR at 69923. Therefore, the FAA does not agree that review of all 
the material in Sec.  121.419(a) and (b) is warranted during upgrade 
training because these subjects would have been routinely reviewed 
during recurrent ground training.
    ALPA suggested requiring all maneuvers and procedures in Appendix E 
to be completed during upgrade flight training.
    The FAA does not agree that upgrade flight training should require 
all maneuvers and procedures in Appendix E to be completed. As 
explained in the NPRM, with the changes to SIC qualification 
requirements as a result of the Pilot Certification rule, an SIC will 
have already demonstrated technical mastery of that airplane type at 
the ATP certificate level when he or she begins upgrade training. The 
FAA does not agree that upgrading pilots would need to complete all 
maneuvers and procedures in Appendix E in order to demonstrate that 
they can meet the performance standards while simultaneously applying 
leadership and command skills. The final rule maintains the proposed 
performance-based upgrade curriculum. Among other requirements, upgrade 
flight training must include sufficient training to ensure the pilot 
has attained the knowledge and skills to proficiently operate the 
airplane as a PIC. As explained in the NPRM, the air carrier must 
determine the specific maneuvers and procedures for each airplane type 
considering its operational factors and authorizations and identified 
risks. See 81 FR at 69919.
    ALPA suggested requiring additional/supplemental facilitated ground 
school and Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) for leadership and 
command training and mentoring training when a new hire is hired 
directly as a PIC or upgrades to PIC within a new hire probation 
period. ALPA stated that this training should place emphasis on the 
culture of the carrier, challenges of being a new PIC at that carrier 
while flying with experienced SICs, resources of the carrier and union 
(if applicable), making the best use of being mentored by experienced 
PICs at that carrier, etc.
    The FAA does not agree that requiring additional ground school and 
LOFT is warranted when a new hire is hired directly as a PIC or 
upgrades to PIC within a new hire probation period. In accordance with 
Sec.  121.401(a)(1), an air carrier's training program must ensure that 
each PIC is adequately trained to perform his or her assigned duties. 
Therefore, the FAA expects the training program of air carriers who 
hire PICs or upgrade pilots to PIC within their new hire probationary 
periods to include any additional training determined necessary by the 
air carrier to ensure the pilots are adequately trained to perform PIC 
duties. Additionally, Sec.  121.436 requires a pilot to have 1,000 
hours of air carrier experience before serving as a PIC in part 121 
operations.
    ALPA stated that guidance should exist ensuring upgrade training 
includes exposure to the operations of other airline departments such 
as dispatch, maintenance, and scheduling.
    The recommendation that upgrade training should include exposure to 
the operations of other airline departments such as dispatch, 
maintenance, and scheduling is outside the scope of this rulemaking. 
The FAA expects each individual air carrier will determine if exposure 
to other airline departments is beneficial to its operation.
2. Revised Upgrade Curriculum Requirements
i. Seat Dependent and Duty Position Maneuvers and Procedures
    The FAA proposed that the upgrade ground and flight training must 
include seat dependent maneuvers and procedures as well as duty 
position maneuvers and procedures. See 81 FR at 69920.
    Ameristar questioned why seat dependent training would be required 
for a pilot upgrading from SIC to PIC. Ameristar recommended combining 
proposed Sec.  121.420 with proposed Sec.  121.429 without seat 
dependent training and duty position procedures because these items are 
redundant and unnecessary. Ameristar also stated that proposed Sec.  
121.426(a)(1) and (2) are not necessary because if a pilot is being 
trained as a PIC, the pilot will get seat dependent training and duty 
position flight training without prescriptive rules.
    The FAA does not agree with these comments. As explained in the 
NPRM, seat dependent maneuvers and procedures include the use of 
systems with controls that are not centrally located, or are accessible 
or operable from only the left or from only the right pilot seat as 
identified by the airplane manufacturer, air carrier, or the 
Administrator as seat dependent tasks. Typically, the PIC is assigned 
to and operates the airplane from the left seat, and the SIC is 
assigned to and operates the airplane from the right seat. An SIC who 
has been serving in the right seat of an aircraft would not know the 
characteristics of the left seat. Therefore, seat dependent training is 
required during upgrade training. As explained in the NPRM, duty 
position maneuvers and procedures include tasks specified by the 
airplane manufacturer, air carrier, or the Administrator, as PIC or SIC 
only tasks. A pilot serving as SIC would not have been previously 
trained and qualified on PIC only tasks. Therefore, duty position 
maneuvers and procedures are required during upgrade training.
    The FAA is adopting, as proposed, the requirement that upgrade 
ground and flight training must include seat dependent maneuvers and 
procedures as well as duty position maneuvers and procedures.
ii. Leadership and Command and CRM
    The FAA proposed that upgrade ground training must include 
leadership and command, as well as CRM. CRM training includes decision-
making, authority and responsibility, and conflict resolution. The FAA 
also

[[Page 10907]]

proposed that upgrade flight training must include scenario-based 
training structured to incorporate CRM and leadership and command. See 
81 FR at 69920.
    AABI and Jet Blue agreed that leadership and command must be 
demonstrated during the flight training portion of the upgrade 
curriculum. AABI also agreed with the requirement to incorporate 
leadership and command into flight training through scenario-based 
training.
    Ameristar sought clarification on the definition of ``sufficient 
scenario based training incorporating CRM and leadership and command 
skills,'' as used in proposed Sec. Sec.  121.424(b) and 121.426(a)(5).
    In the final rule, the FAA maintains a performance-based upgrade 
curriculum, and therefore specifying standards for ``sufficient 
scenario based training'' is unnecessary in Sec. Sec.  121.424(b) and 
121.426(a)(5). As explained in the NPRM, the FAA has determined this 
approach will allow air carriers to develop a robust upgrade curriculum 
specific to their operations, airplane types, and identified risks. As 
further explained in the NPRM, scenario-based training should address 
specific training objectives based on technical and soft skills, may 
consist of full or partial flight segments, and would necessarily vary, 
depending on the training objectives. Additionally, the FAA has 
determined this scenario-based training ensures the effective 
integration of these ``soft skills'' with technical skills. Therefore, 
an air carrier can combine the maneuvers and procedures in appendix E 
with the scenario-based training required by Sec. Sec.  121.424(b) and 
121.426(a)(5) as long as the training meets the objectives and 
requirements of both appendix E and Sec. Sec.  121.424(b) and 
121.426(a)(5).
    The FAA recognizes that a carrier may choose to include leadership 
and command training in its SIC to PIC upgrade CRM curriculum that may 
satisfy the requirements of this final rule. If a carrier develops and 
conducts enhanced CRM training that includes additional instruction and 
facilitated discussion specifically designed to provide PICs with the 
necessary leadership and command skills, that carrier may meet the 
requirements under part 121 subpart N related to leadership and command 
training. The FAA will consider the training aids, devices, methods, 
and procedures used by the carrier as well as the content of the 
carrier's enhanced CRM training to determine whether the enhanced CRM 
training meets the requirements for leadership and command training.
iii. Mentoring
    The FAA proposed that upgrade ground training must include 
mentoring, to include techniques for instilling and reinforcing the 
highest standards of technical performance, airmanship, and 
professionalism in newly hired pilots. See 81 FR at 69920.
    AABI agreed with the requirement for mentoring training for pilots 
upgrading to PIC. ALPA stated that upgrade flight training should also 
include mentoring training.
    The FAA does not agree that upgrade flight training should include 
mentoring training because it cannot be incorporated into upgrade 
flight training effectively. An opportunity for mentoring would have to 
be artificially introduced during scenario-based flight training, which 
would reduce the effectiveness of that training because the scenario 
would no longer be realistic.
iv. Low-Altitude Windshear and Extended Envelope Flight Training
    In the NPRM, the FAA proposed that upgrade flight training must 
continue to include training in the rare, but high risk scenarios 
specified in Sec.  121.423 as well as the carrier's approved low-
altitude windshear flight training program.
    The FAA did not receive any comments regarding low-altitude 
windshear and extended envelope flight training and is adopting those 
requirements as proposed.
v. Additional Flight Training
    The FAA also proposed that the upgrade curriculum must include 
sufficient flight training to ensure the pilot has attained the 
knowledge and skills to proficiently operate the airplane as a PIC. 
Under the proposed upgrade curriculum, the air carrier must determine 
the specific maneuvers and procedures for each airplane type 
considering its operational factors and authorizations, risks 
identified through its safety management system, and other risks 
identified through programs such as an Aviation Safety Action Program 
(ASAP), Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA), and Line 
Operations Safety Audit (LOSA).\21\ Additionally, the FAA proposed that 
the training must ensure the pilot has developed the visual and 
psychomotor acuity necessary to operate the airplane from the seat 
position to be occupied while serving as PIC, typically the left pilot 
seat.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \21\ ASAP, FOQA, and LOSA are voluntary programs implemented by 
many air carriers. Analysis of the data provided by these voluntary 
programs has contributed to increased safety including improvements 
to training and operational procedures.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The FAA did not receive any comments on the proposed additional 
flight training during upgrade and is adopting the requirements as 
proposed.
3. Upgrade Proficiency Check Requirements
    To ensure a proficient PIC, the FAA proposed to revise the waiver 
provisions for a Sec.  121.441 proficiency check completed after 
upgrade ground and flight training. See 81 FR at 69920.
    Ameristar stated that all the events in Appendix E applicable to 
upgrade training are waivable during the proficiency check, thereby 
invalidating the rationale for not allowing events to be waived on the 
proficiency check after upgrade training. Ameristar also commented that 
because compliance with either proposed Sec.  121.441(d)(3)(i) or (ii) 
is allowed, compliance with Sec.  121.441(d)(3)(i) would include 
upgrade training completed six months earlier making Sec.  
121.441(d)(3)(ii) unnecessary.
    As explained in the NPRM, the proposed upgrade training 
requirements do not require pilots to complete all maneuvers and 
procedures in appendix E during training. Appendix E designates the 
airplane or FSTD, as appropriate, that may be used for maneuvers and 
procedures required for upgrade training in accordance with proposed 
Sec.  121.426. Therefore, to ensure a proficient PIC, proficiency must 
be demonstrated for all maneuvers and procedures in appendix F during 
the proficiency check completed after upgrade training.
    Proposed Sec.  121.441(d)(3)(ii) is necessary because proposed 
Sec.  121.441(d)(3)(i) does not include upgrade training completed 
within the previous six months. Section 121.441(d)(3)(i) applies to a 
pilot currently qualified for part 121 operations in a particular type 
airplane and flightcrew member position. Proposed Sec.  
121.441(d)(3)(ii) applies to a pilot who has satisfactorily completed 
an approved training curriculum within the preceding six months, except 
for an upgrade training curriculum in accordance with proposed 
Sec. Sec.  121.420 and 121.426. A pilot who has only completed upgrade 
training is not currently qualified for part 121 operations as PIC in 
that type airplane because the pilot has not completed the 
qualification requirements in part 121 subpart O, including the 
proficiency check, operating experience, consolidation of knowledge and 
skills and the line check. Therefore, as proposed, waiver authority is 
not

[[Page 10908]]

allowed on a proficiency check for a pilot who has completed the 
upgrade training curriculum in accordance with proposed Sec. Sec.  
121.420 and 121.426.
    The FAA is adopting the revised waiver provisions as proposed.
4. Effect of Revised Upgrade Curriculum on Recurrent Training
    In the NPRM, the FAA explained that an air carrier may continue to 
reset a pilot's ``base'' month for recurrent flight training if the 
pilot satisfactorily completes the proposed upgrade flight training and 
proficiency check. An air carrier may only reset a pilot's base month 
for recurrent ground training based upon completion of upgrade ground 
training if the air carrier's upgrade curriculum includes all recurrent 
ground training requirements of Sec.  121.427. See 81 FR at 69921.
    The FAA did not receive any comments on this explanation.

H. Training for Pilots Currently Serving as PIC (Sec.  121.429)

    The FAA proposed that all pilots qualified to serve as PIC prior to 
the compliance date must complete the PIC upgrade ground training on 
leadership and command and mentoring. However, the FAA also proposed to 
allow credit toward all or part of the requirements for leadership and 
command and mentoring training for current PICs based on leadership and 
command and mentoring training previously completed by these PICs at 
that air carrier. The FAA sought comment on the proposal to allow 
credit, specifically:
    (1) Whether and to what extent air carriers were already providing 
leadership and command training and/or mentoring training for current 
PICs as described in the draft ACs included in the docket for the 
rulemaking;
    (2) Whether the previous training must have been provided as part 
of a training program approved by the FAA for that air carrier;
    (3) Whether the previous training must have been completed within a 
certain period of time prior to the effective date of the final rule;
    (4) What criteria and documentation the FAA should consider in 
determining whether all or part of the requirements have been met with 
previous training; and
    (5) What criteria and documentation the FAA should consider in 
determining whether a PIC completed all or part of the previous 
training at that air carrier.
    Comments from A4A and several air carriers indicated that numerous 
air carriers provide training in some or all of the items addressed in 
the draft ACs on leadership and command and mentoring training, and 
that some airlines have been providing this training for well over 20 
years. Portions of the training is part of an FAA-approved training 
curriculum, but some air carriers may have included this training as 
part of specialized carrier-specific training that is not FAA-approved.
    A4A, American, and Jet Blue did not believe there should be a 
specific timeframe when this training should have been completed in 
order to be creditable. In contrast, ALPA believed credit should not be 
provided if the training occurred more than 24 months prior to the 
publication of the final rule. The NTSB strongly disagreed with the 
proposal to allow credit for training completed before the effective 
date of the final rule because that training may not be equivalent to 
the final rule requirements. A4A stated that whether or not the 
training was part of an FAA-approved training program does not negate 
the fact that the training took place and should not be a factor in 
determining if credit for the training will be allowed.
    A4A, American, and UPS contended that airline records, courseware, 
and training module outlines are the appropriate criteria to determine 
the extent and subject matter of previous training and whether a PIC 
completed training. Jet Blue did not believe that specific criteria or 
documentation are necessary for the FAA to determine if all or part of 
the requirements have been met.
    American and UPS requested that the FAA leave as much latitude as 
possible for establishing that training was accomplished for air 
carriers with long records of voluntarily covering the proposed topics.
    ALPA believed that previous mentoring, leadership and command 
training should only be credited if effective and recent. ALPA 
suggested using data such as participants' critiques, LOSA, ASAP, line 
checks, etc. to determine if the training was effective. ALPA also 
stated that proper record keeping should reflect that the pilot 
participated in the entire course for which credit is being sought.
    An individual identified as an associate college professor stated 
that the FAA should allow partial credit toward the requirements for 
leadership and command and mentoring training for current PICs based on 
leadership and command and mentoring training previously completed at 
that air carrier.
    Ameristar stated that current PICs who have completed an air 
carrier's CRM should not have to complete initial one-time training.
    As explained in the NPRM, the FAA has determined that it is 
unnecessarily burdensome for PICs to complete the one-time training on 
leadership and command and mentoring if the PIC has previously 
completed training that is duplicative of the proposed requirements. As 
indicated by commenters, several air carriers are already providing 
some or all of this training. Therefore, the final rule retains the 
allowance for credit for training previously completed at that air 
carrier.
    However, the FAA will only allow credit for training completed 
within 36 calendar months prior to the effective date of the final 
rule. As described in the section on Recurrent PIC Leadership and 
Command and Mentoring Training, leadership and command are perishable 
skills that require recurrent training; in the final rule, the 
frequency for recurrent ground training on leadership and command and 
mentoring for PICs remains every 36 calendar months, as proposed. 
Therefore, the FAA has determined it is appropriate to use the same 
timeframe for credit for training.
    Since this training was previously voluntary, the FAA agrees with 
commenters that credit should be allowed even if the training was not 
included in the FAA-approved training program, where the air carrier 
has appropriate records. The FAA also agrees with commenters that 
curricula, training modules, and lesson plans combined with a record 
for an individual pilot are the appropriate documentation to allow 
credit for some or all of the training.
    In the draft ACs, the FAA had proposed that the POI for each 
carrier would evaluate the carrier's request and determine whether to 
allow credit for some or all of the training. However, to ensure a 
consistent determination of whether the previous training met some or 
all of the requirements, the FAA is establishing a focus team, 
consisting of FAA subject matter experts, to evaluate all requests for 
credit. This process will be described in the final version of the ACs 
accompanying this final rule.
    The FAA does not agree that if a pilot has completed CRM training 
at that carrier, one-time training on leadership and command and 
mentoring should not be required. As described in the NPRM, although 
CRM contains some elements of the desired leadership training, it is 
not designed with the express intent of aiding the PIC in assuming a 
leadership role in the aircraft. See 81 FR at 69916. CRM focuses on the 
use of all resources available to the pilot and the

[[Page 10909]]

functioning of crewmembers as teams (addressing team behaviors and 
effectiveness), whereas the leadership and command training required in 
this final rule is intended for the development of the individual PIC's 
leadership skills, management oversight, and command authority prior to 
overall crewmember-integrated CRM training. CRM is also not designed to 
provide PICs with mentoring skills. Despite this distinction, the FAA 
recognizes that a carrier may choose to include leadership and command 
training in its CRM curriculum that may satisfy the requirements of 
this final rule. If a carrier develops and conducts enhanced CRM 
training that includes additional instruction and facilitated 
discussion specifically designed to provide PICs with the necessary 
leadership and command skills, that carrier may seek credit for that 
training. The FAA will consider the training aids, devices, methods, 
and procedures used by the carrier as well as the content of the 
carrier's enhanced CRM training to determine whether the enhanced CRM 
training meets the requirements for leadership and command training.

