Special Conditions: Greenpoint Technologies, Inc., Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Dynamic Test Requirements for Single-Occupant, Side-Facing Seats With Airbag Devices in Shoulder Belts, 25978-25982 [2019-11666]

Download as PDF 25978 Federal Register / Vol. 84, No. 108 / Wednesday, June 5, 2019 / Rules and Regulations 12 CFR Part 249 Administrative practice and procedure, Banks, Banking, Federal Reserve System, Holding companies, Liquidity, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. [FR Doc. 2019–11715 Filed 6–4–19; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4810–33–P; 6210–01–P; 6714–01–P 12 CFR Part 329 DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Administrative practice and procedure, Banks, Banking, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 [Docket No. FAA–2019–0152; Special Conditions No. 25–744A–SC] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Special Conditions: Greenpoint Technologies, Inc., Boeing Model 787– 8 Airplane; Dynamic Test Requirements for Single-Occupant, Side-Facing Seats With Airbag Devices in Shoulder Belts Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Chapter I PART 50—LIQUIDITY RISK MEASUREMENT STANDARDS The interim final rule amending 12 CFR part 50 of chapter I, title 12 of the Code of Federal Regulations, which was published at 83 FR 44451 on August 31, 2018, is adopted as a final rule without change. Federal Reserve System 12 CFR Chapter II PART 249—LIQUIDITY RISK MEASUREMENT STANDARDS (REGULATION WW) The interim final rule amending 12 CFR part 249 of chapter II, title 12 of the Code of Federal Regulations, which was published at 83 FR 44451 on August 31, 2018, is adopted as a final rule without change. ■ Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 12 CFR Chapter III PART 329—LIQUIDITY RISK STANDARDS The interim final rule amending 12 CFR part 329 of chapter III, title 12 of the Code of Federal Regulations, which was published at 83 FR 44451 on August 31, 2018, is adopted as a final rule without change. ■ Dated: May 20, 2019. Joseph M. Otting, Comptroller of the Currency. By order of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, May 28, 2019. Ann E. Misback, Secretary of the Board. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. By order of the Board of Directors. VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:38 Jun 04, 2019 Jkt 247001 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special conditions; request for comments. AGENCY: ■ jbell on DSK3GLQ082PROD with RULES Dated at Washington, DC, on May 28, 2019. Valerie J. Best, Assistant Executive Secretary. These amended special conditions are issued for the Boeing Model 787–8 airplane. This amendment removes reference to leg-flail airbags and adds reference to leg-flail devices installed on side-facing seats. This airplane, as modified by Greenpoint Technologies, Inc. (Greenpoint), will have a novel or unusual design feature when compared to the state of technology envisioned in the airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes. This design feature is single-occupant, side-facing seats with airbag devices in shoulder belts, and a floor-level, leg-flail-prevention device to limit the axial rotation of the upper leg. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. DATES: This action is effective on Greenpoint Technologies, Inc. on June 5, 2019. Send comments on or before July 22, 2019. ADDRESSES: Send comments identified by Docket No. FAA–2019–0152 using any of the following methods: • Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to https://www.regulations.gov/ and follow the online instructions for sending your comments electronically. • Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M–30, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Room W12–140, West SUMMARY: PO 00000 Frm 00004 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC 20590–0001. • Hand Delivery or Courier: Take comments to Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. • Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202–493–2251. Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without change, to https://www.regulations.gov/, including any personal information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the docket website, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT’s complete Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477–19478). Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at https://www.regulations.gov/ at any time. Follow the online instructions for accessing the docket or go to Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shannon Lennon, Airframe & Cabin Safety Section, AIR–675, Transport Standards Branch, Policy and Innovation Division, Aircraft Certification Service, Federal Aviation Administration, 2200 South 216th Street, Des Moines, Washington 98198; telephone and fax 206–231–3209; email shannon.lennon@faa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA has determined that notice of, and opportunity for prior public comment on, these special conditions is impracticable because the substance of these special conditions has been published in the Federal Register for public comment in several prior instances with no substantive comments received. The FAA therefore finds it unnecessary to delay the effective date and finds that good cause exists for making these special conditions effective upon publication in the Federal Register. Comments Invited We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the special E:\FR\FM\05JNR1.SGM 05JNR1 Federal Register / Vol. 84, No. 108 / Wednesday, June 5, 2019 / Rules and Regulations conditions, explain the reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. We will consider all comments we receive by the closing date for comments. We may change these special conditions based on the comments we receive. jbell on DSK3GLQ082PROD with RULES Background On June 15, 2017, Greenpoint applied for a supplemental type certificate for single-occupant, side-facing seats with airbag devices in shoulder belts, and a floor-level, leg-flail-prevention device to limit the axial rotation of the upper leg, installed in Boeing Model 787–8 airplanes. On May 2, 2019, Special Conditions No. 25–744–SC was published in the Federal Register (85 FR 18701). At the request of the applicant, this amended special conditions removes reference to leg-flail airbags and adds reference to leg-flail devices installed on side-facing seats. The Boeing Model 787–8 airplane, which is a derivative of the Boeing Model 787 currently approved under Type Certificate No. T00021SE, is a twin-engine, transport-category airplane with a maximum takeoff weight of 502,500 pounds. The airplanes, as modified by Greenpoint, will have a business-jet interior with a maximum seating capacity of 41. Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 21.101, Greenpoint must show that the Boeing Model 787–8 airplane, as changed, continues to meet the applicable provisions of the regulations listed in Type Certificate No. T00021SE, or the applicable regulations in effect on the date of application for the change, except for earlier amendments as agreed upon by the FAA. If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for the Boeing Model 787–8 airplane because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed under the provisions of § 21.16. Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which they are issued. Should the applicant apply for a supplemental type certificate to modify any other model included on the same type certificate to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would also apply to the other model under § 21.101. In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special conditions, the Boeing Model 787–8 VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:38 Jun 04, 2019 Jkt 247001 airplane must comply with the fuel-vent and exhaust-emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34, and the noisecertification requirements of 14 CFR part 36. The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in accordance with § 11.38, and they become part of the type certification basis under § 21.101. Novel or Unusual Design Features The Boeing Model 787–8 airplane, as modified by Greenpoint, will incorporate the following novel or unusual design features: Single-occupant, side-facing seats with airbag devices in shoulder belts and a floor-level, leg-flail-prevention device to limit the axial rotation of the upper leg. Discussion Amendment 25–64, dated June 16, 1988, revised the emergency-landing conditions that must be considered in the design of the airplane. It revised the static-load conditions in § 25.561 and added a new § 25.562, requiring dynamic testing for all seats approved for occupancy during takeoff and landing. The intent was to provide an improved level of safety for occupants on transport-category airplanes. Because most seating on transport-category airplanes is forward-facing, the pass/fail criteria developed in Amendment 25–64 focused primarily on forward-facing seats. Therefore, the testing specified in the rule did not provide a complete measure of occupant injury in seats that are not forward-facing, although § 25.785 does require occupants of all seats that are occupied during taxi, takeoff, and landing not suffer serious injury as a result of the inertia forces specified in §§ 25.561 and 25.562. For some time the FAA granted exemptions for the multiple-place sidefacing-seat installations because the existing test methods and acceptance criteria did not produce a level of safety equivalent to the level of safety provided for forward- and aft-facing seats. These exemptions were subject to many conditions that reflected the injury-evaluation criteria and mitigation strategies available at the time of the exemption issuance. The FAA also issued special conditions to address single-place side-facing seats because we believed that those conditions provided the same level of safety as for forward- and aft-facing seats. Continuing concerns regarding the safety of side-facing seats prompted the FAA to conduct research to develop an acceptable method of compliance with §§ 25.562 and 25.785(b) for side-facing PO 00000 Frm 00005 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 25979 seat installations. That research has identified injury considerations and evaluation criteria in addition to those previously used to approve side-facing seats (see published report DOT/FAA/ AR–09/41, July 2011). One particular concern that was identified during the FAA’s research program, but not addressed in the previous special conditions, was the significant leg injuries that can occur to occupants of both single- and multiple-place sidefacing seats. Because this type of injury does not occur on forward- and aftfacing seats, the FAA determined that, to achieve the level of safety envisioned in Amendment 25–64, additional requirements would be needed as compared to previously issued special conditions. Nonetheless, the research has now allowed the development of a single set of special conditions applicable to all fully side-facing seats. On November 5, 2012, the FAA released PS–ANM–25–03–R1, ‘‘Technical Criteria for Approving SideFacing Seats,’’ to update existing FAA certification policy on §§ 25.562 and 25.785(a) at Amendment 25–64 for single- and multiple-place side-facing seats. This policy addresses both the technical criteria for approving sidefacing seats and the implementation of those criteria. The FAA methodology detailed in PS–ANM–25–03–R1 has been used to establish a new set of proposed special conditions. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. Applicability As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to Boeing Model 787–8 airplanes modified by Greenpoint. Should Greenpoint apply at a later date for a supplemental type certificate to modify any other model included on Type Certificate No. T00021SE to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would apply to that model as well. Conclusion This action affects only a certain novel or unusual design feature on one model of airplanes. It is not a rule of general applicability and affects only the applicant who applied to the FAA for approval of these features on the airplane. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25 Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. E:\FR\FM\05JNR1.SGM 05JNR1 25980 Federal Register / Vol. 84, No. 108 / Wednesday, June 5, 2019 / Rules and Regulations Authority Citation The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows: ■ Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704. jbell on DSK3GLQ082PROD with RULES The Special Conditions Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of the type certification basis for Boeing Model 787–8 airplanes modified by Greenpoint. In addition to the airworthiness standards in §§ 25.562 and 25.785, special conditions 1 and 2 apply to all side-facing seat installations, and special conditions 3 through 16 apply to side-facing seats equipped with an airbag system in the shoulder-belt system. 1. Additional requirements applicable to tests or rational analysis conducted to show compliance with §§ 25.562 and 25.785 for side-facing seats: a. The longitudinal test(s) conducted in accordance with § 25.562(b)(2) to show compliance with the seat-strength requirements of § 25.562(c)(7) and (8), and these special conditions must have an ES–2re Anthropomorphic Test Dummy (ATD) (49 CFR part 572, subpart U) or equivalent, or a Hybrid-II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as specified in § 25.562) or equivalent, occupying each seat position and including all items contactable by the occupant (e.g., armrest, interior wall, or furnishing) if those items are necessary to restrain the occupant. If included, the floor representation and contactable items must be located such that their relative position, with respect to the center of the nearest seat place, is the same at the start of the test as before floor misalignment is applied. For example, if floor misalignment rotates the centerline of the seat place nearest the contactable item 8 degrees clockwise about the airplane x-axis, then the item and floor representations must be rotated by 8 degrees clockwise also to maintain the same relative position to the seat place. Each ATD’s relative position to the seat after application of floor misalignment must be the same as before misalignment is applied. To ensure proper loading of the seat by the occupants, the ATD pelvis must remain supported by the seat pan, and the restraint system must remain on the pelvis and shoulder of the ATD until rebound begins. No injury-criteria evaluation is necessary for tests conducted only to assess seat-strength requirements. VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:38 Jun 04, 2019 Jkt 247001 b. The longitudinal test(s) conducted in accordance with § 25.562(b)(2), to show compliance with the injury assessments required by § 25.562(c) and these special conditions, may be conducted separately from the test(s) to show structural integrity. In this case, structural-assessment tests must be conducted as specified in paragraph 1a, above, and the injury-assessment test must be conducted without yaw or floor misalignment. Injury assessments may be accomplished by testing with ES–2re ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart U) or equivalent at all places. Alternatively, these assessments may be accomplished by multiple tests that use an ES–2re at the seat place being evaluated, and a Hybrid-II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as specified in § 25.562) or equivalent used in all seat places forward of the one being assessed, to evaluate occupant interaction. In this case, seat places aft of the one being assessed may be unoccupied. If a seat installation includes adjacent items that are contactable by the occupant, the injury potential of that contact must be assessed. To make this assessment, tests may be conducted that include the actual item, located and attached in a representative fashion. Alternatively, the injury potential may be assessed by a combination of tests with items having the same geometry as the actual item, but having stiffness characteristics that would create the worst case for injury (injuries due to both contact with the item and lack of support from the item). c. If a seat is installed aft of structure (e.g., an interior wall or furnishing) that does not have a homogeneous surface contactable by the occupant, additional analysis and/or test(s) may be required to demonstrate that the injury criteria are met for the area which an occupant could contact. For example, different yaw angles could result in different injury considerations and may require additional analysis or separate test(s) to evaluate. d. To accommodate a range of occupant heights (5th percentile female to 95th percentile male), the surface of items contactable by the occupant must be homogenous 7.3 inches (185 mm) above and 7.9 inches (200 mm) below the point (center of area) that is contacted by the 50th percentile male size ATD’s head during the longitudinal test(s) conducted in accordance with paragraphs a, b, and c, above. Otherwise, additional head-injury criteria (HIC) assessment tests may be necessary. Any surface (inflatable or otherwise) that provides support for the occupant of any seat place must provide that support in a consistent manner regardless of occupant stature. For PO 00000 Frm 00006 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 example, if a shoulder-belt airbag system is used to mitigate injury risk, then it must be demonstrated by inspection to bear against the range of occupants in a similar manner before and after inflation. Likewise, the means of limiting lower-leg flail must be demonstrated by inspection to provide protection for the range of occupants in a similar manner. e. For longitudinal test(s) conducted in accordance with § 25.562(b)(2) and these special conditions, the ATDs must be positioned, clothed, and have lateral instrumentation configured as follows: i. ATD positioning—Lower the ATD vertically into the seat while simultaneously: 1. Aligning the midsagittal plane (a vertical plane through the midline of the body; dividing the body into right and left halves) with approximately the middle of the seat place. 