General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds, 61288-61307 [2018-25634]

Download as PDF 61288 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules MS: BPHC, 5275 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041–3803. We request that you send comments only by the methods described above. We will post all comments on http:// www.regulations.gov. This generally means that we will post any personal information you provide us (see Public Comments, below, for more information). DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 10 [Docket No. FWS–HQ–MB–2018–0047; FXMB 12320900000//189//FF09M29000] RIN 1018–BC67 General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. AGENCY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to revise the List of Migratory Birds protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) by both adding and removing species. Reasons for the changes to the list include adding species based on new taxonomy and new evidence of natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories, removing species no longer known to occur within the United States or U.S. territories, and changing names to conform to accepted use. The net increase of 59 species (66 added and 7 removed) would bring the total number of species protected by the MBTA to 1,085. We regulate the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for public notification and regulatory purposes. SUMMARY: We will accept comments received or postmarked on or before January 28, 2019. Comments submitted electronically using the Federal eRulemaking Portal (see ADDRESSES, below) must be received by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on the closing date. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by one of the following methods: (1) Electronically: Go to the Federal eRulemaking Portal: http:// www.regulations.gov. In the Search box, enter FWS–HQ–MB–2018–0047, which is the docket number for this rulemaking. Then, click on the Search button. On the resulting page, in the Search panel on the left side of the screen, under the Document Type heading, click on the Proposed Rule box to locate this document. You may submit a comment by clicking on ‘‘Comment Now!’’ (2) By hard copy: Submit by U.S. mail or hand-delivery to: Public Comments Processing, Attn: FWS–HQ–MB–2018– 0047, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, DATES: VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 Eric L. Kershner, Chief of the Branch of Conservation, Permits, and Regulations; Division of Migratory Bird Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; MS: MB; 5275 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041–3803; (703) 358–2376. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: What statutory authority does the service have for this rulemaking? We have statutory authority and responsibility for enforcing the MBTA (16 U.S.C. 703–712), the Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 742l), and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a–j). The MBTA implements Conventions between the United States and four neighboring countries for the protection of migratory birds, as follows: (1) Canada: Convention between the United States and Great Britain [on behalf of Canada] for the Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 1916, 39 Stat. 1702 (T.S. No. 628), as amended by Protocol between the Government of the United States and the Government of Canada Amending the 1916 Convention between the United Kingdom and the United States of America for the Protection of Migratory Birds, Sen. Treaty Doc. 104–28 (December 14, 1995); (2) Mexico: Convention between the United States and Mexico for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, 50 Stat. 1311 (T.S. No. 912), as amended by Protocol with Mexico amending Convention for Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, Sen. Treaty Doc. 105–26 (May 5, 1997); (3) Japan: Convention between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 4, 1972, 25 U.S.T. 3329 (T.I.A.S. No. 7990); and (4) Russia: Convention between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning the Conservation of Migratory Birds and Their Environment (Russia), November 19, 1976, 29 U.S.T. 4647 (T.I.A.S. No. 9073). PO 00000 Frm 00002 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 What is the purpose of this rulemaking? Our purpose is to inform the public of the species protected by the MBTA and its implementing regulations. These regulations are found in Title 50, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), parts 10, 20, and 21. We regulate the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for notifying the public of regulatory protections. Why is the amendment of the list of migratory birds necessary? The amendments we are proposing are needed to: (1) Add 17 species that qualify for protection under the MBTA; (2) Correct the spelling of 3 species names on the alphabetized list; (3) Correct the spelling of 3 species names on the taxonomic list; (4) Add 22 species based on new distributional records documenting their natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories since 2010; (5) Add one species moved from a family that was not protected to a family now protected under the MBTA as a result of taxonomic changes; (6) Add 26 species newly recognized as a result of recent taxonomic changes; (7) Remove 7 species not known to occur within the boundaries of the United States or U.S. territories as a result of recent taxonomic changes; (8) Change the common (English) names of 40 species to conform to accepted use; and (9) Change the scientific names of 114 species to conform to accepted use. The List of Migratory Birds (50 CFR 10.13) was last revised on November 1, 2013 (78 FR 65844). The amendments proposed in this rule were necessitated by eight published supplements to the 7th (1998) edition of the American Ornithologists’ Union (AOU, now recognized as American Ornithological Society (AOS)) Check-list of North American Birds (AOU 2011, AOU 2012, AOU 2013, AOU 2014, AOU 2015, AOU 2016, AOS 2017, and AOS 2018) and the 2017 publication of the Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (Clements et al. 2017). What scientific authorities are used to amend the list of migratory birds? Although bird names (common and scientific) are relatively stable, staying current with standardized use is necessary to avoid confusion in communications. In making our determinations, we primarily relied on E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules the AOS’s Checklist of North American birds (AOU 1998), as amended annually (AOU 1999 through 2016, AOS 2017, AOS 2018), on matters of taxonomy, nomenclature, and the sequence of species and other higher taxonomic categories (Orders, Families, Subfamilies) for species that occur in North America. The AOS Checklist contains all bird species that have occurred in North America from the Arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and the Hawaiian Islands, and includes distributional information for each species, which specifies whether the species is known to occur in the United States. For the species that occur outside the geographic area covered by the AOS Checklist, we relied on Clements et al. (2017) and peerreviewed literature. Although we primarily rely on the above sources, when informed taxonomic opinion is inconsistent or controversial, we evaluate available published and unpublished information and come to our own conclusion regarding the validity of taxa. What criteria are used to identify individual species protected by the MBTA? A species qualifies for protection under the MBTA by meeting one or more of the following criteria: (1) It occurs in the United States or U.S. territories as the result of natural biological or ecological processes and is currently, or was previously listed as, a species or part of a family protected by one of the four international treaties or their amendments. Any species that occurs in the United States or U.S. territories solely as a result of intentional or unintentional humanassisted introduction does not qualify for the MBTA list, regardless of whether the family the species belongs to is listed in any of the treaties, unless: • It was native to the United States or its territories and extant in 1918; • It was extirpated after 1918 throughout its range in the United States and its territories; and • After such extirpation, it was reintroduced in the United States or its territories as part of a program carried out by a Federal agency. (2) Revised taxonomy results in it being newly split from a species that was previously on the list, and the new species occurs in the United States or U.S. territories as the result of natural biological or ecological processes. If a newly recognized native species is considered extinct (following the classification of the American Ornithological Society (AOS) or, for species not covered by the AOS, the VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 Clements checklist or peer-reviewed literature), that species will still be included if either of the following criteria apply: • The species resembles extant species included in the list that may be affected by trade if the species is not included; or • Not including the species may create difficulties implementing the MBTA and its underlying Conventions. (3) New evidence exists for its natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories resulting from new or natural distributional changes and the species occurs in a protected family. Records must be documented, accepted, and published by the AOS committee. For the U.S. Pacific territories that fall outside the geographic scope of the AOS and for which there is no identified ornithological authority, new evidence of a species’ natural occurrence will be based on the Clements checklist and then published peer-reviewed literature, in that order. In accordance with the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act of 2004 (MBTRA) (Pub. L. 108–447, 118 Stat. 2809, 3071– 72), we only include migratory bird species that are native to the United States or U.S. territories. A native migratory bird species is one that is present as a result of natural biological or ecological processes. The list at 50 CFR 10.13 does not include nonnative species that occur in the United States or U.S. territories solely as a result of intentional or unintentional humanassisted introduction(s). Elsewhere in today’s Federal Register, we publish a notice of availability of the draft revised list of nonnative bird species that are not protected under the MBTA. How would the proposed changes affect the list of migratory birds? Several taxonomic changes were made at the Order and Family level by the AOS since our 2013 publication of the list (78 FR 65844; November 1, 2013). These changes affect the inclusion and taxonomic order of species on this list. Specifically, the Order Cathartiformes (New World vultures) was split from the Accipitriformes (diurnal birds of prey). Cathartiformes now includes the Family Cathartidae (vultures and California condor). At the Family level, the Oceanitidae (southern storm-petrels) was split from the Hydrobatidae (northern storm-petrels), the Tityridae (becards and tityras) was split from the Tyrannidae (tyrant flycatchers), the Passerellidae (towhees, sparrows, and juncos) was split from the Emberizidae (buntings), the Megaluridae (Locustella warblers) was renamed to Locustellidae. PO 00000 Frm 00003 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 61289 The Ptilogonatidae (silky-flycatchers) was renamed to the Ptiliogonatidae. The Nesospingidae (Puerto Rican tanager) and the Spindalidae (Spindalis genus) were split from the Thraupidae (tanagers). The yellow-breasted chat was split from the Parulidae (wood-warblers) and placed into Icteriidae (chats). Within the Scolopacidae (sandpipers, phalaropes, and allies), new Subfamilies were created: The curlews were moved to Numeniinae; the godwits to Limosinae; and small sandpipers to Arenariinae and larger sandpipers to Tringinae, including phalaropes whose previous Subfamily Phalaropodinae was removed. Within the Accipitridae (hawks, eagles, and kites), new Subfamilies were created: The whitetailed kite was move to Elaninae, hookbilled and swallow-tailed kite were moved to Gypaetinae, and all other members of the family were moved to Accipitrinae. Within the Icteridae (blackbirds), new Subfamilies were created: Yellow-headed blackbird was moved to Xanthocephalinae; bobolink was moved to Dolichonychinae; meadowlarks were moved to Sturnellinae; orioles were moved to Icterinae; and blackbirds, cowbirds, and grackles were moved to Agelaiinae. In the Falconidae (caracaras and falcons), collared forest-falcon was moved into the new Subfamily Herpetotherinae, and the Subfamily Caracarinae was removed, with crested caracara moved to the Subfamily Falconinae. In the Fringillidae (finches and allies), the Hawaiian fringillids were moved from the Subfamily Drepanidinae to Carduelinae. The Old World flycatchers in the Turdidae (thrushes) were moved to the Muscicapidae (Old World flycatchers). Bananaquit was moved from the Coerebidae (a family not protected by MBTA) to the Thraupidae (tanagers and allies), which is a family protected by the MBTA. All other tanagers were also moved from the Emberizidae (sparrows) to the Thraupidae. Within Thraupidae, the seedeaters were moved into the Subfamily Sporophilinae, and bananaquit, grassquits, and bullfinches were moved into the Subfamily Coerebinae. All species previously receiving protection under the MBTA that have been moved to newly created Families continue to be protected under the MBTA. The proposed amendments (66 additions, 7 removals, and 154 name changes) would affect a total of 204 species and would result in a net addition of 59 species to the List of Migratory Birds, increasing the number of species on the list from 1,026 to E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 61290 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules 1,085. Of the 66 species that we would add to the list, 26 were previously covered under the MBTA as members of the same species (conspecific) of listed species. These proposed amendments can be logically arranged in the following nine categories: (1) Add 17 species that qualify for protection by the MBTA but have not been added previously. The addition of these species is the result of either accepting AOS taxonomic updates that were previously excluded or determinations of documented natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories. The species and relevant publication(s) are: Pink-footed Goose, Anser brachyrhynchus (AOU 1983); Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii (AOU 2003); European Turtle-Dove, Streptopelia turtur (AOU 2007); Long-tailed Koel, Urodynamis taitensis (Wiles 2005); White-tailed Nightjar, Hydropsalis cayennensis (AOU 1983); Vervain Hummingbird, Mellisuga minima (AOU 1983); Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus (Enbring and Owen 1981); Common Redshank, Tringa totanus (Wiles 2005); Nazca Booby, Sula granti (AOU 2000); Abbott’s Booby, Papasula abbotti (Pratt et al. 2009); Rufous Night-Heron, Nycticorax caledonicus (Glass et al. 1990); Gray-faced Buzzard, Butastur indicus (Stinson et al. 1997); Eastern Marsh-Harrier, Circus spilonotus (Wiles et al. 2000); Amur Falcon, Falco amurensis (Stinson et al. 1991); Eurasian Jackdaw, Corvus monedula (AOU 1998); Redwing, Turdus iliacus (AOU 1983); Common Kingfisher, Alcedo atthis (Wiles et al. 1993). (2) Correct the spelling of three common or scientific names on the alphabetized list: Eared Quetzel, Euptilotis neoxenus, becomes Eared Quetzal Red-footed falcon, Flaco vespertinus, becomes Falco vespertinus Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophalus becomes Legatus leucophaius (3) Correct the spelling of three common or scientific names on the taxonomic list: Eared Quetzel, Euptilotis neoxenus, becomes Eared Quetzal White-crested Eleania, Elaenia albiceps becomes White-crested Elaenia Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophalus becomes Legatus leucophaius (4) Add 22 species based on review and acceptance by the AOS (since 2010) or by other appropriate ornithological authorities of new distributional records VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 documenting their occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories. These species belong to families covered by at least one of the four international conventions, and all are considered to be of accidental or casual occurrence. For each species, we list the State in which it has been recorded plus the relevant publication: Common Scoter, Melanitta nigra—California and Oregon (AOS 2017); Amethyst-throated Hummingbird, Lampornis amethystinus—Texas (AOS 2018); Rufous-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides axillaris—New Mexico (AOU 2016); Solitary Snipe, Gallinago solitaria—Alaska (AOU 2011); Chatham