I. Recurrent PIC Leadership and Command and Mentoring Training 
(Sec. Sec.  121.409(b) and 121.427)

    In the NPRM, the FAA proposed to require recurrent training on 
leadership and command and mentoring skills for all PICs serving in 
part 121 operations. The FAA proposed to require recurrent ground 
training on leadership and command and mentoring for PICs every 36 
calendar months. The FAA also proposed to modify the requirements in 
Sec.  121.409 to require that the recurrent LOFT scenario must provide 
each PIC an opportunity to demonstrate leadership and command.
    AABI and Jet Blue agreed with the requirement for leadership and 
command and mentoring training for PIC recurrent training. They also 
agreed with the requirement that leadership and command must be 
demonstrated during the flight training portion of recurrent training. 
Several individuals also agreed with the proposal.
    ALPA asserted that recurrent leadership and command and mentoring 
training needs to be conducted every 12 months rather than every 36 
months.
    As explained in the NPRM, the FAA has previously recognized that 
the necessary frequency for recurrent training is not the same for all 
subject areas and tasks. The FAA agrees that mentoring, leadership and 
command are perishable skills that require recurrent training. However, 
the FAA has determined that because these skills are used regularly 
during every flight they are less susceptible to degradation. 
Therefore, the frequency for recurrent ground training on leadership 
and command and mentoring for PICs is every 36 calendar months, as 
proposed.
    Ameristar thought that requiring leadership and command training 
during recurrent LOFT implies that a LOFT would be required during 
recurrent training. Ameristar believed that distance learning should 
suffice for recurrent training.
    The FAA proposed only to modify the existing recurrent LOFT 
scenario requirements in Sec.  121.409. The FAA did not intend any 
implication that a LOFT would be required during recurrent training. As 
currently allowed, air carriers may choose to substitute LOFT that 
meets the requirements of Sec.  121.409 for the recurrent proficiency 
check requirement specified in Sec.  121.441, but air carriers are not 
required to do so.
    The FAA recognizes that a carrier may choose to include leadership 
and command training in its recurrent CRM curriculum that may satisfy 
the requirements of this final rule. If a carrier develops and conducts 
enhanced CRM training that includes additional instruction and 
facilitated discussion specifically designed to provide PICs with the 
necessary leadership and command skills, that carrier may meet the 
requirements under part 121 subpart N related to leadership and command 
training. The FAA will consider the training aids, devices, methods, 
and procedures used by the carrier as well as the content of the 
carrier's enhanced CRM training to determine whether the enhanced CRM 
training meets the requirements for leadership and command training.

J. Leadership and Command Training and Mentoring Training for SICs 
Serving in Operations That Require Three or More Pilots

    In the NPRM, the FAA explained that it was considering requiring 
leadership and command training and mentoring training for SICs that 
serve as SIC in an operation that requires three or more pilots who are 
required by Sec.  121.432(a) to be fully qualified to act as PIC of 
that operation (except for operating experience). The FAA sought 
comment on:
    (1) Whether the PIC leadership and command training should be 
included in the qualification requirements for pilots serving as the 
SIC in an augmented flightcrew; \22\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \22\ An augmented flightcrew is a flightcrew that consists of 
more than the minimum number of flightcrew members required by the 
airplane type certificate to operate the airplane to allow a 
flightcrew member to be replaced by another qualified flightcrew 
member for inflight rest.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) Whether mentoring training should be included in the 
qualification requirements for pilots serving as the SIC in an 
augmented flightcrew;
    (3) Whether providing training in only one of the new subject areas 
(i.e., only leadership and command training or only mentoring training) 
would reduce the effectiveness of the training for these SICs; and
    (4) Whether providing training in only one of the new subject areas 
(i.e., only leadership and command training or only mentoring training) 
would reduce the effectiveness of the requirement for the SIC in an 
augmented flightcrew to be fully qualified to act as PIC.
    A4A, American, and UPS argued that there should be no requirement 
for leadership and command and mentoring training for pilots serving as 
the SIC in an augmented crew. They stated that the PIC is there as the 
leader on the flight and is available to deal with requirements 
associated with leadership and command. They also stated that there 
should not be an expectation on the flight deck that anyone will mentor 
other than the PIC. A4A, American, and UPS noted that leadership and 
command training and mentoring training can be mutually exclusive so 
that one topic could be taught without any reduction in the SIC's 
effectiveness if the other topic is not taught.
    Delta Air Lines commented that a full PIC command course should not 
be required for SICs. However, Delta stated that fundamentals of 
command training within established chain of command may be 
constructive.
    ALPA stated that all SICs performing in augmented operations should 
receive the PIC leadership and command training and mentoring training. 
ALPA believed that SICs being trained in only one of the subjects would 
reduce the effectiveness of the SIC training and potentially their 
ability to be fully qualified to act as PIC in augmented operations.
    Since 1970, Sec.  121.432(a) has stated that a pilot who serves as 
SIC in an operation that requires three or more pilots must be fully 
qualified to act as PIC of that operation. In the 1970 Training 
Programs final rule, the FAA indicated that the qualification 
requirements for the assigned SIC in a crew of three or more were not 
limited to one particular aspect of PIC qualification, and that the 
provision was intended to cover broader PIC qualification 
requirements.\23\ The FAA's

[[Page 10910]]

position has not changed. Therefore, the FAA has determined that SICs 
who serve in an operation that requires three or more pilots must 
complete leadership and command training to be fully qualified to act 
as PIC of that operation. As described in the NPRM, the purpose of 
leadership and command training is to provide the skills necessary to 
manage the crew, communications, workload, and decision-making in a 
manner that promotes adherence to SOP. Since these SICs may be required 
to act as PIC while the assigned PIC is taking an inflight rest break, 
the FAA has determined these SICs need the same leadership and command 
skills. The FAA notes that, in accordance with Sec.  121.401, these 
SICs will not be required to repeat the leadership and command training 
when they upgrade to PIC.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \23\ See 35 FR 84, 87 (Jan. 3, 1970).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The FAA has determined these SICs do not need to complete mentoring 
training to be fully qualified to act as PIC of an augmented operation 
under Sec.  121.432(a). As described above, the FAA is requiring 
mentoring training for all PICs serving in part 121 operations to 
establish the mentoring environment recommended by the MLP ARC. As 
further explained in the NPRM, the FAA has determined the increased 
experience requirements of the Pilot Certification rule together with 
the mentoring training requirement of this rule ensures every newly 
hired pilot is paired, on every flight, with an experienced pilot who 
can serve as a mentor. See 81 FR at 69919. Because the PIC of the 
augmented flight can serve as this mentor, an SIC who serves in an 
operation that requires three or more pilots would not ordinarily be 
expected to serve as a mentor to other pilots. Moreover, unlike with 
leadership and command skills, the PIC's mentoring responsibilities 
during an augmented operation would not ordinarily be interrupted 
merely by an inflight rest period.

K. Pilot Professional Development Committee (Proposed Sec.  121.17)

    In the NPRM, the FAA proposed to add a requirement for certificate 
holders conducting operations under part 121 to establish and maintain 
a pilot professional development committee (PPDC) to develop, 
administer, and oversee a formal pilot mentoring program. Additionally, 
the FAA proposed to require the PPDC to meet frequently enough to 
accomplish the objectives of the committee, but at least once a year. 
Further, the FAA proposed that the PPDC must consist of at least one 
management representative and at least one representative of the air 
carrier's pilots. The FAA proposed that the management representative 
must (1) have at least one year of experience serving as a PIC in part 
121 operations, and (2) be qualified through training, experience, and 
expertise relevant to the PPDC's responsibilities. Along with the NPRM, 
the FAA drafted an AC that provided attributes for a PPDC to consider 
to develop, administer, and oversee a formal pilot mentoring program. 
The FAA included a copy of this document in the docket for this 
rulemaking and sought comments.
    The FAA also sought comment on whether a PPDC and a formal pilot 
mentoring program are necessary in light of the FAA's proposal to 
require all PICs to complete mentoring training, including recurrent 
mentoring training. Although addressed in the ``PIC Mentoring 
Training'' discussion, by providing training on mentoring to all PICs, 
all newly hired SICs would be paired with a pilot who is prepared and 
has been trained to instill and reinforce the professionalism, skill, 
and knowledge expected of all pilots serving in part 121 operations.
    AABI agreed with establishing a PPDC, the minimum committee 
composition, and the minimum meeting requirements. The NTSB strongly 
supported the proposed PPDC. Several individuals, many identified as 
college students, agreed with the mentoring program and believed it 
would provide benefits such as improving CRM and communications between 
pilots, aiding the progression of new pilots, and providing good 
experience for mentors.
    A4A, American, Jet Blue, and UPS contended the necessity and role 
of the PPDC are limited considering mentoring training requirements and 
processes for reporting issues. A4A, American, and UPS also stated that 
the need for a PPDC would vary depending on factors at the airline such 
as size, maturity, pilot hiring parameters, training quality, and 
management capability.
    A4A and Jet Blue stated that some of the items listed for the PPDC 
to consider may fall under management responsibilities. A4A, UPS, and 
Jet Blue stated that the draft AC must clearly highlight the difference 
between the role of the PPDC and that of airline management.
    A4A, American, UPS, and Jet Blue also noted that several airlines 
already have joint committees with union/pilot representation and 
believed that the limited oversight proposed for the PPDC could readily 
be performed by these existing committees.
    Jet Blue further argued that some of the proposed language may 
cause conflicts of interest in certain phases of the collective 
bargaining process as defined by the Railway Labor Act.
    ALPA emphasized that it is a statutory mandate for the FAA to 
require a PPDC and a formal long-term mentoring program as well as 
mentoring for new hires during every flight. ALPA stated that the 
proposal did not address many issues regarding the PPDC and a formal 
long-term pilot mentoring program, including: Selection and deselection 
of mentors; whether the mentors will be volunteers or will hold paid 
positions; impact on part 117 duty time due to mentoring; mentor 
qualifications; mentor initial and recurrent training; frequency and 
method of communication; how mentors will be assigned to new hires; 
mentor burn out; uncooperative new hires; length of mentoring; record 
keeping; minimum topics for discussion; boundaries for mentoring; roles 
and responsibilities of the pilot union; consequences of a mentor not 
adhering to the program guidelines and responsibilities; and regular 
feedback.
    The FAA also received several other comments concerning the roles 
and functions of the proposed PPDC, its composition and meeting 
requirements, its interplay with existing labor-management structures, 
and the potential undue burden and costs associated with PPDC 
development and administration. In addition, the comments included 
recommendations on requirements for formal mentoring programs, the 
qualifications of mentors, and the scope of the mentor-mentee 
relationship.
    The FAA agrees with some air carrier commenters that, as proposed, 
the PPDC could create uncertainty between the role of the PPDC and the 
regulatory operational and management responsibilities of the air 
carrier. The FAA has determined that a formal pilot mentoring program 
cannot function independently from the operation of the air carrier. 
The development, administration, and oversight of a formal pilot 
mentoring program would impact many other aspects of the operation of 
the air carrier, such as pilot duty and rest, training, recordkeeping, 
``hiring'' of mentors, and funding for the program. In accordance with 
U.S.C. 44701(b) and (d), the FAA may prescribe minimum safety standards 
for air carriers in consideration of the duty of an air carrier to 
provide service with the highest possible degree of safety in the 
public interest. Therefore, the responsibility for the safe operation 
of the air carrier, including the pilot mentoring program, ultimately 
remains with the air carrier.

[[Page 10911]]

    Additionally, the FAA agrees that the need for a PPDC is limited 
because all PICs are required to complete mentoring training.
    Lastly, in January 2015, the FAA issued the Safety Management 
Systems for Domestic, Flag, and Supplemental Operations for Certificate 
Holders final rule (SMS).\24\ The SMS final rule was in response to (1) 
section 215 of Public Law 111-216 that directed the FAA to require all 
part 121 air carriers to implement an SMS, (2) NTSB recommendation A-
07-10 for the FAA to require all part 121 air carriers to establish an 
SMS, and (3) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 6, 
in which member states agreed to establish SMS requirements for air 
carriers. SMS is a comprehensive, process-oriented approach to managing 
safety throughout an organization. An SMS includes an organization-wide 
safety policy; formal methods for identifying hazards, controlling, and 
continually assessing risk and safety performance; and promotion of a 
safety culture. When systematically applied, SMS provides a set of 
decision-making tools that air carriers can use to improve safety. SMS 
stresses not only compliance with technical standards but also 
increased emphasis on the overall safety performance of the 
organization. In accordance with the SMS final rule, air carriers must 
have implemented an SMS that meets the requirements of 14 CFR part 5 no 
later than March 2018.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \24\ 80 FR 1308 (Jan. 8, 2015).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The FAA has thoroughly considered the MLP ARC recommendations in 
context with the SMS final rule, the PIC mentoring training required by 
this final rule, as well as the comments submitted in response to this 
rulemaking, and the FAA has determined that it would not be feasible or 
achievable for the PPDC to develop, administer, and oversee an 
effective formal pilot mentoring program. The FAA has determined that 
the goals of improving pilot airmanship, decision-making, and 
professionalism at each air carrier can be achieved through the PIC 
mentoring training required by this final rule and the use of each air 
carrier's SMS. The FAA is not adopting the proposal for the 
establishment of a PPDC.

L. Pilot Recurrent Ground Training Content and Programmed Hours (Sec.  
121.427)

    The FAA proposed to remove from the pilot recurrent ground training 
requirements, certain foundational knowledge elements that are no 
longer necessary in light of the maturity of air carrier training 
programs and the increase in pilot experience and qualification.\25\ 
The FAA further proposed a one hour reduction in the required minimum 
programmed hours for pilot recurrent ground training.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \25\ To implement the proposed amendments to recurrent ground 
training content for pilots, the FAA proposed revisions to Sec.  
121.427(b), that separate the recurrent ground training requirements 
by training population. Additionally, the FAA proposed to remove 
from Sec.  121.427(b), the reference to Sec.  121.805 because of the 
requirement in Sec.  121.415(a)(3) to complete Sec.  121.805 
training.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The FAA did not receive any comments regarding the proposed changes 
to pilot recurrent ground training content and programmed hours. 
Therefore, these changes are adopted as proposed.

M. Part 135 Operators and Part 91 Subpart K Program Managers Complying 
With Part 121, Subparts N and O

    In the NPRM, the FAA explained that some part 135 operators and 
part 91K program managers use pilot training and qualification programs 
that comply with subparts N and O of part 121. However, the FAA 
explained that some of the proposed revisions to part 121 in the NPRM 
were not compatible with all part 135 and 91K operations because of 
differences between the requirements for minimum flight crew and pilot 
certification. Therefore, for part 135 operators and fractional 
ownership program managers who use a part 121 subparts N and O training 
and qualification program, the FAA proposed to retain the existing 
upgrade curriculum requirements and to limit the applicability of the 
leadership and command and mentoring training to PICs serving in 
operations that require two or more pilots. The FAA further explained 
that the remaining proposed amendments to subparts N and O of part 121 
would apply to these other operators and program managers. See 81 FR at 
69923.
    NetJets requested that the final rule specifically note that the 
proposed OF requirement not apply to part 135 on-demand certificate 
holders or part 91, subpart K fractional ownership program managers 
that choose to comply with part 121 subparts N and O training and 
testing requirements. NetJets stated that few of its aircraft are 
equipped with a flight deck observer seat and would qualify for the 
deviation in proposed Sec.  121.432(d).
    The FAA agrees that the requirement for OF should not apply to part 
135 operators or part 91K program managers that choose to comply with 
part 121 subparts N and O because the airplanes used in these 
operations are generally too small to accommodate a flight deck 
observer seat. Additionally, Public Law 111-216 and the associated MLP 
ARC recommendations are specifically directed at part 121 air carriers. 
Therefore, as adopted in Sec. Sec.  91.1063(b) and 121.435(a) part 135 
operators or part 91K program managers that choose to comply with part 
121 subparts N and O are not required to comply with OF.
    NetJets stated that in accordance with Sec.  135.3(c), the 
operating experience required by Sec.  121.434 is not applicable to 
NetJets because Sec.  135.3(c) provides that certificate holders 
conducting part 135 operations who comply with part 121 subparts N and 
O requirements, instead of the part 135 subparts E, G, and H 
requirements, may choose to comply with the operating experience 
requirements of Sec.  135.244 instead of the requirements of Sec.  
121.434. NetJets believed that, because a proficiency check of a visual 
inspection using pictorial means is certified by a check pilot, it is 
unnecessary to certify the pilot's proficiency a second time before the 
pilot completes operating experience.
    As proposed in Sec.  121.434(b)(3), if pictorial means was used to 
conduct the preflight visual inspection during the proficiency check, 
the pilot must demonstrate proficiency on at least one complete visual 
inspection of a static airplane before the completion of the operating 
experience required by Sec.  121.434. The FAA did not propose any 
changes to Sec.  135.244. Therefore, that requirement would only apply 
to a part 135 operator who complies with part 121 subparts N and O and 
chooses to comply with Sec.  121.434. If the part 135 operator chooses 
to comply with Sec.  135.244 instead, the requirement for the pilot to 
conduct the visual inspection of a static airplane during the operating 
experience does not apply.
    The proposals to retain the existing upgrade curriculum 
requirements and to limit the applicability of the leadership and 
command and mentoring training to PICs serving in operations that 
require two or more pilots are adopted in the final rule for part 135 
operators and fractional ownership program managers who use a part 121 
subparts N and O training and qualification program.

N. Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD) Conforming Changes

    In the NPRM, the FAA proposed changes to part 121 subparts N and O 
and appendices E and F to reflect current terminology with respect to 
the use of flight simulators and other training devices. Specifically, 
references to visual simulators (Level A FFS) and

[[Page 10912]]

advanced simulators (Level B, C, and D FFS) were proposed to be removed 
and updated to reflect current terminology and additionally, all 
references to simulation technology that no longer exists were removed.
    American agreed with the proposed FSTD conforming changes, 
including the proposed change to amend Appendices E and F to allow 
pictorial means for the conduct of the preflight visual inspection.
    Delta Air Lines commented that in both proposed Appendix E and 
proposed Appendix F, the maneuver/procedure categories and descriptive 
terminology do not match related categories and description in 
accordance with 14 CFR part 60, Tables A1B and B1B (Table of Tasks vs. 
Simulator/FTD Level). Delta also noted that in proposed Appendix E and 
proposed Appendix F, the ``FTD'' column does not reflect the maneuvers 
for which Flight Training Devices (FTDs), specifically level 7 FTDs, 
can be certified for flight training and proficiency checking as 
qualified in part 60, Tables A1B and B1B.
    The FAA agrees with Delta's comment that the maneuvers and 
procedures in Appendix E and Appendix F do not directly align with the 
tasks listed in part 60 Tables A1B and B1B and also do not fully 
address all of the FFS and FTD levels that are currently defined in 
part 60. Since the time the tables in Appendix E and Appendix F were 
originally written several years ago, other device levels within the 
``FFS'' and ``FTD'' categories have been defined in the simulator 
qualification standards, and these tables in part 121 no longer reflect 
the current capabilities of all device levels which may be qualified 
for use in training under part 60. While the FAA agrees that Appendix E 
and Appendix F do not capture the capabilities of all of the available 
FSTD levels as currently defined in part 60, the FAA concludes that 
conducting extensive changes to these appendices in the final rule 
would exceed the scope of this rulemaking. The FAA has initiated a 
separate rulemaking to align the pilot training tasks and authorized 
FSTD levels used in part 121 training programs to the technical FSTD 
qualification standards that are defined in part 60.\26\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \26\ RIN 2120-AL14 Flight Simulation Training Device Usage in 
Training Programs. See the Department of Transportation semi-annual 
regulatory agenda at www.reginfo.gov for more information on this 
rulemaking.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

O. SIC Training and Checking Conforming Changes

    The FAA proposed amendments to the SIC training requirements in 
Appendix E to part 121, amendments to the SIC proficiency check 
requirements in Appendix F to part 121, and an amendment to Sec.  61.71 
to clarify that a pilot obtaining a type rating within a part 121 
training program must satisfactorily accomplish the same tasks and 
maneuvers required by Sec.  121.424 to serve as PIC. See 81 FR at 
69925.
    The FAA did not receive any comments on these proposed amendments 
and is adopting them as proposed.