2. Applying a horizontal x-axis direction (in the ATD coordinate system) force of about 20 lb (89 N) to the bottom of the feet of the ES–2re HybridII, to compress the seat back cushion. 3. Keeping the lower and upper legs nearly horizontal by supporting at the bottom of the feet. ii. Once all lifting devices have been removed from the ATD: 1. Rock it slightly to settle it in the seat. 2. Bend the knees of the ATD. 3. Separate the knees by about 4 inches (100 mm). 4. Set the ES–2re’s head at approximately the midpoint of the available range of z-axis rotation (to align the head and torso midsagittal planes). 5. Position the ES–2re’s arms at the joint’s mechanical detent that puts them at approximately a 40 degree angle with respect to the torso. Position the HybridII ATD hands on top of its upper legs. 6. Position the feet such that the centerlines of the lower legs are approximately parallel to a lateral vertical plane (in the airplane coordinate system). iii. ATD clothing: Clothe each ATD in form-fitting, mid-calf-length (minimum) pants and shoes (size 11E) weighing about 2.5 lb (1.1 kg) total. The color of the clothing should be in contrast to the color of the restraint system. The ES–2re jacket is sufficient for torso clothing, although a form-fitting shirt may be used in addition if desired. iv. ES–2re ATD lateral instrumentation: The rib-module linear slides are directional, i.e., deflection occurs in either a positive or negative ATD y-axis direction. The modules must be installed such that the moving end of the rib module is toward the E:\FR\FM\05JNR1.SGM 05JNR1 jbell on DSK3GLQ082PROD with RULES Federal Register / Vol. 84, No. 108 / Wednesday, June 5, 2019 / Rules and Regulations front of the airplane. The three abdominal-force sensors must be installed such that they are on the side of the ATD toward the front of the airplane. f. The combined horizontal/vertical test, required by § 25.562(b)(1) and these special conditions, must be conducted with a Hybrid II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as specified in § 25.562), or equivalent, occupying each seat position. g. Restraint systems: i. If inflatable restraint systems are used, they must be active during all dynamic tests conducted to show compliance with § 25.562. ii. The design and installation of seatbelt buckles must prevent unbuckling due to applied inertial forces or impact of the hands/arms of the occupant during an emergency landing. 2. Additional performance measures applicable to tests and rational analysis conducted to show compliance with §§ 25.562 and 25.785 for side-facing seats: a. Body-to-body contact: Contact between the head, pelvis, torso, or shoulder area of one ATD with the adjacent-seated ATD’s head, pelvis, torso, or shoulder area is not allowed. Contact during rebound is allowed. b. Thoracic: The deflection of any of the ES–2re ATD upper, middle, and lower ribs must not exceed 1.73 inches (44 mm). Data must be processed as defined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 571.214. c. Abdominal: The sum of the measured ES–2re ATD front, middle, and rear abdominal forces must not exceed 562 lbs (2,500 N). Data must be processed as defined in FMVSS 571.214. d. Pelvic: The pubic symphysis force measured by the ES–2re ATD must not exceed 1,350 lbs (6,000 N). Data must be processed as defined in FMVSS 571.214. e. Leg: Axial rotation of the upper-leg (femur) must be limited to 35 degrees in either direction from the nominal seated position. The leg-flail-prevention mechanism must: i. Be shown to function as intended in consideration of post-structural deformation of the seat assembly. ii. Retract such that it does not impede rapid egress of occupants. f. Neck: As measured by the ES–2re ATD and filtered at CFC 600 as defined in SAE J211: i. The upper-neck tension force at the occipital condyle (O.C.) location must be less than 405 lbs (1,800 N). ii. The upper-neck compression force at the O.C. location must be less than 405 lbs (1,800 N). VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:38 Jun 04, 2019 Jkt 247001 iii. The upper-neck bending torque about the ATD x-axis at the O.C. location must be less than 1,018 in-lbs (115 Nm). iv. The upper-neck resultant shear force at the O.C. location must be less than 186 lbs (825 N). g. Occupant (ES–2re ATD) retention: The pelvic restraint must remain on the ES–2re ATD’s pelvis during the impact and rebound phases of the test. The upper-torso restraint straps (if present) must remain on the ATD’s shoulder during the impact. h. Occupant (ES–2re ATD) support: i. Pelvis excursion: The load-bearing portion of the bottom of the ATD pelvis must not translate beyond the edges of its seat’s bottom seat-cushion supporting structure. ii. Upper-torso support: The lateral flexion of the ATD torso must not exceed 40 degrees from the normal upright position during the impact. 3. For seats with a shoulder-belt airbag system, the shoulder-belt airbag system must deploy and provide protection under crash conditions where it is necessary to prevent serious injury. The means of protection must take into consideration a range of stature from a 2-year-old child to a 95th percentile male. The airbag systems in the shoulder belts must provide a consistent approach to energy absorption throughout that range of occupants. When the seat system includes an airbag system, that system must be included in each of the certification tests as it would be installed in the airplane. In addition, the following situations must be considered: a. The seat occupant is holding an infant. b. The seat occupant is a pregnant woman. 4. The airbag system in the shoulder belt must provide adequate protection for each occupant regardless of the number of occupants of the seat assembly, considering that unoccupied seats may have an active airbag system in the shoulder belt. 5. The design must prevent the airbag system in the shoulder belt from being either incorrectly buckled or incorrectly installed, such that the airbag system in the shoulder belt would not properly deploy. Alternatively, it must be shown that such deployment is not hazardous to the occupant, and will provide the required injury protection. 6. It must be shown that the shoulderbelt airbag system is not susceptible to inadvertent deployment as a result of wear and tear, or inertial loads resulting from in-flight or ground maneuvers (including gusts and hard landings), and other operating and environmental PO 00000 Frm 00007 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 25981 conditions (vibrations, moisture, etc.) likely to occur in service. 7. Deployment of the shoulder-belt airbag system must not introduce injury mechanisms to the seated occupant, or result in injuries that could impede rapid egress. This assessment should include an occupant whose belt is loosely fastened. 8. It must be shown that inadvertent deployment of the shoulder-belt airbag system, during the most critical part of the flight, will either meet the requirement of § 25.1309(b) or not cause a hazard to the airplane or its occupants. This also includes preventing inadvertent airbag deployment from a static discharge. 9. It must be shown that the airbag system in the shoulder belt will not impede rapid egress of occupants 10 seconds after airbag deployment. 10. The shoulder-belt airbag system must be protected from lightning and high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF). The threats to the airplane specified in existing regulations regarding lighting, § 25.1316, and HIRF, § 25.1317, are incorporated by reference for the purpose of measuring lightning and HIRF protection. 