Albatross, Thalassarche eremita— California (AOS 2017); Providence Petrel, Pterodroma solandri— Alaska (AOU 2013); Fea’s Petrel, Pterodroma feae—North Carolina, Georgia, Virginia (AOU 2013); Zino’s Petrel, Pterodroma madeira—North Carolina, (AOU 2015); White-chinned Petrel, Procellaria aequinoctialis—Texas, California, Maine (AOU 2011); Bryan’s Shearwater, Puffinus bryani—Hawaii (AOU 2012); Bare-throated Tiger-Heron, Tigrisoma mexicanum—Texas (AOU 2011); Double-toothed Kite, Harpagus bidentatus— Texas (AOU 2013); Amazon Kingfisher, Chloroceryle amazona— Texas (AOU 2011); Gray-collared Becard, Pachyramphus major—Arizona (AOU 2011); Pine Flycatcher, Empidonax affinis—Arizona (AOS 2018); Cuban Vireo, Vireo gundlachii—Florida (AOS 2018); Common Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita— Alaska (AOU 2014); Blyth’s Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus dumetorum—Alaska (AOU 2017); Common Redstart, Phoenicurus phoenicurus—Alaska (AOU 2015); Brown-backed Solitaire, Myadestes occidentalis—Arizona (AOU 2011); Asian Rosy-Finch, Leucosticte arctoa— Alaska (AOU 2013); Red-legged Honeycreeper, Cyanerpes cyaneus—Texas (AOS 2017). (5) Add one species because of recent taxonomic changes transferring a species in a Family formerly not protected by the MBTA (Coerebidae) into a Family protected under the MBTA (Thraupidae). We reference the AOU publication supporting the change: Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola, (AOU 2015). (6) Add 26 species because of recent taxonomic changes in which taxa formerly treated as conspecific have been determined to be distinct species. Given that each of these species was formerly treated as conspecific with a listed species, these additions would not change the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which PO 00000 Frm 00004 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 they are known. In each case, we reference the AOS or relevant publication supporting the change: Ridgway’s Rail, Rallus obsoletus—formerly considered conspecific with Clapper Rail, Rallus longirostris (AOU 2014); Common Gallinule, Gallinula galeata— formerly considered conspecific with Common Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus (AOU 2011); Scripps’s Murrelet, Synthliboramphus scrippsi—formerly considered conspecific with Xantus’s Murrelet, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (AOU 2012); Salvin’s Albatross, Thalassarche salvini— formerly considered conspecific with Shy Albatross, Thalassarche cauta (AOU 2014); Trindade Petrel, Pterodroma arminjoniana —formerly considered conspecific with Herald Petrel, Pterodroma heraldica (AOU 2015); Newell’s Shearwater, Puffinus newelli— formerly considered conspecific with Townsend’s Shearwater, Puffinus auricularis (AOU 2015); Barolo Shearwater, Puffinus baroli—formerly considered conspecific with Little Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis (AOU 2013); Townsend’s Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma socorroensis—formerly considered conspecific with Leach’s Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa (AOU 2016); Northern Boobook, Ninox japonica— formerly considered conspecific with Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata (AOU 2014); Pacific Kingfisher, Todiramphus sacer— formerly considered conspecific with Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements et al. 2015); Mariana Kingfisher, Todiramphus albicilla— formerly considered conspecific with Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements et al. 2015); Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma woodhouseii—formerly considered conspecific with Western Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma californica (AOU 2016); Kamchatka Leaf Warbler, Phylloscopus examinandus—formerly considered conspecific with Arctic Warbler, Phylloscopus borealis (AOU 2014); Saipan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus hiwae— formerly considered conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius (Clements et al. 2013); Aguiguan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus nijoi—formerly considered conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius (Clements et al. 2013); Pagan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus yamashinae—formerly considered conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius (Clements et al. 2013); Laysan Honeycreeper, Himatione fraithii— formerly considered conspecific with Apapane, Himatione sanguinea (AOU 2015) Kauai Nukupu1u, Hemignathus hanapepe— formerly considered conspecific with Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus (AOU 2015); Maui Nukupu1u, Hemignathus affins— formerly considered conspecific with E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus (AOU 2015); Kauai 1Akialoa, Akialoa stejnegeri—formerly considered conspecific with Greater Akialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (AOU 2015); Maui Nui 1Akialoa, Akialoa lanaiensis— formerly considered conspecific with Greater Akialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (AOU 2015); O1ahu 1Akepa, Loxops wolstenholmei— formerly considered conspecific with Akepa, Loxops coccineus (AOU 2015); Maui 1Akepa, Loxops ochraceus—formerly considered conspecific with Akepa, Loxops coccineus (AOU 2015); Cassia Crossbill, Loxia sinesciuris—formerly considered conspecific with Red Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra (AOS 2017); Sagebrush Sparrow, Artemisiospiza nevadensis—formerly considered conspecific with Sage Sparrow, Amphispiza belli (AOU 2013); Morelet’s Seedeater, Sporophila morelleti— formerly considered conspecific with White-collared Seedeater, Sporophila torqueola (AOS 2018). (7) Remove seven species based on revised taxonomic treatments, either because a species is taxonomically merged with another species, either on or off the list; a species previously on the list is taxonomically split into multiple species and the new species is not known to occur within the United States or U.S. territories; or the species is considered extinct (following the classification of the AOS or, for species not covered by the AOS, the Clements checklist or peer-reviewed literature) unless any of the following criteria apply: It is protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), or the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES; 27 U.S.T. 1087); it resembles extant species included in the list that may be affected by its removal; or its removal would create difficulties implementing the MBTA and its underlying Conventions. In each case, we reference the publication supporting these changes: Thayer’s Gull, Larus thayeri, now a subspecies of Iceland Gull, Larus glaucoides (AOS 2017); Townsend’s Shearwater, Puffinus auricularis (AOU 2015); Little Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis (AOU 2015); Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata (AOU 2014); Caribbean Coot, Fulica caribaea (AOU 2016); Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements et al. 2015); White-collared Seedeater, Sporophila torqueola (AOS 2018). (8) Revise the common (English) names of 40 species to conform to the most recent nomenclatural treatment as described in AOU publications 2011, Publication source and year Previous common name AOU 2004 ............... Canada Goose (including Branta hutchinsii), Branta canadensis. Green Violetear, Colibri thalassinus ...................................... Magnificent hummingbird, Eugenes fulgens ......................... Xantus’s Murrelet, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus ................ Shy Albatross, Thalassarche cauta ....................................... Herald Petrel, Pterodroma arminjoniana ............................... Pacific Reef-Egret, Egretta sacra .......................................... Gray Frog-Hawk, Accipiter soloensis .................................... Common Black-Hawk, Buteogallus anthracinus ................... Gray Jay, Perisoreus canadensis .......................................... Western Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma californica ......................... Eurasian Sky Lark, Alauda arvensis ..................................... Pallas’s Leaf-Warbler, Phylloscopus proregulus ................... Kamao, Myadestes myadestinus ........................................... Olomao, Myadestes lanaiensis .............................................. Omao, Myadestes obscurus .................................................. Le Conte’s Thrasher, Toxostoma lecontei ............................ Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus ............................................. Poo-uli, Melamprosops phaeosoma ...................................... Akikiki, Oreomystis bairdi ...................................................... Oahu Alauahio, Paroreomyza maculata ................................ Kakawahie, Paroreomyza flammea ....................................... Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana ................................. Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei .................................................... Apapane, Himatione sanguinea ............................................ Iiwi, Drepanis coccinea .......................................................... Ou, Psittirostra psittacea ....................................................... Anianiau, Magumma parva .................................................... Akekee, Loxops caeruleirostris .............................................. Akepa, Loxops coccineus ...................................................... Le Conte’s Sparrow, Ammodramus leconteii ........................ Emperor Goose, Chen canagica ........................................... Snow Goose, Chen caerulescens ......................................... AOU 2016 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOU 2012 ............... AOU 2014 ............... AOU 2015 ............... Clements et al. 2000 AOU 2012 ............... AOU 2014 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOU 2016 ............... AOU 2016 ............... AOU 2014 ............... — ............................ — ............................ — ............................ AOS 2017 ............... AOU 2015 ............... — ............................ — ............................ — ............................ — ............................ — ............................ — ............................ — ............................ — ............................ — ............................ — ............................ — ............................ AOU 2015 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOS 2017 ............... VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 PO 00000 Frm 00005 Fmt 4701 61291 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, AOS 2017, AOS 2018, and Clements et al. (2017). Hawaiian species names are modified to official Hawaiian spelling, following the Pukui-Elbert Hawaiian Dictionary, adding the diacritical marks to the common names where applicable. The Government Publishing Office Style Manual requires the words Hawaii and Kauai to be spelled without the diacritical mark. These revisions do not change the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, the update is described in the table, below. (9) Revise the scientific names of 114 species to conform to the most recent nomenclatural treatment as described in AOU publications 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, AOS 2017, AOS 2018, and Clements et al. (2017). These revisions do not change the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, the update is described in the table, below. Table of Proposed Name Changes, as described in categories 8 and 9, above. Table is organized following AOS (2017) taxonomic order. The relevant AOS publication is provided. Hawaiian common name changes are indicated with a (—). Current common name Sfmt 4702 Canada Goose, Branta canadensis. Mexican Violetear, Colibri thalassinus. Rivoli’s Hummingbird, Eugenes fulgens. Guadalupe Murrelet, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus. White-capped Albatross, Thalassarche cauta. Trindade Petrel, Pterodroma arminjoniana. Pacific Reef-Heron, Egretta sacra. Chinese Sparrowhawk, Accipiter soloensis. Common Black Hawk, Buteogallus anthracinus. Canada Jay, Perisoreus canadensis. California Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma californica. Eurasian Skylark, Alauda arvensis. Pallas’s Leaf Warbler, Phylloscopus proregulus. Ka˜ma‘o, Myadestes myadestinus. Oloma‘o, Myadestes lanaiensis. ˜ ma’o, Myadestes obscurus. ‘O LeConte’s Thrasher, Toxostoma lecontei. O‘ahu Nukupu‘u, Hemignathus lucidus. Po‘ouli, Melamprosops phaeosoma. ‘Akikiki, Oreomystis bairdi. O‘ahu ‘Alauahio, Paroreomyza maculata. Ka˜ka˜wahie, Paroreomyza flammea. Maui ‘Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana. ‘Akohekohe, Palmeria dolei. ‘Apapane, Himatione sanguinea. ‘I‘iwi, Drepanis coccinea. ˜ ‘u˜, Psittirostra psittacea. ‘O ‘Anianiau, Magumma parva. ‘Akeke‘e, Loxops caeruleirostris. Hawaii ‘Akepa, Loxops coccineus. LeConte’s Sparrow, Ammodramus leconteii. Emperor Goose, Anser canagicus. Snow Goose, Anser caerulescens. E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 61292 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules Publication source and year Previous common name AOS 2017 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOS 2017 ............... Clements et al. 2017 Clements et al. 2010 AOU 2012 ............... AOU 2012 ............... AOU 2012 ............... AOU 2012 ............... AOU 2012 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOU 2012 ............... AOU 2014 ............... AOU 2016 ............... AOU 2012 ............... AOU 2016 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2013 ............... AOU 2013 ............... AOU 2013 ............... AOU 2013 ............... AOU 2013 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOU 2003 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOU 2016 ............... AOU 2016 ............... AOU 2016 ............... AOU 2016 ............... AOU 2016 ............... AOU 2016 ............... AOU 2016 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOU 2015 ............... AOU 2015 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOU 2013 ............... AOS 2017 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2012 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOS 2018 ............... Clements et al. 2015 Clements et al. 2015 AOU 2013 ............... AOU 2012 ............... AOU 2012 ............... AOU 2012 ............... AOU 2015 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOS 2018 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... Ross’s Goose, Chen rossii .................................................... Baikal Teal, Anas formosa .................................................... Garganey, Anas querquedula ................................................ Blue-winged Teal, Anas discors ............................................ Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera ......................................... Northern Shoveler, Anas clypeata ......................................... Gadwall, Anas strepera ......................................................... Falcated Duck, Anas falcata .................................................. Eurasian Wigeon, Anas penelope ......................................... American Wigeon, Anas americana ...................................... White-throated Ground-Dove, Gallicolumba xanthonura ...... Hodgson’s Hawk-Cuckoo, Cuculus fugax ............................. Chuck-will’s-widow, Caprimulgus carolinensis ...................... Buff-collared Nightjar, Caprimulgus ridgwayi ........................ Eastern Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus ..................... Mexican Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus arizonae .................... Puerto Rican Nightjar, Caprimulgus noctitherus ................... Gray Nightjar, Caprimulgus indicus ....................................... Calliope Hummingbird, Stellula calliope ................................ Clapper Rail, Rallus longirostris ............................................ Yellow-breasted Crake, Porzana flaviventer ......................... Purple Gallinule, Porphyrio martinica .................................... Sandhill Crane, Grus canadensis .......................................... Snowy Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus ............................... Surfbird, Aphriza virgata ........................................................ Ruff, Philomachus pugnax ..................................................... Broad-billed Sandpiper, Limicola falcinellus .......................... Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Eurynorhynchus pygmeus ............. Buff-breasted Sandpiper, Tryngites subruficollis ................... Blue-gray Noddy, Procelsterna cerulea ................................. Whiskered Tern, Chlidonias hybridus .................................... Tahiti Petrel, Pterodroma rostrata ......................................... Wedge-tailed Shearwater, Puffinus pacificus ........................ Buller’s Shearwater, Puffinus bulleri ...................................... Short-tailed Shearwater, Puffinus tenuirostris ....................... Sooty Shearwater, Puffinus griseus ...................................... Great Shearwater, Puffinus gravis ........................................ Pink-footed Shearwater, Puffinus creatopus ......................... Flesh-footed Shearwater, Puffinus carneipes ....................... Intermediate Egret, Mesophoyx intermedia ........................... Northern Harrier, Circus cyaneus .......................................... Roadside Hawk, Buteo magnirostris ..................................... White-tailed Hawk, Buteo albicaudatus ................................. Downy Woodpecker, Picoides pubescens ............................ Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Picoides nuttallii ................................. Ladder-backed Woodpecker, Picoides scalaris .................... Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Picoides borealis ..................... Hairy Woodpecker, Picoides villosus .................................... White-headed Woodpecker, Picoides albolarvatus ............... Arizona Woodpecker, Picoides arizonae ............................... Flammulated Owl, Otus flammeolus ..................................... Northern Shrike, Lanius excubitor ......................................... Mexican Jay, Aphelocoma ultramarina ................................. Sinaloa Wren, Thryothorus sinaloa ....................................... Siberian Blue Robin, Luscinia cyane ..................................... Rufous-tailed Robin, Luscinia sibilans ................................... Bluethroat, Luscinia svecica .................................................. Siberian Rubythroat, Luscinia calliope .................................. Chestnut-cheeked Starling, Sturnus phillippensis ................. White-cheeked Starling, Sturnus cineraceus ........................ Gray Silky-flycatcher, Ptilogonys cinereus ............................ House Finch, Carpodacus mexicanus ................................... Purple Finch, Carpodacus purpureus .................................... Cassin’s Finch, Carpodacus cassinii ..................................... American Tree Sparrow, Spizella arborea ............................ Baird’s Sparrow, Ammodramus bairdii .................................. Henslow’s Sparrow, Ammodramus henslowii ....................... LeConte’s Sparrow, Ammodramus leconteii ......................... Seaside Sparrow, Ammodramus maritima ............................ Nelson’s Sparrow, Ammodramus nelsoni ............................. Saltmarsh Sparrow, Ammodramus caudacuta ...................... MacGillivray’s Warbler, Oporornis tolmiei ............................. Mourning Warbler, Oporornis philadelphia ............................ VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 PO 00000 Frm 00006 Fmt 4701 Current common name Sfmt 4702 Ross’s Goose, Anser rossii. Baikal Teal, Sibirionetta formosa. Garganey, Spatula querquedula. Blue-winged Teal, Spatula discors. Cinnamon Teal, Spatula cyanoptera. Northern Shoveler, Spatula clypeata. Gadwall, Mareca strepera. Falcated Duck, Mareca falcata. Eurasian Wigeon, Mareca penelope. American Wigeon, Mareca americana. White-throated Ground-Dove, Alopecoenas xanthonura. Hodgson’s Hawk-Cuckoo, Hierococcyx nisicolor. Chuck-will’s-widow, Antrostomus carolinensis. Buff-collared Nightjar, Antrostomus ridgwayi. Eastern Whip-poor-will, Antrostomus vociferus. Mexican Whip-poor-will, Antrostomus arizonae. Puerto Rican Nightjar, Antrostomus noctitherus. Gray Nightjar, Caprimulgus jotaka. Calliope Hummingbird, Selasphorus calliope. Clapper Rail, Rallus crepitans. Yellow-breasted Crake, Hapalocrex flaviventer. Purple Gallinule, Porphyrio martinicus. Sandhill Crane, Antigone canadensis. Snowy Plover, Charadrius nivosus. Surfbird, Calidris virgata. Ruff, Calidris pugnax. Broad-billed Sandpiper, Calidris falcinellus. Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Calidris pygmea. Buff-breasted Sandpiper, Calidris subruficollis. Blue-gray Noddy, Anous ceruleus. Whiskered Tern, Chlidonias hybrida. Tahiti Petrel, Pseudobulweria rostrata. Wedge-tailed Shearwater, Ardenna pacifica. Buller’s Shearwater, Ardenna bulleri. Short-tailed Shearwater, Ardenna tenuirostris. Sooty Shearwater, Ardenna grisea. Great Shearwater, Ardenna gravis. Pink-footed Shearwater, Ardenna creatopus. Flesh-footed Shearwater, Ardenna carneipes. Intermediate Egret, Ardea intermedia. Northern Harrier, Circus hudsonius. Roadside Hawk, Rupornis magnirostris. White-tailed Hawk, Geranoaetus albicaudatus. Downy Woodpecker, Dryobates pubescens. Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Dryobates nuttallii. Ladder-backed Woodpecker, Dryobates scalaris. Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Dryobates borealis. Hairy Woodpecker, Dryobates villosus. White-headed Woodpecker, Dryobates albolarvatus. Arizona Woodpecker, Dryobates arizonae. Flammulated Owl, Psiloscops flammeolus. Northern Shrike, Lanius borealis. Mexican Jay, Aphelocoma wollweberi. Sinaloa Wren, Thryophilus sinaloa. Siberian Blue Robin, Larvivora cyane. Rufous-tailed Robin, Larvivora sibilans. Bluethroat, Cyanecula svecica. Siberian Rubythroat, Calliope calliope. Chestnut-cheeked Starling, Agropsar philippensis. White-cheeked Starling, Spodiopsar cineraceus. Gray Silky-flycatcher, Ptiliogonys cinereus. House Finch, Haemorhous mexicanus. Purple Finch, Haemorhous purpureus. Cassin’s Finch, Haemorhous cassinii. American Tree Sparrow, Spizelloides arborea. Baird’s Sparrow, Centronyx bairdii. Henslow’s Sparrow, Centronyx henslowii. LeConte’s Sparrow, Ammospiza leconteii. Seaside Sparrow, Ammospiza maritima. Nelson’s Sparrow, Ammospiza nelsoni. Saltmarsh Sparrow, Ammospiza caudacuta. MacGillivray’s Warbler, Geothlypis tolmiei. Mourning Warbler, Geothlypis philadelphia. E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules 61293 Publication source and year Previous common name AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... AOU 2011 ............... Clements et al. 2017 Clements et al. 2006 Clements et al. 2006, 2017. AOU 2015 ............... AOU 2015 ............... AOU 2015 ............... AOU 2015 ............... AOU 2015 ............... AOU 2012, 2013 ..... Kentucky Warbler, Oporornis formosus ................................ Elfin-woods Warbler, Dendroica angelae .............................. Hooded Warbler, Wilsonia citrina .......................................... Kirtland’s Warbler, Dendroica kirtlandii ................................. Cape May Warbler, Dendroica tigrina ................................... Cerulean Warbler, Dendroica cerulea ................................... Northern Parula, Parula americana ....................................... Tropical Parula, Parula pitiayumi ........................................... Magnolia Warbler, Dendroica magnolia ................................ Bay-breasted Warbler, Dendroica castanea ......................... Blackburnian Warbler, Dendroica fusca ................................ Yellow Warbler, Dendroica petechia ..................................... Chestnut-sided Warbler, Dendroica pensylvanica ................ Blackpoll Warbler, Dendroica striata ..................................... Black-throated Blue Warbler, Dendroica caerulescens ......... Palm Warbler, Dendroica palmarum ..................................... Pine Warbler, Dendroica pinus .............................................. Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata ....................... Yellow-throated Warbler, Dendroica dominica ...................... Prairie Warbler, Dendroica discolor ....................................... Adelaide’s Warbler, Dendroica adelaidae ............................. Grace’s Warbler, Dendroica graciae ..................................... Black-throated Gray Warbler, Dendroica nigrescens ............ Townsend’s Warbler, Dendroica townsendi .......................... Hermit Warbler, Dendroica occidentalis ................................ Golden-cheeked Warbler, Dendroica chrysoparia ................ Black-throated Green Warbler, Dendroica virens ................. Fan-tailed Warbler, Euthlypis lachrymosa ............................. Canada Warbler, Wilsonia canadensis ................................. Wilson’s Warbler, Wilsonia pusilla ......................................... Friendly Ground-Dove, Gallicolumba stairi ............................ Micronesian Kingfisher, Todirhamphus cinnamominus ......... Nightingale Reed-Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinia ................ Kentucky Warbler, Geothlypis formosa. Elfin-woods Warbler, Setophaga angelae. Hooded Warbler, Setophaga citrina. Kirtland’s Warbler, Setophaga kirtlandii. Cape May Warbler, Setophaga tigrina. Cerulean Warbler, Setophaga cerulea. Northern Parula, Setophaga americana. Tropical Parula, Setophaga pitiayumi. Magnolia Warbler, Setophaga magnolia. Bay-breasted Warbler, Setophaga castanea. Blackburnian Warbler, Setophaga fusca. Yellow Warbler, Setophaga petechia. Chestnut-sided Warbler, Setophaga pensylvanica. Blackpoll Warbler, Setophaga striata. Black-throated Blue Warbler, Setophaga caerulescens. Palm Warbler, Setophaga palmarum. Pine Warbler, Setophaga pinus. Yellow-rumped Warbler, Setophaga coronata. Yellow-throated Warbler, Setophaga dominica. Prairie Warbler, Setophaga discolor. Adelaide’s Warbler, Setophaga adelaidae. Grace’s Warbler, Setophaga graciae. Black-throated Gray Warbler, Setophaga nigrescens. Townsend’s Warbler, Setophaga townsendi. Hermit Warbler, Setophaga occidentalis. Golden-cheeked Warbler, Setophaga chrysoparia. Black-throated Green Warbler, Setophaga virens. Fan-tailed Warbler, Basileuterus lachrymosus. Canada Warbler, Cardellina canadensis. Wilson’s Warbler, Cardellina pusilla. Shy Ground-Dove, Alopecoenas stairi. Guam Kingfisher, Todiramphus cinnamominus. Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius. Akiapolaau, Hemignathus munroi .......................................... Greater Akialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus .............................. Hawaii Amakihi, Hemignathus virens .................................... Oahu Amakihi, Hemignathus flavus ...................................... Kauai Amakihi, Hemignathus kauaiensis .............................. Sage Sparrow, Amphispiza belli ............................................ ‘Akiapola‘au, Hemignathus wilsoni. O‘ahu ‘Akialoa, Akialoa ellisiana. Hawaii ‘Amakihi, Chlorodrepanis virens. O‘ahu ‘Amakihi, Chlorodrepanis flava. Kauai ‘Amakihi, Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri. Bell’s Sparrow, Artemisiospiza belli. How is the list of migratory birds organized? The species are listed in two formats to suit the needs of different segments of the public: alphabetically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(1) and taxonomically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(2). In the alphabetical listing, species are listed by common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species following the English group name. This format, similar to that used in modern telephone directories, is most useful to members of the lay public. In the taxonomic listing, species are listed in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the English name following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily. This format follows the sequence adopted by the AOS (1998, 2017) and is most useful to ornithologists and other scientists. What species are not protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act? The MBTA does not apply to: VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 Current common name (1) Nonnative species introduced into the United States or U.S. territories by means of intentional or unintentional human assistance that belong to families or groups covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or Russian Conventions. Elsewhere in today’s Federal Register, we publish a notice of availability of the draft revised list of nonnative bird species that are not protected under the MBTA. Note, though, that native species that are introduced into parts of the United States where they are not native are still protected under the MBTA regardless of where they occur in the United States or U.S. territories. (2) Species native or nonnative to the United States or U.S. territories that either belong to families or groups not referred to in the Canada, Mexico, and Russia Conventions or are not included by species name in the Japan Convention. This includes the Tinamidae (tinamous), Megapodiidae (megapodes), Cracidae (chachalacas), Odontophoridae (New World quail), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and PO 00000 Frm 00007 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 turkeys), Pteroclidae (sandgrouse), Heliornithidae (finfoots), Burhinidae (thick-knees), Glareolidae (pratincoles), Todidae (todies), Psittacidae (parrots), Psittaculidae (Old World parrots), Meliphagidae (honeyeaters), Dicruridae (drongos), Monarchidae (monarchs), Pycnonotidae (bulbuls), Scotocercidae (bush warblers and allies), Zosteropidae (white-eyes), Sturnidae (starlings, except as listed in Japanese treaty), Ploceidae (weavers), Estrildidae (estrildid finches), and Passeridae (Old World sparrows, including house or English sparrow), as well as numerous other families not represented in the United States or U.S. territories. Public Comments Any final action resulting from this proposed rule must be based on the best scientific and commercial data available and be as accurate and as effective as possible. We request comments or information from other concerned governmental agencies, the scientific community, industry, or any other E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 61294 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules interested parties concerning this proposed rule. Please include sufficient information with your submission (such as electronic copies of scientific journal articles or other publications, preferably in English) to allow us to verify any scientific or commercial information you include. You may submit your comments and materials concerning this proposed rule by one of the methods listed in ADDRESSES. We request that you send comments only by the methods described in ADDRESSES. If you submit information via http:// www.regulations.gov, your entire submission—including any personal identifying information—will be posted on the website. If your submission is made via a hardcopy that includes personal identifying information, you may request at the top of your document that we withhold this information from public review. However, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. We will post all hardcopy submissions on http://www.regulations.gov. Comments and materials we receive, as well as supporting documentation we used in preparing this proposed rule, will be available for public inspection on http://www.regulations.gov, or by appointment, during normal business hours, at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT). Required Determinations Regulatory Planning and Review Executive Order (E.O.) 12866 provides that the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) in the Office of Management and Budget will review all significant rules. OIRA has determined that this proposed rule is not significant. E.O. 13563 reaffirms the principles of E.O. 12866, while calling for improvements in the nation’s regulatory system to promote predictability, to reduce uncertainty, and to use the best, most innovative, and least burdensome tools for achieving regulatory ends. E.O. 13563 directs agencies to consider regulatory approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of choice for the public where these approaches are relevant, feasible, and consistent with regulatory objectives. E.O. 13563 emphasizes further that regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow for public participation and an open exchange of ideas. We have developed VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 this proposed rule in a manner consistent with these requirements. Executive Order 13771—Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs This proposed rule is not an Executive Order (E.O.) 13771 (82 FR 9339, February 3, 2017) regulatory action because this proposed rule is not significant under E.O. 12866. Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA) of 1996 (5 U.S.C. 804(2)), whenever an agency is required to publish a notice of rulemaking for any proposed or final rule, it must prepare and make available for public comment a regulatory flexibility analysis that describes the effect of the rule on small entities (i.e., small businesses, small organizations, and small government jurisdictions). However, no regulatory flexibility analysis is required if the head of an agency certifies the rule does not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. SBREFA amended the Regulatory Flexibility Act to require Federal agencies to provide the statement of the factual basis for certifying that a rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. We have examined this proposed rule’s potential effects on small entities as required by the Regulatory Flexibility Act, and have determined that, if adopted as proposed, this action would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. This rule is an administrative action to update the list of migratory bird species protected under the Conventions. Consequently, we certify that, if adopted as proposed, this rule would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities; therefore, a regulatory flexibility analysis is not required. This proposed rule is not a major rule under SBREFA (5 U.S.C. 804(2)). It would not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. a. This proposed rule would not have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more. b. This proposed rule would not cause a major increase in costs or prices for consumers, individual industries, Federal, State, or local government agencies, or geographic regions. c. This proposed rule would not have significant adverse effects on PO 00000 Frm 00008 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or the ability of U.S.-based enterprises to compete with foreign-based enterprises. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act In accordance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.), we have determined the following: a. This proposed rule would not ‘‘significantly or uniquely’’ affect small governments. A small government agency plan is not required. This proposed rule is an administrative action to update the list of migratory bird species protected under the Conventions; it would not affect small government activities in any significant way. b. This proposed rule would not produce a Federal mandate of $100 million or greater in any year; i.e., it is not a ‘‘significant regulatory action’’ under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act. Takings In accordance with Executive Order 12630, this proposed rule does not have significant takings implications. This proposed rule does not contain a provision for taking of private property. Therefore, a takings implication assessment is not required. Federalism This proposed rule does not have sufficient Federalism effects to warrant preparation of a federalism summary impact statement under Executive Order 13132. It does not interfere with the States’ ability to manage themselves or their funds. No significant economic impacts are expected to result from the updating of the list of migratory bird species. Civil Justice Reform In accordance with Executive Order 12988, the Office of the Solicitor has determined that this proposed rule does not unduly burden the judicial system and meets the requirements of sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of the Order. Paperwork Reduction Act This proposed rule does not contain information collection requirements, and a submission to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.) is not required. We may not conduct or sponsor and you are not required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Given that the proposed revision of 50 CFR 10.13 is strictly administrative in nature and will have no or minor environmental effects, it is categorically excluded from further NEPA requirements (43 CFR 46.210(i)). Endangered Species Act (ESA) Of the species on the List of Migratory Birds, 84 species, subspecies, or distinct population segments are also listed as endangered or threatened under section 4 of the ESA of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). No legal complications arise from the dual listing as the two lists are developed under separate authorities and for different purposes. Because this proposed rule is strictly administrative in nature, it has no effect on endangered or threatened species. Thus, it does not require consultation under section 7 of the ESA. Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes In accordance with the President’s memorandum of April 29, 1994, ‘‘Government-to-Government Relations with Native American tribal Governments’’ (59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175, and 512 DM 2, we have evaluated potential effects on federally recognized Indian tribes and have determined that there are no potential effects. The proposed revisions to existing regulations in this rule are purely administrative in nature and do not interfere with the tribes’ ability to manage themselves or their funds or to regulate migratory bird activities on tribal lands. Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (Executive Order 13211) On May 18, 2001, the President issued Executive Order 13211 addressing regulations that significantly affect energy supply, distribution, and use. Executive Order 13211 requires agencies to prepare Statements of Energy Effects when undertaking certain actions. Because this proposed rule would only affect the listing of protected species in the United States, it is not a significant regulatory action under Executive Order 12866, and does not significantly affect energy supplies, distribution, or use. Therefore, this action is not a significant energy action and no Statement of Energy Effects is required. Clarity of the Proposed Rule We are required by Executive Orders 12866 and 12988 and by the Presidential Memorandum of June 1, 1998, to write all rules in plain VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 language. This means that each rule we publish must: (1) Be logically organized; (2) Use the active voice to address readers directly; (3) Use clear language rather than jargon; (4) Be divided into short sections and sentences; and (5) Use lists and tables wherever possible. If you feel that we have not met these requirements, send us comments by one of the methods listed in ADDRESSES. To better help us revise the rule, your comments should be as specific as possible. For example, you should tell us the numbers of the sections or paragraphs that are unclearly written, which sections or sentences are too long, the sections where you feel lists or tables would be useful, etc. References Cited A complete list of all references cited is available on http:// www.regulations.gov under Docket No. FWS–HQ–MB–2018–0047, and upon request (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT, above). List of Subjects in Part 10 Exports, Fish, Imports, Law enforcement, Plants, Transportation, Wildlife. Proposed Regulation Promulgation For the reasons discussed in the preamble, we propose to amend title 50, chapter I, subchapter B, part 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as follows: PART 10—GENERAL PROVISIONS 1. The authority citation for part 10 continues to read as follows: ■ Authority: 16 U.S.C. 668a–d, 703–712, 742a–j–l, 1361–1384, 1401–1407, 1531–1543, 3371–3378; 18 U.S.C. 42; 19 U.S.C. 1202. 2. Amend § 10.13 by revising paragraph (c) to read as follows: ■ § 10.13 List of Migratory Birds. * * * * * (c) What species are protected as migratory birds? Species protected as migratory birds are listed in two formats to suit the varying needs of the user: Alphabetically in paragraph (c)(1) of this section and taxonomically in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Taxonomy and nomenclature generally follow the 7th edition of the American Ornithologists’ Union’s (AOU, now recognized as American Ornithological Society (AOS)) Check-list of North American birds (1998, as amended through 2018). For species not treated by the AOS Check-list, we generally PO 00000 Frm 00009 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 61295 follow Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (Clements et al. 2017). (1) Alphabetical listing. Species are listed alphabetically by common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species following the common name. ACCENTOR, Siberian, Prunella montanella ‘AKEKE‘E, Loxops caeruleirostris ‘AKEPA, Hawaii, Loxops coccineus Maui, Loxops ochraceus O‘ahu, Loxops wolstenholmei ‘AKIALOA, Kauai, Akialoa stejnegeri Maui Nui, Akialoa lanaiensis O‘ahu, Akialoa ellisiana ‘AKIAPOLA‘AU, Hemignathus wilsoni ‘AKIKIKI, Oreomystis bairdi ‘AKOHEKOHE, Palmeria dolei ‘ALAUAHIO, Maui, Paroreomyza montana O‘ahu, Paroreomyza maculata ALBATROSS, Black-browed, Thalassarche melanophris Black-footed, Phoebastria nigripes Chatham, Thalassarche eremita Laysan, Phoebastria immutabilis Light-mantled, Phoebetria palpebrata Salvin’s, Thalassarche salvini Short-tailed, Phoebastria albatrus Wandering, Diomedea exulans White-capped, Thalassarche cauta Yellow-nosed, Thalassarche chlororhynchos ‘AMAKIHI, Hawaii, Chlorodrepanis virens Kauai, Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri O‘ahu, Chlorodrepanis flava ANHINGA, Anhinga anhinga ANI, Groove-billed, Crotophaga sulcirostris Smooth-billed, Crotophaga ani ‘ANIANIAU, Magumma parva ‘APAPANE, Himatione sanguinea AUKLET, Cassin’s, Ptychoramphus aleuticus Crested, Aethia cristatella Least, Aethia pusilla Parakeet, Aethia psittacula Rhinoceros, Cerorhinca monocerata Whiskered, Aethia pygmaea AVOCET, American, Recurvirostra americana BANANAQUIT, Coereba flaveola BEAN–GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis Tundra, Anser serrirostris BEARDLESS–TYRANNULET, Northern, Camptostoma imberbe BECARD, Gray-collared, Pachyramphus major Rose-throated, Pachyramphus aglaiae BITTERN, American, Botaurus lentiginosus Black, Ixobrychus flavicollis Least, Ixobrychus exilis Schrenck’s, Ixobrychus eurhythmus Yellow, Ixobrychus sinensis BLACKBIRD, Brewer’s, Euphagus cyanocephalus Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus Rusty, Euphagus carolinus Tawny-shouldered, Agelaius humeralis Tricolored, Agelaius tricolor Yellow-headed, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus Yellow-shouldered, Agelaius xanthomus BLUEBIRD, Eastern, Sialia sialis Mountain, Sialia currucoides Western, Sialia mexicana BLUETAIL, Red-flanked, Tarsiger cyanurus BLUETHROAT, Cyanecula svecica E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 61296 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules BOBOLINK, Dolichonyx oryzivorus BOOBOOK, Northern, Ninox japonica BOOBY, Abbott’s, Papasula abbotti Blue-footed, Sula nebouxii Brown, Sula leucogaster Masked, Sula dactylatra Nazca, Sula granti Red-footed, Sula sula BRAMBLING, Fringilla montifringilla BRANT, Branta bernicla BUFFLEHEAD, Bucephala albeola BULLFINCH, Eurasian, Pyrrhula pyrrhula Puerto Rican, Melopyrrha portoricensis BUNTING, Blue, Cyanocompsa parellina Gray, Emberiza variabilis Indigo, Passerina cyanea Lark, Calamospiza melanocorys Lazuli, Passerina amoena Little, Emberiza pusilla McKay’s, Plectrophenax hyperboreus Painted, Passerina ciris Pallas’s, Emberiza pallasi Pine, Emberiza leucocephalos Reed, Emberiza schoeniclus Rustic, Emberiza rustica Snow, Plectrophenax nivalis Varied, Passerina versicolor Yellow-breasted, Emberiza aureola Yellow-browed, Emberiza chrysophrys Yellow-throated, Emberiza elegans BUSHTIT, Psaltriparus minimus BUZZARD, Gray-faced, Butastur indicus CANVASBACK, Aythya valisineria CARACARA, Crested, Caracara cheriway CARDINAL, Northern, Cardinalis cardinalis CARIB, Green-throated, Eulampis holosericeus Purple-throated, Eulampis jugularis CATBIRD, Black, Melanoptila glabrirostris Gray, Dumetella carolinensis CHAFFINCH, Common, Fringilla coelebs CHAT, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens CHICKADEE, Black-capped, Poecile atricapillus Boreal, Poecile hudsonicus Carolina, Poecile carolinensis Chestnut-backed, Poecile rufescens Gray-headed, Poecile cinctus Mexican, Poecile sclateri Mountain, Poecile gambeli CHIFFCHAFF, Common, Phylloscopus collybita CHUCK-WILL’S-WIDOW, Antrostomus carolinensis CONDOR, California, Gymnogyps californianus COOT, American, Fulica americana Eurasian, Fulica atra Hawaiian, Fulica alai CORMORANT, Brandt’s, Phalacrocorax penicillatus Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auritus Great, Phalacrocorax carbo Little Pied, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus Pelagic, Phalacrocorax pelagicus Red-faced, Phalacrocorax urile COWBIRD, Bronzed, Molothrus aeneus Brown-headed, Molothrus ater Shiny, Molothrus bonariensis CRAKE, Corn, Crex crex Paint-billed, Neocrex erythrops Spotless, Porzana tabuensis Yellow-breasted, Hapalocrex flaviventer CRANE, Common, Grus grus Sandhill, Antigone canadensis VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 Whooping, Grus americana CREEPER, Brown, Certhia americana Hawaii, Loxops mana CROSSBILL, Cassia, Loxia sinesciuris Red, Loxia curvirostra White-winged, Loxia leucoptera CROW, American, Corvus brachyrhynchos Fish, Corvus ossifragus Hawaiian, Corvus hawaiiensis Mariana, Corvus kubaryi Northwestern, Corvus caurinus Tamaulipas, Corvus imparatus White-necked, Corvus leucognaphalus CUCKOO, Black-billed, Coccyzus erythropthalmus Common, Cuculus canorus Mangrove, Coccyzus minor Oriental, Cuculus optatus Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus CURLEW, Bristle-thighed, Numenius tahitiensis Eskimo, Numenius borealis Eurasian, Numenius arquata Far Eastern, Numenius madagascariensis Little, Numenius minutus Long-billed, Numenius americanus DICKCISSEL, Spiza americana DIPPER, American, Cinclus mexicanus DOTTEREL, Eurasian, Charadrius morinellus DOVE, Inca, Columbina inca Mourning, Zenaida macroura White-tipped, Leptotila verreauxi White-winged, Zenaida asiatica Zenaida, Zenaida aurita DOVEKIE, Alle alle DOWITCHER, Long-billed, Limnodromus scolopaceus Short-billed, Limnodromus griseus DUCK, American Black, Anas rubripes Eastern Spot-billed, Anas zonorhyncha Falcated, Mareca falcata Harlequin, Histrionicus histrionicus Hawaiian, Anas wyvilliana Laysan, Anas laysanensis Long-tailed, Clangula hyemalis Masked, Nomonyx dominicus Mottled, Anas fulvigula Muscovy, Cairina moschata Pacific Black, Anas superciliosa Ring-necked, Aythya collaris Ruddy, Oxyura jamaicensis Tufted, Aythya fuligula Wood, Aix sponsa DUNLIN, Calidris alpina EAGLE, Bald, Haliaeetus leucocephalus Golden, Aquila chrysaetos White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla EGRET, Cattle, Bubulcus ibis Chinese, Egretta eulophotes Great, Ardea alba Intermediate, Ardea intermedia Little, Egretta garzetta Reddish, Egretta rufescens Snowy, Egretta thula EIDER, Common, Somateria mollissima King, Somateria spectabilis Spectacled, Somateria fischeri Steller’s, Polysticta stelleri ELAENIA, Caribbean, Elaenia martinica Greenish, Myiopagis viridicata White-crested, Elaenia albiceps EMERALD, Puerto Rican, Chlorostilbon maugaeus EUPHONIA, Antillean, Euphonia musica FALCON, Amur, Falco amurensis Aplomado, Falco femoralis PO 00000 Frm 00010 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 Peregrine, Falco peregrinus Prairie, Falco mexicanus Red-footed, Falco vespertinus FIELDFARE, Turdus pilaris FINCH, Cassin’s, Haemorhous cassinii House, Haemorhous mexicanus Laysan, Telespiza cantans Nihoa, Telespiza ultima Purple, Haemorhous purpureus FLAMINGO, American, Phoenicopterus ruber FLICKER, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides Northern, Colaptes auratus FLYCATCHER, Acadian, Empidonax virescens Alder, Empidonax alnorum Ash-throated, Myiarchus cinerascens Asian Brown, Muscicapa dauurica Brown-crested, Myiarchus tyrannulus Buff-breasted, Empidonax fulvifrons Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis Crowned Slaty, Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus Dark-sided, Muscicapa sibirica Dusky, Empidonax oberholseri Dusky-capped, Myiarchus tuberculifer Fork-tailed, Tyrannus savana Gray, Empidonax wrightii Gray-streaked, Muscicapa griseisticta Great Crested, Myiarchus crinitus Hammond’s, Empidonax hammondii La Sagra’s, Myiarchus sagrae Least, Empidonax minimus Mugimaki, Ficedula mugimaki Narcissus, Ficedula narcissina Nutting’s, Myiarchus nuttingi Olive-sided, Contopus cooperi Pacific-slope, Empidonax difficilis Pine, Empidonax affinis Piratic, Legatus leucophaius Puerto Rican, Myiarchus antillarum Scissor-tailed, Tyrannus forficatus Social, Myiozetetes similis Spotted, Muscicapa striata Sulphur-bellied, Myiodynastes luteiventris Taiga, Ficedula albicilla Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus Variegated, Empidonomus varius Vermilion, Pyrocephalus rubinus Willow, Empidonax traillii Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris FOREST-FALCON, Collared, Micrastur semitorquatus FRIGATEBIRD, Great, Fregata minor Lesser, Fregata ariel Magnificent, Fregata magnificens FRUIT-DOVE, Crimson-crowned, Ptilinopus porphyraceus Many-colored, Ptilinopus perousii Mariana, Ptilinopus roseicapilla FULMAR, Northern, Fulmarus glacialis GADWALL, Mareca strepera GALLINULE, Azure, Porphyrio flavirostris