P. Other Conforming and Miscellaneous Changes

    In the NPRM, the FAA proposed amendments to the pilot transition 
ground training content in Sec.  121.419; a new term in Sec.  121.400 
to identify flight engineer to SIC training as ``conversion'' training 
instead of ``upgrade'' training; amendments to the ground training 
content in Sec.  121.419 for flight engineer to SIC training; and an 
amendment to Sec.  121.434, Appendix E to part 121, and Appendix F to 
part 121 to allow preflight visual inspection using pictorial means 
during pilot training and checking. See 81 FR at 69926.
    Ameristar suggested, that because proposed Appendices E and F refer 
to an ``approved'' pictorial means for completing preflight, proposed 
Sec.  121.434(b)(3) should include the term ``approved.''
    The FAA agrees with the suggestion, and Sec.  121.434(b)(3) 
clarifies that the pictorial means must be approved. The FAA will 
continue to provide relief through exemptions for preflight visual 
inspection using pictorial means until April 27, 2021, to allow 
sufficient time for certificate holders to obtain approval under the 
regulations from their Principal Operations Inspector. The FAA did not 
receive any other comments on these proposed amendments and is adopting 
them as proposed.

Q. Costs and Benefits

    The FAA received a few comments concerning the potential costs and 
benefits of the proposed rule. Jet Blue stated that the proposed OF 
requirements may delay the training of a class of 30 pilots for up to 
an entire calendar week, resulting in significant costs to the airline. 
With Jet Blue's projected pilot hiring of 500 pilots in 2018, this 
delay represented a potential additional cost of $1,718,640 per year in 
system staffing costs versus approximately $245,520 for a single-day 
flexible addition within the existing training footprint.
    As further explained in the section regarding Operations 
Familiarization, the FAA has revised the proposed OF requirements to 
clarify that OF can be completed during or after basic indoctrination 
training. This change reduces staffing costs.
    An individual commenter stated that the proposed OF requirement 
would increase operating costs to the airlines, and does not help 
prevent the pilot shortage in the U.S.
    As described in the NPRM, the intent of OF is to provide newly 
hired pilots with an opportunity to observe from the flight deck in a 
real world environment, the unique characteristics of the air carrier's 
operations, and the specialized processes learned during basic 
indoctrination training.
    One individual provided positive comment on the cost savings 
benefits to operators. This individual further stated that the cost of 
$72 million over a 10-year period is much more feasible as it balances 
the expected overall benefits.
    Another individual noted that due to economic factors and further 
unknown variables, air carrier budgets could be impacted on a larger or 
smaller scale than what was estimated in the NPRM. One individual 
identified as a pilot suggested that if the savings are higher than or 
equal to the cost to implement, the NPRM should be implemented. This 
individual further calculated that even with the 10-year 7% discount 
rate that if the cost ends up only being about $1 million or less of an 
expense to air carriers, the NPRM should still be implemented so long 
as the expenses are not shifted on to the pilots.
    The FAA addresses the estimated costs and benefits of the rule in 
the Regulatory Evaluation section.

R. Other Out-of-Scope Comments

    Ameristar believed Sec.  121.436 should be amended to allow all 
flight time acquired in a turbojet aircraft in a part 135 operation to 
count towards the 1000-hour requirement of Sec.  121.436(a)(3). 
Referencing proposed Sec.  121.427(b)(4), Ameristar believed that CRM 
scenarios can be built into recurrent proficiency checks as well as 
LOFT sessions. The FAA also received several other comments concerning 
pilots' wages at regional air carriers, stress and fatigue, and optimal 
working environment. In addition, the comments included recommendations 
for general aviation pilot training and qualifications, as well as a 
recommendation to target regulations to

[[Page 10913]]

general aviation and other forms of transit.
    These comments are out of the scope of this rulemaking. While there 
are many other factors that contribute to aviation accidents, Public 
Law 111-216 and this rule specifically address pilot professional 
development through leadership and command training and pilot 
mentoring. The new requirements are designed to enhance the 
professional development of pilots and are therefore not intended as 
substitutes for pilot qualifications or other pilot training regimes.

V. Regulatory Notices and Analyses

A. Regulatory Evaluation

    Changes to Federal regulations must undergo several economic 
analyses. First, Executive Order 12866 and Executive Order 13563 direct 
that each Federal agency shall propose or adopt a regulation only upon 
a reasoned determination that the benefits of the intended regulation 
justify its costs. Second, the Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980 (Pub. 
L. 96-354) requires agencies to analyze the economic impact of 
regulatory changes on small entities. Third, the Trade Agreements Act 
(Pub. L. 96-39 as amended) prohibits agencies from setting standards 
that create unnecessary obstacles to the foreign commerce of the United 
States. In developing U.S. standards, the Trade Agreements Act requires 
agencies to consider international standards and, where appropriate, 
that they be the basis of U.S. standards. Fourth, the Unfunded Mandates 
Reform Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-4) requires agencies to prepare a 
written assessment of the costs, benefits, and other effects of 
proposed or final rules that include a Federal mandate likely to result 
in the expenditure by State, local, or tribal governments, in the 
aggregate, or by the private sector, of $100 million or more annually 
(adjusted for inflation with base year of 1995). This portion of the 
preamble summarizes the FAA's analysis of the economic impacts of this 
final rule. We suggest readers seeking greater detail read the full 
regulatory evaluation, a copy of which we have placed in the docket for 
this rulemaking.
    In conducting these analyses, FAA has determined this final rule 
has benefits that justify its costs, and is a ``significant regulatory 
action'' as defined in section 3(f) of Executive Order 12866 because it 
raises novel policy issues contemplated under that executive order. The 
rule is also ``significant'' as defined in DOT's Regulatory Policies 
and Procedures. The final rule, if adopted, will not have a significant 
economic impact on a substantial number of small entities, will not 
create unnecessary obstacles to international trade, and will not 
impose an unfunded mandate on state, local, or tribal governments, or 
on the private sector.
Total Benefits and Costs of This Rule
    The overall safety and reliability of the NAS demonstrates that 
most pilots conduct operations with a high degree of professionalism. 
Nevertheless, a problem still exists in the aviation industry with some 
pilots acting unprofessionally and not adhering to standard operating 
procedures (``SOP''), including the sterile flight deck rule. This rule 
requires:
     Operations familiarization for new-hire pilots;
     Revised ground and flight training for upgrading pilots 
that includes mentoring, leadership, and command training;
     Mentoring, leadership, and command ground training for 
current PICs;
     Mentoring, leadership, and command recurrent training for 
PICs; and
     Leadership and command training for certain SICs serving 
in an operation that requires 3 or more pilots.
    The benefits of the training in the final rule include an increased 
level of safety from mitigation of unprofessional pilot behavior which 
the FAA has determined reduces pilot error that can lead to a 
catastrophic event. In addition, the rule responds to NTSB 
recommendations and satisfies the statutory requirement for a 
rulemaking in Public Law 111-216.
    The estimated cost of the rule to air carriers is $90.0 million 
over a 10-year period. When discounted using a 7-percent discount rate, 
the rule is estimated to result in costs of $62.2 million over the same 
period. The total and annualized costs and cost savings are shown in 
the table below.
    The rule will also generate savings to operators of $95.5 million 
over a 10-year period. When discounted using a 7-percent discount rate, 
the rule will result in savings of $61.2 million over the same period.

                                          Total Costs and Cost Savings
                                     [Millions of 2016 dollars, 2018-2027] *
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  Present  value  Annualized  at  Present  value  Annualized  at
                                      Nominal          at 7%            7%             at 3%            3%
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total Costs.....................          $90.04          $62.17           $8.29          $76.25           $8.24
Total Cost Savings..............           95.53           61.22            8.16           78.32            8.46
Net Costs.......................           -5.49            0.94            0.13           -2.07           -0.22
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Table values have been rounded. Totals may not add due to rounding.

    More detailed benefit and cost information follows below.
Who is potentially affected by this rule?
    The rule applies to all part 121 air carriers (77) and, for some 
provisions, to part 135 operators conducting commuter operations in 
airplanes type certificated for two pilots and are required to use 
pilot training and qualification programs that comply with part 121 
subparts N and O (2).\27\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \27\ In addition to part 135 operators conducting commuter 
operations, if authorized by the Administrator, part 91, subpart K 
(part 91K) program managers, and other part 135 operators may 
voluntarily comply with the training program requirements in 
subparts N and O of part 121 instead of the training program 
requirements of part 91K or part 135. Given that part 121 compliance 
is voluntary for part 91K program managers and part 135 operators 
(other than those conducting commuter operations), this pilot 
segment is not included in this analysis.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Assumptions
 Discount Rates: \28\ 7% and 3%
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \28\ Office of Management and Budget, OMB Circular No. A-4, New 
Guidelines for the Conduct of Regulatory Analysis, Mar. 2, 2004.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

 Period of Analysis: 2018-2027
 Monetary values expressed in 2016 dollars
 Discounting calculations use 2016 as the base year


[[Page 10914]]


    Other key assumptions used to complete the regulatory evaluation 
are as follows:

 Pilot Retirement Rate: 2.5%
 Pilot Attrition Rate Due to Medical Reasons: 0.5%
 Pilot Growth Rate: 0.5%
 Growth rate of SIC Pilots Qualified as PIC: 3.4% per year \29\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \29\ FAA Aerospace Forecast 2017-2037. Table 5: U.S. Commercial 
Carriers Total Scheduled U.S. Passenger Traffic, 2016-2037. https://www.faa.gov/data_research/aviation/aerospace_forecasts/. Accessed 
April 2017.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

 Ground Instructors Needed: 1 instructor for every 200 pilots
 Class Size: 20 pilots per class
Changes From the NPRM to the Final Rule
    The final rule differs from the proposed rule in the following 
ways. The FAA is not requiring a pilot professional development 
committee (PPDC) as suggested in the NPRM. The FAA is also requiring 
leadership and command training for SICs serving in operations that 
require three or more pilots.
Benefits of This Rule
    The benefits of the required training include an increased level of 
safety from mitigation of unprofessional pilot behavior which the FAA 
has determined reduces pilot error that can lead to a catastrophic 
event. The October 14, 2004, crash of Pinnacle Airlines flight 3701 in 
Jefferson City, Missouri, and the February 12, 2009, crash of Colgan 
Air flight 3407 near Buffalo, New York, are examples of past accidents 
where unprofessional pilot behavior contributed to the accident. In 
addition, the rule responds to National Transportation Safety Board 
(NTSB) recommendations and satisfies the statutory requirement for 
rulemaking in Public Law 111-216.
Costs of This Rule
    The costs of the rule are associated with the following 
requirements:
     Operations familiarization for new-hire pilots;
     Revised ground and flight training for upgrading pilots 
that includes mentoring, leadership, and command training;
     Mentoring, leadership, and command ground training for 
current PICs;
     Mentoring, leadership, and command recurrent training for 
PICs; and
     Leadership and command training for certain SICs serving 
in an operation that requires 3 or more pilots.
    The rule has some additional conforming and miscellaneous changes 
that do not impact either the costs or benefits of the rule (see 
Sections N, O, and P of the preamble to the final rule).

                             Compliance Costs for the Rule by Provision (2018-2027)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     Total compliance costs  (millions of 2016
                                                                                     dollars)
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
                              Cost                                                         Present value
                                                                       Total     -------------------------------
                                                                                     7 percent       3 percent
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
New-Hire Pilot Operations Familiarization (Sec.   121.435)......          $6.514          $3.962          $5.227
Upgrade Training (Sec.  Sec.   121.420 and 121.426).............          13.991           8.649          11.300
One-Time and Recurrent PIC Training (Sec.   121.429, Sec.                 66.391          47.439          57.095
 121.409(b), and Sec.   121.427)................................
One-Time and Recurrent SICs Qualified as PICs Training..........           3.133           2.108           2.623
Recordkeeping...................................................           0.009           0.007           0.008
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
    Total.......................................................          90.039          62.165          76.254
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Table values have been rounded. Totals may not add due to rounding.

Cost Savings of This Rule
    The rule also contains cost saving benefits based on changes to 
ground training that are possible due to changes already implemented in 
the Pilot Certification Rule. The recent Pilot Certification final rule 
ensures technical proficiency in those subjects via other means.\30\ 
These changes will lead to a reduction in the time required to complete 
recurrent and upgrade training and will not compromise safety.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \30\ The Pilot Certification rule requires all SIC serving in 
part 121 operations to hold an ATP certificate with a type rating 
and requires pilots to complete a minimum of 1,000 hours of relevant 
operational experience prior to serving as a PIC in part 121 
operations. Additionally, the Pilot Certification rule requires 
pilots, who will serve in part 121 operations, to complete the ATP-
CTP prior to ATP certification. Thus, the Pilot Certification rule 
requirements raise the baseline knowledge and experience level for 
pilots prior to serving at an air carrier. See Pilot Certification 
and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations; Final 
Rule, published by the Federal Aviation Administration on July 15, 
2013 (78 FR 42324). https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2013/07/15/2013-16849/pilot-certification-and-qualification-requirements-for-air-carrier-operations.

                             Total and Present Values of Cost Savings (2018-2027) *
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      Total costs savings  (millions of 2016
                                                                                     dollars)
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
                      Cost saving benefits                                                 Present value
                                                                       Total     -------------------------------
                                                                                     7 percent       3 percent
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Recurrent Ground Training (Sec.   121.427)......................         $67.323         $44.068         $55.687
Upgrade Ground Training (Sec.   121.420)........................          28.205          17.155          22.631
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
    Total.......................................................          95.529          61.223          78.318
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Table values have been rounded. Totals may not add due to rounding.


[[Page 10915]]

Alternatives Considered
    The FAA considered an alternative proposal representing the MLP ARC 
recommendations as presented to the FAA. The FAA carefully considered 
the MLP ARC recommendations when developing the rule, and many of the 
recommendations are incorporated into the rule albeit with less 
prescriptive requirements. The main drivers of the cost differences 
between the MLP ARC recommendations and the final rule are the MLP ARC 
recommendations for a full-time professional development position, 
PPDC, and longer amount of time required for leadership and command 
training during upgrade training and during PIC recurrent training. The 
FAA adopts the proposed requirements, except the PPDC, as cost of the 
MLP ARC recommendations are substantially greater than the cost of this 
final rule.

B. Regulatory Flexibility Determination

    The Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-354) (RFA) 
establishes ``as a principle of regulatory issuance that agencies shall 
endeavor, consistent with the objectives of the rule and of applicable 
statutes, to fit regulatory and informational requirements to the scale 
of the businesses, organizations, and governmental jurisdictions 
subject to regulation. To achieve this principle, agencies are required 
to solicit and consider flexible regulatory proposals and to explain 
the rationale for their actions to assure that such proposals are given 
serious consideration.'' The RFA covers a wide-range of small entities, 
including small businesses, not-for-profit organizations, and small 
governmental jurisdictions.
    Agencies must perform a review to determine whether a rule will 
have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small 
entities. If the agency determines that it will, the agency must 
prepare a regulatory flexibility analysis as described in the RFA.
    However, if an agency determines that a rule is not expected to 
have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small 
entities, section 605(b) of the RFA provides that the head of the 
agency may so certify and a regulatory flexibility analysis is not 
required. The certification must include a statement providing the 
factual basis for this determination, and the reasoning should be 
clear.
    The Small Business Administration (SBA) categorizes airlines with 
1,500 or fewer employees as small businesses. Of the 77 carriers that 
operate under part 121, 52 had fewer than 1,500 total employees based 
on National Vital Information Subsystem (NVIS) data from February and 
November 2017. Of the two part 135 operators required to use pilot 
training and qualification programs that comply with part 121 subparts 
N and O, both have fewer than 1,500 total employees based on NVIS data. 
The count of pilots for the 52 small part 121 air carriers and the two 
small part 135 operators are shown in the table below.

          Table 4--Total Number of Impacted Pilots, PICs, and SICs From Small Carriers in 2017 and 2027
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                               Year
                         Pilot category                          --------------------------------  Annual growth
                                                                       2017            2027             (%)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PIC.............................................................           3,270           3,437             0.5
SIC qualified as PIC............................................             115             161             3.4
SIC--Other......................................................           2,901           3,049             0.5
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
    Total Pilots................................................           6,286           6,647             0.5
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Based on these pilot counts, the analysis used to conduct the Pilot 
Professional Development Regulatory Evaluation was recalculated for 
small air carriers only. A summary of the costs and cost savings of the 
rule on small air carriers is shown below.

                      Table 5--Total Costs and Cost Savings of the Rule for Small Carriers
                                                   [2018-2027]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Total costs and cost savings  (millions of
                                                                                   2016 dollars)
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
                     Costs and cost savings                                                Present value
                                                                       Total     -------------------------------
                                                                                     7 Percent       3 Percent
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total Costs.....................................................          $6.873          $4.763          $5.830
Total Cost Savings..............................................           6.969           4.457           5.709
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr
    Total Net Costs.............................................          -0.096           0.306           0.121
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The total cost of the rule on small carriers, and the corresponding 
per small carrier cost, by provision, is shown in the table below.

[[Page 10916]]



                Table 6--Total and Per Carrier Costs of the Rule for Small Carriers by Provision
                                                   [2018-2027]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     Total compliance costs  (millions of 2016
                                                                                     dollars)
                           Provisions                            -----------------------------------------------
                                                                                     Carriers       Per carrier
                                                                       Total         impacted       total cost
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
New-Hire SIC Operations Familiarization (Sec.   121.435)........           $0.28              54          $0.005
Upgrade Training (Mentoring, Leadership, and Command for SICs or            0.61              54           0.011
 Mentoring Training for SICs qualified as PICs) (Sec.  Sec.
 121.420 and 121.426)...........................................
One-Time and Recurrent PIC Training (Mentoring, Leadership, and             3.80              54           0.002
 Command) (Sec.   121.409(b), 121.427, and 121.429).............
One-Time and Recurrent Training SICs Qualified as PICs                      0.08              54           0.002
 (Leadership and Command).......................................
Recordkeeping...................................................           0.001              54           0.000
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
    Total.......................................................           4.763  ..............           0.088
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The total cost per carrier of $88,000 for the rule, over the 10-
year analysis period, implies an annual average per carrier cost of 
approximately $8,800.
    The FAA believes that such an economic cost is not economically 
significant. BTS Form 41 Financial data is available for 40 small air 
carriers.\31\ Operating revenues, in 2016, for 34 of the 40 carriers is 
reported as $20 million or more. The remaining 6 carriers have 
operating revenue ranging from $5 million to $16 million. Based on 
these figures, the estimated annual average per carrier cost of the 
rule is less than 1% of the operating revenue where data is available.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \31\ Bureau of Transportation Statistics Air Carrier Financial 
Reports (Form 41 Financial Data) Database. Schedules P-1.1 and P-
1.2. https://www.transtats.bts.gov.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    If an agency determines that a rulemaking will not result in a 
significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities, 
the head of the agency may so certify under section 605(b) of the RFA. 
Therefore, as provided in section 605(b), the FAA Administrator 
certifies that this rulemaking will not result in a significant 
economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.

