Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Findings for Four Species, 17768-17771 [2019-08449]

Download as PDF 17768 Federal Register / Vol. 84, No. 81 / Friday, April 26, 2019 / Proposed Rules Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, and Volatile organic compounds. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. [4500030115] Dated: April 12, 2019. Cosmo Servidio. Regional Administrator, Region III. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Findings for Four Species [FR Doc. 2019–08156 Filed 4–25–19; 8:45 am] Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of petition findings and initiation of a status review. AGENCY: BILLING CODE 6560–50–P DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 302, 303, 307, and 309 RIN 0970–AC75 Child Support Program Technical Corrections Notice of Proposed Rulemaking; Correction Office of Child Support Enforcement (OCSE), Administration for Children and Families (ACF), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking; correction. AGENCY: This document corrects the regulatory identification number (RIN) that appeared in the heading of a notice of proposed rulemaking published in the Federal Register of December 18, 2018. Through that document, OCSE proposed to eliminate regulations rendered outdated or unnecessary and make technical amendments to the Flexibility, Efficiency, and Modernization in Child Support Enforcement final rule, published on December 20, 2016, including proposing to amend the compliance date for review and adjustment of child support orders. DATES: April 26, 2019. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the notice of proposed rulemaking FR Doc 2018–27224, beginning on page 64803 in the issue of December 18, 2018, the regulatory identification number (RIN) appeared incorrectly in the heading of the document in the second column as RIN 0970–AC50. The RIN is corrected to read ‘‘RIN 0970–AC75’’. amozie on DSK9F9SC42PROD with PROPOSALS SUMMARY: Dated: April 18, 2019. Ann C. Agnew, Executive Secretary to the Department, Department of Health and Human Services. [FR Doc. 2019–08299 Filed 4–25–19; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4184–25–P VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:17 Apr 25, 2019 Jkt 247001 We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce 90day findings on four petitions to add species to the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Based on our review, we find that petitions to list the Arizona eryngo (Eryngium sparganophyllum) and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) present substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned actions may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this document, we announce that we plan to initiate reviews of the statuses of those species to determine if the petitioned actions are warranted. To ensure that the status reviews are comprehensive, we are requesting scientific and commercial data and other information regarding those species. Based on the status reviews, we will issue 12-month findings on the petitions, which will address whether or not the petitioned actions are warranted, in accordance with the Act. We also find that petitions to list the Refugio manzanita (Arctostaphylos refugioensis) and San Gabriel chestnut snail (Glyptostoma gabrielense) do not present substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned actions may be warranted. Therefore, we are not initiating status reviews of these species in response to the petitions. We refer to these findings as ‘‘not substantial’’ petition findings. DATES: These findings were made on April 26, 2019. As we commence work on the status reviews, we seek any new information concerning the statuses of, or threats to, the species or their habitats. Any information received during our work on the status reviews will be considered. ADDRESSES: Supporting documents: Summaries of the bases for the petition findings contained in this document are available on http://www.regulations.gov SUMMARY: Administration for Children and Families PO 00000 Frm 00013 Fmt 4702 Sfmt 4702 under the appropriate docket number (see table under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION). In addition, this supporting information is available for public inspection, by appointment, during normal business hours by contacting the appropriate person, as specified in FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. Status Reviews: If you have new scientific or commercial data or other information concerning the statuses of, or threats to, the species for which a status review is being initiated, please provide those data or information by one of the following methods: (1) Electronically: Go to the Federal eRulemaking Portal: http:// www.regulations.gov. In the Search box, enter the appropriate docket number (see the Table 1 under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION). Then, click on the ‘‘Search’’ button. After finding the correct document, you may submit information by clicking on ‘‘Comment Now!’’ If your information will fit in the provided comment box, please use this feature of http://www.regulations.gov, as it is most compatible with our information review procedures. If you attach your information as a separate document, our preferred file format is Microsoft Word. If you attach multiple comments (such as form letters), our preferred format is a spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel. (2) By hard copy: Submit by U.S. mail or hand-delivery to: Public Comments Processing, Attn: [Insert appropriate docket number; see the Table 1 under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION], U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, MS: BPHC, 5275 Leesburg Pike; Falls Church, VA 22041– 3803. We request that you send information only by the methods described above. We will post all information we receive on http://www.regulations.gov. This generally means that we will post any personal information you provide us. Not-substantial petition findings: Summaries of the bases for the notsubstantial petition findings contained in this document are available on http:// www.regulations.gov under the appropriate docket number (see Table 2 under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION). This supporting information is also available for public inspection, by appointment, during normal business hours, by contacting the appropriate person, as specified under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. If you have new information concerning the status of, or threats to, these species, or their habitats, please submit that information to the appropriate person. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: E:\FR\FM\26APP1.SGM 26APP1 Federal Register / Vol. 84, No. 81 / Friday, April 26, 2019 / Proposed Rules Species common name Contact person Arizona eryngo .......................................................................................................... giraffe ........................................................................................................................ Refugio manzanita .................................................................................................... San Gabriel chestnut snail ....................................................................................... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1533) and its implementing regulations in title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations (50 CFR part 424) set forth the procedures for adding a species to, or removing a species from, the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants (Lists) in 50 CFR part 17. Section 4(b)(3)(A) of the Act requires that we make a finding on whether a petition to add a species to the Lists (i.e., ‘‘list’’ a species), remove a species from the Lists (i.e., ‘‘delist’’ a species), or change a listed species’ status from endangered to threatened or from threatened to endangered (i.e., ‘‘reclassify’’ a species) presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted. To the maximum extent practicable, we are to make this finding within 90 days of our receipt of the petition and publish the finding promptly in the Federal Register. Our regulations establish that substantial scientific or commercial information with regard to a 90-day petition finding refers to ‘‘credible scientific or commercial information in support of the petition’s claims such that a reasonable person conducting an impartial scientific review would conclude that the action proposed in the petition may be warranted’’ (50 CFR 424.14(h)(1)(i)). A species may be determined to be an endangered species or a threatened species because of one or more of the five factors described in section 4(a)(1) of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). The five factors are: (a) The present or threatened destruction, modification, or 17769 Jeff Humphrey, 602–242–0210; jeff_humphrey@fws.gov. Don Morgan, 703–358–2444; don_morgan@fws.gov. Catherine Darst, 805–677–3318; cat_darst@fws.gov. Mendel Stewart, 760–431–9440; mendel_stewart@fws.gov. curtailment of its habitat or range (Factor A); (b) Overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes (Factor B); (c) Disease or predation (Factor C); (d) The inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms (Factor D); or (e) Other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence (Factor E). These factors represent broad categories of natural or human-caused actions or conditions that could have an effect on a species’ continued existence. In evaluating these actions and conditions, we look for those that may have a negative effect on individuals of the species, as well as other actions or conditions that may ameliorate any negative effects or may have positive effects. We use the term ‘‘threat’’ to refer in general to actions or conditions that are known to, or are reasonably likely to, affect individuals of a species negatively. The term ‘‘threat’’ includes actions or conditions that have a direct impact on individuals (direct impacts), as well as those that affect individuals through alteration of their habitat or required resources (stressors). The term ‘‘threat’’ may encompass—either together or separately—the source of the action or condition or the action or condition itself. However, the mere identification of any threat(s) may not be sufficient to compel a finding that the information in the petition is substantial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted. The information presented in the petition must include evidence sufficient to suggest that these threats may be affecting the species to the point that the species may meet the definition of an endangered species or threatened species under the Act. If we find that a petition presents such information, our subsequent status review will evaluate all identified threats by considering the individual-, population-, and species-level effects and the expected response by the species. We will evaluate individual threats and their expected effects on the species, then analyze the cumulative effect of the threats on the species as a whole. We also consider the cumulative effect of the threats in light of those actions and conditions that are expected to have positive effects on the species— such as any existing regulatory mechanisms or conservation efforts that may ameliorate threats. It is only after conducting this cumulative analysis of threats and the actions that may ameliorate them, and the expected effect on the species now and in the foreseeable future, that we can determine whether the species meets the definition of an endangered species or threatened species under the Act. If we find that a petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted, the Act requires us to promptly commence a review of the status of the species, and we will subsequently complete a status review in accordance with our prioritization methodology for 12-month findings (81 FR 49248; July 27, 2016). Summaries of Petition Findings The petition findings contained in this document are listed in the tables below, and the basis for each finding, along with supporting information, is available on http://www.regulations.gov under the appropriate docket number. amozie on DSK9F9SC42PROD with PROPOSALS TABLE 1—STATUS REVIEWS Common name Docket No. Arizona eryngo .................................................. giraffe ................................................................. FWS–R2–ES–2018–0087 FWS–HQ–ES–2017–0101 VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:17 Apr 25, 2019 Jkt 247001 PO 00000 Frm 00014 Fmt 4702 URL to Docket on http://www.regulations.gov https://www.regulations.gov/docket?D=FWS-R2-ES-2018-0087. https://www.regulations.gov/docket?D=FWS-HQ-ES-2017-0101. Sfmt 4702 E:\FR\FM\26APP1.SGM 26APP1 17770 Federal Register / Vol. 84, No. 81 / Friday, April 26, 2019 / Proposed Rules TABLE 2—NOT-SUBSTANTIAL PETITION FINDINGS Common name Docket No. Refugio manzanita ............................................ San Gabriel chestnut snail ................................ FWS–R8–ES–2018–0088 FWS–R8–ES–2018–0089 Evaluation of a Petition To List Arizona Eryngo as an Endangered or Threatened Species Under the Act Petition History On April 19, 2017, we received a petition from the Center for Biological Diversity, Humane Society International, Humane Society of the United States, International Fund for Animal Welfare, and Natural Resources Defense Council, requesting that the giraffe be listed as an endangered or threatened species under the Act. The petition clearly identified itself as such and included the requisite identification information for the petitioner, required at 50 CFR 424.14(c). This finding addresses the petition. Species and Range Eryngium sparganophyllum (Arizona eryngo); Arizona and Mexico. Petition History On April 9, 2018, we received a petition from the Center for Biological Diversity, requesting that the plant, Arizona eryngo, be listed as endangered or threatened and critical habitat be designated for this species under the Act. The petition clearly identified itself as such and included the requisite identification information for the petitioner, required at 50 CFR 424.14(c). This finding addresses the petition. Finding Based on our review of the petition and sources cited in the petition, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating the petitioned action may be warranted for the