Common, Gallinula galeata Purple, Porphyrio martinicus GANNET, Northern, Morus bassanus GARGANEY, Spatula querquedula GNATCATCHER, Black-capped, Polioptila nigriceps Black-tailed, Polioptila melanura Blue-Gray, Polioptila caerulea California, Polioptila californica GODWIT, Bar-tailed, Limosa lapponica Black-tailed, Limosa limosa Hudsonian, Limosa haemastica Marbled, Limosa fedoa E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules GOLDENEYE, Barrow’s, Bucephala islandica Common, Bucephala clangula GOLDEN-PLOVER, American, Pluvialis dominica European, Pluvialis apricaria Pacific, Pluvialis fulva GOLDFINCH, American, Spinus tristis Lawrence’s, Spinus lawrencei Lesser, Spinus psaltria GOOSE, Barnacle, Branta leucopsis Cackling, Branta hutchinsii Canada, Branta canadensis Emperor, Anser canagicus Greater White-fronted, Anser albifrons Hawaiian, Branta sandvicensis Lesser White-fronted, Anser erythropus Pink-footed, Anser brachyrhynchus Ross’s, Anser rossii Snow, Anser caerulescens GOSHAWK, Northern, Accipiter gentilis GRACKLE, Boat-tailed, Quiscalus major Common, Quiscalus quiscula Greater Antillean, Quiscalus niger Great-tailed, Quiscalus mexicanus GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER, Middendorff’s, Locustella ochotensis GRASSQUIT, Black-faced, Tiaris bicolor Yellow-faced, Tiaris olivaceus GREBE, Clark’s, Aechmophorus clarkii Eared, Podiceps nigricollis Horned, Podiceps auritus Least, Tachybaptus dominicus Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps Red-necked, Podiceps grisegena Western, Aechmophorus occidentalis GREENFINCH, Oriental, Chloris sinica GREENSHANK, Common, Tringa nebularia Nordmann’s, Tringa guttifer GROSBEAK, Black-headed, Pheucticus melanocephalus Blue, Passerina caerulea Crimson-collared, Rhodothraupis celaeno Evening, Coccothraustes vespertinus Pine, Pinicola enucleator Rose-breasted, Pheucticus ludovicianus Yellow, Pheucticus chrysopeplus GROUND-DOVE, Common, Columbina passerina Ruddy, Columbina talpacoti Shy, Alopecoenas stairi White-throated, Alopecoenas xanthonura GUILLEMOT, Black, Cepphus grylle Pigeon, Cepphus columba GULL, Belcher’s, Larus belcheri Black-headed, Chroicocephalus ridibundus Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris Bonaparte’s, Chroicocephalus philadelphia California, Larus californicus Franklin’s, Leucophaeus pipixcan Glaucous, Larus hyperboreus Glaucous-winged, Larus glaucescens Gray-hooded, Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus Great Black-backed, Larus marinus Heermann’s, Larus heermanni Herring, Larus argentatus Iceland, Larus glaucoides Ivory, Pagophila eburnea Kelp, Larus dominicanus Laughing, Leucophaeus atricilla Lesser Black-backed, Larus fuscus Little, Hydrocoloeus minutus Mew, Larus canus Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis Ross’s, Rhodostethia rosea Sabine’s, Xema sabini VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 Slaty-backed, Larus schistisagus Swallow-tailed, Creagrus furcatus Western, Larus occidentalis Yellow-footed, Larus livens Yellow-legged, Larus michahellis GYRFALCON, Falco rusticolus HARRIER, Northern, Circus hudsonius HAWFINCH, Coccothraustes coccothraustes HAWK, Broad-winged, Buteo platypterus Common Black, Buteogallus anthracinus Cooper’s, Accipiter cooperii Crane, Geranospiza caerulescens Ferruginous, Buteo regalis Gray, Buteo plagiatus Harris’s, Parabuteo unicinctus Hawaiian, Buteo solitarius Red-shouldered, Buteo lineatus Red-tailed, Buteo jamaicensis Roadside, Rupornis magnirostris Rough-legged, Buteo lagopus Sharp-shinned, Accipiter striatus Short-tailed, Buteo brachyurus Swainson’s, Buteo swainsoni White-tailed, Geranoaetus albicaudatus Zone-tailed, Buteo albonotatus HAWK-CUCKOO, Hodgson’s, Hierococcyx nisicolor HERON, Gray, Ardea cinerea Great Blue, Ardea herodias Green, Butorides virescens Little Blue, Egretta caerulea Tricolored, Egretta tricolor HOBBY, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo HONEYCREEPER, Laysan, Himatione fraithii Red-legged, Cyanerpes cyaneus HOOPOE, Eurasian, Upupa epops HOUSE-MARTIN, Common, Delichon urbicum HUMMINGBIRD, Allen’s, Selasphorus sasin Amethyst-throated, Lampornis amethystinus Anna’s, Calypte anna Antillean Crested, Orthorhyncus cristatus Berylline, Amazilia beryllina Black-chinned, Archilochus alexandri Blue-throated, Lampornis clemenciae Broad-billed, Cynanthus latirostris Broad-tailed, Selasphorus platycercus Buff-bellied, Amazilia yucatanensis Bumblebee, Atthis heloisa Calliope, Selasphorus calliope Cinnamon, Amazilia rutila Costa’s, Calypte costae Lucifer, Calothorax lucifer Rivoli’s, Eugenes fulgens Ruby-throated, Archilochus colubris Rufous, Selasphorus rufus Vervain, Mellisuga minima Violet-crowned, Amazilia violiceps White-eared, Hylocharis leucotis Xantus’s, Hylocharis xantusii IBIS, Glossy, Plegadis falcinellus Scarlet, Eudocimus ruber White, Eudocimus albus White-faced, Plegadis chihi ‘I‘IWI, Drepanis coccinea IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Pacific, Ducula pacifica JABIRU, Jabiru mycteria JACANA, Northern, Jacana spinosa JACKDAW, Eurasian, Corvus monedula JAEGER, Long-tailed, Stercorarius longicaudus Parasitic, Stercorarius parasiticus Pomarine, Stercorarius pomarinus JAY, Blue, Cyanocitta cristata Brown, Psilorhinus morio PO 00000 Frm 00011 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 61297 Canada, Perisoreus canadensis Green, Cyanocorax yncas Mexican, Aphelocoma wollweberi Pinyon, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus Steller’s, Cyanocitta stelleri JUNCO, Dark-eyed, Junco hyemalis Yellow-eyed, Junco phaeonotus ¯ KA ¯ WAHIE, Paroreomyza flammea KA ¯ MA‘O, Myadestes myadestinus KA KESTREL, American, Falco sparverius Eurasian, Falco tinnunculus KILLDEER, Charadrius vociferus KINGBIRD, Cassin’s, Tyrannus vociferans Couch’s, Tyrannus couchii Eastern, Tyrannus tyrannus Gray, Tyrannus dominicensis Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus Thick-billed, Tyrannus crassirostris Tropical, Tyrannus melancholicus Western, Tyrannus verticalis KINGFISHER, Amazon, Chloroceryle amazona Belted, Megaceryle alcyon Common, Alcedo atthis Green, Chloroceryle americana Guam, Todiramphus cinnamominus Mariana, Todiramphus albicilla Pacific, Todiramphus sacer Ringed, Megaceryle torquata KINGLET, Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula KISKADEE, Great, Pitangus sulphuratus KITE, Black, Milvus migrans Double-toothed, Harpagus bidentatus Hook-billed, Chondrohierax uncinatus Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis Snail, Rostrhamus sociabilis Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus White-tailed, Elanus leucurus KITTIWAKE, Black-legged, Rissa tridactyla Red-legged, Rissa brevirostris KNOT, Great, Calidris tenuirostris Red, Calidris canutus KOEL, Long-tailed, Urodynamis taitensis LAPWING, Northern, Vanellus vanellus LARK, Horned, Eremophila alpestris LIMPKIN, Aramus guarauna LIZARD-CUCKOO, Puerto Rican, Coccyzus vieilloti LONGSPUR, Chestnut-collared, Calcarius ornatus Lapland, Calcarius lapponicus McCown’s, Rhynchophanes mccownii Smith’s, Calcarius pictus LOON, Arctic, Gavia arctica Common, Gavia immer Pacific, Gavia pacifica Red-throated, Gavia stellata Yellow-billed, Gavia adamsii MAGPIE, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia Yellow-billed, Pica nuttalli MALLARD, Anas platyrhynchos MANGO, Antillean, Anthracothorax dominicus Green, Anthracothorax viridis Green-breasted, Anthracothorax prevostii MARSH-HARRIER, Eastern, Circus spilonotus MARTIN, Brown-chested, Progne tapera Caribbean, Progne dominicensis Cuban, Progne cryptoleuca Gray-breasted, Progne chalybea Purple, Progne subis Southern, Progne elegans MEADOWLARK, Eastern, Sturnella magna Western, Sturnella neglecta E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 61298 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules MERGANSER, Common, Mergus merganser Hooded, Lophodytes cucullatus Red-breasted, Mergus serrator MERLIN, Falco columbarius MILLERBIRD, Acrocephalus familiaris MOCKINGBIRD, Bahama, Mimus gundlachii Blue, Melanotis caerulescens Northern, Mimus polyglottos MOORHEN, Common, Gallinula chloropus MURRE, Common, Uria aalge Thick-billed, Uria lomvia MURRELET, Ancient, Synthliboramphus antiquus Craveri’s, Synthliboramphus craveri Guadalupe, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus Kittlitz’s, Brachyramphus brevirostris Long-billed, Brachyramphus perdix Marbled, Brachyramphus marmoratus Scripps’s, Synthliboramphus scrippsi NEEDLETAIL, White-throated, Hirundapus caudacutus NIGHTHAWK, Antillean, Chordeiles gundlachii Common, Chordeiles minor Lesser, Chordeiles acutipennis NIGHT-HERON, Black-crowned, Nycticorax nycticorax Japanese, Gorsachius goisagi Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus Rufous, Nycticorax caledonicus Yellow-crowned, Nyctanassa violacea NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH, Black-headed, Catharus mexicanus Orange-billed, Catharus aurantiirostris NIGHTJAR, Buff-collared, Antrostomus ridgwayi Gray, Caprimulgus jotaka Puerto Rican, Antrostomus noctitherus White-tailed, Hydropsalis cayennensis NODDY, Black, Anous minutus Blue-gray, Anous ceruleus Brown, Anous stolidus NUKUPU‘U, Kauai, Hemignathus hanapepe Maui, Hemignathus affinis O‘ahu, Hemignathus lucidus NUTCRACKER, Clark’s, Nucifraga columbiana NUTHATCH, Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla Pygmy, Sitta pygmaea Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis OLOMA‘O, Myadestes lanaiensis ˜ MA’O, Myadestes obscurus ‘O ORIOLE, Altamira, Icterus gularis Audubon’s, Icterus graduacauda Baltimore, Icterus galbula Black-vented, Icterus wagleri Bullock’s, Icterus bullockii Hooded, Icterus cucullatus Orchard, Icterus spurius Puerto Rican, Icterus portoricensis Scott’s, Icterus parisorum Streak-backed, Icterus pustulatus OSPREY, Pandion haliaetus ˜ ‘U ˜ , Psittirostra psittacea ‘O OVENBIRD, Seiurus aurocapilla OWL, Barn, Tyto alba Barred, Strix varia Boreal, Aegolius funereus Burrowing, Athene cunicularia Elf, Micrathene whitneyi Flammulated, Psiloscops flammeolus Great Gray, Strix nebulosa Great Horned, Bubo virginianus Long-eared, Asio otus Mottled, Ciccaba virgata VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 Northern Hawk, Surnia ulula Northern Saw-whet, Aegolius acadicus Short-eared, Asio flammeus Snowy, Bubo scandiacus Spotted, Strix occidentalis Stygian, Asio stygius OYSTERCATCHER, American, Haematopus palliatus Black, Haematopus bachmani Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus PALILA, Loxioides bailleui PALM-SWIFT, Antillean, Tachornis phoenicobia PARROTBILL, Maui, Pseudonestor xanthophrys PARULA, Northern, Setophaga americana Tropical, Setophaga pitiayumi PAURAQUE, Common, Nyctidromus albicollis PELICAN, American White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis PETREL, Bermuda, Pterodroma cahow Black-capped, Pterodroma hasitata Black-winged, Pterodroma nigripennis Bonin, Pterodroma hypoleuca Bulwer’s, Bulweria bulwerii Cook’s, Pterodroma cookii Fea’s, Pterodroma feae Gould’s, Pterodroma leucoptera Great-winged, Pterodroma macroptera Hawaiian, Pterodroma sandwichensis Herald, Pterodroma heraldica Jouanin’s, Bulweria fallax Juan Fernandez, Pterodroma externa Kermadec, Pterodroma neglecta Mottled, Pterodroma inexpectata Murphy’s, Pterodroma ultima Parkinson’s, Procellaria parkinsoni Phoenix, Pterodroma alba Providence, Pterodroma solandri Stejneger’s, Pterodroma longirostris Tahiti, Pseudobulweria rostrata Trindade, Pterodroma arminjoniana White-chinned, Procellaria aequinoctialis White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis Zino’s, Pterodroma madeira PEWEE, Cuban, Contopus caribaeus Greater, Contopus pertinax Hispaniolan, Contopus hispaniolensis Lesser Antillean, Contopus latirostris PHAINOPEPLA, Phainopepla nitens PHALAROPE, Red, Phalaropus fulicarius Red-necked, Phalaropus lobatus Wilson’s, Phalaropus tricolor PHOEBE, Black, Sayornis nigricans Eastern, Sayornis phoebe Say’s, Sayornis saya PIGEON, Band-tailed, Patagioenas fasciata Plain, Patagioenas inornata Red-billed, Patagioenas flavirostris Scaly-naped, Patagioenas squamosa White-crowned, Patagioenas leucocephala PINTAIL, Northern, Anas acuta White-cheeked, Anas bahamensis PIPIT, American, Anthus rubescens Olive-backed, Anthus hodgsoni Pechora, Anthus gustavi Red-throated, Anthus cervinus Sprague’s, Anthus spragueii Tree, Anthus trivialis PLOVER, Black-bellied, Pluvialis squatarola Collared, Charadrius collaris Common Ringed, Charadrius hiaticula Kentish, Charadrius alexandrinus Little Ringed, Charadrius dubius PO 00000 Frm 00012 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 Mountain, Charadrius montanus Piping, Charadrius melodus Semipalmated, Charadrius semipalmatus Snowy, Charadrius nivosus Wilson’s, Charadrius wilsonia POCHARD, Baer’s, Aythya baeri Common, Aythya ferina POND-HERON, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus POORWILL, Common, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii PO‘OULI, Melamprosops phaeosoma PUAIOHI, Myadestes palmeri PUFFIN, Atlantic, Fratercula arctica Horned, Fratercula corniculata Tufted, Fratercula cirrhata PYGMY-OWL, Ferruginous, Glaucidium brasilianum Northern, Glaucidium gnoma PYRRHULOXIA, Cardinalis sinuatus QUAIL-DOVE, Bridled, Geotrygon mystacea Key West, Geotrygon chrysia Ruddy, Geotrygon montana QUETZAL, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus RAIL, Black, Laterallus jamaicensis Buff-banded, Gallirallus philippensis Clapper, Rallus crepitans Guam, Gallirallus owstoni King, Rallus elegans Ridgway’s, Rallus obsoletus Spotted, Pardirallus maculatus Virginia, Rallus limicola Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis RAVEN, Chihuahuan, Corvus cryptoleucus Common, Corvus corax RAZORBILL, Alca torda REDHEAD, Aythya americana REDPOLL, Common, Acanthis flammea Hoary, Acanthis hornemanni REDSHANK, Common, Tringa totanus Spotted, Tringa erythropus REDSTART, American, Setophaga ruticilla Common, Phoenicurus phoenicurus Painted, Myioborus pictus Slate-throated, Myioborus miniatus REDWING, Turdus iliacus REEF-HERON, Pacific, Egretta sacra Western, Egretta gularis ROADRUNNER, Greater, Geococcyx californianus ROBIN, American, Turdus migratorius Rufous-backed, Turdus rufopalliatus Rufous-tailed, Larvivora sibilans Siberian Blue, Larvivora cyane ROCK-THRUSH, Blue, Monticola solitarius ROSEFINCH, Common, Carpodacus erythrinus ROSY-FINCH, Asian, Leucosticte arctoa Black, Leucosticte atrata Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis RUBYTHROAT, Siberian, Calliope calliope RUFF, Calidris pugnax SANDERLING, Calidris alba SANDPIPER, Baird’s, Calidris bairdii Broad-billed, Calidris falcinellus Buff-breasted, Calidris subruficollis Common, Actitis hypoleucos Curlew, Calidris ferruginea Green, Tringa ochropus Least, Calidris minutilla Marsh, Tringa stagnatilis Pectoral, Calidris melanotos Purple, Calidris maritima Rock, Calidris ptilocnemis Semipalmated, Calidris pusilla Sharp-tailed, Calidris acuminata E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules Solitary, Tringa solitaria Spoon-billed, Calidris pygmea Spotted, Actitis macularius Stilt, Calidris himantopus Terek, Xenus cinereus Upland, Bartramia longicauda Western, Calidris mauri White-rumped, Calidris fuscicollis Wood, Tringa glareola SAND-PLOVER, Greater, Charadrius leschenaultii Lesser, Charadrius mongolus SAPSUCKER, Red-breasted, Sphyrapicus ruber Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis Williamson’s, Sphyrapicus thyroideus Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius SCAUP, Greater, Aythya marila Lesser, Aythya affinis SCOPS-OWL, Oriental, Otus sunia SCOTER, Black, Melanitta americana Common, Melanitta nigra Surf, Melanitta perspicillata White-winged, Melanitta fusca SCREECH-OWL, Eastern, Megascops asio Puerto Rican, Megascops nudipes Western, Megascops kennicottii Whiskered, Megascops trichopsis SCRUB-JAY, California, Aphelocoma californica Florida, Aphelocoma coerulescens Island, Aphelocoma insularis Woodhouse’s, Aphelocoma woodhouseii SEA-EAGLE, Steller’s, Haliaeetus pelagicus SEEDEATER, Morelet’s, Sporophila morelleti SHEARWATER, Audubon’s, Puffinus lherminieri Barolo, Puffinus baroli Black-vented, Puffinus opisthomelas Bryan’s, Puffinus bryani Buller’s, Ardenna bulleri Cape Verde, Calonectris edwardsii Christmas, Puffinus nativitatis Cory’s, Calonectris diomedea Flesh-footed, Ardenna carneipes Great, Ardenna gravis Manx, Puffinus puffinus Newell’s, Puffinus newelli Pink-footed, Ardenna creatopus Short-tailed, Ardenna tenuirostris Sooty, Ardenna grisea Streaked, Calonectris leucomelas Wedge-tailed, Ardenna pacifica SHOVELER, Northern, Spatula clypeata SHRIKE, Brown, Lanius cristatus Loggerhead, Lanius ludovicianus Northern, Lanius borealis SILKY-FLYCATCHER, Gray, Ptiliogonys cinereus SISKIN, Eurasian, Spinus spinus Pine, Spinus pinus SKIMMER, Black, Rynchops niger SKUA, Great, Stercorarius skua South Polar, Stercorarius maccormicki SKYLARK, Eurasian, Alauda arvensis SMEW, Mergellus albellus SNIPE, Common, Gallinago gallinago Jack, Lymnocryptes minimus Pin-tailed, Gallinago stenura Solitary, Gallinago solitaria Swinhoe’s, Gallinago