C. International Trade Impact Assessment

    The Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (Pub. L. 96-39), as amended by the 
Uruguay Round Agreements Act (Pub. L. 103-465), prohibits Federal 
agencies from establishing standards or engaging in related activities 
that create unnecessary obstacles to the foreign commerce of the United 
States. Pursuant to these Acts, the establishment of standards is not 
considered an unnecessary obstacle to the foreign commerce of the 
United States, so long as the standard has a legitimate domestic 
objective, such as the protection of safety, and does not operate in a 
manner that excludes imports that meet this objective. The statute also 
requires consideration of international standards and, where 
appropriate, that they be the basis for U.S. standards. The FAA has 
assessed the potential effect of this final rule and determined that it 
will respond to a statutorily mandated safety objective and is not 
considered an unnecessary obstacle to the foreign commerce of the 
United States.

D. Unfunded Mandates Assessment

    Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-
4) requires each Federal agency to prepare a written statement 
assessing the effects of any Federal mandate in a proposed or final 
agency rule that may result in an expenditure of $100 million or more 
(in 1995 dollars) in any one year by State, local, and tribal 
governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector; such a mandate 
is deemed to be a ``significant regulatory action.'' The FAA currently 
uses an inflation-adjusted value of $155 million in lieu of $100 
million. This final rule does not contain such a mandate; therefore, 
the requirements of Title II of the Act do not apply.

E. Paperwork Reduction Act

    The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3507(d)) requires 
that the FAA consider the impact of paperwork and other information 
collection burdens imposed on the public. According to the 1995 
amendments to the Paperwork Reduction Act (5 CFR 1320.8(b)(2)(vi)), an 
agency may not collect or sponsor the collection of information, nor 
may it impose an information collection requirement unless it displays 
a currently valid Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number.
    This final rule will impose the following new information 
collection requirements. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 
1995 (44 U.S.C. 3507(d)), the FAA has submitted these information 
collection amendments to OMB for its review.
    Summary: The final rule requires the development and approval of 
new and revised training curriculums for the following:
     Leadership and command and mentoring ground training for 
pilots currently serving as PIC (Sec.  121.429) and recurrent PIC 
leadership and command and mentoring training (Sec. Sec.  121.409(b) 
and 121.427);
     Leadership and command training and recurrent leadership 
and command training for pilots serving as SIC in operations that 
require three or more pilots (Sec.  121.432(a));
     Upgrade training curriculum requirements (Sec. Sec.  
121.420 and 121.426);
     Part 121 appendix H requirements; and
     Approval of Qualification Standards Document for 
certificate holders using an Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) 
(Sec.  121.909).
    The final rule also requires some additional recordkeeping related 
to maintaining records of pilots completing the following:
     Leadership and command and mentoring ground training for 
pilots currently serving as PIC (Sec.  121.429);
     Leadership and command training and recurrent leadership 
and command training for pilots serving as SIC in operations that 
require three or more pilots (Sec.  121.432(a));
     Recurrent PIC leadership and command and mentoring ground 
training (Sec.  121.427); and
     Operations familiarization for new-hire pilots (Sec.  
121.435).
    Public comments: The FAA did not receive any comments on the 
information collection requirements.
    Use: This information will be used to ensure safety-of-flight by 
making certain

[[Page 10917]]

that adequate training is obtained and maintained by those who operate 
under part 121. The FAA will review the respondents' training programs 
and training courseware through routine certification, inspection and 
surveillance of certificate holders using part 121 pilot training and 
qualification programs to ensure compliance and adherence to 
regulations and, where necessary, to take enforcement action.
    Respondents (including number of): The relevant provisions of the 
rule apply to certificate holders using part 121 pilot training and 
qualification programs. As of February 2017, there were 79 such 
certificate holders who collectively employed 39,122 PICs and 42,227 
SICs.
    Frequency: The development and approval of new and revised 
curriculums will be a one-time occurrence for each certificate holder. 
The documentation regarding training in leadership and command and 
mentoring for current PICs will be a one-time occurrence. Similarly, 
the documentation regarding training in leadership and command for 
current SICs serving in operations that require three or more pilots 
will be a one-time occurrence. The documentation of operations 
familiarization for new-hire pilots will occur once for each new-hire 
pilot. The documentation of recurrent PIC leadership and command and 
mentoring training will occur every three years for each PIC. The 
documentation of recurrent leadership and command training for SICs 
serving in operations that require three or more pilots will occur 
every three years for each such SIC.
    Annual Burden Estimate: These amendments to part 121 set out 
prerequisites and levy requirements that must be met by certificate 
holders using part 121 pilot training and qualification programs and by 
those individuals who serve in given capacities for those certificate 
holders. The estimates for hours and costs are broken down by 
development and approval of new and revised training curriculums 
followed by pilot training recordkeeping.
    The FAA anticipates that certificate holders will incur costs for 
the following groups of provisions:
     Operations familiarization for new-hire pilots (Sec.  
121.435);
     Leadership and command and mentoring ground training for 
pilots currently serving as PIC (Sec.  121.429);
     Leadership and command training and recurrent leadership 
and command training for pilots serving as SIC in operations that 
require three or more pilots (Sec.  121.432(a));
     Upgrade training curriculum requirements (Sec. Sec.  
121.420 and 121.426);
     Recurrent PIC leadership and command and mentoring ground 
training (Sec. Sec.  121.409(b) and 121.427);
     Part 121, appendix H requirements; and
     Approval of Qualification Standards Document for 
certificate holders using an AQP (Sec.  121.909).
1. Development and Approval of New and Revised Training Curriculums
    For the development and approval of new and revised training 
curriculums, the FAA estimated the paperwork costs for these provisions 
by multiplying the hourly rate of the person responsible by the number 
of estimated hours to develop and submit the new or revised training 
curriculum. (In all cases we assume that a ground instructor would 
develop and submit the new or revised training curriculum, and that the 
ground instructor fully burdened wage is $53 per hour.\32\) We then 
multiplied these costs by the number of certificate holders affected by 
the provision.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \32\ Training instructor hourly wage rate of $36.60 multiplied 
by 1.435 to account for costs of employer provided benefits. Wage 
based on 2016 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Occupational 
Employment Statistics for Air Transportation Industry. (http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/naics4_481100.htm): Training and Development 
Specialists (13-1151). Wage multiplier from BLS, Employer costs for 
Employee compensation--December 2016, Table 5, Private Industry. 
(https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/ecec_03172017.pdf).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

a. Leadership and Command and Mentoring Ground Training for Pilots 
Currently Serving as PIC (Sec.  121.429) and Recurrent PIC Leadership 
and Command and Mentoring Training (Sec. Sec.  121.409(b) and 121.427)
    Section 121.429 requires one-time development of a training course 
for leadership and command and mentoring for current PICs. This course 
must be submitted to the FAA for approval.
    Revisions to Sec. Sec.  121.409(b) and 121.427 require one-time 
revision to the certificate holder's approved recurrent PIC training 
curriculum. This revised curriculum must be submitted to the FAA for 
approval.
    The FAA estimates a total of 40 hours of ground instructor time for 
development and submission of both the curriculum for current PICs and 
the revision to the recurrent PIC training curriculum.
    Assuming 79 affected certificate holders, the FAA estimates that 
these provisions result in a one-time total cost of $167,480 for all 
affected certificate holders.
b. Leadership and Command Training and Recurrent Leadership and Command 
Training for Pilots Serving as SIC in Operations That Require Three or 
More Pilots (Sec.  121.432(a)
    SICs serving in operations that require three or more pilots 
complete the same one-time training and recurrent training in 
leadership and command as PICs. Therefore, no additional revisions are 
necessary to the training curriculums. The FAA expects that the program 
updates to reflect this change are minimal and are subsumed in the 
paperwork costs for the collective amendments made to the training 
provisions in this final rule.
    The FAA estimates there are no costs for this provision.
c. Upgrade Training Curriculum Requirements (Sec. Sec.  121.420 and 
121.426)
    Sections 121.420 and 121.426 require one-time revision to the 
certificate holder's approved SIC to PIC upgrade training curriculum. 
This revised curriculum must be submitted to the FAA for approval.
    The FAA estimates a total of 80 hours of ground instructor time for 
development and submission of the revised SIC to PIC upgrade training 
curriculum.
    Assuming 79 affected certificate holders, the FAA estimates that 
these provisions result in a one-time cost of $334,960 for all affected 
certificate holders.
d. Part 121 Appendix H Requirements
    The revision to part 121 appendix H requires one-time revision to 
the certificate holder's approved training program to remove the pilot 
experience prerequisites for using a Level C FFS during training and 
checking. This revised training program must be submitted to the FAA 
for approval. The FAA expects that the program updates to reflect this 
change are minimal and are subsumed in the paperwork costs for the 
collective amendments made to the training provisions in this final 
rule.
    The FAA estimates there are no costs for this provision.
e. Approval of Qualification Standards Document for Certificate Holders 
Using an AQP (Sec.  121.909)
    Although the final rule does not make any changes to Sec.  121.909, 
when the new subparts N and O training requirements become effective, 
certificate holders that use an AQP must review their training programs 
to make sure they address the new subparts N and O requirements. It is 
possible that certificate holders may make a one-time revision to their 
Qualifications Standards Document

[[Page 10918]]

required by Sec.  121.909 during this process to address the revised 
subparts N and O requirements.
    This is a cost that only applies to certificate holders that use an 
AQP for pilot training because only those certificate holders must meet 
the Sec.  121.909 requirements. Therefore, this provision does not 
apply to certificate holders who only train their pilots in accordance 
with subparts N and O.
    For each of the 25 certificate holders with an approved AQP, the 
FAA estimates 3 hours of ground instructor time for development and 
submission of the revised Qualification Standards Document.
    The FAA estimates that this provision results in one-time costs of 
$3,975 across all certificate holders who train their pilots under an 
AQP.
2. Recordkeeping
    For the pilot training recordkeeping, the FAA estimated the 
paperwork costs for these provisions by first multiplying the number of 
required entries by the estimated number of pilots affected. Second, we 
multiplied the total number of entries by .001 hours (the time required 
to make each entry). Lastly, we multiplied the total time to make all 
entries by the hourly rate of the person responsible for making the 
entries. In all cases, the FAA assumes that the person making the 
entries is a clerical employee with an estimated fully-burdened wage of 
$29 per hour.\33\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \33\ The clerk hourly wage rate of $20.29 multiplied by 1.435 to 
account for costs of employer provided benefits. Wage based on 2016 
BLS Occupational Employment Statistics for Air Transportation 
Industry. (http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/naics4_481100.htm): 
Information and Record Clerks (43-4000). Wage multiplier from BLS, 
Employer costs for Employee compensation--December 2016, Table 5, 
Private Industry. (https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/ecec_03172017.pdf).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

a. Leadership and Command and Mentoring Ground Training for Pilots 
Currently Serving as PIC (Sec.  121.429)
    A record showing compliance with this requirement for current PICs 
must be retained in accordance with Sec.  121.683(a)(1). This is a one-
time burden.
    The FAA assumes that this cost is incurred in 2019, the year prior 
to the compliance date of the rule and estimates that during that year 
39,515 pilots are affected and require one record. The FAA estimates 40 
hours of clerical time for entry of these records.
    The FAA estimates that this provision adds a one-time cost of 
$1,160 for all affected certificate holders.
b. Leadership and Command for SICs Serving in Operations That Require 
Three or More Pilots (Sec.  121.432(a))
    A record showing compliance with this requirement for SICs 
currently serving in operations that require three or more pilots must 
be retained in accordance with Sec.  121.683(a)(1). This is a one-time 
burden.
    The FAA assumes that the majority of this cost is incurred in the 
year prior to the compliance date of the rule, however new SIC pilots 
serving in operations that require three or more pilots will also 
receive this initial training. The FAA estimates that 5,498 pilots are 
affected and require one record. The FAA estimates 5 hours of clerical 
time for entry of these records.
    The FAA estimates that this provision adds a one-time cost of $145 
for all affected certificate holders.
c. Recurrent PIC Leadership and Command and Mentoring Ground Training 
(Sec.  121.427)
    A record showing compliance with this requirement for current PICs 
must be retained in accordance with Sec.  121.683(a)(1), in addition to 
the current recordkeeping burden approved under OMB Control Number 
2120-0008.
    PICs are required to complete the recurrent training every 3 years. 
Over the 10-year analysis period, the FAA estimates that there are 
109,874 instances of PICs undergoing recurrent training involving 
leadership and command and mentoring. Each instance requires one 
record. The FAA estimates 110 hours of clerical time for entry of these 
records.
    The FAA estimates that this provision results in costs of $3,190 
over the analysis period for all affected certificate holders.
d. Recurrent Leadership and Command Ground Training for SICs Serving in 
Operations That Require Three or More Pilots (Sec. Sec.  121.427 and 
121.432(a))
    A record showing compliance with this requirement for SICs serving 
in operations that require three or more pilots must be retained in 
accordance with Sec.  121.683(a)(1), in addition to the current 
recordkeeping burden approved under OMB Control Number 2120-0008.
    These SICs are required to complete the recurrent training every 3 
years. Over the 10-year analysis period, the FAA estimates that there 
are 8,267 instances of SICs undergoing recurrent training involving 
leadership and command. Each instance requires one record. The FAA 
estimates 8 hours of clerical time for entry of these records.
    The FAA estimates that this provision results in costs of $232 over 
the analysis period for all affected certificate holders.
e. Operations Familiarization for New-Hire Pilots (Sec.  121.435)
    Section 121.435 implements a new qualification requirement for new-
hire pilots to complete operations familiarization consisting of 2 
operating cycles. A record showing compliance with this requirement for 
each new-hire pilot must be retained in accordance with Sec.  
121.683(a)(1), in addition to the current recordkeeping burden approved 
under OMB Control Number 2120-0008.
    The FAA estimates all affected certificate holders have a total of 
23,517 new-hire pilots over the analysis period. Each of the estimated 
23,517 pilots affected requires one record. The FAA estimates 24 hours 
of clerical time for entry of these records. The FAA estimates that 
this provision results in costs of $696 across the analysis period for 
all affected certificate holders.
3. Summary of Estimated Paperwork Costs
    The total cost burden is $511,838 ($445,883 discounted at 7 
percent) over the 10-year analysis period.

BILLING CODE P

[[Page 10919]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR25FE20.000

BILLING CODE C

F. International Compatibility and Cooperation

    In keeping with U.S. obligations under the Convention on 
International Civil Aviation, it is FAA policy to conform to 
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standards and 
Recommended Practices to the

[[Page 10920]]

maximum extent practicable. The FAA has reviewed the corresponding ICAO 
Standards and Recommended Practices and has identified no differences 
with these proposed regulations.

G. Environmental Analysis

    FAA Order 1050.1F identifies FAA actions that are categorically 
excluded from preparation of an environmental assessment or 
environmental impact statement under the National Environmental Policy 
Act in the absence of extraordinary circumstances. The FAA has 
determined this rulemaking action qualifies for the categorical 
exclusion identified in paragraph 5-6.6 and involves no extraordinary 
circumstances.

VI. Executive Order Determinations

A. Executive Order 13132, Federalism

    The FAA has analyzed this final rule under the principles and 
criteria of Executive Order 13132, Federalism. The agency determined 
that this action will not have a substantial direct effect on the 
States, or the relationship between the Federal Government and the 
States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the 
various levels of government, and, therefore, does not have Federalism 
implications.

B. Executive Order 13211, Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy 
Supply, Distribution, or Use

    The FAA analyzed this final rule under Executive Order 13211, 
Actions Concerning Regulations that Significantly Affect Energy Supply, 
Distribution, or Use (May 18, 2001). The agency has determined that it 
is not a ``significant energy action'' under the executive order, and 
it is not likely to have a significant adverse effect on the supply, 
distribution, or use of energy.

C. Executive Order 13609, Promoting International Regulatory 
Cooperation

    Executive Order 13609, Promoting International Regulatory 
Cooperation, promotes international regulatory cooperation to meet 
shared challenges involving health, safety, labor, security, 
environmental, and other issues and to reduce, eliminate, or prevent 
unnecessary differences in regulatory requirements. The FAA has 
analyzed this action under the policies and agency responsibilities of 
Executive Order 13609, and has determined that this action will have no 
effect on international regulatory cooperation.

D. Executive Order 13771, Reducing Regulation and Controlling 
Regulatory Costs

    This rule is not subject to the requirements of E.O. 13771 because 
this rule results in no more than de minimis costs or cost savings.

VII. How To Obtain Additional Information

A. Rulemaking Documents

    An electronic copy of a rulemaking document may be obtained by 
using the internet--
    1. Search the Federal eRulemaking Portal (http://www.regulations.gov);
    2. Visit the FAA's Regulations and Policies web page at http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/ or
    3. Access the Government Publishing Office's web page at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/.
    Copies may also be obtained by sending a request (identified by 
notice, amendment, or docket number of this rulemaking) to the Federal 
Aviation Administration, Office of Rulemaking, ARM-1, 800 Independence 
Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20591, or by calling (202) 267-9677.

B. Comments Submitted to the Docket

    Comments received may be viewed by going to http://www.regulations.gov and following the online instructions to search the 
docket number for this action. Anyone is able to search the electronic 
form of all comments received into any of the FAA's dockets by the name 
of the individual submitting the comment (or signing the comment, if 
submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.).

C. Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act

    The Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA) of 
1996 requires FAA to comply with small entity requests for information 
or advice about compliance with statutes and regulations within its 
jurisdiction. A small entity with questions regarding this document, 
may contact its local FAA official, or the person listed under the FOR 
FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT heading at the beginning of the preamble. 
To find out more about SBREFA on the internet, visit http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/rulemaking/sbre_act/.

List of Subjects

14 CFR Part 61

    Aircraft, Airmen, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements.

14 CFR Part 91

    Aircraft, Airmen, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements.

14 CFR Part 121

    Air carriers, Aircraft, Airmen, Aviation safety, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements, Safety, Transportation.

14 CFR Part 135

    Aircraft, Airmen, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements.