Arizona eryngo due to potential threats associated with the following: Groundwater pumping, spring modification, surface water diversion, trespass cattle grazing, and management activities that result in an encroachment of shrubs (Factor A); and climate change (Factor E). The petition also presented substantial information that the existing regulatory mechanisms may be inadequate to address impacts of these threats (Factor D). The basis for our finding on this petition, and other information regarding our review of the petition, can be found as an appendix at http:// www.regulations.gov under Docket No. FWS–R2–ES–2018–0087 under the Supporting Documents section. amozie on DSK9F9SC42PROD with PROPOSALS Evaluation of a Petition To List the Giraffe as an Endangered or Threatened Species Under the Act Species and Range Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis): Africa (Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe). VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:48 Apr 25, 2019 Jkt 247001 URL to Docket on http://www.regulations.gov https://www.regulations.gov/docket?D=FWS-R8-ES-2018-0088. https://www.regulations.gov/docket?D=FWS-R8-ES-2018-0089. Finding Based on our review of the petition and sources cited in the petition, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted for the giraffe due to potential threats associated with the following: Development, agriculture, and resource harvesting (Factor A); commercial trade and recreational hunting and poaching (Factor B); disease (Factor C); and small population dynamics/genetic isolation (Factor E). The petition also presented substantial information that the existing regulatory mechanisms may be inadequate to address impacts of these threats (Factor D). The basis for our finding on this petition, and other information regarding our review of the petition, can be found as an appendix at http:// www.regulations.gov under Docket No. FWS–HQ–ES–2017–0101 under Supporting Documents. Evaluation of a Petition To List Refugio Manzanita as an Endangered Species Under the Act Species and Range Arctostaphylos refugioensis (Refugio manzanita); Santa Barbara County, California. Petition History On November 30, 2017, we received a petition from Los Padres ForestWatch and the California Chaparral Institute, requesting the plant, Refugio manzanita, be listed as endangered and critical habitat be designated for this species under the Act. The petition clearly identified itself as such and included PO 00000 Frm 00015 Fmt 4702 Sfmt 4702 the requisite identification information for the petitioner, required at 50 CFR 424.14(c). This finding addresses the petition. Finding Based on our review of the petition and sources cited in the petition, we find that the petition does not present substantial scientific or commercial information indicating the petitioned action may be warranted for the Refugio manzanita. Because the petition does not present substantial information indicating that listing the Refugio manzanita may be warranted, we are not initiating a status review of this species in response to this petition. However, we ask that the public submit to us any new information that becomes available concerning the status of, or threats to, this species or its habitat at any time (see Not-substantial petition findings under ADDRESSES, above). The basis for our finding on this petition, and other information regarding our review of the petition, can be found as an appendix at http:// www.regulations.gov under Docket No. FWS–R8–ES–2018–0088 under the Supporting Documents section. Evaluation of a Petition to List the San Gabriel Chestnut Snail as an Endangered or Threatened Species Under the Act Species and Range San Gabriel chestnut snail (Glyptostoma gabrielense); Los Angeles County, California. Petition History On November 13, 2017, we received a petition from the Center for Biological Diversity, requesting that the San Gabriel chestnut snail be listed as endangered or threatened and that critical habitat be designated for this species under the Act. The petition clearly identified itself as such and included the requisite identification information for the petitioner, required at 50 CFR 424.14(c). This finding addresses the petition. Finding Based on our review of the petition and sources cited in the petition, we find that the petition does not present substantial scientific or commercial information indicating the petitioned E:\FR\FM\26APP1.SGM 26APP1 Federal Register / Vol. 84, No. 81 / Friday, April 26, 2019 / Proposed Rules amozie on DSK9F9SC42PROD with PROPOSALS action may be warranted for the San Gabriel chestnut snail. Because the petition does not present substantial information indicating that listing the San Gabriel chestnut snail may be warranted, we are not initiating a status review of this species in response to this petition. However, we ask that the public submit to us any new information that becomes available concerning the status of, or threats to, this species or its habitat at any time (see Not-substantial petition findings under ADDRESSES, above). The basis for our finding on this petition, and other information regarding our review of this petition, can be found as an appendix at http:// www.regulations.gov under Docket No. FWS–R8–ES–2018–0089 under the Supporting Documents section. VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:17 Apr 25, 2019 Jkt 247001 Conclusion On the basis of our evaluation of the information presented in the petitions under section 4(b)(3)(A) of the Act, we have determined that the petitions summarized above for the Arizona eryngo and giraffe present substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned actions may be warranted. We are, therefore, initiating status reviews to determine whether the actions are warranted under the Act. At the conclusion of the status reviews, we will issue findings, in accordance with section 4(b)(3)(B) of the Act, as to whether the petitioned actions are not warranted, warranted, or warranted but precluded by pending proposals to determine whether any species is an endangered species or a threatened species. In addition, we have determined that the petitions summarized above for Refugio manzanita and San Gabriel PO 00000 Frm 00016 Fmt 4702 Sfmt 9990 17771 chestnut snail do not present substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the requested actions may be warranted. Therefore, we are not initiating status reviews for these species. Authors The primary authors of this document are staff members of the Ecological Services Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Authority The authority for these actions is the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). Dated: April 15, 2019. Margaret E. Everson, Principal Deputy Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Exercising the Authority of the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [FR Doc. 2019–08449 Filed 4–25–19; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4333–15–P E:\FR\FM\26APP1.SGM 26APP1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 84, Number 81 (Friday, April 26, 2019)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 17768-17771]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2019-08449]