11. The shoulder-belt airbag system must function properly after loss of normal airplane electrical power, and after a transverse separation of the fuselage at the most critical location. A separation at the location of the airbag system in the shoulder belt does not have to be considered. 12. It must be shown that the shoulder-belt airbag system will not release hazardous quantities of gas, sharp injurious metal fragments, or particulate matter into the cabin. 13. The shoulder-belt airbag system installation must be protected from the effects of fire such that no hazard to occupants will result. 14. A means must be available for a crewmember to verify the integrity of the shoulder-belt airbag system activation system prior to each flight, or it must be demonstrated to reliably operate between inspection intervals. The FAA considers that the loss of the airbag-system deployment function alone (i.e., independent of the conditional event that requires the airbag-system deployment) is a majorfailure condition. 15. The inflatable material may not have an average burn rate of greater than 2.5 inches/minute when tested using the horizontal flammability test defined in part 25, appendix F, part I, paragraph (b)(5). 16. The shoulder-belt airbag system, once deployed, must not adversely affect the emergency-lighting system E:\FR\FM\05JNR1.SGM 05JNR1 25982 Federal Register / Vol. 84, No. 108 / Wednesday, June 5, 2019 / Rules and Regulations (i.e., block floor proximity lights to the extent that the lights no longer meet their intended function). Issued in Des Moines, Washington, on May 30, 2019. Victor Wicklund, Manager, Transport Standards Branch, Policy and Innovation Division, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2019–11666 Filed 6–4–19; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–13–P DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA–2018–1058; Product Identifier 2018–CE–051–AD; Amendment 39–19646; AD 2019–10–07] RIN 2120–AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes Discussion Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. AGENCY: The FAA is adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC–6, PC–6/350, PC–6/350–H1, PC–6/350–H2, PC–6/A, PC–6/A–H1, PC–6/A–H2, PC–6/B–H2, PC–6/B1–H2, PC–6/B2–H2, PC–6/B2– H4, PC–6/C–H2, PC–6/C1–H2, PC–6– H1, and PC–6–H2 airplanes. This AD results from mandatory continuing airworthiness information (MCAI) issued by an aviation authority of another country to identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as sheared or missing rivets on the horizontal stabilizer hinge bracket assemblies. The FAA is issuing this AD to require actions to address the unsafe condition on these products. DATES: This AD is effective July 10, 2019. The Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in the AD as of July 10, 2019. ADDRESSES: You may examine the AD docket on the internet at https:// www.regulations.gov by searching for and locating Docket No. FAA–2018– 1058; or in person at Docket Operations, U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M–30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12–140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC 20590. For service information identified in this AD, contact PILATUS Aircraft Ltd., jbell on DSK3GLQ082PROD with RULES SUMMARY: VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:38 Jun 04, 2019 Jkt 247001 Customer Technical Support (MCC), P.O. Box 992, CH–6371 Stans, Switzerland; phone: +41 (0)41 619 67 74; fax: +41 (0)41 619 67 73; email: techsupport@pilatus-aircraft.com; internet: https://www.pilatusaircraft.com. You may view this referenced service information at the FAA, Policy and Innovation Division, 901 Locust, Kansas City, Missouri 64106. For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call (816) 329–4148. It is also available on the internet at https:// www.regulations.gov by searching for Docket No. FAA–2018–1058. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Doug Rudolph, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Standards Branch, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri 64106; telephone: (816) 329– 4059; fax: (816) 329–4090; email: doug.rudolph@faa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 by adding an AD that would apply to Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC–6, PC–6/350, PC–6/350–H1, PC–6/ 350–H2, PC–6/A, PC–6/A–H1, PC–6/A– H2, PC–6/B–H2, PC–6/B1–H2, PC–6/ B2–H2, PC–6/B2–H4, PC–6/C–H2, PC– 6/C1–H2, PC–6–H1, and PC–6–H2 airplanes. The NPRM was published in the Federal Register on December 26, 2018 (83 FR 66175). The NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products and was based on MCAI AD No. 2018–0217, dated October 10, 2018, issued by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), which is the Technical Agent for the Member States of the European Community. The MCAI states: During a routine inspection, the rivets of the hinge bracket assemblies on a Pilatus PC– 6 were found to be sheared or missing. Investigation results identified that this was most likely due to application of too much force to the ends of the horizontal stabilizer during ground handling. This condition, if not detected and corrected, could lead to failure of the primary horizontal stabilizer load path and consequent separation of the horizontal stabilizer, possibly resulting in loss of control of the aeroplane. To address this potential unsafe condition, Pilatus Aircraft Ltd issued the SB [service bulletin] to provide applicable inspection instructions. For the reasons described above, this [EASA] AD requires a one-time inspection of the affected parts and the horizontal stabilizer front spar attachment area and, depending on findings, accomplishment of applicable corrective action(s). This [EASA] AD also requires, before installation, PO 00000 Frm 00008 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 inspection of, and, depending on findings, corrective action(s) on, affected parts held as spare. The amount of force to the ends of the horizontal stabilizer cannot be quantified; however, fleet experience shows that repetitive pushing or pulling on the horizontal stabilizer to move the airplane on the ground can overload the rivets. Although a root cause could not be determined, due to the severity of separation of a horizontal stabilizer, EASA determined that the corrective actions should be required for other airplanes of the same type design. Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. had previously considered the small size of the original ‘‘DO NOT PUSH’’ markings and the significant chance of the markings being over-sprayed during a respray. As a result, Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. issued a service bulletin to specify replacing the smaller markings with new, larger placards. The FAA requires installing these placards in this AD. The MCAI can be found in the AD docket on the internet at https:// www.regulations.gov/document? D=FAA-2018-1058-0002. Comments The FAA gave the public the opportunity to participate in developing this AD. The following presents the comment received on the proposal and the FAA’s response the comment. Request To Add Omitted Section to Required Procedures Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. requested that the FAA amend the required actions to include section H of the Accomplishment Instructions in Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. PC–6 Service Bulletin No. 55–004, dated July 2, 2018. The commenter notes that section H was omitted and should be added to the final rule. The FAA agrees with the commenter and has changed paragraph (f)(1)(i) to include section H. Conclusion The FAA reviewed the relevant data, considered the comment received, and determined that air safety and the public interest require adopting the AD with the change described previously. The FAA determined that this change is consistent with the intent that was proposed in the NPRM for correcting the unsafe condition and does not add any additional burden upon the public than was already proposed in the NPRM. The FAA also determined that this change will not increase the economic burden on any operator or increase the scope of the AD. E:\FR\FM\05JNR1.SGM 05JNR1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 84, Number 108 (Wednesday, June 5, 2019)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 25978-25982]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2019-11666]