megala Wilson’s, Gallinago delicata SOLITAIRE, Brown-backed, Myadestes occidentalis Townsend’s, Myadestes townsendi SORA, Porzana carolina VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 SPARROW, American Tree, Spizelloides arborea Bachman’s, Peucaea aestivalis Baird’s, Centronyx bairdii Bell’s, Artemisiospiza belli Black-chinned, Spizella atrogularis Black-throated, Amphispiza bilineata Botteri’s, Peucaea botterii Brewer’s, Spizella breweri Cassin’s, Peucaea cassinii Chipping, Spizella passerina Clay-colored, Spizella pallida Field, Spizella pusilla Five-striped, Amphispiza quinquestriata Fox, Passerella iliaca Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia atricapilla Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum Harris’s, Zonotrichia querula Henslow’s, Centronyx henslowii Lark, Chondestes grammacus LeConte’s, Ammospiza leconteii Lincoln’s, Melospiza lincolnii Nelson’s, Ammospiza nelsoni Olive, Arremonops rufivirgatus Rufous-crowned, Aimophila ruficeps Rufous-winged, Peucaea carpalis Sagebrush, Artemisiospiza nevadensis Saltmarsh, Ammospiza caudacuta Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis Seaside, Ammospiza maritima Song, Melospiza melodia Swamp, Melospiza georgiana Vesper, Pooecetes gramineus White-crowned, Zonotrichia leucophrys White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis Worthen’s, Spizella wortheni SPARROWHAWK, Chinese, Accipiter soloensis Japanese, Accipiter gularis SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis Western, Spindalis zena SPOONBILL, Roseate, Platalea ajaja STARLING, Chestnut-cheeked, Agropsar philippensis White-cheeked, Spodiopsar cineraceus STARTHROAT, Plain-capped, Heliomaster constantii STILT, Black-necked, Himantopus mexicanus Black-winged, Himantopus himantopus STINT, Little, Calidris minuta Long-toed, Calidris subminuta Red-necked, Calidris ruficollis Temminck’s, Calidris temminckii STONECHAT, Saxicola torquatus STORK, Wood, Mycteria americana STORM-PETREL, Ashy, Oceanodroma homochroa Band-rumped, Oceanodroma castro Black, Oceanodroma melania Black-bellied, Fregetta tropica Fork-tailed, Oceanodroma furcata Leach’s, Oceanodroma leucorhoa Least, Oceanodroma microsoma Matsudaira’s, Oceanodroma matsudairae Polynesian, Nesofregetta fuliginosa Ringed, Oceanodroma hornbyi Swinhoe’s, Oceanodroma monorhis Townsend’s, Oceanodroma socorroensis Tristram’s, Oceanodroma tristrami Wedge-rumped, Oceanodroma tethys White-bellied, Fregetta grallaria White-faced, Pelagodroma marina Wilson’s, Oceanites oceanicus SURFBIRD, Calidris virgata PO 00000 Frm 00013 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 61299 SWALLOW, Bahama, Tachycineta cyaneoviridis Bank, Riparia riparia Barn, Hirundo rustica Cave, Petrochelidon fulva Cliff, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Mangrove, Tachycineta albilinea Northern Rough-winged, Stelgidopteryx serripennis Tree, Tachycineta bicolor Violet-green, Tachycineta thalassina SWAMPHEN, Purple, Porphyrio porphyrio SWAN, Trumpeter, Cygnus buccinator Tundra, Cygnus columbianus Whooper, Cygnus cygnus SWIFT, Alpine, Apus melba Black, Cypseloides niger Chimney, Chaetura pelagica Common, Apus apus Fork-tailed, Apus pacificus Short-tailed, Chaetura brachyura Vaux’s, Chaetura vauxi White-collared, Streptoprocne zonaris White-throated, Aeronautes saxatalis SWIFTLET, Mariana, Aerodramus bartschi White-rumped, Aerodramus spodiopygius TANAGER, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata Hepatic, Piranga flava Puerto Rican, Nesospingus speculiferus Scarlet, Piranga olivacea Summer, Piranga rubra Western, Piranga ludoviciana TATTLER, Gray-tailed, Tringa brevipes Wandering, Tringa incana TEAL, Baikal, Sibirionetta formosa Blue-winged, Spatula discors Cinnamon, Spatula cyanoptera Green-winged, Anas crecca TERN, Aleutian, Onychoprion aleuticus Arctic, Sterna paradisaea Black, Chlidonias niger Black-naped, Sterna sumatrana Bridled, Onychoprion anaethetus Caspian, Hydroprogne caspia Common, Sterna hirundo Elegant, Thalasseus elegans Forster’s, Sterna forsteri Gray-backed, Onychoprion lunatus Great Crested, Thalasseus bergii Gull-billed, Gelochelidon nilotica Large-billed, Phaetusa simplex Least, Sternula antillarum Little, Sternula albifrons Roseate, Sterna dougallii Royal, Thalasseus maximus Sandwich, Thalasseus sandvicensis Sooty, Onychoprion fuscatus Whiskered, Chlidonias hybrida White, Gygis alba White-winged, Chlidonias leucopterus THRASHER, Bendire’s, Toxostoma bendirei Brown, Toxostoma rufum California, Toxostoma redivivum Crissal, Toxostoma crissale Curve-billed, Toxostoma curvirostre LeConte’s, Toxostoma lecontei Long-billed, Toxostoma longirostre Pearly-eyed, Margarops fuscatus Sage, Oreoscoptes montanus THRUSH, Aztec, Ridgwayia pinicola Bicknell’s, Catharus bicknelli Clay-colored, Turdus grayi Dusky, Turdus naumanni Eyebrowed, Turdus obscurus Gray-cheeked, Catharus minimus Hermit, Catharus guttatus E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 61300 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules Red-legged, Turdus plumbeus Swainson’s, Catharus ustulatus Varied, Ixoreus naevius White-throated, Turdus assimilis Wood, Hylocichla mustelina TIGER-HERON, Bare-throated, Tigrisoma mexicanum TITMOUSE, Black-crested, Baeolophus atricristatus Bridled, Baeolophus wollweberi Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi Oak, Baeolophus inornatus Tufted, Baeolophus bicolor TITYRA, Masked, Tityra semifasciata TOWHEE, Abert’s, Melozone aberti California, Melozone crissalis Canyon, Melozone fusca Eastern, Pipilo erythrophthalmus Green-tailed, Pipilo chlorurus Spotted, Pipilo maculatus TROGON, Elegant, Trogon elegans TROPICBIRD, Red-billed, Phaethon aethereus Red-tailed, Phaethon rubricauda White-tailed, Phaethon lepturus TURNSTONE, Black, Arenaria melanocephala Ruddy, Arenaria interpres TURTLE-DOVE, European, Streptopelia turtur Oriental, Streptopelia orientalis VEERY, Catharus fuscescens VERDIN, Auriparus flaviceps VIOLETEAR, Mexican, Colibri thalassinus VIREO, Bell’s, Vireo bellii Black-capped, Vireo atricapilla Black-whiskered, Vireo altiloquus Blue-headed, Vireo solitarius Cassin’s, Vireo cassinii Cuban, Vireo gundlachii Gray, Vireo vicinior Hutton’s, Vireo huttoni Philadelphia, Vireo philadelphicus Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus Puerto Rican, Vireo latimeri Red-eyed, Vireo olivaceus Thick-billed, Vireo crassirostris Warbling, Vireo gilvus White-eyed, Vireo griseus Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis Yellow-throated, Vireo flavifrons Yucatan, Vireo magister VULTURE, Black, Coragyps atratus Turkey, Cathartes aura WAGTAIL, Citrine, Motacilla citreola Eastern Yellow, Motacilla tschutschensis Gray, Motacilla cinerea White, Motacilla alba WARBLER, Adelaide’s, Setophaga adelaidae Aguiguan Reed, Acrocephalus nijoi Arctic, Phylloscopus borealis Bachman’s, Vermivora bachmanii Bay-breasted, Setophaga castanea Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia Blackburnian, Setophaga fusca Blackpoll, Setophaga striata Black-throated Blue, Setophaga caerulescens Black-throated Gray, Setophaga nigrescens Black-throated Green, Setophaga virens Blue-winged, Vermivora cyanoptera Blyth’s Reed, Acrocephalus dumetorum Canada, Cardellina canadensis Cape May, Setophaga tigrina Cerulean, Setophaga cerulea Chestnut-sided, Setophaga pensylvanica VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 Colima, Oreothlypis crissalis Connecticut, Oporornis agilis Crescent-chested, Oreothlypis superciliosa Dusky, Phylloscopus fuscatus Elfin-woods, Setophaga angelae Fan-tailed, Basileuterus lachrymosus Golden-cheeked, Setophaga chrysoparia Golden-crowned, Basileuterus culicivorus Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera Grace’s, Setophaga graciae Hermit, Setophaga occidentalis Hooded, Setophaga citrina Kamchatka Leaf, Phylloscopus examinandus Kentucky, Geothlypis formosa Kirtland’s, Setophaga kirtlandii Lanceolated, Locustella lanceolata Lucy’s, Oreothlypis luciae MacGillivray’s, Geothlypis tolmiei Magnolia, Setophaga magnolia Mourning, Geothlypis philadelphia Nashville, Oreothlypis ruficapilla Nightingale Reed, Acrocephalus luscinius Olive, Peucedramus taeniatus Orange-crowned, Oreothlypis celata Pagan Reed, Acrocephalus yamashinae Pallas’s Leaf, Phylloscopus proregulus Palm, Setophaga palmarum Pine, Setophaga pinus Prairie, Setophaga discolor Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea Red-faced, Cardellina rubrifrons Rufous-capped, Basileuterus rufifrons Saipan Reed, Acrocephalus hiwae Sedge, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus Swainson’s, Limnothlypis swainsonii Tennessee, Oreothlypis peregrina Townsend’s, Setophaga townsendi Virginia’s, Oreothlypis virginiae Willow, Phylloscopus trochilus Wilson’s, Cardellina pusilla Wood, Phylloscopus sibilatrix Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorum Yellow, Setophaga petechia Yellow-browed, Phylloscopus inornatus Yellow-rumped, Setophaga coronata Yellow-throated, Setophaga dominica WATERTHRUSH, Louisiana, Parkesia motacilla Northern, Parkesia noveboracensis WAXWING, Bohemian, Bombycilla garrulus Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum WHEATEAR, Northern, Oenanthe oenanthe WHIMBREL, Numenius phaeopus WHIP-POOR-WILL, Eastern, Antrostomus vociferus Mexican, Antrostomus arizonae WHISTLING-DUCK, Black-bellied, Dendrocygna autumnalis Fulvous, Dendrocygna bicolor West Indian, Dendrocygna arborea WHITETHROAT, Lesser, Sylvia curruca WIGEON, American, Mareca americana Eurasian, Mareca penelope WILLET, Tringa semipalmata WOODCOCK, American, Scolopax minor Eurasian, Scolopax rusticola WOODPECKER, Acorn, Melanerpes formicivorus American Three-toed, Picoides dorsalis Arizona, Dryobates arizonae Black-backed, Picoides arcticus Downy, Dryobates pubescens Gila, Melanerpes uropygialis Golden-fronted, Melanerpes aurifrons Great Spotted, Dendrocopos major PO 00000 Frm 00014 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 Hairy, Dryobates villosus Ivory-billed, Campephilus principalis Ladder-backed, Dryobates scalaris Lewis’s, Melanerpes lewis Nuttall’s, Dryobates nuttallii Pileated, Dryocopus pileatus Puerto Rican, Melanerpes portoricensis Red-bellied, Melanerpes carolinus Red-cockaded, Dryobates borealis Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus White-headed, Dryobates albolarvatus WOOD-PEWEE, Eastern, Contopus virens Western, Contopus sordidulus WOOD-RAIL, Rufous-necked, Aramides axillaris WOODSTAR, Bahama, Calliphlox evelynae WREN, Bewick’s, Thryomanes bewickii Cactus, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus Canyon, Catherpes mexicanus Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus House, Troglodytes aedon Marsh, Cistothorus palustris Pacific, Troglodytes pacificus Rock, Salpinctes obsoletus Sedge, Cistothorus platensis Sinaloa, Thryophilus sinaloa Winter, Troglodytes hiemalis WRENTIT, Chamaea fasciata WRYNECK, Eurasian, Jynx torquilla YELLOWLEGS, Greater, Tringa melanoleuca Lesser, Tringa flavipes YELLOWTHROAT, Common, Geothlypis trichas Gray-crowned, Geothlypis poliocephala (2) Taxonomic listing. Species are listed in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the common (English) name following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily. Order ANSERIFORMES Family ANATIDAE Subfamily DENDROCYGNINAE Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous WhistlingDuck Subfamily ANSERINAE Anser canagicus, Emperor Goose Anser caerulescens, Snow Goose Anser rossii, Ross’s Goose Anser albifrons, Greater White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus, Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose Anser serrirostris, Tundra Bean-Goose Anser brachyrhynchus, Pink-footed Goose Branta bernicla, Brant Branta leucopsis, Barnacle Goose Branta hutchinsii, Cackling Goose Branta canadensis, Canada Goose Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian Goose Cygnus buccinator, Trumpeter Swan Cygnus columbianus, Tundra Swan Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan Subfamily ANATINAE Cairina moschata, Muscovy Duck Aix sponsa, Wood Duck Sibirionetta formosa, Baikal Teal Spatula querquedula, Garganey Spatula discors, Blue-winged Teal Spatula cyanoptera, Cinnamon Teal E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules Spatula clypeata, Northern Shoveler Mareca strepera, Gadwall Mareca falcata, Falcated Duck Mareca penelope, Eurasian Wigeon Mareca americana, American Wigeon Anas laysanensis, Laysan Duck Anas wyvilliana, Hawaiian Duck Anas zonorhyncha, Eastern Spot-billed Duck Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard Anas rubripes, American Black Duck Anas fulvigula, Mottled Duck Anas superciliosa, Pacific Black Duck Anas bahamensis, White-cheeked Pintail Anas acuta, Northern Pintail Anas crecca, Green-winged Teal Aythya valisineria, Canvasback Aythya americana, Redhead Aythya ferina, Common Pochard Aythya baeri, Baer’s Pochard Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck Aythya marila, Greater Scaup Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup Polysticta stelleri, Steller’s Eider Somateria fischeri, Spectacled Eider Somateria spectabilis, King Eider Somateria mollissima, Common Eider Histrionicus histrionicus, Harlequin Duck Melanitta perspicillata, Surf Scoter Melanitta fusca, White-winged Scoter Melanitta nigra, Common Scoter Melanitta americana, Black Scoter Clangula hyemalis, Long-tailed Duck Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead Bucephala clangula, Common Goldeneye Bucephala islandica, Barrow’s Goldeneye Mergellus albellus, Smew Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser Mergus merganser, Common Merganser Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser Nomonyx dominicus, Masked Duck Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck Order PHOENICOPTERIFORMES Family PHOENICOPTERIDAE Phoenicopterus ruber, American Flamingo Order PODICIPEDIFORMES Family PODICIPEDIDAE Tachybaptus dominicus, Least Grebe Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe Podiceps auritus, Horned Grebe Podiceps grisegena, Red-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis, Eared Grebe Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe Aechmophorus clarkii, Clark’s Grebe Order COLUMBIFORMES Family COLUMBIDAE Patagioenas squamosa, Scaly-naped Pigeon Patagioenas leucocephala, White-crowned Pigeon Patagioenas flavirostris, Red-billed Pigeon Patagioenas inornata, Plain Pigeon Patagioenas fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon Streptopelia orientalis, Oriental TurtleDove Alopecoenas xanthonura, White-throated Ground-Dove Alopecoenas stairi, Shy Ground-Dove Streptopelia turtur, European Turtle-Dove Columbina inca, Inca Dove Columbina passerina, Common GroundDove Columbina talpacoti, Ruddy Ground-Dove Geotrygon montana, Ruddy Quail-Dove VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 Geotrygon chrysia, Key West Quail-Dove Geotrygon mystacea, Bridled Quail-Dove Leptotila verreauxi, White-tipped Dove Zenaida asiatica, White-winged Dove Zenaida aurita, Zenaida Dove Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove Ptilinopus perousii, Many-colored FruitDove Ptilinopus porphyraceus, Crimsoncrowned Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, Mariana Fruit-Dove Ducula pacifica, Pacific Imperial-Pigeon Order CUCULIFORMES Family CUCULIDAE Subfamily CUCULINAE Urodynamis taitensis, Long-tailed Koel Hierococcyx nisicolor, Hodgson’s HawkCuckoo Cuculus canorus, Common Cuckoo Cuculus optatus, Oriental Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus minor, Mangrove Cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Black-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus vieilloti, Puerto Rican LizardCuckoo Subfamily NEOMORPHINAE Geococcyx californianus, Greater Roadrunner Subfamily CROTOPHAGINAE Crotophaga ani, Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga sulcirostris, Groove-billed Ani Order CAPRIMULGIFORMES Family CAPRIMULGIDAE Subfamily CHORDEILINAE Chordeiles acutipennis, Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles minor, Common Nighthawk Chordeiles gundlachii, Antillean Nighthawk Subfamily CAPRIMULGINAE Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Pauraque Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Common Poorwill Antrostomus carolinensis, Chuck-will’swidow Antrostomus ridgwayi, Buff-collared Nightjar Antrostomus vociferus, Eastern Whip-poorwill Antrostomus arizonae, Mexican Whippoor-will Antrostomus noctitherus, Puerto Rican Nightjar Hydropsalis cayennensis, White-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus jotaka, Gray Nightjar Order APODIFORMES Family APODIDAE Subfamily CYPSELOIDINAE Cypseloides niger, Black Swift Streptoprocne zonaris, White-collared Swift Subfamily CHAETURINAE Chaetura pelagica, Chimney Swift Chaetura vauxi, Vaux’s Swift Chaetura brachyura, Short-tailed Swift Hirundapus caudacutus, White-throated Needletail Aerodramus spodiopygius, White-rumped Swiftlet Aerodramus bartschi, Mariana Swiftlet Subfamily APODINAE Apus apus, Common Swift Apus pacificus, Fork-tailed Swift Apus melba, Alpine Swift Aeronautes