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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 17

[4500030115]


Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Findings 
for Four Species

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Notice of petition findings and initiation of a status review.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce 90-
day findings on four petitions to add species to the List of Endangered 
and Threatened Wildlife under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as 
amended (Act). Based on our review, we find that petitions to list the 
Arizona eryngo (Eryngium sparganophyllum) and giraffe (Giraffa 
camelopardalis) present substantial scientific or commercial 
information indicating that the petitioned actions may be warranted. 
Therefore, with the publication of this document, we announce that we 
plan to initiate reviews of the statuses of those species to determine 
if the petitioned actions are warranted. To ensure that the status 
reviews are comprehensive, we are requesting scientific and commercial 
data and other information regarding those species. Based on the status 
reviews, we will issue 12-month findings on the petitions, which will 
address whether or not the petitioned actions are warranted, in 
accordance with the Act. We also find that petitions to list the 
Refugio manzanita (Arctostaphylos refugioensis) and San Gabriel 
chestnut snail (Glyptostoma gabrielense) do not present substantial 
scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned 
actions may be warranted. Therefore, we are not initiating status 
reviews of these species in response to the petitions. We refer to 
these findings as ``not substantial'' petition findings.

DATES: These findings were made on April 26, 2019. As we commence work 
on the status reviews, we seek any new information concerning the 
statuses of, or threats to, the species or their habitats. Any 
information received during our work on the status reviews will be 
considered.