The Amendment

    In consideration of the foregoing, the Federal Aviation 
Administration amends chapter I of title 14, Code of Federal 
Regulations as follows:

PART 61--CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND 
INSTRUCTORS

0
1. The authority citation for part 61 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701-44703, 44707, 
44709-44711, 44729, 44903, 45102-45103, 45301-45302, Sec. 2307 Pub. 
L. 114-190, 130 Stat. 615 (49 U.S.C. 44703 note).

0
2. Amend Sec.  61.71 by revising paragraph (b)(1) to read as follows:


Sec.  61.71   Graduates of an approved training program other than 
under this part: Special rules.

* * * * *
    (b) * * *
    (1) Satisfactorily accomplished an approved training curriculum and 
a proficiency check for that airplane type that includes all the tasks 
and maneuvers required by Sec. Sec.  121.424 and 121.441 of this 
chapter to serve as pilot in command in operations conducted under part 
121 of this chapter; and
* * * * *

PART 91--GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES

0
3. The authority citation for part 91 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 1155, 40101, 40103, 40105, 
40113, 40120, 44101, 44111, 44701, 44704, 44709, 44711, 44712, 
44715, 44716, 44717, 44722, 46306, 46315, 46316, 46504, 46506-46507, 
47122, 47508, 47528-47531, 47534, Pub. L. 114-190, 130 Stat. 615 (49 
U.S.C. 44703 note); articles 12 and 29 of the Convention on 
International Civil Aviation (61 Stat. 1180), (126 Stat. 11).


0
4. Amend Sec.  91.1063 by revising paragraph (b) to read as follows:

[[Page 10921]]

Sec.  91.1063   Testing and training: Applicability and terms used.

* * * * *
    (b) If authorized by the Administrator, a program manager may 
comply with the applicable training and testing sections of part 121, 
subparts N and O of this chapter instead of Sec. Sec.  91.1065 through 
91.1107, provided that the following additional limitations and 
allowances apply to program managers so authorized:
    (1) Operating experience and operations familiarization. Program 
managers are not required to comply with the operating experience 
requirements of Sec.  121.434 or the operations familiarization 
requirements of Sec.  121.435 of this chapter.
    (2) Upgrade training. (i) Each program manager must include in 
upgrade ground training for pilots, instruction in at least the 
subjects identified in Sec.  121.419(a) of this chapter, as applicable 
to their assigned duties; and, for pilots serving in crews of two or 
more pilots, beginning on April 27, 2022, instruction and facilitated 
discussion in the subjects identified in Sec.  121.419(c) of this 
chapter.
    (ii) Each program manager must include in upgrade flight training 
for pilots, flight training for the maneuvers and procedures required 
in Sec.  121.424(a), (c), (e), and (f) of this chapter; and, for pilots 
serving in crews of two or more pilots, beginning on April 27, 2022, 
the flight training required in Sec.  121.424(b) of this chapter.
    (3) Initial and recurrent leadership and command and mentoring 
training. Program managers are not required to include leadership and 
command training in Sec. Sec.  121.409(b)(2)(ii)(B)(6), 121.419(c)(1), 
121.424(b) and 121.427(d)(1) of this chapter, and mentoring training in 
Sec. Sec.  121.419(c)(2) and 121.427(d)(1) of this chapter in initial 
and recurrent training for pilots in command who serve in operations 
that use only one pilot.
    (4) One-time leadership and command and mentoring training. Section 
121.429 of this chapter does not apply to program managers conducting 
operations under this subpart when those operations use only one pilot.
* * * * *

PART 121--OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL 
OPERATIONS

0
5. The authority citation for part 121 continues to read as follows:

    Authority:  49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40119, 
41706, 42301 preceding note added by Pub. L. 112-95, sec. 412, 126 
Stat. 89, 44101, 44701-44702, 44705, 44709-44711, 44713, 44716-
44717, 44722, 44729, 44732; 46105; Pub. L. 111-216, 124 Stat. 2348 
(49 U.S.C. 44701 note); Pub. L. 112-95, 126 Stat. 62 (49 U.S.C. 
44732 note).


0
6. Amend Sec.  121.400 by:
0
a. Revising paragraphs (a) and (c)(3);
0
b. Redesignating paragraphs (c)(4) through (11) as paragraphs (c)(5) 
through (12), respectively; and
0
c. Adding a new paragraph (c)(4).
    The revisions and addition read as follows:


Sec.  121.400   Applicability and terms used.

    (a) This subpart prescribes the requirements applicable to each 
certificate holder for establishing and maintaining a training program 
for crewmembers, aircraft dispatchers, and other operations personnel, 
and for the approval and use of flight simulation training devices and 
training equipment in the conduct of the program.
* * * * *
    (c) * * *
    (3) Upgrade training. The training required for flightcrew members 
who have qualified and served as second in command on a particular 
airplane type, before they serve as pilot in command on that airplane.
    (4) Conversion training. The training required for flightcrew 
members who have qualified and served as flight engineer on a 
particular airplane type, before they serve as second in command on 
that airplane.
* * * * *

0
7. Amend Sec.  121.401 by revising paragraph (a)(4) to read as follows:


Sec.  121.401   Training program: General.

    (a) * * *
    (4) Provide enough flight instructors and approved check airmen to 
conduct the flight training and checks required under this part.
* * * * *


Sec.  121.403  [Amended]

0
8. Amend Sec.  121.403(b)(4) by removing the words ``airplane 
simulators or other training devices'' and add in their place the word 
``FSTDs''.


0
9. Amend Sec.  121.407 revising the section heading and paragraphs (a) 
introductory text and (b) through (e) to read as follows:


Sec.  121.407  Training program: Approval of flight simulation training 
devices.

    (a) Each FSTD used to satisfy a training requirement of this part 
in an approved training program, must meet all of the following 
requirements:
* * * * *
    (b) A particular FSTD may be approved for use by more than one 
certificate holder.
    (c) A Level B or higher FFS may be used instead of the airplane to 
satisfy the inflight requirements of Sec. Sec.  121.439 and 121.441 and 
appendices E and F of this part, if the FFS--
    (1) Is approved under this section and meets the appropriate FFS 
requirements of appendix H of this part; and
    (2) Is used as part of an approved program that meets the training 
requirements of Sec. Sec.  121.424 (a) and (c), 121.426, and appendix H 
of this part.
    (d) An FFS approved under this section must be used instead of the 
airplane to satisfy the pilot flight training requirements prescribed 
in the certificate holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight 
training program set forth in Sec.  121.409(d) of this part.
    (e) An FFS approved under this section must be used instead of the 
airplane to satisfy the pilot flight training requirements prescribed 
in the extended envelope training set forth in Sec.  121.423 of this 
part. Compliance with this paragraph is required no later than March 
12, 2019.

0
10. Amend Sec.  121.409 by:
0
a. Revising the section heading and paragraphs (a), (b) introductory 
text, (b)(1), (b)(2)(ii)(B), and (b)(2)(ii)(B)(4) and (5);
0
b. Adding paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B)(6);
0
c. Removing the undesignated paragraph following paragraph (b)(3); and
0
d. Revising paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) and (d).
    The revisions and addition read as follows:


Sec.  121.409   Training courses using flight simulation training 
devices.

    (a) Training courses utilizing FSTDs may be included in the 
certificate holder's approved training program for use as provided in 
this section.
    (b) Except for the airline transport pilot certification training 
program approved to satisfy the requirements of Sec.  61.156 of this 
chapter, a course of training in an FFS may be included for use as 
provided in Sec.  121.441 if that course--
    (1) Provides at least 4 hours of training at the pilot controls of 
an FFS as well as a proper briefing before and after the training.
    (2) * * *
    (ii) * * *
    (B) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B)(6) of this 
section, beginning on March 12, 2019
* * * * *
    (4) Is representative of two flight segments appropriate to the 
operations being conducted by the certificate holder;

[[Page 10922]]

    (5) Provides an opportunity to demonstrate workload management and 
pilot monitoring skills; and
    (6) Beginning on April 27, 2023, provides an opportunity for each 
pilot in command to demonstrate leadership and command skills.
    (c) * * *
    (1) A course of pilot training in an FFS as provided in Sec.  
121.424(d); or
    (2) A course of flight engineer training in an FSTD as provided in 
Sec.  121.425(d).
    (d) Each certificate holder required to comply with Sec.  121.358 
of this part must use an approved FFS for each airplane type in each of 
its pilot training courses that provides training in at least the 
procedures and maneuvers set forth in the certificate holder's approved 
low-altitude windshear flight training program. The approved low-
altitude windshear flight training, if applicable, must be included in 
each of the pilot flight training courses prescribed in Sec. Sec.  
121.409(b), 121.418, 121.424, 121.426, and 121.427 of this part.


Sec.  121.411  [Amended]

0
11. Amend Sec.  121.411 in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) and (f)(1) and (2) 
by removing the words ``flight simulator'' and adding in their place 
the word ``FFS'' and in paragraph (b)(4) by removing the word ``in-
flight'' and adding in its place the word ``inflight''.


Sec.  121.412  [Amended]

0
12. Amend Sec.  121.412 in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) and (f)(1) and (2) 
by removing the words ``flight simulator'' and adding in their place 
the word ``FFS'' and in paragraph (b)(4) by removing the word ``in-
flight'' and adding in its place the word ``inflight''.


Sec.  121.413  [Amended]

0
13. Amend Sec.  121.413:
0
a. In paragraphs (a)(2), (c)(7) introductory text, (c)(7)(iv), (d)(2) 
introductory text, (d)(2)(iv), and (f) by removing the words ``flight 
simulator'' and adding in their place the word ``FFS'';
0
b. In paragraph (f), by removing the words ``in flight'' and adding in 
their place the word ``inflight'';
0
c. In paragraphs (g) introductory text and (g)(1) by removing the words 
``flight simulator'' and adding in their place the word ``FFS'';
0
c. In paragraph (g)(2) by removing the words ``flight simulators'' and 
adding in their place ``FFSs''; and
0
d. In paragraph (h) by removing the words ``flight simulator'' and 
adding in their place the word ``FFS''.


Sec.  121.414  [Amended]

0
14. Amend Sec.  121.414:
0
a. In paragraphs (a)(2), (c)(8) introductory text, (c)(8)(iv), (d)(2) 
introductory text, and (d)(2)(iv) by removing the words ``flight 
simulator'' and adding in their place the word ``FFS'';
0
b. In paragraph (e)(3)(i), by removing the word ``In-flight'' and 
adding in its place the word ``Inflight''; and
0
c. In paragraph (f), by removing the words ``in flight'' and adding in 
their place the word ``inflight'';
0
d. In paragraphs (f), (g) introductory text, (g)(1), and (h), by 
removing the words ``flight simulator'' and adding in their place the 
word ``FFS''.
0
e. In paragraph (g)(2), by removing the words ``flight simulators'' and 
adding in their place the word ``FFSs''; and
0
f. In paragraph (h), by removing the words ``flight simulator'' and 
adding in their place the word ``FFS''.

0
15. Amend Sec.  121.415 by:
0
a. Revising paragraphs (b) and (e);
0
b. Redesignating paragraphs (f) through (j) as paragraphs (g) through 
(k), respectively;
0
c. Adding a new paragraph (f); and
0
d. Revising newly redesignated paragraphs (g), (h) introductory text, 
(j), and (k).
    The revisions and addition read as follows:


Sec.  121.415  Crewmember and dispatcher training program requirements.

* * * * *
    (b) Each training program must provide the flight training 
specified in Sec. Sec.  121.424 through 121.426, as applicable.
* * * * *
    (e) Upgrade training:
    (1) Upgrade training as specified in Sec. Sec.  121.420 and 121.426 
for a particular type airplane may be included in the training program 
for flightcrew members who have qualified and served as second in 
command pilot on that airplane; or
    (2) Before April 27, 2022, upgrade training as specified in 
Sec. Sec.  121.419 and 121.424 for a particular type airplane may be 
included in the training program for flightcrew members who have 
qualified and served as second in command pilot on that airplane.
    (f) Conversion training as specified in Sec. Sec.  121.419 and 
121.424 for a particular type airplane may be included in the training 
program for flightcrew members who have qualified and served as flight 
engineer on that airplane.
    (g) Particular subjects, maneuvers, procedures, or parts thereof 
specified in Sec. Sec.  121.419, 121.420, 121.421, 121.422, 121.424, 
121.425, and 121.426 for transition, conversion or upgrade training, as 
applicable, may be omitted, or the programmed hours of ground 
instruction or inflight training may be reduced, as provided in Sec.  
121.405.
    (h) In addition to initial, transition, conversion, upgrade, 
recurrent and differences training, each training program must also 
provide ground and flight training, instruction, and practice as 
necessary to insure that each crewmember and aircraft dispatcher--
* * * * *
    (j) Each training program must include methods for remedial 
training and tracking of pilots identified in the analysis performed in 
accordance with paragraph (i) of this section.
    (k) Compliance with paragraphs (i) and (j) of this section is 
required no later than March 12, 2019.


Sec.  121.417  [Amended]

0
16. Amend Sec.  121.417 in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) by removing the words 
``in flight'' and adding in their place the word ``inflight''.

0
17. Amend Sec.  121.418 by revising paragraphs (a)(2) and (c) to read 
as follows:


Sec.  121.418   Differences training and related aircraft differences 
training.

    (a) * * *
    (2) Differences training for all variations of a particular type 
airplane may be included in initial, transition, conversion, upgrade, 
and recurrent training for the airplane.
* * * * *
    (c) Approved related aircraft differences training. Approved 
related aircraft differences training for flightcrew members may be 
included in initial, transition, conversion, upgrade and recurrent 
training for the base aircraft. If the certificate holder's approved 
training program includes related aircraft differences training in 
accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, the training required by 
Sec. Sec.  121.419, 121.420, 121.424, 121.425, 121.426, and 121.427, as 
applicable to flightcrew members, may be modified for the related 
aircraft.

0
18. Amend Sec.  121.419 by:
0
a. Revising the section heading and paragraphs (a) introductory text 
and (b) introductory text;
0
b. Redesignating paragraphs (c) through (e) as paragraphs (d) through 
(f), respectively;
0
c. Adding new paragraph (c);
0
d. Revising newly redesignated paragraph (f)(2); and
0
e. Adding paragraph (g).
    The revisions and additions read as follows:

[[Page 10923]]

Sec.  121.419  Pilots and flight engineers: Initial, transition, 
conversion and upgrade ground training.

    (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, initial 
and conversion ground training for pilots and initial and transition 
ground training for flight engineers, must include instruction in at 
least the following as applicable to their assigned duties:
* * * * *
    (b) Initial and conversion ground training for pilots who have 
completed the airline transport pilot certification training program in 
Sec.  61.156 of this chapter, and transition ground training for 
pilots, must include instruction in at least the following as 
applicable to their assigned duties:
* * * * *
    (c) Beginning on April 27, 2022, and in addition to the 
requirements in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, as applicable, 
initial ground training for pilots in command must include instruction 
and facilitated discussion on the following:
    (1) Leadership and command, including flightcrew member duties 
under Sec.  121.542; and
    (2) Mentoring, including techniques for instilling and reinforcing 
the highest standards of technical performance, airmanship, and 
professionalism in newly hired pilots.
* * * * *
    (f) * * *
    (2) Beginning March 12, 2019, initial programmed hours applicable 
to pilots as specified in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section must 
include 2 additional hours.
    (g) Before April 27, 2022, upgrade ground training must include 
either the instruction specified in paragraph (a) of this section or 
the instruction specified in Sec.  121.420. Beginning on April 27, 
2022, upgrade ground training must include the instruction specified in 
Sec.  121.420.

0
19. Add Sec.  121.420 to read as follows:


Sec.  121.420   Pilots: Upgrade ground training.

    (a) Upgrade ground training must include instruction in at least 
the following subjects as applicable to the duties assigned to the 
pilot in command:
    (1) Seat dependent procedures, as applicable;
    (2) Duty position procedures, as applicable; and
    (3) Crew resource management, including decision making, authority 
and responsibility, and conflict resolution.
    (b) In addition to the requirements in paragraph (a) of this 
section, upgrade ground training must include instruction and 
facilitated discussion on the following:
    (1) Leadership and command, including flightcrew member duties 
under Sec.  121.542; and
    (2) Mentoring, including techniques for reinforcing the highest 
standards of technical performance, airmanship, and professional 
development in newly hired pilots.
    (c) Compliance date: Beginning on April 27, 2022, upgrade ground 
training must satisfy the requirements of this section.


Sec.  121.423  [Amended]

0
20. Amend Sec.  121.423 in the section heading by removing the word 
``Pilot'' and adding in its place the word ``Pilots''.

0
21. Amend Sec.  121.424 by:
0
a. Revising the section heading and paragraph (a) introductory text;
0
b. Redesignating paragraphs (b) through (e) as paragraphs (c) through 
(f), respectively;
0
c. Adding new paragraph (b);
0
d. Revising newly redesignated paragraphs (c)(1) and (3), (d) 
introductory text, (e) introductory text, (e)(1)(i) and (ii), and 
(e)(2); and
0
e. Adding paragraph (g).
    The revisions and additions read as follows:


Sec.  121.424   Pilots: Initial, transition, conversion, and upgrade 
flight training.

    (a) Initial, transition, and conversion flight training for pilots 
must include the following:
* * * * *
    (b) Beginning on April 27, 2022, in addition to the requirements in 
paragraph (a) of this section, initial flight training for pilots in 
command must include sufficient scenario-based training incorporating 
CRM and leadership and command skills, to ensure the pilot's 
proficiency as pilot in command. The training required by this 
paragraph may be completed inflight or in an FSTD.
    (c) * * *
    (1) That windshear maneuvers and procedures must be performed in an 
FFS in which the maneuvers and procedures are specifically authorized 
to be accomplished;
* * * * *
    (3) To the extent that certain other maneuvers and procedures may 
be performed in an FFS, an FTD, or a static airplane as permitted in 
appendix E to this part.
    (d) Except as permitted in paragraph (e) of this section, the 
initial flight training required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section 
must include at least the following programmed hours of inflight 
training and practice unless reduced under Sec.  121.405;
* * * * *
    (e) If the certificate holder's approved training program includes 
a course of training utilizing an FFS under Sec.  121.409 (c) and (d) 
of this part, each pilot must successfully complete--
    (1) * * *
    (i) Training and practice in the FFS in at least all of the 
maneuvers and procedures set forth in appendix E of this part for 
initial flight training that are capable of being performed in an FFS; 
and
    (ii) A proficiency check in the FFS or the airplane to the level of 
proficiency of a pilot in command or second in command, as applicable, 
in at least the maneuvers and procedures set forth in appendix F of 
this part that are capable of being performed in an FFS.
    (2) With respect to Sec.  121.409(d) of this part, training and 
practice in at least the maneuvers and procedures set forth in the 
certificate holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training 
program that are capable of being performed in an FFS in which the 
maneuvers and procedures are specifically authorized.
* * * * *
    (g) Before April 27, 2022, upgrade flight training must be provided 
in accordance with paragraphs (a), (c), (e), and (f), of this section 
or Sec.  121.426. Beginning on April 27, 2022, upgrade flight training 
must be provided as specified in Sec.  121.426.