=======================================================================
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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Part 25

[Docket No. FAA-2019-0152; Special Conditions No. 25-744A-SC]


Special Conditions: Greenpoint Technologies, Inc., Boeing Model 
787-8 Airplane; Dynamic Test Requirements for Single-Occupant, Side-
Facing Seats With Airbag Devices in Shoulder Belts

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION: Final special conditions; request for comments.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: These amended special conditions are issued for the Boeing 
Model 787-8 airplane. This amendment removes reference to leg-flail 
airbags and adds reference to leg-flail devices installed on side-
facing seats. This airplane, as modified by Greenpoint Technologies, 
Inc. (Greenpoint), will have a novel or unusual design feature when 
compared to the state of technology envisioned in the airworthiness 
standards for transport category airplanes. This design feature is 
single-occupant, side-facing seats with airbag devices in shoulder 
belts, and a floor-level, leg-flail-prevention device to limit the 
axial rotation of the upper leg. The applicable airworthiness 
regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for 
this design feature. These special conditions contain the additional 
safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to 
establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the 
existing airworthiness standards.

DATES: This action is effective on Greenpoint Technologies, Inc. on 
June 5, 2019. Send comments on or before July 22, 2019.

ADDRESSES: Send comments identified by Docket No. FAA-2019-0152 using 
any of the following methods:
     Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to https://www.regulations.gov/ and follow the online instructions for sending 
your comments electronically.
     Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M-30, U.S. 
Department of Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Room 
W12-140, West Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC 20590-0001.
     Hand Delivery or Courier: Take comments to Docket 
Operations in Room W12-140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 
New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday 
through Friday, except Federal holidays.
     Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202-493-2251.
    Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without 
change, to https://www.regulations.gov/, including any personal 
information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the 
docket website, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all 
comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the 
individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an 
association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT's complete Privacy Act 
Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 
2000 (65 FR 19477-19478).
    Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at 
https://www.regulations.gov/ at any time. Follow the online instructions 
for accessing the docket or go to Docket Operations in Room W12-140 of 
the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, 
Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, 
except Federal holidays.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shannon Lennon, Airframe & Cabin 
Safety Section, AIR-675, Transport Standards Branch, Policy and 
Innovation Division, Aircraft Certification Service, Federal Aviation 
Administration, 2200 South 216th Street, Des Moines, Washington 98198; 
telephone and fax 206-231-3209; email [email protected].

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA has determined that notice of, and 
opportunity for prior public comment on, these special conditions is 
impracticable because the substance of these special conditions has 
been published in the Federal Register for public comment in several 
prior instances with no substantive comments received. The FAA 
therefore finds it unnecessary to delay the effective date and finds 
that good cause exists for making these special conditions effective 
upon publication in the Federal Register.

Comments Invited

    We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by 
sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments 
reference a specific portion of the special

[[Page 25979]]

conditions, explain the reason for any recommended change, and include 
supporting data.
    We will consider all comments we receive by the closing date for 
comments. We may change these special conditions based on the comments 
we receive.