ADDRESSES: 
    Supporting documents: Summaries of the bases for the petition 
findings contained in this document are available on http://www.regulations.gov under the appropriate docket number (see table 
under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION). In addition, this supporting 
information is available for public inspection, by appointment, during 
normal business hours by contacting the appropriate person, as 
specified in FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT.
    Status Reviews: If you have new scientific or commercial data or 
other information concerning the statuses of, or threats to, the 
species for which a status review is being initiated, please provide 
those data or information by one of the following methods:
    (1) Electronically: Go to the Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. In the Search box, enter the appropriate docket 
number (see the Table 1 under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION). Then, click 
on the ``Search'' button. After finding the correct document, you may 
submit information by clicking on ``Comment Now!'' If your information 
will fit in the provided comment box, please use this feature of http://www.regulations.gov, as it is most compatible with our information 
review procedures. If you attach your information as a separate 
document, our preferred file format is Microsoft Word. If you attach 
multiple comments (such as form letters), our preferred format is a 
spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel.
    (2) By hard copy: Submit by U.S. mail or hand-delivery to: Public 
Comments Processing, Attn: [Insert appropriate docket number; see the 
Table 1 under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION], U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, MS: BPHC, 5275 Leesburg Pike; Falls Church, VA 22041-3803.
    We request that you send information only by the methods described 
above. We will post all information we receive on http://www.regulations.gov. This generally means that we will post any 
personal information you provide us.
    Not-substantial petition findings: Summaries of the bases for the 
not-substantial petition findings contained in this document are 
available on http://www.regulations.gov under the appropriate docket 
number (see Table 2 under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION). This supporting 
information is also available for public inspection, by appointment, 
during normal business hours, by contacting the appropriate person, as 
specified under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. If you have new 
information concerning the status of, or threats to, these species, or 
their habitats, please submit that information to the appropriate 
person.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:

[[Page 17769]]



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Species common name                                         Contact person
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Arizona eryngo...................  Jeff Humphrey, 602-242-0210; [email protected].
giraffe..........................  Don Morgan, 703-358-2444; [email protected].
Refugio manzanita................  Catherine Darst, 805-677-3318; [email protected].
San Gabriel chestnut snail.......  Mendel Stewart, 760-431-9440; [email protected].
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf, please call 
the Federal Relay Service at 800-877-8339.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

    Section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1533) and its implementing 
regulations in title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations (50 CFR part 
424) set forth the procedures for adding a species to, or removing a 
species from, the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife 
and Plants (Lists) in 50 CFR part 17. Section 4(b)(3)(A) of the Act 
requires that we make a finding on whether a petition to add a species 
to the Lists (i.e., ``list'' a species), remove a species from the 
Lists (i.e., ``delist'' a species), or change a listed species' status 
from endangered to threatened or from threatened to endangered (i.e., 
``reclassify'' a species) presents substantial scientific or commercial 
information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted. To 
the maximum extent practicable, we are to make this finding within 90 
days of our receipt of the petition and publish the finding promptly in 
the Federal Register.
    Our regulations establish that substantial scientific or commercial 
information with regard to a 90-day petition finding refers to 
``credible scientific or commercial information in support of the 
petition's claims such that a reasonable person conducting an impartial 
scientific review would conclude that the action proposed in the 
petition may be warranted'' (50 CFR 424.14(h)(1)(i)).
    A species may be determined to be an endangered species or a 
threatened species because of one or more of the five factors described 
in section 4(a)(1) of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). The five 
factors are:
    (a) The present or threatened destruction, modification, or 
curtailment of its habitat or range (Factor A);
    (b) Overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or 
educational purposes (Factor B);
    (c) Disease or predation (Factor C);
    (d) The inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms (Factor D); or
    (e) Other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued 
existence (Factor E).