0
 22. Amend Sec.  121.425 as follows:
0
a. In paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2)(iii), remove the comma after the 
word ``inflight'' and remove the words ``in an airplane simulator, or 
in a training device'' and add in their place the words ``or in an 
FSTD'';
0
b. By redesignating paragraphs (b) and (c) as paragraphs (c) and (d), 
respectively;
0
c. By designating the undesignated paragraph that follows paragraph 
(a)(2)(iii) as paragraph (b) and revising it;
0
d. In newly redesignated paragraph (c), by removing the reference to 
``paragraph (c)'' and adding in its place ``paragraph (d)'';
0
e. In newly redesignated paragraph (d) introductory text, by removing 
the words ``airplane simulator or other training device'' and adding in 
their place the word ``FSTD'' and removing the words ``simulator or 
other training device'' and adding in their place the word ``FSTD''.
    The revision reads as follows:

[[Page 10924]]

Sec.  121.425  Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight 
training.

* * * * *
    (b) Flight engineers possessing a commercial pilot certificate with 
an instrument, category and class rating, or pilots already qualified 
as second in command and reverting to flight engineer, may complete the 
entire flight check, required by paragraph (a)(2) of this section, in 
an approved FFS.
* * * * *

0
23. Add Sec.  121.426 to read as follows:


Sec.  121.426   Pilots: Upgrade flight training.

    (a) Upgrade flight training for pilots must include the following:
    (1) Seat dependent maneuvers and procedures, as applicable;
    (2) Duty position maneuvers and procedures, as applicable;
    (3) Extended envelope training set forth in Sec.  121.423;
    (4) Maneuvers and procedures set forth in the certificate holder's 
low altitude windshear flight training program;
    (5) Sufficient scenario-based training incorporating CRM and 
leadership and command skills, to ensure the pilot's proficiency as 
pilot in command; and
    (6) Sufficient training to ensure the pilot's knowledge and skill 
with respect to the following:
    (i) The airplane, its systems and components;
    (ii) Proper control of airspeed, configuration, direction, 
altitude, and attitude in accordance with the Airplane Flight Manual, 
the certificate holder's operations manual, checklists, or other 
approved material appropriate to the airplane type; and
    (iii) Compliance with ATC, instrument procedures, or other 
applicable procedures.
    (b) The training required by paragraph (a) of this section must be 
performed inflight except--
    (1) That windshear maneuvers and procedures must be performed in an 
FFS in which the maneuvers and procedures are specifically authorized 
to be accomplished;
    (2) That the extended envelope training required by Sec.  121.423 
must be performed in a Level C or higher FFS unless the Administrator 
has issued to the certificate holder a deviation in accordance with 
Sec.  121.423(e); and
    (3) To the extent that certain other maneuvers and procedures may 
be performed in an FFS, an FTD, or a static airplane as permitted in 
Appendix E of this part.
    (c) If the certificate holder's approved training program includes 
a course of training utilizing an FFS under Sec.  121.409(c) and (d), 
each pilot must successfully complete--
    (1) With respect to Sec.  121.409(c)--A proficiency check in the 
FFS or the airplane to the level of proficiency of a pilot in command 
in at least the maneuvers and procedures set forth in Appendix F of 
this part that are capable of being performed in an FFS.
    (2) With respect to Sec.  121.409(d), training and practice in at 
least the maneuvers and procedures set forth in the certificate 
holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training program that 
are capable of being performed in an FFS in which the maneuvers and 
procedures are specifically authorized.
    (d) Compliance dates: Beginning on April 27, 2022, upgrade flight 
training must satisfy the requirements of this section.

0
24. Amend Sec.  121.427 as follows:
0
a. Revise paragraphs (a), (b)(2) and (4), and (c);
0
b. Redesignate paragraphs (d) and (e) as paragraphs (e) and (f), 
respectively;
0
c. Add new paragraph (d); and
0
d. Revise newly redesignated paragraphs (e)(1)(ii), (e)(2)(ii), and 
(f)(1).
    The revisions and additions read as follows:


Sec.  121.427   Recurrent training.

    (a) Recurrent training must ensure that each crewmember or aircraft 
dispatcher is adequately trained and currently proficient with respect 
to the type airplane (including differences training, if applicable) 
and crewmember position involved.
    (b) * * *
    (2) Instruction as necessary in the following:
    (i) For pilots, the subjects required for ground training by 
Sec. Sec.  121.415(a)(1), (3), and (4) and 121.419(b);
    (ii) For flight engineers, the subjects required for ground 
training by Sec. Sec.  121.415(a)(1), (3), and (4) and 121.419(a);
    (iii) For flight attendants, the subjects required for ground 
training by Sec. Sec.  121.415(a)(1), (3), and (4) and 121.421(a); and
    (iv) For aircraft dispatchers, the subjects required for ground 
training by Sec. Sec.  121.415(a)(1) and (4) and 121.422(a).
* * * * *
    (4) For crewmembers, CRM training and for aircraft dispatchers, DRM 
training. For flightcrew members, CRM training or portions thereof may 
be accomplished during an approved FFS line-oriented flight training 
(LOFT) session.
    (c) Recurrent ground training for crewmembers and aircraft 
dispatchers must consist of at least the following programmed hours of 
instruction in the required subjects specified in paragraph (b) of this 
section unless reduced under Sec.  121.405:
    (1) For pilots--
    (i) Group I reciprocating powered airplanes, 15 hours;
    (ii) Group I turbopropeller powered airplanes, 19 hours; and
    (iii) Group II airplanes, 24 hours.
    (2) For flight engineers--
    (i) Group I, reciprocating powered airplanes, 16 hours;
    (ii) Group I turbopropeller powered airplanes, 20 hours; and
    (iii) Group II airplanes, 25 hours.
    (3) For flight attendants--
    (i) Group I reciprocating powered airplanes, 4 hours;
    (ii) Group I turbopropeller powered airplanes, 5 hours; and
    (iii) Group II airplanes, 12 hours.
    (4) For aircraft dispatchers--
    (i) Group I reciprocating powered airplanes, 8 hours;
    (ii) Group I turbopropeller powered airplanes, 10 hours; and
    (iii) Group II airplanes, 20 hours.
    (d) Recurrent ground training for pilots serving as pilot in 
command:
    (1) Within 36 months preceding service as pilot in command, each 
person must complete recurrent ground training on leadership and 
command and mentoring. This training is in addition to the ground 
training required in paragraph (b) of this section and the programmed 
hours required in paragraph (c) of this section. This training must 
include instruction and facilitated discussion on the following:
    (i) Leadership and command, including instruction on flightcrew 
member duties under Sec.  121.542; and
    (ii) Mentoring, including techniques for instilling and reinforcing 
the highest standards of technical performance, airmanship, and 
professionalism in newly hired pilots.
    (2) The requirements of paragraph (d)(1) do not apply until after a 
pilot has completed ground training on leadership and command and 
mentoring, as required by Sec. Sec.  121.419, 121.420 and 121.429, as 
applicable.
    (e) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (ii) Flight training in an approved FFS in maneuvers and procedures 
set forth in the certificate holder's approved low-altitude windshear 
flight training program and flight training in maneuvers and procedures 
set forth in Appendix F of this part, or in a flight training program 
approved by the Administrator, except as follows--
* * * * *

[[Page 10925]]

    (2) * * *
    (ii) The flight check, other than the preflight inspection, may be 
conducted in an FSTD. The preflight inspection may be conducted in an 
airplane, or by using an approved pictorial means that realistically 
portrays the location and detail of preflight inspection items and 
provides for the portrayal of abnormal conditions. Satisfactory 
completion of an approved line-oriented flight training may be 
substituted for the flight check.
    (f) * * *
    (1) Compliance with the requirements identified in paragraph 
(e)(1)(i) of this section is required no later than March 12, 2019.
* * * * *

0
25. Add Sec.  121.429 to subpart N to read as follows:


Sec.  121.429   Pilots in command: Leadership and command and mentoring 
training.

    (a) Beginning on April 27, 2023, no certificate holder may use a 
pilot as pilot in command in an operation under this part unless the 
pilot has completed the following ground training in accordance with 
the certificate holder's approved training program:
    (1) Leadership and command training in Sec.  121.419(c)(1) and 
mentoring training in Sec.  121.419(c)(2); or
    (2) Leadership and command training in Sec.  121.420(b)(1) and 
mentoring training in Sec.  121.420(b)(2).
    (b) Credit for training provided by the certificate holder:
    (1) The Administrator may credit leadership and command training 
and mentoring training completed by the pilot, with that certificate 
holder, after April 27, 2017, and prior to April 27, 2020, toward all 
or part of the training required by paragraph (a) of this section.
    (2) In granting credit for the training required by paragraph (a) 
of this section, the Administrator may consider training aids, devices, 
methods, and procedures used by the certificate holder in voluntary 
leadership and command and mentoring instruction.

0
26. Amend Sec.  121.431 by revising paragraph (a)(1) to read as 
follows:


Sec.  121.431   Applicability.

    (a) * * *
    (1) Prescribes crewmember qualifications for all certificate 
holders except where otherwise specified; and
* * * * *

0
27. Amend Sec.  121.432 by revising paragraph (a) to read as follows:


Sec.  121.432   General.

    (a) Except in the case of operating experience under Sec.  121.434 
and ground training for mentoring required by Sec. Sec.  121.419, 
121.420, 121.427, and 121.429, as applicable, a pilot who serves as 
second in command of an operation that requires three or more pilots 
must be fully qualified to act as pilot in command of that operation.
* * * * *

0
28. Amend Sec.  121.433 by revising paragraphs (a)(2) and (c)(2) to 
read as follows:


Sec.  121.433   Training required.

    (a) * * *
    (2) Crewmembers who have qualified and served as second in command 
or flight engineer on a particular type airplane may serve as pilot in 
command or second in command, respectively, upon completion of upgrade 
or conversion training, as applicable, for that airplane as provided in 
Sec.  121.415.
* * * * *
    (c) * * *
    (2) For pilots, a proficiency check as provided in Sec.  121.441 of 
this part may be substituted for the recurrent flight training required 
by this paragraph and the approved FFS course of training under Sec.  
121.409(b) of this part may be substituted for alternate periods of 
recurrent flight training required in that airplane, except as provided 
in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section.
* * * * *

0
29. Amend Sec.  121.434 by revising paragraph (b)(3), adding paragraph 
(b)(4), and revising paragraphs (c)(1)(ii) and (c)(3)(iii) to read as 
follows:


Sec.  121.434   Operating experience, operating cycles, and 
consolidation of knowledge and skills.

* * * * *
    (b) * * *
    (3) In the case of a pilot who satisfactorily completed the 
preflight visual inspection of an aircraft by approved pictorial means 
during an initial, transition, conversion, or upgrade proficiency 
check, the pilot must also demonstrate proficiency to a check pilot on 
at least one complete preflight visual inspection of the interior and 
exterior of a static airplane. This demonstration of proficiency must 
be completed by the pilot and certified by the check pilot before the 
completion of operating experience.
    (4) The experience must be acquired inflight during operations 
under this part. However, in the case of an aircraft not previously 
used by the certificate holder in operations under this part, operating 
experience acquired in the aircraft during proving flights or ferry 
flights may be used to meet this requirement.
    (c) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (ii) For a qualifying pilot in command completing initial or 
upgrade training specified in Sec.  121.424 or Sec.  121.426, be 
observed in the performance of prescribed duties by an FAA inspector 
during at least one flight leg which includes a takeoff and landing. 
During the time that a qualifying pilot in command is acquiring the 
operating experience in paragraphs (c)(l)(i) and (ii) of this section, 
a check pilot who is also serving as the pilot in command must occupy a 
pilot station. However, in the case of a transitioning pilot in command 
the check pilot serving as pilot in command may occupy the observer's 
seat, if the transitioning pilot has made at least two takeoffs and 
landings in the type airplane used, and has satisfactorily demonstrated 
to the check pilot that he is qualified to perform the duties of a 
pilot in command of that type of airplane.
* * * * *
    (3) * * *
    (iii) In the case of transition training where the certificate 
holder's approved training program includes a course of training in an 
FFS under Sec.  121.409(c), each pilot in command must comply with the 
requirements prescribed in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section for 
initial training.
* * * * *

0
30. Add Sec.  121.435 to read as follows:


Sec.  121.435   Pilots: Operations Familiarization.

    (a) Applicability. The operations familiarization requirements in 
paragraph (b) of this section apply to all persons newly hired by the 
certificate holder to serve as a pilot in part 121 operations and who 
began the certificate holder's basic indoctrination ground training on 
or after April 27, 2022. The requirements in paragraph (b) of this 
section also apply to all certificate holders required to comply with 
this subpart, except for those certificate holders operating under part 
135 of this chapter that have been authorized to comply with this 
subpart instead of the requirements of part 135, subparts E, G, and H, 
pursuant to Sec.  135.3(c), and those fractional ownership program 
managers operating under part 91, subpart K, of this chapter that have 
been authorized to comply with this subpart instead of Sec. Sec.  
91.1065 through 91.1107, pursuant to Sec.  91.1063(b) of this chapter.
    (b) Operations familiarization requirements. (1) No certificate 
holder may use, and no person may serve as, a pilot in operations under 
this part unless that person has completed the operations 
familiarization required by

[[Page 10926]]

this paragraph (b). Operations familiarization may be completed during 
or after basic indoctrination training, but must be completed before 
the pilot begins operating experience under Sec.  121.434.
    (2) Operations familiarization must include at least two operating 
cycles conducted by the certificate holder in accordance with the 
operating rules of this part.
    (3) All pilots completing operations familiarization must occupy 
the observer seat on the flight deck and have access to and use an 
operational headset.
    (c) Deviation. (1) A certificate holder who operates an aircraft 
that does not have an observer seat on the flight deck may submit a 
request to the Administrator for approval of a deviation from the 
requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.
    (2) A request for deviation from any of the requirements in 
paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section must include the following 
information:
    (i) The total number and types of aircraft operated by the 
certificate holder in operations under this part that do not have an 
observer seat on the flight deck;
    (ii) The total number and types of aircraft operated by the 
certificate holder in operations under this part that do have an 
observer seat on the flight deck; and
    (iii) Alternative methods for achieving the objectives of this 
section.
    (3) A certificate holder may request an extension of a deviation 
issued under this section.
    (4) Deviations or extensions to deviations will be issued for a 
period not to exceed 12 months.

0
31. Amend Sec.  121.439 as follows:
0
a. Revise paragraphs (a), (b) introductory text, and (b)(1);
0
b. Remove and reserve paragraph (c); and
0
c. Revise paragraphs (d), (e), and (f)(2)(ii).
    The revisions read as follows:


Sec.  121.439   Pilot qualification: Recent experience.

    (a) No certificate holder may use any person nor may any person 
serve as a required pilot flightcrew member, unless within the 
preceding 90 days, that person has made at least three takeoffs and 
landings in the type airplane in which that person is to serve. The 
takeoffs and landings required by this paragraph may be performed in a 
Level B or higher FFS approved under Sec.  121.407 to include takeoff 
and landing maneuvers. In addition, any person who fails to make the 
three required takeoffs and landings within any consecutive 90-day 
period must re-establish recency of experience as provided in paragraph 
(b) of this section.
    (b) In addition to meeting all applicable training and checking 
requirements of this part, a required pilot flightcrew member who has 
not met the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section must re-
establish recency of experience as follows:
    (1) Under the supervision of a check airman, make at least three 
takeoffs and landings in the type airplane in which that person is to 
serve or in a Level B or higher FFS.
* * * * *
    (d) When using an FFS to accomplish any of the requirements of 
paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section, each required flightcrew member 
position must be occupied by an appropriately qualified person, and the 
FFS must be operated as if in a normal inflight environment without use 
of the repositioning features of the FFS.
    (e) A check airman who observes the takeoffs and landings 
prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall certify that the 
person being observed is proficient and qualified to perform flight 
duty in operations under this part and may require any additional 
maneuvers that are determined necessary to make this certifying 
statement.
    (f) * * *
    (2) * * *
    (ii) The number of takeoffs, landings, maneuvers, and procedures 
necessary to maintain or re-establish recency based on review of the 
related aircraft, the operation, and the duty position.
* * * * *

0
32. Amend Sec.  121.441 by revising paragraphs (a) introductory text, 
(a)(1)(i)(B), (a)(1)(ii)(B), (a)(2)(i) and (ii), and (c) through (e) to 
read as follows:


Sec.  121.441   Proficiency checks.