saxatalis, White-throated Swift PO 00000 Frm 00015 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 61301 Tachornis phoenicobia, Antillean PalmSwift Family TROCHILIDAE Subfamily TROCHILINAE Colibri thalassinus, Mexican Violetear Anthracothorax prevostii, Green-breasted Mango Anthracothorax dominicus, Antillean Mango Anthracothorax viridis, Green Mango Eulampis jugularis, Purple-throated Carib Eulampis holosericeus, Green-throated Carib Eugenes fulgens, Rivoli’s Hummingbird Heliomaster constantii, Plain-capped Starthroat Lampornis amethystinus, Amethystthroated Hummingbird Lampornis clemenciae, Blue-throated Hummingbird Calliphlox evelynae, Bahama Woodstar Calothorax lucifer, Lucifer Hummingbird Archilochus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus alexandri, Black-chinned Hummingbird Mellisuga minima, Vervain Hummingbird Calypte anna, Anna’s Hummingbird Calypte costae, Costa’s Hummingbird Atthis heloisa, Bumblebee Hummingbird Selasphorus platycercus, Broad-tailed Hummingbird Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird Selasphorus sasin, Allen’s Hummingbird Selasphorus calliope, Calliope Hummingbird Chlorostilbon maugaeus, Puerto Rican Emerald Cynanthus latirostris, Broad-billed Hummingbird Orthorhyncus cristatus, Antillean Crested Hummingbird Amazilia beryllina, Berylline Hummingbird Amazilia yucatanensis, Buff-bellied Hummingbird Amazilia rutila, Cinnamon Hummingbird Amazilia violiceps, Violet-crowned Hummingbird Hylocharis leucotis, White-eared Hummingbird Hylocharis xantusii, Xantus’s Hummingbird Order GRUIFORMES Family RALLIDAE Coturnicops noveboracensis, Yellow Rail Laterallus jamaicensis, Black Rail Gallirallus philippensis, Buff-banded Rail Gallirallus owstoni, Guam Rail Crex crex, Corn Crake Rallus obsoletus, Ridgway’s Rail Rallus crepitans, Clapper Rail Rallus elegans, King Rail Rallus limicola, Virginia Rail Aramides axillaris, Rufous-necked WoodRail Porzana carolina, Sora Porzana tabuensis, Spotless Crake Hapalocrex flaviventer, Yellow-breasted Crake Neocrex erythrops, Paint-billed Crake Pardirallus maculatus, Spotted Rail Porphyrio martinicus, Purple Gallinule Porphyrio flavirostris, Azure Gallinule Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Swamphen Gallinula galeata, Common Gallinule E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 61302 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules Gallinula chloropus, Common Moorhen Fulica atra, Eurasian Coot Fulica alai, Hawaiian Coot Fulica americana, American Coot Family ARAMIDAE Aramus guarauna, Limpkin Family GRUIDAE Subfamily GRUINAE Antigone canadensis, Sandhill Crane Grus grus, Common Crane Grus americana, Whooping Crane Order CHARADRIIFORMES Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE Himantopus himantopus, Black-winged Stilt Himantopus mexicanus, Black-necked Stilt Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet Family HAEMATOPODIDAE Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Black Oystercatcher Family CHARADRIIDAE Subfamily VANELLINAE Vanellus vanellus, Northern Lapwing Subfamily CHARADRIINAE Pluvialis squatarola, Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis apricaria, European GoldenPlover Pluvialis dominica, American GoldenPlover Pluvialis fulva, Pacific Golden-Plover Charadrius mongolus, Lesser Sand-Plover Charadrius leschenaultii, Greater SandPlover Charadrius collaris, Collared Plover Charadrius alexandrinus, Kentish Plover Charadrius nivosus, Snowy Plover Charadrius wilsonia, Wilson’s Plover Charadrius hiaticula, Common Ringed Plover Charadrius semipalmatus, Semipalmated Plover Charadrius melodus, Piping Plover Charadrius dubius, Little Ringed Plover Charadrius vociferus, Killdeer Charadrius montanus, Mountain Plover Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Dotterel Family JACANIDAE Jacana spinosa, Northern Jacana Family SCOLOPACIDAE Subfamily NUMENIINAE Bartramia longicauda, Upland Sandpiper Numenius tahitiensis, Bristle-thighed Curlew Numenius phaeopus, Whimbrel Numenius minutus, Little Curlew Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew Numenius arquata, Eurasian Curlew Subfamily LIMOSINAE Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit Limosa haemastica, Hudsonian Godwit Limosa fedoa, Marbled Godwit Subfamily ARENARIINAE Arenaria interpres, Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria melanocephala, Black Turnstone Calidris tenuirostris, Great Knot Calidris canutus, Red Knot Calidris virgata, Surfbird Calidris pugnax, Ruff VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 Calidris falcinellus, Broad-billed Sandpiper Calidris acuminata, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Calidris himantopus, Stilt Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Curlew Sandpiper Calidris temminckii, Temminck’s Stint Calidris subminuta, Long-toed Stint Calidris pygmea, Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris ruficollis, Red-necked Stint Calidris alba, Sanderling Calidris alpina, Dunlin Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper Calidris maritima, Purple Sandpiper Calidris bairdii, Baird’s Sandpiper Calidris minuta, Little Stint Calidris minutilla, Least Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis, White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper Calidris melanotos, Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris pusilla, Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper Subfamily SCOLOPACINAE Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus, Long-billed Dowitcher Lymnocryptes minimus, Jack Snipe Scolopax rusticola, Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax minor, American Woodcock Gallinago solitaria, Solitary Snipe Gallinago stenura, Pin-tailed Snipe Gallinago megala, Swinhoe’s Snipe Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe Gallinago delicata, Wilson’s Snipe Subfamily TRINGINAE Xenus cinereus, Terek Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper Actitis macularius, Spotted Sandpiper Tringa ochropus, Green Sandpiper Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper Tringa brevipes, Gray-tailed Tattler Tringa incana, Wandering Tattler Tringa flavipes, Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa semipalmata, Willet Tringa erythropus, Spotted Redshank Tringa nebularia, Common Greenshank Tringa guttifer, Nordmann’s Greenshank Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs Tringa totanus, Common Redshank Tringa glareola, Wood Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper Phalaropus tricolor, Wilson’s Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus, Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius, Red Phalarope Family STERCORARIIDAE Stercorarius skua, Great Skua Stercorarius maccormicki, South Polar Skua Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus, Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger Family ALCIDAE Alle alle, Dovekie Uria aalge, Common Murre Uria lomvia, Thick-billed Murre Alca torda, Razorbill Cepphus grylle, Black Guillemot Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot Brachyramphus perdix, Long-billed Murrelet Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet PO 00000 Frm 00016 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 Brachyramphus brevirostris, Kittlitz’s Murrelet Synthliboramphus scrippsi, Scripps’s Murrelet Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Guadalupe Murrelet Synthliboramphus craveri, Craveri’s Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus, Ancient Murrelet Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin’s Auklet Aethia psittacula, Parakeet Auklet Aethia pusilla, Least Auklet Aethia pygmaea, Whiskered Auklet Aethia cristatella, Crested Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata, Rhinoceros Auklet Fratercula arctica, Atlantic Puffin Fratercula corniculata, Horned Puffin Fratercula cirrhata, Tufted Puffin Family LARIDAE Subfamily LARINAE Creagrus furcatus, Swallow-tailed Gull Rissa tridactyla, Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa brevirostris, Red-legged Kittiwake Pagophila eburnea, Ivory Gull Xema sabini, Sabine’s Gull Chroicocephalus philadelphia, Bonaparte’s Gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus, Grayhooded Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Black-headed Gull Hydrocoloeus minutus, Little Gull Rhodostethia rosea, Ross’s Gull Leucophaeus atricilla, Laughing Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan, Franklin’s Gull Larus belcheri, Belcher’s Gull Larus crassirostris, Black-tailed Gull Larus heermanni, Heermann’s Gull Larus canus, Mew Gull Larus delawarensis, Ring-billed Gull Larus occidentalis, Western Gull Larus livens, Yellow-footed Gull Larus californicus, California Gull Larus argentatus, Herring Gull Larus michahellis, Yellow-legged Gull Larus glaucoides, Iceland Gull Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus schistisagus, Slaty-backed Gull Larus glaucescens, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus hyperboreus, Glaucous Gull Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull Larus dominicanus, Kelp Gull Subfamily STERNINAE Anous stolidus, Brown Noddy Anous minutus, Black Noddy Anous ceruleus, Blue-gray Noddy Gygis alba, White Tern Onychoprion fuscatus, Sooty Tern Onychoprion lunatus, Gray-backed Tern Onychoprion anaethetus, Bridled Tern Onychoprion aleuticus, Aleutian Tern Sternula albifrons, Little Tern Sternula antillarum, Least Tern Phaetusa simplex, Large-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica, Gull-billed Tern Hydroprogne caspia, Caspian Tern Chlidonias niger, Black Tern Chlidonias leucopterus, White-winged Tern Chlidonias hybrida, Whiskered Tern Sterna dougallii, Roseate Tern Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern Sterna hirundo, Common Tern Sterna paradisaea, Arctic Tern Sterna forsteri, Forster’s Tern E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules Thalasseus maximus, Royal Tern Thalasseus bergii, Great Crested Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern Thalasseus elegans, Elegant Tern Subfamily RYNCHOPINAE Rynchops niger, Black Skimmer Order PHAETHONTIFORMES Family PHAETHONTIDAE Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda, Red-tailed Tropicbird Order GAVIIFORMES Family GAVIIDAE Gavia stellata, Red-throated Loon Gavia arctica, Arctic Loon Gavia pacifica, Pacific Loon Gavia immer, Common Loon Gavia adamsii, Yellow-billed Loon Order PROCELLARIIFORMES Family DIOMEDEIDAE Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Yellownosed Albatross Thalassarche cauta, White-capped Albatross Thalassarche eremita, Chatham Albatross Thalassarche salvini, Salvin’s Albatross Thalassarche melanophris, Black-browed Albatross Phoebetria palpebrata, Light-mantled Albatross Diomedea exulans, Wandering Albatross Phoebastria immutabilis, Laysan Albatross Phoebastria nigripes, Black-footed Albatross Phoebastria albatrus, Short-tailed Albatross Family OCEANITIDAE Oceanites oceanicus, Wilson’s StormPetrel Pelagodroma marina, White-faced StormPetrel Fregetta tropica, Black-bellied Storm-Petrel Family HYDROBATIDAE Fregetta grallaria, White-bellied StormPetrel Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Polynesian StormPetrel Oceanodroma furcata, Fork-tailed StormPetrel Oceanodroma hornbyi, Ringed StormPetrel Oceanodroma monorhis, Swinhoe’s StormPetrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Leach’s StormPetrel Oceanodroma socorroensis, Townsend’s Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma homochroa, Ashy StormPetrel Oceanodroma castro, Band-rumped StormPetrel Oceanodroma tethys, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma matsudairae, Matsudaira’s Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma melania, Black Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma tristrami, Tristram’s StormPetrel Oceanodroma microsoma, Least StormPetrel Family PROCELLARIIDAE Fulmarus glacialis, Northern Fulmar Pterodroma macroptera, Great-winged Petrel Pterodroma solandri, Providence Petrel VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 Pterodroma neglecta, Kermadec Petrel Pterodroma arminjoniana, Trindade Petrel Pterodroma heraldica, Herald Petrel Pterodroma ultima, Murphy’s Petrel Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel Pterodroma cahow, Bermuda Petrel Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel Pterodroma externa, Juan Fernandez Petrel Pterodroma sandwichensis, Hawaiian Petrel Pterodroma cervicalis, White-necked Petrel Pterodroma hypoleuca, Bonin Petrel Pterodroma nigripennis, Black-winged Petrel Pterodroma feae, Fea’s Petrel Pterodroma madeira, Zino’s Petrel Pterodroma cookii, Cook’s Petrel Pterodroma longirostris, Stejneger’s Petrel Pterodroma alba, Phoenix Petrel Pterodroma leucoptera, Gould’s Petrel Pseudobulweria rostrata, Tahiti Petrel Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer’s Petrel Bulweria fallax, Jouanin’s Petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis, White-chinned Petrel Procellaria parkinsoni, Parkinson’s Petrel Calonectris leucomelas, Streaked Shearwater Calonectris diomedea, Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Shearwater Ardenna pacifica, Wedge-tailed Shearwater Ardenna bulleri, Buller’s Shearwater Ardenna tenuirostris, Short-tailed Shearwater Ardenna grisea, Sooty Shearwater Ardenna gravis, Great Shearwater Ardenna creatopus, Pink-footed Shearwater Ardenna carneipes, Flesh-footed Shearwater Puffinus nativitatis, Christmas Shearwater Puffinus puffinus, Manx Shearwater Puffinus newelli, Newell’s Shearwater Puffinus bryani, Bryan’s Shearwater Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon’s Shearwater Puffinus baroli, Barolo Shearwater Order CICONIIFORMES Family CICONIIDAE Jabiru mycteria, Jabiru Mycteria americana, Wood Stork Order SULIFORMES Family FREGATIDAE Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata minor, Great Frigatebird Fregata ariel, Lesser Frigatebird Family SULIDAE Sula dactylatra, Masked Booby Sula granti, Nazca Booby Sula nebouxii, Blue-footed Booby Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby Sula sula, Red-footed Booby Papasula abbotti, Abbott’s Booby Morus bassanus, Northern Gannet Family PHALACROCORACIDAE Phalacrocorax melanoleucos, Little Pied Cormorant Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt’s Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Neotropic Cormorant PO 00000 Frm 00017 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 61303 Phalacrocorax auritus, Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax urile, Red-faced Cormorant Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pelagic Cormorant Family ANHINGIDAE Anhinga anhinga, Anhinga Order PELECANIFORMES Family PELECANIDAE Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, American White Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis, Brown Pelican Family ARDEIDAE Botaurus lentiginosus, American Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis, Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus exilis, Least Bittern Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Schrenck’s Bittern Ixobrychus flavicollis, Black Bittern Tigrisoma mexicanum, Bare-throated Tiger-Heron Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron Ardea cinerea, Gray Heron Ardea alba, Great Egret Ardea intermedia, Intermediate Egret Egretta eulophotes, Chinese Egret Egretta garzetta, Little Egret Egretta sacra, Pacific Reef-Heron Egretta gularis, Western Reef-Heron Egretta thula, Snowy Egret Egretta caerulea, Little Blue Heron Egretta tricolor, Tricolored Heron Egretta rufescens, Reddish Egret Bubulcus ibis, Cattle Egret Ardeola bacchus, Chinese Pond-Heron Butorides virescens, Green Heron Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax caledonicus, Rufous NightHeron Nyctanassa violacea, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron Gorsachius goisagi, Japanese Night-Heron Gorsachius melanolophus, Malayan NightHeron Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE Subfamily THRESKIORNITHINAE Eudocimus albus, White Ibis Eudocimus ruber, Scarlet Ibis Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis Subfamily PLATALEINAE Platalea ajaja, Roseate Spoonbill Order CARTHARTIFORMES Family CATHARTIDAE Coragyps atratus, Black Vulture Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture Gymnogyps californianus, California Condor Order ACCIPITRIFORMES Family PANDIONIDAE Pandion haliaetus, Osprey Family ACCIPITRIDAE Subfamily ELANINAE Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite Subfamily GYPAETINAE Chondrohierax uncinatus, Hook-billed Kite Elanoides forficatus, Swallow-tailed Kite Subfamily ACCIPITRINAE Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle Harpagus bidentatus, Double-toothed Kite Circus spilonotus, Eastern Marsh-Harrier Circus hudsonius, Northern Harrier Accipiter soloensis, Chinese Sparrowhawk Accipiter gularis, Japanese Sparrowhawk Accipiter striatus, Sharp-shinned Hawk E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 61304 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules Accipiter cooperii, Cooper’s Hawk