These factors represent broad categories of natural or human-caused 
actions or conditions that could have an effect on a species' continued 
existence. In evaluating these actions and conditions, we look for 
those that may have a negative effect on individuals of the species, as 
well as other actions or conditions that may ameliorate any negative 
effects or may have positive effects.
    We use the term ``threat'' to refer in general to actions or 
conditions that are known to, or are reasonably likely to, affect 
individuals of a species negatively. The term ``threat'' includes 
actions or conditions that have a direct impact on individuals (direct 
impacts), as well as those that affect individuals through alteration 
of their habitat or required resources (stressors). The term ``threat'' 
may encompass--either together or separately--the source of the action 
or condition or the action or condition itself. However, the mere 
identification of any threat(s) may not be sufficient to compel a 
finding that the information in the petition is substantial information 
indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted. The information 
presented in the petition must include evidence sufficient to suggest 
that these threats may be affecting the species to the point that the 
species may meet the definition of an endangered species or threatened 
species under the Act.
    If we find that a petition presents such information, our 
subsequent status review will evaluate all identified threats by 
considering the individual-, population-, and species-level effects and 
the expected response by the species. We will evaluate individual 
threats and their expected effects on the species, then analyze the 
cumulative effect of the threats on the species as a whole. We also 
consider the cumulative effect of the threats in light of those actions 
and conditions that are expected to have positive effects on the 
species--such as any existing regulatory mechanisms or conservation 
efforts that may ameliorate threats. It is only after conducting this 
cumulative analysis of threats and the actions that may ameliorate 
them, and the expected effect on the species now and in the foreseeable 
future, that we can determine whether the species meets the definition 
of an endangered species or threatened species under the Act.
    If we find that a petition presents substantial scientific or 
commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be 
warranted, the Act requires us to promptly commence a review of the 
status of the species, and we will subsequently complete a status 
review in accordance with our prioritization methodology for 12-month 
findings (81 FR 49248; July 27, 2016).

Summaries of Petition Findings

    The petition findings contained in this document are listed in the 
tables below, and the basis for each finding, along with supporting 
information, is available on http://www.regulations.gov under the 
appropriate docket number.

                                             Table 1--Status Reviews
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                      URL to Docket on http://
              Common name                               Docket No.                      www.regulations.gov
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Arizona eryngo........................  FWS-R2-ES-2018-0087                        https://www.regulations.gov/docket?D=FWS-R2-ES-2018-0087 0087.
giraffe...............................  FWS-HQ-ES-2017-0101                        https://www.regulations.gov/docket?D=FWS-HQ-ES-2017-0101 0101.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 17770]]


                                   Table 2--Not-substantial Petition Findings
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                      URL to Docket on http://
              Common name                               Docket No.                      www.regulations.gov
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Refugio manzanita.....................  FWS-R8-ES-2018-0088                        https://www.regulations.gov/docket?D=FWS-R8-ES-2018-0088 0088.
San Gabriel chestnut snail............  FWS-R8-ES-2018-0089                        https://www.regulations.gov/docket?D=FWS-R8-ES-2018-0089 0089.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Evaluation of a Petition To List Arizona Eryngo as an Endangered or 
Threatened Species Under the Act

Species and Range
    Eryngium sparganophyllum (Arizona eryngo); Arizona and Mexico.
Petition History
    On April 9, 2018, we received a petition from the Center for 
Biological Diversity, requesting that the plant, Arizona eryngo, be 
listed as endangered or threatened and critical habitat be designated 
for this species under the Act. The petition clearly identified itself 
as such and included the requisite identification information for the 
petitioner, required at 50 CFR 424.14(c). This finding addresses the 
petition.
Finding
    Based on our review of the petition and sources cited in the 
petition, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or 
commercial information indicating the petitioned action may be 
warranted for the Arizona eryngo due to potential threats associated 
with the following: Groundwater pumping, spring modification, surface 
water diversion, trespass cattle grazing, and management activities 
that result in an encroachment of shrubs (Factor A); and climate change 
(Factor E). The petition also presented substantial information that 
the existing regulatory mechanisms may be inadequate to address impacts 
of these threats (Factor D).
    The basis for our finding on this petition, and other information 
regarding our review of the petition, can be found as an appendix at 
http://www.regulations.gov under Docket No. FWS-R2-ES-2018-0087 under 
the Supporting Documents section.

Evaluation of a Petition To List the Giraffe as an Endangered or 
Threatened Species Under the Act

Species and Range
    Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis): Africa (Angola, Botswana, 
Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the 
Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, 
Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, 
Zambia, and Zimbabwe).
Petition History
    On April 19, 2017, we received a petition from the Center for 
Biological Diversity, Humane Society International, Humane Society of 
the United States, International Fund for Animal Welfare, and Natural 
Resources Defense Council, requesting that the giraffe be listed as an 
endangered or threatened species under the Act. The petition clearly 
identified itself as such and included the requisite identification 
information for the petitioner, required at 50 CFR 424.14(c). This 
finding addresses the petition.
Finding
    Based on our review of the petition and sources cited in the 
petition, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or 
commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be 
warranted for the giraffe due to potential threats associated with the 
following: Development, agriculture, and resource harvesting (Factor 
A); commercial trade and recreational hunting and poaching (Factor B); 
disease (Factor C); and small population dynamics/genetic isolation 
(Factor E). The petition also presented substantial information that 
the existing regulatory mechanisms may be inadequate to address impacts 
of these threats (Factor D).
    The basis for our finding on this petition, and other information 
regarding our review of the petition, can be found as an appendix at 
http://www.regulations.gov under Docket No. FWS-HQ-ES-2017-0101 under 
Supporting Documents.