    (a) No certificate holder may use any person nor may any person 
serve as a required pilot flight crewmember unless that person has 
satisfactorily completed either a proficiency check, or an approved FFS 
course of training under Sec.  121.409, as follows:
    (1) * * *
    (i) * * *
    (B) In addition, within the preceding 6 calendar months, either a 
proficiency check or the approved FFS course of training.
    (ii) * * *
    (B) In addition, within the preceding 6 calendar months, either a 
proficiency check or the approved FFS course of training.
    (2) * * *
    (i) Within the preceding 24 calendar months either a proficiency 
check or the line-oriented flight training course under Sec.  121.409; 
and
    (ii) Within the preceding 12 calendar months, either a proficiency 
check or any FFS training course under Sec.  121.409
* * * * *
    (c) An approved FFS or FTD may be used in the conduct of a 
proficiency check as provided in appendix F to this part.
    (d) A person giving a proficiency check may, in his or her 
discretion, waive any of the maneuvers or procedures for which a 
specific waiver authority is set forth in Appendix F of this part if 
the conditions in paragraphs (d)(1) through (3) of this section are 
satisfied:
    (1) The Administrator has not specifically required the particular 
maneuver or procedure to be performed.
    (2) The pilot being checked is, at the time of the check, employed 
by a certificate holder as a pilot.
    (3) The pilot being checked meets one of the following conditions:
    (i) The pilot is currently qualified for operations under this part 
in the particular type airplane and flightcrew member position.
    (ii) The pilot has, within the preceding six calendar months, 
satisfactorily completed an approved training curriculum, except for an 
upgrade training curriculum in accordance with Sec. Sec.  121.420 and 
121.426, for the particular type airplane.
    (e) If the pilot being checked fails any of the required maneuvers, 
the person giving the proficiency check may give additional training to 
the pilot during the course of the proficiency check. In addition to 
repeating the maneuvers failed, the person giving the proficiency check 
may require the pilot being checked to repeat any other maneuvers he 
finds are necessary to determine the pilot's proficiency. If the pilot 
being checked is unable to demonstrate satisfactory performance to the 
person conducting the check, the certificate holder may not use him nor 
may he serve in operations under this part until he has satisfactorily 
completed a proficiency check.
* * * * *

0
33. Revise appendix E to part 121 to read as follows:

Appendix E to Part 121--Flight Training Requirements

    (a) The maneuvers and procedures required by Sec.  121.424 for 
pilot initial, transition, and conversion flight training are set 
forth in the certificate holder's approved

[[Page 10927]]

low-altitude windshear flight training program, Sec.  121.423 
extended envelope training, and in this appendix. The maneuvers and 
procedures required for upgrade training in accordance with Sec.  
121.424 are set forth in this appendix and in the certificate 
holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training program and 
Sec.  121.423 extended envelope training. For the maneuvers and 
procedures required for upgrade training in accordance with Sec.  
121.426, this appendix designates the airplane or FSTD, as 
appropriate, that may be used.
    (b) All required maneuvers and procedures must be performed 
inflight except that windshear and extended envelope training 
maneuvers and procedures must be performed in a full flight 
simulator (FFS) in which the maneuvers and procedures are 
specifically authorized to be accomplished. Certain other maneuvers 
and procedures may be performed in an FFS, an FTD, or a static 
airplane as indicated by the appropriate symbol in the respective 
column opposite the maneuver or procedure.
    (c) Whenever a maneuver or procedure is authorized to be 
performed in an FTD, it may be performed in an FFS, and in some 
cases, a static airplane. Whenever the requirement may be performed 
in either an FTD or a static airplane, the appropriate symbols are 
entered in the respective columns.
    (d) A Level B or higher FFS may be used instead of the airplane 
to satisfy the inflight requirements if the FFS is approved under 
Sec.  121.407 and is used as part of an approved program that meets 
the requirements for an Advanced Simulation Training Program in 
Appendix H of this part.
    (e) For the purpose of this appendix, the following symbols 
mean--

I = Pilot in Command (PIC) and Second in Command (SIC) initial 
training
T = PIC and SIC transition training
U = SIC to PIC upgrade training
C = Flight engineer (FE) to SIC conversion training

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Maneuvers/procedures             Inflight        Static  airplane           FFS                 FTD
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As appropriate to the airplane
 and the operation involved,
 flight training for pilots
 must include the following
 maneuvers and procedures.
I. Preflight:
    (a) Visual inspection of     ...................  I, T, U, C........
     the exterior and interior
     of the airplane, the
     location of each item to
     be inspected, and the
     purpose for inspecting it.
     The visual inspection may
     be conducted using an
     approved pictorial means
     that realistically
     portrays the location and
     detail of visual
     inspection items and
     provides for the portrayal
     of normal and abnormal
     conditions.
    (b) Use of the prestart      ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
     checklist, appropriate
     control system checks,
     starting procedures, radio
     and electronic equipment
     checks, and the selection
     of proper navigation and
     communications radio
     facilities and frequencies
     prior to flight.
    (c)(1) Before March 12,      I, T, U, C.........
     2019, taxiing, sailing,
     and docking procedures in
     compliance with
     instructions issued by ATC
     or by the person
     conducting the training.
        (2) Taxiing. Beginning
         March 12, 2019, this
         maneuver includes the
         following:
            (i) Taxiing,         I, T, U, C.........
             sailing, and
             docking procedures
             in compliance with
             instructions
             issued by ATC or
             by the person
             conducting the
             training.
            (ii) Use of airport  I, T, U, C.........
             diagram (surface
             movement chart).
            (iii) Obtaining      I, T, U, C.........
             appropriate
             clearance before
             crossing or
             entering active
             runways.
            (iv) Observation of  I, T, U, C.........
             all surface
             movement guidance
             control markings
             and lighting.
    (d)(1) Before March 12,      ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
     2019, pre-takeoff checks
     that include powerplant
     checks.
        (2) Beginning March 12,  ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         2019, pre-takeoff
         procedures that
         include powerplant
         checks, receipt of
         takeoff clearance and
         confirmation of
         aircraft location, and
         FMS entry (if
         appropriate) for
         departure runway prior
         to crossing hold short
         line for takeoff.
II. Takeoffs:
Training in takeoffs must
 include the types and
 conditions listed below but
 more than one type may be
 combined where appropriate:
    (a) Normal takeoffs which,   I, T, U, C.........
     for the purpose of this
     maneuver, begin when the
     airplane is taxied into
     position on the runway to
     be used.
    (b) Takeoffs with            ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
     instrument conditions
     simulated at or before
     reaching an altitude of
     100' above the airport
     elevation.
    (c)(1) Crosswind takeoffs..  I, T, U, C.........
        (2) Beginning March 12,  I, T, U, C.........
         2019, crosswind
         takeoffs including
         crosswind takeoffs
         with gusts if
         practicable under the
         existing
         meteorological,
         airport, and traffic
         conditions.
    (d) Takeoffs with a          ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
     simulated failure of the
     most critical powerplant--
        (1) At a point after V1  ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         and before V2 that in
         the judgment of the
         person conducting the
         training is
         appropriate to the
         airplane type under
         the prevailing
         conditions; or
        (2) At a point as close  ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         as possible after V1
         when V1 and V2 or V1
         and VR are identical;
         or
        (3) At the appropriate   ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         speed for nontransport
         category airplanes.
    (e) Rejected takeoffs        ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
     accomplished during a
     normal takeoff run after
     reaching a reasonable
     speed determined by giving
     due consideration to
     aircraft characteristics,
     runway length, surface
     conditions, wind direction
     and velocity, brake heat
     energy, and any other
     pertinent factors that may
     adversely affect safety or
     the airplane.

[[Page 10928]]

 
    (f) Night takeoffs. For      I, T, U, C.........
     pilots in transition
     training, this requirement
     may be met during the
     operating experience
     required under Sec.
     121.434 by performing a
     normal takeoff at night
     when a check airman
     serving as PIC is
     occupying a pilot station.
III. Flight Maneuvers and
 Procedures:
    (a) Turns with and without   ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
     spoilers.
    (b) Tuck and Mach buffet...  ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
    (c) Maximum endurance and    ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
     maximum range procedures.
    (d) Operation of systems     ...................  ..................  I, T, U...........
     and controls at the flight
     engineer station.
    (e) Runaway and jammed       ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
     stabilizer.
    (f) Normal and abnormal or
     alternate operation of the
     following systems and
     procedures:
        (1) Pressurization.....  ...................  ..................  ..................  I, T, U, C.
        (2) Pneumatic..........  ...................  ..................  ..................  I, T, U, C.
        (3) Air conditioning...  ...................  ..................  ..................  I, T, U, C.
        (4) Fuel and oil.......  ...................  I, T, U, C........  ..................  I, T, U, C.
        (5) Electrical.........  ...................  I, T, U, C........  ..................  I, T, U, C.
        (6) Hydraulic..........  ...................  I, T, U, C........  ..................  I, T, U, C.
        (7) Flight control.....  ...................  I, T, U, C........  ..................  I, T, U, C.
        (8) Anti-icing and       ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         deicing.
        (9) Autopilot..........  ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
        (10) Automatic or other  ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         approach aids.
        (11) Stall warning       ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         devices, stall
         avoidance devices, and
         stability augmentation
         devices.
        (12) Airborne radar      ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         devices.
        (13) Any other systems,  ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         devices, or aids
         available.
        (14) Electrical,         ...................  I, T, U, C........  ..................  I, T, U, C.
         hydraulic, flight
         control, and flight
         instrument system
         malfunctioning or
         failure.
        (15) Landing gear and    ...................  I, T, U, C........  ..................  I, T, U, C.
         flap systems failure
         or malfunction.
        (16) Failure of          ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         navigation or
         communications
         equipment.
    (g) Flight emergency
     procedures that include at
     least the following:
        (1) Powerplant, heater,  ...................  I, T, U, C........  ..................  I, T, U, C.
         cargo compartment,
         cabin, flight deck,
         wing, and electrical
         fires.
        (2) Smoke control......  ...................  I, T, U, C........  ..................  I, T, U, C.
        (3) Powerplant failures  ...................  ..................  I, T..............  U, C.
        (4) Fuel jettisoning...  ...................  I, T, U, C........  ..................  I, T, U, C.
        (5) Any other emergency  ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         procedures outlined in
         the appropriate flight
         manual.
    (h) Steep turns in each      ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
     direction. Each steep turn
     must involve a bank angle
     of 45[deg] with a heading
     change of at least
     180[deg] but not more than
     360[deg]. This maneuver is
     not required for Group I
     transition training.
    (i) Stall Prevention. For    ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
     the purpose of this
     training the approved
     recovery procedure must be
     initiated at the first
     indication of an impending
     stall (buffet, stick
     shaker, aural warning).
     Stall prevention training
     must be conducted in at
     least the following
     configurations:
        (1) Takeoff              ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         configuration (except
         where the airplane
         uses only a zero-flap
         takeoff configuration).
        (2) Clean configuration  ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
        (3) Landing              ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         configuration.
    (j) Recovery from specific   ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
     flight characteristics
     that are peculiar to the
     airplane type.
    (k) Instrument procedures
     that include the
     following:
        (1) Area departure and   ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         arrival.
        (2) Use of navigation    ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         systems including
         adherence to assigned
         radials.
        (3) Holding............  ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
    (l) ILS instrument
     approaches that include
     the following:
        (1) Normal ILS           I, T, U, C.........
         approaches.
        (2) Manually controlled  I..................  ..................  T, U, C...........
         ILS approaches with a
         simulated failure of
         one powerplant which
         occurs before
         initiating the final
         approach course and
         continues to touchdown
         or through the missed
         approach procedure.
    (m) Instrument approaches
     and missed approaches
     other than ILS which
     include the following:
        (1) Nonprecision         ...................  ..................  U, C..............  I, T.
         approaches that the
         pilot is likely to use.
        (2) In addition to       ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         subparagraph (1) of
         this paragraph, at
         least one other
         nonprecision approach
         and missed approach
         procedure that the
         pilot is likely to use.

[[Page 10929]]

 
In connection with paragraphs
 III(l) and III(m), each
 instrument approach must be
 performed according to any
 procedures and limitations
 approved for the approach
 facility used. The instrument
 approach begins when the
 airplane is over the initial
 approach fix for the approach
 procedure being used (or
 turned over to the final
 approach controller in the
 case of GCA approach) and ends
 when the airplane touches down
 on the runway or when
 transition to a missed
 approach configuration is
 completed.
    (n) Circling approaches      I, T, U, C.........
     which include the
     following:
        (1) That portion of the  I, T, U, C.........
         circling approach to
         the authorized minimum
         altitude for the
         procedure being used
         must be made under
         simulated instrument
         conditions.
        (2) The circling         I, T, U, C.........
         approach must be made
         to the authorized
         minimum circling
         approach altitude
         followed by a change
         in heading and the
         necessary maneuvering
         (by visual reference)
         to maintain a flight
         path that permits a
         normal landing on a
         runway at least
         90[deg] from the final
         approach course of the
         simulated instrument
         portion of the
         approach.
        (3) The circling         I, T, U, C.........
         approach must be
         performed without
         excessive maneuvering,
         and without exceeding
         the normal operating
         limits of the
         airplane. The angle of
         bank should not exceed
         30[deg].
Training in the circling
 approach maneuver is not
 required if the certificate
 holder's manual prohibits a
 circling approach in weather
 conditions below 1000-3
 (ceiling and visibility).
    (o) Zero-flap approaches.    I, C...............  ..................  T, U..............
     Training in this maneuver
     is not required for a
     particular airplane type
     if the Administrator has
     determined that the
     probability of flap
     extension failure on that
     type airplane is extremely
     remote due to system
     design. In making this
     determination, the
     Administrator determines
     whether training on slats
     only and partial flap
     approaches is necessary.
    (p) Missed approaches which
     include the following:
        (1) Missed approaches    ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         from ILS approaches.
        (2) Other missed         ...................  ..................  ..................  I, T, U, C.
         approaches.
        (3) Missed approaches    ...................  ..................  ..................  I, T, U, C.
         that include a
         complete approved
         missed approach
         procedure.
        (4) Missed approaches    ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
         that include a
         powerplant failure.
IV. Landings and Approaches to
 Landings:
Training in landings and
 approaches to landings must
 include the types and
 conditions listed below but
 more than one type may be
 combined where appropriate:
    (a) Normal landings........  I, T, U, C.........
    (b) Landing and go around    I, C...............  ..................  T.................  U.
     with the horizontal
     stabilizer out of trim.
    (c) Landing in sequence      I..................  ..................  T, U, C...........
     from an ILS instrument
     approach.
    (d)(1) Crosswind landing...  I, T, U, C.........
        (2) Beginning March 12,  I, T, U, C.........
         2019, crosswind
         landing, including
         crosswind landings
         with gusts if
         practicable under the
         existing
         meteorological,
         airport, and traffic
         conditions.
    (e) Maneuvering to a
     landing with simulated
     powerplant failure, as
     follows:
        (1) For 3-engine         I, C...............  ..................  T, U..............
         airplanes, maneuvering
         to a landing with an
         approved procedure
         that approximates the
         loss of two
         powerplants (center
         and one outboard
         engine).
        (2) For other            I, C...............  ..................  T, U..............
         multiengine airplanes,
         maneuvering to a
         landing with a
         simulated failure of
         50 percent of
         available powerplants
         with the simulated
         loss of power on one
         side of the airplane.
    (f) Landing under simulated  I..................  ..................  T, U, C...........
     circling approach
     conditions (exceptions
     under III(n) applicable to
     this requirement).
    (g) Rejected landings that   I..................  ..................  T, U, C...........
     include a normal missed
     approach procedure after
     the landing is rejected.
     For the purpose of this
     maneuver the landing
     should be rejected at
     approximately 50 feet and
     approximately over the
     runway threshold.
    (h) Zero-flap landings if    I, C...............  ..................  T, U..............
     the Administrator finds
     that maneuver appropriate
     for training in the
     airplane.
    (i) Manual reversion.......  ...................  ..................  I, T, U, C........
    (j) Night landings. For      I, T, U, C.........
     pilots in transition
     training, this requirement
     may be met during the
     operating experience
     required under Sec.
     121.434 by performing a
     normal landing at night
     when a check airman
     serving as PIC is
     occupying a pilot station.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


0
34. Revise appendix F to part 121 to read as follows:

Appendix F to Part 121--Proficiency Check Requirements

    (a) The maneuvers and procedures required by Sec.  121.441 for 
pilot proficiency checks are set forth in this appendix. Except for 
the equipment examination, these maneuvers and procedures must be 
performed inflight. Certain maneuvers and procedures may be 
performed in an FFS or an FTD as indicated by the appropriate

[[Page 10930]]

symbol in the respective column opposite the maneuver or procedure.
    (b) Whenever a maneuver or procedure is authorized to be 
performed in an FTD, it may be performed in an FFS.
    (c) A Level B or higher FFS may be used instead of the airplane 
to satisfy the inflight requirements if the FFS is approved under 
Sec.  121.407 and is used as part of an approved program that meets 
the requirements for an Advanced Simulation Training Program in 
Appendix H of this part.
    (d) For the purpose of this appendix, the following symbols 
mean--
    B = Both Pilot in Command (PIC) and Second in Command (SIC).
    W = May be waived for both PIC and SIC, except during a 
proficiency check conducted to qualify a PIC after completing an 
upgrade training curriculum in accordance with Sec. Sec.  121.420 
and 121.426.
    * = A symbol and asterisk (B* or W*) indicates that a particular 
condition is specified in the maneuvers and procedures column.
    # = When a maneuver is preceded by this symbol it indicates the 
maneuver may be required in the airplane at the discretion of the 
person conducting the check.
    (e) Throughout the maneuvers and procedures prescribed in this 
appendix, good judgment commensurate with a high level of safety 
must be demonstrated. In determining whether such judgment has been 
shown, the person conducting the check considers adherence to 
approved procedures, actions based on analysis of situations for 
which there is no prescribed procedure or recommended practice, and 
qualities of prudence and care in selecting a course of action.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  Required                            Permitted
                                        ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                      Waiver
          Maneuvers/procedures             Simulated                                              provisions of
                                          instrument     Inflight         FFS           FTD            Sec.
                                          conditions                                                121.441(d)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The procedures and maneuvers set forth
 in this appendix must be performed in
 a manner that satisfactorily
 demonstrates knowledge and skill with
 respect to--..........................
    (1) The airplane, its systems and
     components;
    (2) Proper control of airspeed,
     configuration, direction,
     altitude, and attitude in
     accordance with procedures and
     limitations contained in the
     approved Airplane Flight Manual,
     the certificate holder's
     operations manual, checklists, or
     other approved material
     appropriate to the airplane type;
     and
    (3) Compliance with approach, ATC,
     or other applicable procedures.
I. Preflight:
    (a) Equipment examination (oral or
     written). As part of the
     proficiency check the equipment
     examination must be closely
     coordinated with, and related to,
     the flight maneuvers portion but
     may not be given during the flight
     maneuvers portion. The equipment
     examination must cover--
        (1) Subjects requiring a
         practical knowledge of the
         airplane, its powerplants,
         systems, components,
         operational and performance
         factors;
        (2) Normal, abnormal, and
         emergency procedures, and the
         operations and limitations
         relating thereto; and.........
        (3) The appropriate provisions
         of the approved Airplane
         Flight Manual.................
The person conducting the check may
 accept, as equal to this equipment
 examination, an equipment examination
 given to the pilot in the certificate
 holder's ground training within the
 preceding 6 calendar months...........
    (b) Preflight inspection. The pilot
     must--
        (1) Conduct an actual visual     ............  ............  ............            B               W*
         inspection of the exterior and
         interior of the airplane,
         locating each item and
         explaining briefly the purpose
         for inspecting it. The visual
         inspection may be conducted
         using an approved pictorial
         means that realistically
         portrays the location and
         detail of visual inspection
         items and provides for the
         portrayal of normal and
         abnormal conditions. If a
         flight engineer is a required
         flightcrew member for the
         particular type airplane, the
         visual inspection may be
         waived under Sec.   121.441(d)
        (2) Demonstrate the use of the   ............  ............  ............            B
         prestart checklist,
         appropriate control system
         checks, starting procedures,
         radio and electronic equipment
         checks, and the selection of
         proper navigation and
         communications radio
         facilities and frequencies
         prior to flight...............
    (c)(1) Taxiing. Before March 12,     ............            B
     2019, this maneuver includes
     taxiing, sailing, or docking
     procedures in compliance with
     instructions issued by ATC or by
     the person conducting the check.
     SIC proficiency checks for a type
     rating must include taxiing.
     However, other SIC proficiency
     checks need only include taxiing
     to the extent practical from the
     seat position assigned to the SIC.