Background

    On June 15, 2017, Greenpoint applied for a supplemental type 
certificate for single-occupant, side-facing seats with airbag devices 
in shoulder belts, and a floor-level, leg-flail-prevention device to 
limit the axial rotation of the upper leg, installed in Boeing Model 
787-8 airplanes. On May 2, 2019, Special Conditions No. 25-744-SC was 
published in the Federal Register (85 FR 18701). At the request of the 
applicant, this amended special conditions removes reference to leg-
flail airbags and adds reference to leg-flail devices installed on 
side-facing seats.
    The Boeing Model 787-8 airplane, which is a derivative of the 
Boeing Model 787 currently approved under Type Certificate No. 
T00021SE, is a twin-engine, transport-category airplane with a maximum 
takeoff weight of 502,500 pounds. The airplanes, as modified by 
Greenpoint, will have a business-jet interior with a maximum seating 
capacity of 41.

Type Certification Basis

    Under the provisions of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 
CFR) 21.101, Greenpoint must show that the Boeing Model 787-8 airplane, 
as changed, continues to meet the applicable provisions of the 
regulations listed in Type Certificate No. T00021SE, or the applicable 
regulations in effect on the date of application for the change, except 
for earlier amendments as agreed upon by the FAA.
    If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness 
regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or 
appropriate safety standards for the Boeing Model 787-8 airplane 
because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are 
prescribed under the provisions of Sec.  21.16.
    Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which 
they are issued. Should the applicant apply for a supplemental type 
certificate to modify any other model included on the same type 
certificate to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, 
these special conditions would also apply to the other model under 
Sec.  21.101.
    In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special 
conditions, the Boeing Model 787-8 airplane must comply with the fuel-
vent and exhaust-emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34, and the 
noise-certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36.
    The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in 
accordance with Sec.  11.38, and they become part of the type 
certification basis under Sec.  21.101.

Novel or Unusual Design Features

    The Boeing Model 787-8 airplane, as modified by Greenpoint, will 
incorporate the following novel or unusual design features:
    Single-occupant, side-facing seats with airbag devices in shoulder 
belts and a floor-level, leg-flail-prevention device to limit the axial 
rotation of the upper leg.

Discussion

    Amendment 25-64, dated June 16, 1988, revised the emergency-landing 
conditions that must be considered in the design of the airplane. It 
revised the static-load conditions in Sec.  25.561 and added a new 
Sec.  25.562, requiring dynamic testing for all seats approved for 
occupancy during takeoff and landing. The intent was to provide an 
improved level of safety for occupants on transport-category airplanes. 
Because most seating on transport-category airplanes is forward-facing, 
the pass/fail criteria developed in Amendment 25-64 focused primarily 
on forward-facing seats. Therefore, the testing specified in the rule 
did not provide a complete measure of occupant injury in seats that are 
not forward-facing, although Sec.  25.785 does require occupants of all 
seats that are occupied during taxi, takeoff, and landing not suffer 
serious injury as a result of the inertia forces specified in 
Sec. Sec.  25.561 and 25.562.
    For some time the FAA granted exemptions for the multiple-place 
side-facing-seat installations because the existing test methods and 
acceptance criteria did not produce a level of safety equivalent to the 
level of safety provided for forward- and aft-facing seats. These 
exemptions were subject to many conditions that reflected the injury-
evaluation criteria and mitigation strategies available at the time of 
the exemption issuance. The FAA also issued special conditions to 
address single-place side-facing seats because we believed that those 
conditions provided the same level of safety as for forward- and aft-
facing seats.
    Continuing concerns regarding the safety of side-facing seats 
prompted the FAA to conduct research to develop an acceptable method of 
compliance with Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 25.785(b) for side-facing seat 
installations. That research has identified injury considerations and 
evaluation criteria in addition to those previously used to approve 
side-facing seats (see published report DOT/FAA/AR-09/41, July 2011). 
One particular concern that was identified during the FAA's research 
program, but not addressed in the previous special conditions, was the 
significant leg injuries that can occur to occupants of both single- 
and multiple-place side-facing seats. Because this type of injury does 
not occur on forward- and aft-facing seats, the FAA determined that, to 
achieve the level of safety envisioned in Amendment 25-64, additional 
requirements would be needed as compared to previously issued special 
conditions. Nonetheless, the research has now allowed the development 
of a single set of special conditions applicable to all fully side-
facing seats.
    On November 5, 2012, the FAA released PS-ANM-25-03-R1, ``Technical 
Criteria for Approving Side-Facing Seats,'' to update existing FAA 
certification policy on Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 25.785(a) at Amendment 
25-64 for single- and multiple-place side-facing seats. This policy 
addresses both the technical criteria for approving side-facing seats 
and the implementation of those criteria. The FAA methodology detailed 
in PS-ANM-25-03-R1 has been used to establish a new set of proposed 
special conditions.
    These special conditions contain the additional safety standards 
that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of 
safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness 
standards.

Applicability

    As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to 
Boeing Model 787-8 airplanes modified by Greenpoint. Should Greenpoint 
apply at a later date for a supplemental type certificate to modify any 
other model included on Type Certificate No. T00021SE to incorporate 
the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions 
would apply to that model as well.

Conclusion

    This action affects only a certain novel or unusual design feature 
on one model of airplanes. It is not a rule of general applicability 
and affects only the applicant who applied to the FAA for approval of 
these features on the airplane.

List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25

    Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements.

[[Page 25980]]

Authority Citation

0
The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:

    Authority:  49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 
44704.