Evaluation of a Petition To List Refugio Manzanita as an Endangered 
Species Under the Act

Species and Range
    Arctostaphylos refugioensis (Refugio manzanita); Santa Barbara 
County, California.
Petition History
    On November 30, 2017, we received a petition from Los Padres 
ForestWatch and the California Chaparral Institute, requesting the 
plant, Refugio manzanita, be listed as endangered and critical habitat 
be designated for this species under the Act. The petition clearly 
identified itself as such and included the requisite identification 
information for the petitioner, required at 50 CFR 424.14(c). This 
finding addresses the petition.
Finding
    Based on our review of the petition and sources cited in the 
petition, we find that the petition does not present substantial 
scientific or commercial information indicating the petitioned action 
may be warranted for the Refugio manzanita. Because the petition does 
not present substantial information indicating that listing the Refugio 
manzanita may be warranted, we are not initiating a status review of 
this species in response to this petition. However, we ask that the 
public submit to us any new information that becomes available 
concerning the status of, or threats to, this species or its habitat at 
any time (see Not-substantial petition findings under ADDRESSES, 
above).
    The basis for our finding on this petition, and other information 
regarding our review of the petition, can be found as an appendix at 
http://www.regulations.gov under Docket No. FWS-R8-ES-2018-0088 under 
the Supporting Documents section.

Evaluation of a Petition to List the San Gabriel Chestnut Snail as an 
Endangered or Threatened Species Under the Act

Species and Range
    San Gabriel chestnut snail (Glyptostoma gabrielense); Los Angeles 
County, California.
Petition History
    On November 13, 2017, we received a petition from the Center for 
Biological Diversity, requesting that the San Gabriel chestnut snail be 
listed as endangered or threatened and that critical habitat be 
designated for this species under the Act. The petition clearly 
identified itself as such and included the requisite identification 
information for the petitioner, required at 50 CFR 424.14(c). This 
finding addresses the petition.
Finding
    Based on our review of the petition and sources cited in the 
petition, we find that the petition does not present substantial 
scientific or commercial information indicating the petitioned

[[Page 17771]]

action may be warranted for the San Gabriel chestnut snail. Because the 
petition does not present substantial information indicating that 
listing the San Gabriel chestnut snail may be warranted, we are not 
initiating a status review of this species in response to this 
petition. However, we ask that the public submit to us any new 
information that becomes available concerning the status of, or threats 
to, this species or its habitat at any time (see Not-substantial 
petition findings under ADDRESSES, above).
    The basis for our finding on this petition, and other information 
regarding our review of this petition, can be found as an appendix at 
http://www.regulations.gov under Docket No. FWS-R8-ES-2018-0089 under 
the Supporting Documents section.

Conclusion

    On the basis of our evaluation of the information presented in the 
petitions under section 4(b)(3)(A) of the Act, we have determined that 
the petitions summarized above for the Arizona eryngo and giraffe 
present substantial scientific or commercial information indicating 
that the petitioned actions may be warranted. We are, therefore, 
initiating status reviews to determine whether the actions are 
warranted under the Act. At the conclusion of the status reviews, we 
will issue findings, in accordance with section 4(b)(3)(B) of the Act, 
as to whether the petitioned actions are not warranted, warranted, or 
warranted but precluded by pending proposals to determine whether any 
species is an endangered species or a threatened species.
    In addition, we have determined that the petitions summarized above 
for Refugio manzanita and San Gabriel chestnut snail do not present 
substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the 
requested actions may be warranted. Therefore, we are not initiating 
status reviews for these species.

Authors

    The primary authors of this document are staff members of the 
Ecological Services Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Authority

    The authority for these actions is the Endangered Species Act of 
1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.).

    Dated: April 15, 2019.
Margaret E. Everson,
Principal Deputy Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Exercising 
the Authority of the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
[FR Doc. 2019-08449 Filed 4-25-19; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4333-15-P