[[Page 10931]]

 
    (c)(2) Taxiing. Beginning March 12,  ............            B
     2019, this maneuver includes the
     following: (i) Taxiing, sailing,
     or docking procedures in
     compliance with instructions
     issued by ATC or by the person
     conducting the check. (ii) Use of
     airport diagram (surface movement
     chart). (iii) Obtaining
     appropriate clearance before
     crossing or entering active
     runways. (iv) Observation of all
     surface movement guidance control
     markings and lighting. SIC
     proficiency checks for a type
     rating must include taxiing.
     However, other SIC proficiency
     checks need only include taxiing
     to the extent practical from the
     seat position assigned to the SIC.
    (d)(1) Powerplant checks. As         ............  ............            B
     appropriate to the airplane type..
    (d)(2) Beginning March 12, 2019,     ............  ............            B
     pre-takeoff procedures that
     include powerplant checks, receipt
     of takeoff clearance and
     confirmation of aircraft location,
     and FMS entry (if appropriate),
     for departure runway prior to
     crossing hold short line for
     takeoff...........................
II. Takeoff:
Takeoffs must include the types listed
 below, but more than one type may be
 combined where appropriate:
    (a) Normal. One normal takeoff       ............           B*
     which, for the purpose of this
     maneuver, begins when the airplane
     is taxied into position on the
     runway to be used.................
    (b) Instrument. One takeoff with               B   ............           B*
     instrument conditions simulated at
     or before reaching an altitude of
     100' above the airport elevation..
    (c)(1) Crosswind. Before March 12,   ............           B*
     2019, one crosswind takeoff, if
     practicable, under the existing
     meteorological, airport, and
     traffic conditions................
    (c)(2) Beginning March 12, 2019,     ............           B*
     one crosswind takeoff with gusts,
     if practicable, under the existing
     meteorological, airport, and
     traffic conditions................
    #(d) Powerplant failure. One         ............  ............            B
     takeoff with a simulated failure
     of the most critical powerplant--
        (1) At a point after V1 and      ............  ............            B
         before V2 that in the judgment
         of the person conducting the
         check is appropriate to the
         airplane type under the
         prevailing conditions;........
        (2) At a point as close as       ............  ............            B
         possible after V1 when V1 and
         V2 or V1 and Vr are identical;
         or............................
        (3) At the appropriate speed     ............  ............            B
         for nontransport category
         airplanes.....................
    (e) Rejected. A rejected takeoff     ............  ............           B*   ............               W
     may be performed in an airplane
     during a normal takeoff run after
     reaching a reasonable speed
     determined by giving due
     consideration to aircraft
     characteristics, runway length,
     surface conditions, wind direction
     and velocity, brake heat energy,
     and any other pertinent factors
     that may adversely affect safety
     or the airplane...................
III. Instrument procedures:
    (a) Area departure and area                    B   ............            B   ............              W*
     arrival. During each of these
     maneuvers the pilot must--
        (1) Adhere to actual or                    B   ............            B
         simulated ATC clearances
         (including assigned radials);
         and...........................
        (2) Properly use available                 B   ............            B
         navigation facilities.........
Either area arrival or area departure,
 but not both, may be waived under Sec.
   121.441(d).
    (b) Holding. This maneuver includes            B   ............            B   ............               W
     entering, maintaining, and leaving
     holding patterns. It may be
     performed in connection with
     either area departure or area
     arrival...........................
    (c) ILS and other instrument
     approaches. There must be the
     following:
        (1) At least one normal ILS                B   ............            B
         approach......................
        (2) At least one manually                  B             B
         controlled ILS approach with a
         simulated failure of one
         powerplant. The simulated
         failure should occur before
         initiating the final approach
         course and must continue to
         touchdown or through the
         missed approach procedure.....
        (3) At least one nonprecision              B   ............            B
         approach procedure using a
         type of nonprecision approach
         procedure that the certificate
         holder is approved to use.....

[[Page 10932]]

 
        (4) At least one nonprecision              B   ............  ............            B
         approach procedure using a
         different type of nonprecision
         approach procedure than
         performed under subparagraph
         (3) of this paragraph that the
         certificate holder is approved
         to use........................
        (5) For each type of EFVS                  B            B*
         operation the certificate
         holder is authorized to
         conduct, at least one
         instrument approach must be
         made using an EFVS............
Each instrument approach must be
 performed according to any procedures
 and limitations approved for the
 approach procedure used. The
 instrument approach begins when the
 airplane is over the initial approach
 fix for the approach procedure being
 used (or turned over to the final
 approach controller in the case of GCA
 approach) and ends when the airplane
 touches down on the runway or when
 transition to a missed approach
 configuration is completed. Instrument
 conditions need not be simulated below
 100' above touchdown zone elevation.
    (d) Circling approaches. If the      ............  ............           B*   ............              W*
     certificate holder is approved for
     circling minimums below 1000-3
     (ceiling and visibility), at least
     one circling approach must be made
     under the following conditions--
        (1) The portion of the approach            B   ............           B*
         to the authorized minimum
         circling approach altitude
         must be made under simulated
         instrument conditions.........
        (2) The approach must be made    ............  ............           B*
         to the authorized minimum
         circling approach altitude
         followed by a change in
         heading and the necessary
         maneuvering (by visual
         reference) to maintain a
         flight path that permits a
         normal landing on a runway at
         least 90[deg] from the final
         approach course of the
         simulated instrument portion
         of the approach...............
        (3) The circling approach must   ............  ............           B*
         be performed without excessive
         maneuvering, and without
         exceeding the normal operating
         limits of the airplane. The
         angle of bank should not
         exceed 30[deg]................
If local conditions beyond the control
 of the pilot prohibit the maneuver or
 prevent it from being performed as
 required, it may be waived as provided
 in Sec.   121.441(d). However, the
 maneuver may not be waived under this
 provision for two successive
 proficiency checks. Except for a SIC
 proficiency check for a type rating,
 the circling approach maneuver is not
 required for a SIC if the certificate
 holder's manual prohibits a SIC from
 performing a circling approach in
 operations under this part.
    (e) Missed approach.
        (1) At least one missed          ............  ............           B*
         approach from an ILS approach.
        (2) At least one additional      ............  ............           B*
         missed approach for SIC
         proficiency checks for a type
         rating and for all PIC
         proficiency checks............
A complete approved missed approach
 procedure must be accomplished at
 least once. At the discretion of the
 person conducting the check a
 simulated powerplant failure may be
 required during any of the missed
 approaches. These maneuvers may be
 performed either independently or in
 conjunction with maneuvers required
 under Sections III or V of this
 appendix. At least one missed approach
 must be performed inflight.
IV. Inflight Maneuvers:
    (a) Steep turns. For SIC                       B   ............            B                              W
     proficiency checks for a type
     rating and for all PIC proficiency
     checks, at least one steep turn in
     each direction must be performed.
     Each steep turn must involve a
     bank angle of 45[deg] with a
     heading change of at least
     180[deg] but not more than
     360[deg]..........................
    (b) Stall Prevention. For the                  B   ............            B   ............              W*
     purpose of this maneuver the
     approved recovery procedure must
     be initiated at the first
     indication of an impending stall
     (buffet, stick shaker, aural
     warning). Except as provided below
     there must be at least three stall
     prevention recoveries as follows:.
        (1) Takeoff configuration                  B   ............            B
         (except where the airplane
         uses only a zero-flap takeoff
         configuration)................
        (2) Clean configuration........            B   ............            B
        (3) Landing configuration......            B   ............            B

[[Page 10933]]

 
At the discretion of the person
 conducting the check, one stall
 prevention recovery must be performed
 in one of the above configurations
 while in a turn with the bank angle
 between 15[deg] and 30[deg]. Two out
 of the three stall prevention
 recoveries required by this paragraph
 may be waived.
If the certificate holder is authorized
 to dispatch or flight release the
 airplane with a stall warning device
 inoperative the device may not be used
 during this maneuver.
    (c) Specific flight                  ............  ............            B   ............               W
     characteristics. Recovery from
     specific flight characteristics
     that are peculiar to the airplane
     type..............................
    (d) Powerplant failures. In          ............  ............            B
     addition to specific requirements
     for maneuvers with simulated
     powerplant failures, the person
     conducting the check may require a
     simulated powerplant failure at
     any time during the check.........
V. Landings and Approaches to Landings:
Notwithstanding the authorizations for
 combining and waiving maneuvers and
 for the use of an FFS, at least two
 actual landings (one to a full stop)
 must be made for all PIC proficiency
 checks, all initial SIC proficiency
 checks, and all SIC proficiency checks
 for a type rating.....................
Landings and approaches to landings
 must include the types listed below,
 but more than one type may be combined
 where appropriate:
    (a) Normal landing.................  ............            B
    (b) Landing in sequence from an ILS  ............           B*
     instrument approach except that if
     circumstances beyond the control
     of the pilot prevent an actual
     landing, the person conducting the
     check may accept an approach to a
     point where in his judgment a
     landing to a full stop could have
     been made.........................
    (c)(1) Crosswind landing, if         ............           B*
     practical under existing
     meteorological, airport, and
     traffic conditions................
    (c)(2) Beginning March 12, 2019,     ............           B*
     crosswind landing with gusts, if
     practical under existing
     meteorological, airport, and
     traffic conditions................
    (d) Maneuvering to a landing with
     simulated powerplant failure as
     follows:
        (1) In the case of 3-engine      ............  ............           B*
         airplanes, maneuvering to a
         landing with an approved
         procedure that approximates
         the loss of two powerplants
         (center and one outboard
         engine); or...................
        (2) In the case of other         ............  ............           B*
         multiengine airplanes,
         maneuvering to a landing with
         a simulated failure of 50
         percent of available
         powerplants, with the
         simulated loss of power on one
         side of the airplane..........
Notwithstanding the requirements of
 subparagraphs (d) (1) and (2) of this
 paragraph, for an SIC proficiency
 check, except for an SIC proficiency
 check for a type rating, the simulated
 loss of power may be only the most
 critical powerplant.
In addition, a PIC may omit the
 maneuver required by subparagraph
 (d)(1) or (d)(2) of this paragraph
 during a required proficiency check or
 FFS course of training if he
 satisfactorily performed that maneuver
 during the preceding proficiency
 check, or during the preceding
 approved FFS course of training under
 the observation of a check airman,
 whichever was completed later.........
    (e) Except as provided in paragraph  ............  ............           B*
     (f) of this section, if the
     certificate holder is approved for
     circling minimums below 1000-3
     (ceiling and visibility), a
     landing under simulated circling
     approach conditions. However, when
     performed in an airplane, if
     circumstances beyond the control
     of the pilot prevent a landing,
     the person conducting the check
     may accept an approach to a point
     where, in his judgment, a landing
     to a full stop could have been
     made..............................
    #(f) A rejected landing, including   ............  ............            B
     a normal missed approach
     procedure, that is rejected
     approximately 50' over the runway
     and approximately over the runway
     threshold. This maneuver may be
     combined with instrument,
     circling, or missed approach
     procedures, but instrument
     conditions need not be simulated
     below 100 feet above the runway...

[[Page 10934]]

 
    (g) If the certificate holder is               B            B*
     authorized to conduct EFVS
     operations to touchdown and
     rollout, at least one instrument
     approach to a landing must be made
     using an EFVS, including the use
     of enhanced flight vision from 100
     feet above the touchdown zone
     elevation to touchdown and rollout
    (h) If the certificate holder is               B            B*
     authorized to conduct EFVS
     operations to 100 feet above the
     touchdown zone elevation, at least
     one instrument approach to a
     landing must be made using an
     EFVS, including the transition
     from enhanced flight vision to
     natural vision at 100 feet above
     the touchdown zone elevation......
VI. Normal and Abnormal Procedures:
Each pilot must demonstrate the proper
 use of as many of the systems and
 devices listed below as the person
 conducting the check finds are
 necessary to determine that the person
 being checked has a practical
 knowledge of the use of the systems
 and devices appropriate to the
 airplane type:
    (a) Anti-icing and deicing systems.  ............  ............            B
    (b) Autopilot systems..............  ............  ............            B
    (c) Automatic or other approach aid  ............  ............            B
     systems...........................
    (d) Stall warning devices, stall     ............  ............            B
     avoidance devices, and stability
     augmentation devices..............
    (e) Airborne radar devices.........  ............  ............            B
    (f) Any other systems, devices, or   ............  ............            B
     aids available....................
    (g) Hydraulic and electrical system  ............  ............  ............            B
     failures and malfunctions.........
    (h) Landing gear and flap systems    ............  ............  ............            B
     failure or malfunction............
    (i) Failure of navigation or         ............  ............            B
     communications equipment..........
VII. Emergency Procedures:
Each pilot must demonstrate the proper
 emergency procedures for as many of
 the emergency situations listed below
 as the person conducting the check
 finds are necessary to determine that
 the person being checked has an
 adequate knowledge of, and ability to
 perform, such procedure:
    (a) Fire in flight.................  ............  ............            B
    (b) Smoke control..................  ............  ............            B
    (c) Rapid decompression............  ............  ............            B
    (d) Emergency descent..............  ............  ............            B
    (e) Any other emergency procedures   ............  ............            B
     outlined in the approved Airplane
     Flight Manual.....................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


0
35. Revise appendix H to part 121 to read as follows:

Appendix H to Part 121--Advanced Simulation

    This appendix prescribes criteria for use of Level B or higher 
FFSs to satisfy the inflight requirements of Appendices E and F of 
this part and the requirements of Sec.  121.439. The criteria in 
this appendix are in addition to the FFS approval requirements in 
Sec.  121.407. Each FFS used under this appendix must be approved as 
a Level B, C, or D FFS, as appropriate.

Advanced Simulation Training Program

    For a certificate holder to conduct Level C or D training under 
this appendix all required FFS instruction and checks must be 
conducted under an advanced simulation training program approved by 
the Administrator for the certificate holder. This program must also 
ensure that all instructors and check airmen used in Appendix H 
training and checking are highly qualified to provide the training 
required in the training program. The advanced simulation training 
program must include the following:
    1. The certificate holder's initial, transition, conversion, 
upgrade, and recurrent FFS training programs and its procedures for 
re-establishing recency of experience in the FFS.
    2. How the training program will integrate Level B, C, and D 
FFSs with other FSTDs to maximize the total training, checking, and 
certification functions.
    3. Documentation that each instructor and check airman has 
served for at least 1 year in that capacity in a certificate 
holder's approved program or has served for at least 1 year as a 
pilot in command or second in command in an airplane of the group in 
which that pilot is instructing or checking.
    4. A procedure to ensure that each instructor and check airman 
actively participates in either an approved regularly scheduled line 
flying program as a flightcrew member or an approved line 
observation program in the same airplane type for which that person 
is instructing or checking.
    5. A procedure to ensure that each instructor and check airman 
is given a minimum of 4 hours of training each year to become 
familiar with the certificate holder's advanced simulation training 
program, or changes to it, and to emphasize their respective roles 
in the program. Training for instructors and check airmen must 
include training policies and procedures, instruction methods and 
techniques, operation of FFS controls (including environmental and 
trouble panels), limitations of the FFS, and minimum equipment 
required for each course of training.
    6. A special Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) program to 
facilitate the transition from the FFS to line flying. This LOFT 
program must consist of at least a 4-hour course of training for 
each flightcrew. It also must contain at least two representative 
flight segments of the certificate holder's operations. One of the 
flight segments must contain strictly normal operating procedures 
from push back at one airport to arrival at another. Another flight 
segment must contain training in appropriate abnormal and emergency 
flight operations. After March 12, 2019, the LOFT must provide an 
opportunity for the pilot to demonstrate workload management and 
pilot monitoring skills.

[[Page 10935]]

FFS Training, Checking and Qualification Permitted

1. Level B FFS

    a. Recent experience (Sec.  121.439).
    b. Training in night takeoffs and landings (Appendix E of this 
part).
    c. Except for EFVS operations, landings in a proficiency check 
(Appendix F of this part).

2. Level C and D FFS

    a. Recent experience (Sec.  121.439).
    b. All pilot flight training and checking required by this part 
except the following:
    i. The operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation 
of knowledge and skills requirements of Sec.  121.434;
    ii. The line check required by Sec.  121.440; and
    iii. The visual inspection of the exterior and interior of the 
airplane required by appendices E and F.
    c. The practical test requirements of Sec.  61.153(h) of this 
chapter, except the visual inspection of the exterior and interior 
of the airplane.

PART 135--OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS 
AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT

0
36. The authority citation for part 135 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 41706, 44701-44702, 
44705, 44709, 44711-44713, 44715-44717, 44722, 44730, 45101-45105; 
Pub. L. 112-95, 126 Stat. 58 (49 U.S.C. 44730).


0
37. Amend Sec.  135.3 by adding paragraph (d) to read as follows:


Sec.  135.3  Rules applicable to operations subject to this part.

* * * * *
    (d) Additional limitations applicable to certificate holders that 
are required by paragraph (b) of this section or authorized in 
accordance with paragraph (c) of this section, to comply with part 121, 
subparts N and O of this chapter instead of subparts E, G, and H of 
this part.
    (1) Upgrade training. (i) Each certificate holder must include in 
upgrade ground training for pilots, instruction in at least the 
subjects identified in Sec.  121.419(a) of this chapter, as applicable 
to their assigned duties; and, for pilots serving in crews of two or 
more pilots, beginning on April 27, 2022, instruction and facilitated 
discussion in the subjects identified in Sec.  121.419(c) of this 
chapter.
    (ii) Each certificate holder must include in upgrade flight 
training for pilots, flight training for the maneuvers and procedures 
required in Sec.  121.424(a), (c), (e), and (f) of this chapter; and, 
for pilots serving in crews of two or more pilots, beginning on April 
27, 2022, the flight training required in Sec.  121.424(b) of this 
chapter.
    (2) Initial and recurrent leadership and command and mentoring 
training. Certificate holders are not required to include leadership 
and command training in Sec. Sec.  121.409(b)(2)(ii)(B)(6), 
121.419(c)(1), 121.424(b) and 121.427(d)(1) of this chapter and 
mentoring training in Sec. Sec.  121.419(c)(2) and 121.427(d)(1) of 
this chapter in initial and recurrent training for pilots in command 
who serve in operations that use only one pilot.
    (3) One-time leadership and command and mentoring training. Section 
121.429 of this chapter does not apply to certificate holders 
conducting operations under this part when those operations use only 
one pilot.

    Issued under authority provided by 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 
44701(a), and Sec. 206 of Public Law 111-216, 124 Stat. 2348 (49 
U.S.C. 44701 note) in Washington, DC, on January 13, 2020.
Steve Dickson,
Administrator.
[FR Doc. 2020-01111 Filed 2-24-20; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 4910-13-P