The Special Conditions

    Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the 
Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of 
the type certification basis for Boeing Model 787-8 airplanes modified 
by Greenpoint.
    In addition to the airworthiness standards in Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 
25.785, special conditions 1 and 2 apply to all side-facing seat 
installations, and special conditions 3 through 16 apply to side-facing 
seats equipped with an airbag system in the shoulder-belt system.
    1. Additional requirements applicable to tests or rational analysis 
conducted to show compliance with Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 25.785 for 
side-facing seats:
    a. The longitudinal test(s) conducted in accordance with Sec.  
25.562(b)(2) to show compliance with the seat-strength requirements of 
Sec.  25.562(c)(7) and (8), and these special conditions must have an 
ES-2re Anthropomorphic Test Dummy (ATD) (49 CFR part 572, subpart U) or 
equivalent, or a Hybrid-II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as 
specified in Sec.  25.562) or equivalent, occupying each seat position 
and including all items contactable by the occupant (e.g., armrest, 
interior wall, or furnishing) if those items are necessary to restrain 
the occupant. If included, the floor representation and contactable 
items must be located such that their relative position, with respect 
to the center of the nearest seat place, is the same at the start of 
the test as before floor misalignment is applied. For example, if floor 
misalignment rotates the centerline of the seat place nearest the 
contactable item 8 degrees clockwise about the airplane x-axis, then 
the item and floor representations must be rotated by 8 degrees 
clockwise also to maintain the same relative position to the seat 
place. Each ATD's relative position to the seat after application of 
floor misalignment must be the same as before misalignment is applied. 
To ensure proper loading of the seat by the occupants, the ATD pelvis 
must remain supported by the seat pan, and the restraint system must 
remain on the pelvis and shoulder of the ATD until rebound begins. No 
injury-criteria evaluation is necessary for tests conducted only to 
assess seat-strength requirements.
    b. The longitudinal test(s) conducted in accordance with Sec.  
25.562(b)(2), to show compliance with the injury assessments required 
by Sec.  25.562(c) and these special conditions, may be conducted 
separately from the test(s) to show structural integrity. In this case, 
structural-assessment tests must be conducted as specified in paragraph 
1a, above, and the injury-assessment test must be conducted without yaw 
or floor misalignment. Injury assessments may be accomplished by 
testing with ES-2re ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart U) or equivalent at 
all places. Alternatively, these assessments may be accomplished by 
multiple tests that use an ES-2re at the seat place being evaluated, 
and a Hybrid-II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as specified in Sec.  
25.562) or equivalent used in all seat places forward of the one being 
assessed, to evaluate occupant interaction. In this case, seat places 
aft of the one being assessed may be unoccupied. If a seat installation 
includes adjacent items that are contactable by the occupant, the 
injury potential of that contact must be assessed. To make this 
assessment, tests may be conducted that include the actual item, 
located and attached in a representative fashion. Alternatively, the 
injury potential may be assessed by a combination of tests with items 
having the same geometry as the actual item, but having stiffness 
characteristics that would create the worst case for injury (injuries 
due to both contact with the item and lack of support from the item).
    c. If a seat is installed aft of structure (e.g., an interior wall 
or furnishing) that does not have a homogeneous surface contactable by 
the occupant, additional analysis and/or test(s) may be required to 
demonstrate that the injury criteria are met for the area which an 
occupant could contact. For example, different yaw angles could result 
in different injury considerations and may require additional analysis 
or separate test(s) to evaluate.
    d. To accommodate a range of occupant heights (5th percentile 
female to 95th percentile male), the surface of items contactable by 
the occupant must be homogenous 7.3 inches (185 mm) above and 7.9 
inches (200 mm) below the point (center of area) that is contacted by 
the 50th percentile male size ATD's head during the longitudinal 
test(s) conducted in accordance with paragraphs a, b, and c, above. 
Otherwise, additional head-injury criteria (HIC) assessment tests may 
be necessary. Any surface (inflatable or otherwise) that provides 
support for the occupant of any seat place must provide that support in 
a consistent manner regardless of occupant stature. For example, if a 
shoulder-belt airbag system is used to mitigate injury risk, then it 
must be demonstrated by inspection to bear against the range of 
occupants in a similar manner before and after inflation. Likewise, the 
means of limiting lower-leg flail must be demonstrated by inspection to 
provide protection for the range of occupants in a similar manner.
    e. For longitudinal test(s) conducted in accordance with Sec.  
25.562(b)(2) and these special conditions, the ATDs must be positioned, 
clothed, and have lateral instrumentation configured as follows:
    i. ATD positioning--Lower the ATD vertically into the seat while 
simultaneously:
    1. Aligning the midsagittal plane (a vertical plane through the 
midline of the body; dividing the body into right and left halves) with 
approximately the middle of the seat place.
    2. Applying a horizontal x-axis direction (in the ATD coordinate 
system) force of about 20 lb (89 N) to the bottom of the feet of the 
ES-2re Hybrid-II, to compress the seat back cushion.
    3. Keeping the lower and upper legs nearly horizontal by supporting 
at the bottom of the feet.
    ii. Once all lifting devices have been removed from the ATD:
    1. Rock it slightly to settle it in the seat.
    2. Bend the knees of the ATD.
    3. Separate the knees by about 4 inches (100 mm).
    4. Set the ES-2re's head at approximately the midpoint of the 
available range of z-axis rotation (to align the head and torso 
midsagittal planes).
    5. Position the ES-2re's arms at the joint's mechanical detent that 
puts them at approximately a 40 degree angle with respect to the torso. 
Position the Hybrid-II ATD hands on top of its upper legs.
    6. Position the feet such that the centerlines of the lower legs 
are approximately parallel to a lateral vertical plane (in the airplane 
coordinate system).
    iii. ATD clothing: Clothe each ATD in form-fitting, mid-calf-length 
(minimum) pants and shoes (size 11E) weighing about 2.5 lb (1.1 kg) 
total. The color of the clothing should be in contrast to the color of 
the restraint system. The ES-2re jacket is sufficient for torso 
clothing, although a form-fitting shirt may be used in addition if 
desired.
    iv. ES-2re ATD lateral instrumentation: The rib-module linear 
slides are directional, i.e., deflection occurs in either a positive or 
negative ATD y-axis direction. The modules must be installed such that 
the moving end of the rib module is toward the

[[Page 25981]]

front of the airplane. The three abdominal-force sensors must be 
installed such that they are on the side of the ATD toward the front of 
the airplane.
    f. The combined horizontal/vertical test, required by Sec.  
25.562(b)(1) and these special conditions, must be conducted with a 
Hybrid II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as specified in Sec.  
25.562), or equivalent, occupying each seat position.
    g. Restraint systems:
    i. If inflatable restraint systems are used, they must be active 
during all dynamic tests conducted to show compliance with Sec.  
25.562.
    ii. The design and installation of seat-belt buckles must prevent 
unbuckling due to applied inertial forces or impact of the hands/arms 
of the occupant during an emergency landing.
    2. Additional performance measures applicable to tests and rational 
analysis conducted to show compliance with Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 25.785 
for side-facing seats:
    a. Body-to-body contact: Contact between the head, pelvis, torso, 
or shoulder area of one ATD with the adjacent-seated ATD's head, 
pelvis, torso, or shoulder area is not allowed. Contact during rebound 
is allowed.
    b. Thoracic: The deflection of any of the ES-2re ATD upper, middle, 
and lower ribs must not exceed 1.73 inches (44 mm). Data must be 
processed as defined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 
571.214.
    c. Abdominal: The sum of the measured ES-2re ATD front, middle, and 
rear abdominal forces must not exceed 562 lbs (2,500 N). Data must be 
processed as defined in FMVSS 571.214.
    d. Pelvic: The pubic symphysis force measured by the ES-2re ATD 
must not exceed 1,350 lbs (6,000 N). Data must be processed as defined 
in FMVSS 571.214.
    e. Leg: Axial rotation of the upper-leg (femur) must be limited to 
35 degrees in either direction from the nominal seated position. The 
leg-flail-prevention mechanism must:
    i. Be shown to function as intended in consideration of post-
structural deformation of the seat assembly.
    ii. Retract such that it does not impede rapid egress of occupants.
    f. Neck: As measured by the ES-2re ATD and filtered at CFC 600 as 
defined in SAE J211:
    i. The upper-neck tension force at the occipital condyle (O.C.) 
location must be less than 405 lbs (1,800 N).
    ii. The upper-neck compression force at the O.C. location must be 
less than 405 lbs (1,800 N).
    iii. The upper-neck bending torque about the ATD x-axis at the O.C. 
location must be less than 1,018 in-lbs (115 Nm).
    iv. The upper-neck resultant shear force at the O.C. location must 
be less than 186 lbs (825 N).
    g. Occupant (ES-2re ATD) retention: The pelvic restraint must 
remain on the ES-2re ATD's pelvis during the impact and rebound phases 
of the test. The upper-torso restraint straps (if present) must remain 
on the ATD's shoulder during the impact.
    h. Occupant (ES-2re ATD) support:
    i. Pelvis excursion: The load-bearing portion of the bottom of the 
ATD pelvis must not translate beyond the edges of its seat's bottom 
seat-cushion supporting structure.
    ii. Upper-torso support: The lateral flexion of the ATD torso must 
not exceed 40 degrees from the normal upright position during the 
impact.
    3. For seats with a shoulder-belt airbag system, the shoulder-belt 
airbag system must deploy and provide protection under crash conditions 
where it is necessary to prevent serious injury. The means of 
protection must take into consideration a range of stature from a 2-
year-old child to a 95th percentile male. The airbag systems in the 
shoulder belts must provide a consistent approach to energy absorption 
throughout that range of occupants. When the seat system includes an 
airbag system, that system must be included in each of the 
certification tests as it would be installed in the airplane. In 
addition, the following situations must be considered:
    a. The seat occupant is holding an infant.
    b. The seat occupant is a pregnant woman.
    4. The airbag system in the shoulder belt must provide adequate 
protection for each occupant regardless of the number of occupants of 
the seat assembly, considering that unoccupied seats may have an active 
airbag system in the shoulder belt.
    5. The design must prevent the airbag system in the shoulder belt 
from being either incorrectly buckled or incorrectly installed, such 
that the airbag system in the shoulder belt would not properly deploy. 
Alternatively, it must be shown that such deployment is not hazardous 
to the occupant, and will provide the required injury protection.
    6. It must be shown that the shoulder-belt airbag system is not 
susceptible to inadvertent deployment as a result of wear and tear, or 
inertial loads resulting from in-flight or ground maneuvers (including 
gusts and hard landings), and other operating and environmental 
conditions (vibrations, moisture, etc.) likely to occur in service.
    7. Deployment of the shoulder-belt airbag system must not introduce 
injury mechanisms to the seated occupant, or result in injuries that 
could impede rapid egress. This assessment should include an occupant 
whose belt is loosely fastened.
    8. It must be shown that inadvertent deployment of the shoulder-
belt airbag system, during the most critical part of the flight, will 
either meet the requirement of Sec.  25.1309(b) or not cause a hazard 
to the airplane or its occupants. This also includes preventing 
inadvertent airbag deployment from a static discharge.
    9. It must be shown that the airbag system in the shoulder belt 
will not impede rapid egress of occupants 10 seconds after airbag 
deployment.
    10. The shoulder-belt airbag system must be protected from 
lightning and high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF). The threats to the 
airplane specified in existing regulations regarding lighting, Sec.  
25.1316, and HIRF, Sec.  25.1317, are incorporated by reference for the 
purpose of measuring lightning and HIRF protection.
    11. The shoulder-belt airbag system must function properly after 
loss of normal airplane electrical power, and after a transverse 
separation of the fuselage at the most critical location. A separation 
at the location of the airbag system in the shoulder belt does not have 
to be considered.
    12. It must be shown that the shoulder-belt airbag system will not 
release hazardous quantities of gas, sharp injurious metal fragments, 
or particulate matter into the cabin.
    13. The shoulder-belt airbag system installation must be protected 
from the effects of fire such that no hazard to occupants will result.
    14. A means must be available for a crewmember to verify the 
integrity of the shoulder-belt airbag system activation system prior to 
each flight, or it must be demonstrated to reliably operate between 
inspection intervals. The FAA considers that the loss of the airbag-
system deployment function alone (i.e., independent of the conditional 
event that requires the airbag-system deployment) is a major-failure 
condition.
    15. The inflatable material may not have an average burn rate of 
greater than 2.5 inches/minute when tested using the horizontal 
flammability test defined in part 25, appendix F, part I, paragraph 
(b)(5).
    16. The shoulder-belt airbag system, once deployed, must not 
adversely affect the emergency-lighting system

[[Page 25982]]

(i.e., block floor proximity lights to the extent that the lights no 
longer meet their intended function).

    Issued in Des Moines, Washington, on May 30, 2019.
Victor Wicklund,
Manager, Transport Standards Branch, Policy and Innovation Division, 
Aircraft Certification Service.
[FR Doc. 2019-11666 Filed 6-4-19; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 4910-13-P