Accipiter gentilis, Northern Goshawk Milvus migrans, Black Kite Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla, White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus pelagicus, Steller’s Sea-Eagle Ictinia mississippiensis, Mississippi Kite Butastur indicus, Gray-faced Buzzard Geranospiza caerulescens, Crane Hawk Rostrhamus sociabilis, Snail Kite Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black Hawk Rupornis magnirostris, Roadside Hawk Parabuteo unicinctus, Harris’s Hawk Geranoaetus albicaudatus, White-tailed Hawk Buteo plagiatus, Gray Hawk Buteo lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo platypterus, Broad-winged Hawk Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian Hawk Buteo brachyurus, Short-tailed Hawk Buteo swainsoni, Swainson’s Hawk Buteo albonotatus, Zone-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Hawk Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk Order STRIGIFORMES Family TYTONIDAE Tyto alba, Barn Owl Family STRIGIDAE Otus sunia, Oriental Scops-Owl Psiloscops flammeolus, Flammulated Owl Megascops kennicottii, Western ScreechOwl Megascops asio, Eastern Screech-Owl Megascops trichopsis, Whiskered ScreechOwl Megascops nudipes, Puerto Rican ScreechOwl Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl Bubo scandiacus, Snowy Owl Surnia ulula, Northern Hawk Owl Glaucidium gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium brasilianum, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Micrathene whitneyi, Elf Owl Athene cunicularia, Burrowing Owl Ciccaba virgata, Mottled Owl Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl Strix varia, Barred Owl Strix nebulosa, Great Gray Owl Asio otus, Long-eared Owl Asio stygius, Stygian Owl Asio flammeus, Short-eared Owl Aegolius funereus, Boreal Owl Aegolius acadicus, Northern Saw-whet Owl Ninox japonica, Northern Boobook Order TROGONIFORMES Family TROGONIDAE Subfamily TROGONINAE Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon Euptilotis neoxenus, Eared Quetzal Order UPUPIFORMES Family UPUPIDAE Upupa epops, Eurasian Hoopoe Order CORACIIFORMES Family ALCEDINIDAE Subfamily ALCEDININAE Alcedo atthis, Common Kingfisher Subfamily HALCYONINAE Todiramphus sacer, Pacific Kingfisher Todiramphus cinnamominus, Guam Kingfisher Todiramphus albicilla, Mariana Kingfisher Subfamily CERYLINAE VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 Megaceryle torquata, Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona, Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher Order PICIFORMES Family PICIDAE Subfamily JYNGINAE Jynx torquilla, Eurasian Wryneck Subfamily PICINAE Melanerpes lewis, Lewis’s Woodpecker Melanerpes portoricensis, Puerto Rican Woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Red-headed Woodpecker Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker Melanerpes uropygialis, Gila Woodpecker Melanerpes aurifrons, Golden-fronted Woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Williamson’s Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus nuchalis, Red-naped Sapsucker Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker Picoides dorsalis, American Three-toed Woodpecker Picoides arcticus, Black-backed Woodpecker Dendrocopos major, Great Spotted Woodpecker Dryobates pubescens, Downy Woodpecker Dryobates nuttallii, Nuttall’s Woodpecker Dryobates scalaris, Ladder-backed Woodpecker Dryobates borealis, Red-cockaded Woodpecker Dryobates villosus, Hairy Woodpecker Dryobates albolarvatus, White-headed Woodpecker Dryobates arizonae, Arizona Woodpecker Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker Colaptes chrysoides, Gilded Flicker Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker Campephilus principalis, Ivory-billed Woodpecker Order FALCONIFORMES Family FALCONIDAE Subfamily HERPETOTHERINAE Micrastur semitorquatus, Collared ForestFalcon Subfamily FALCONINAE Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara Falco tinnunculus, Eurasian Kestrel Falco sparverius, American Kestrel Falco vespertinus, Red-footed Falcon Falco amurensis, Amur Falcon Falco columbarius, Merlin Falco subbuteo, Eurasian Hobby Falco femoralis, Aplomado Falcon Falco rusticolus, Gyrfalcon Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon Order PASSERIFORMES Family TITYRIDAE Tityra semifasciata, Masked Tityra Pachyramphus major, Gray-collared Becard Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard Family TYRANNIDAE Subfamily ELAENIINAE Camptostoma imberbe, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet PO 00000 Frm 00018 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 Myiopagis viridicata, Greenish Elaenia Elaenia martinica, Caribbean Elaenia Elaenia albiceps, White-crested Elaenia Subfamily FLUVICOLINAE Mitrephanes phaeocercus, Tufted Flycatcher Contopus cooperi, Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus pertinax, Greater Pewee Contopus sordidulus, Western WoodPewee Contopus virens, Eastern Wood-Pewee Contopus caribaeus, Cuban Pewee Contopus hispaniolensis, Hispaniolan Pewee Contopus latirostris, Lesser Antillean Pewee Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Empidonax virescens, Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum, Alder Flycatcher Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher Empidonax hammondii, Hammond’s Flycatcher Empidonax wrightii, Gray Flycatcher Empidonax oberholseri, Dusky Flycatcher Empidonax affinis, Pine Flycatcher Empidonax difficilis, Pacific-slope Flycatcher Empidonax occidentalis, Cordilleran Flycatcher Empidonax fulvifrons, Buff-breasted Flycatcher Sayornis nigricans, Black Phoebe Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe Sayornis saya, Say’s Phoebe Pyrocephalus rubinus, Vermilion Flycatcher Subfamily TYRANNINAE Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus cinerascens, Ash-throated Flycatcher Myiarchus nuttingi, Nutting’s Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus, Great Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus tyrannulus, Brown-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus sagrae, La Sagra’s Flycatcher Myiarchus antillarum, Puerto Rican Flycatcher Pitangus sulphuratus, Great Kiskadee Myiozetetes similis, Social Flycatcher Myiodynastes luteiventris, Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius, Piratic Flycatcher Empidonomus varius, Variegated Flycatcher Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus, Crowned Slaty Flycatcher Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus couchii, Couch’s Kingbird Tyrannus vociferans, Cassin’s Kingbird Tyrannus crassirostris, Thick-billed Kingbird Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus, Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis, Gray Kingbird Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Loggerhead Kingbird Tyrannus forficatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher Family LANIIDAE Lanius cristatus, Brown Shrike E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike Lanius borealis, Northern Shrike Family VIREONIDAE Vireo atricapilla, Black-capped Vireo Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo Vireo crassirostris, Thick-billed Vireo Vireo latimeri, Puerto Rican Vireo Vireo gundlachii, Cuban Vireo Vireo bellii, Bell’s Vireo Vireo vicinior, Gray Vireo Vireo huttoni, Hutton’s Vireo Vireo flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo cassinii, Cassin’s Vireo Vireo solitarius, Blue-headed Vireo Vireo plumbeus, Plumbeous Vireo Vireo philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo Vireo flavoviridis, Yellow-green Vireo Vireo altiloquus, Black-whiskered Vireo Vireo magister, Yucatan Vireo Family CORVIDAE Perisoreus canadensis, Canada Jay Psilorhinus morio, Brown Jay Cyanocorax yncas, Green Jay Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Pinyon Jay Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller’s Jay Cyanocitta cristata, Blue Jay Aphelocoma coerulescens, Florida ScrubJay Aphelocoma insularis, Island Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma californica, California ScrubJay Aphelocoma woodhouseii, Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma wollweberi, Mexican Jay Nucifraga columbiana, Clark’s Nutcracker Pica hudsonia, Black-billed Magpie Pica nuttalli, Yellow-billed Magpie Corvus monedula, Eurasian Jackdaw Corvus kubaryi, Mariana Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos, American Crow Corvus caurinus, Northwestern Crow Corvus leucognaphalus, White-necked Crow Corvus imparatus, Tamaulipas Crow Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian Crow Corvus cryptoleucus, Chihuahuan Raven Corvus corax, Common Raven Family ALAUDIDAE Alauda arvensis, Eurasian Skylark Eremophila alpestris, Horned Lark Family HIRUNDINIDAE Subfamily HIRUNDININAE Progne subis, Purple Martin Progne cryptoleuca, Cuban Martin Progne dominicensis, Caribbean Martin Progne chalybea, Gray-breasted Martin Progne elegans, Southern Martin Progne tapera, Brown-chested Martin Tachycineta bicolor, Tree Swallow Tachycineta albilinea, Mangrove Swallow Tachycineta thalassina, Violet-green Swallow Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Bahama Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Northern Rough-winged Swallow Riparia riparia, Bank Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon fulva, Cave Swallow Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow Delichon urbicum, Common House-Martin Family PARIDAE Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 Poecile atricapillus, Black-capped Chickadee Poecile gambeli, Mountain Chickadee Poecile sclateri, Mexican Chickadee Poecile rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee Poecile hudsonicus, Boreal Chickadee Poecile cinctus, Gray-headed Chickadee Baeolophus wollweberi, Bridled Titmouse Baeolophus inornatus, Oak Titmouse Baeolophus ridgwayi, Juniper Titmouse Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse Baeolophus atricristatus, Black-crested Titmouse Family REMIZIDAE Auriparus flaviceps, Verdin Family AEGITHALIDAE Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit Family SITTIDAE Subfamily SITTINAE Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch Sitta pygmaea, Pygmy Nuthatch Sitta pusilla, Brown-headed Nuthatch Family CERTHIIDAE Subfamily CERTHIINAE Certhia americana, Brown Creeper Family TROGLODYTIDAE Salpinctes obsoletus, Rock Wren Catherpes mexicanus, Canyon Wren Troglodytes aedon, House Wren Troglodytes pacificus, Pacific Wren Troglodytes hiemalis, Winter Wren Cistothorus platensis, Sedge Wren Cistothorus palustris, Marsh Wren Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren Thryomanes bewickii, Bewick’s Wren Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren Thryophilus sinaloa, Sinaloa Wren Family POLIOPTILIDAE Polioptila caerulea, Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher Polioptila californica, California Gnatcatcher Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher Family CINCLIDAE Cinclus mexicanus, American Dipper Family REGULIDAE Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned Kinglet Family PHYLLOSCOPIDAE Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler Phylloscopus collybita, Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Wood Warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus, Dusky Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus, Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus, Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus examinandus, Kamchatka Leaf Warbler Family SYLVIIDAE Sylvia curruca, Lesser Whitethroat Chamaea fasciata, Wrentit Family ACROCEPHALIDAE Acrocephalus luscinius, Nightingale Reed Warbler Acrocephalus hiwae, Saipan Reed warbler Acrocephalus nijoi, Aguiguan Reed Warbler Acrocephalus yamashinae, Pagan Reed Warbler PO 00000 Frm 00019 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 61305 Acrocephalus familiaris, Millerbird Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum, Blyth’s Reed Warbler Family LOCUSTELLIDAE Locustella ochotensis, Middendorff’s Grasshopper-Warbler Locustella lanceolata, Lanceolated Warbler Family MUSCICAPIDAE Muscicapa griseisticta, Gray-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica, Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa striata, Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica, Dark-sided Flycatcher Larvivora cyane, Siberian Blue Robin Larvivora sibilans, Rufous-tailed Robin Cyanecula svecica, Bluethroat Calliope calliope, Siberian Rubythroat Tarsiger cyanurus, Red-flanked Bluetail Ficedula narcissina, Narcissus Flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki, Mugimaki Flycatcher Ficedula albicilla, Taiga Flycatcher Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Common Redstart Saxicola torquatus, Stonechat Oenanthe oenanthe, Northern Wheatear Family TURDIDAE Monticola solitarius, Blue Rock-Thrush Sialia sialis, Eastern Bluebird Sialia mexicana, Western Bluebird Sialia currucoides, Mountain Bluebird Myadestes townsendi, Townsend’s Solitaire Myadestes occidentalis, Brown-backed Solitaire Myadestes myadestinus, Kc¸ma‘o Myadestes lanaiensis, Oloma‘o Myadestes obscurus, ‘Oc¸ma’o Myadestes palmeri, Puaiohi Catharus aurantiirostris, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus mexicanus, Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus fuscescens, Veery Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus bicknelli, Bicknell’s Thrush Catharus ustulatus, Swainson’s Thrush Catharus guttatus, Hermit Thrush Hylocichla mustelina, Wood Thrush Turdus obscurus, Eyebrowed Thrush Turdus naumanni, Dusky Thrush Turdus pilaris, Fieldfare Turdus iliacus, Redwing Turdus grayi, Clay-colored Thrush Turdus assimilis, White-throated Thrush Turdus rufopalliatus, Rufous-backed Robin Turdus migratorius, American Robin Turdus plumbeus, Red-legged Thrush Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush Ridgwayia pinicola, Aztec Thrush Family MIMIDAE Melanotis caerulescens, Blue Mockingbird Melanoptila glabrirostris, Black Catbird Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird Margarops fuscatus, Pearly-eyed Thrasher Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher Toxostoma rufum, Brown Thrasher Toxostoma longirostre, Long-billed Thrasher Toxostoma bendirei, Bendire’s Thrasher Toxostoma redivivum, California Thrasher Toxostoma lecontei, LeConte’s Thrasher Toxostoma crissale, Crissal Thrasher E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 61306 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules Oreoscoptes montanus, Sage Thrasher Mimus gundlachii, Bahama Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird Family STURNIDAE Agropsar philippensis, Chestnut-cheeked Starling Spodiopsar cineraceus, White-cheeked Starling Family BOMBYCILLIDAE Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing Family PTILIOGONATIDAE Ptiliogonys cinereus, Gray Silky-flycatcher Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla Family PEUCEDRAMIDAE Peucedramus taeniatus, Olive Warbler Family PRUNELLIDAE Prunella montanella, Siberian Accentor Family MOTACILLIDAE Motacilla tschutschensis, Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla citreola, Citrine Wagtail Motacilla cinerea, Gray Wagtail Motacilla alba, White Wagtail Anthus trivialis, Tree Pipit Anthus hodgsoni, Olive-backed Pipit Anthus gustavi, Pechora Pipit Anthus cervinus, Red-throated Pipit Anthus rubescens, American Pipit Anthus spragueii, Sprague’s Pipit Family FRINGILLIDAE Subfamily FRINGILLINAE Fringilla coelebs, Common Chaffinch Fringilla montifringilla, Brambling Subfamily EUPHONIINAE Euphonia musica, Antillean Euphonia Subfamily CARDUELINAE Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Hawfinch Carpodacus erythrinus, Common Rosefinch Melamprosops phaeosoma, Po‘ouli Oreomystis bairdi, ‘Akikiki Paroreomyza maculata, O‘ahu ‘Alauahio Paroreomyza flammea, Ka˜ka˜wahie Paroreomyza montana, Maui ‘Alauahio Loxioides bailleui, Palila Telespiza cantans, Laysan Finch Telespiza ultima, Nihoa Finch Palmeria dolei, ‘Akohekohe Himatione fraithii, Laysan Honeycreeper Himatione sanguinea, ‘Apapane Drepanis coccinea, ‘I‘iwi ˜ ‘u˜ Psittirostra psittacea, ‘O Pseudonestor xanthophrys, Maui Parrotbill Hemignathus hanapepe, Kauai Nukupu‘u Hemignathus lucidus, O‘ahu Nukupu‘u Hemignathus affinis, Maui Nukupu‘u Hemignathus wilsoni, ‘Akiapola‘au Akialoa stejnegeri, Kauai ‘Akialoa Akialoa ellisiana, O‘ahu ‘Akialoa Akialoa lanaiensis, Maui Nui ‘Akialoa Magumma parva, ‘Anianiau Chlorodrepanis virens, Hawaii ‘Amakihi Chlorodrepanis flava, O‘ahu ‘Amakihi Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri, Kauai ‘Amakihi Loxops mana, Hawaii Creeper Loxops caeruleirostris, ‘Akeke‘e Loxops wolstenholmei, O‘ahu ‘Akepa Loxops ochraceus, Maui ‘Akepa Loxops coccineus, Hawaii ‘Akepa Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Eurasian Bullfinch Leucosticte arctoa, Asian Rosy-Finch Leucosticte tephrocotis, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 Leucosticte atrata, Black Rosy-Finch Leucosticte australis, Brown-capped RosyFinch Haemorhous mexicanus, House Finch Haemorhous purpureus, Purple Finch Haemorhous cassinii, Cassin’s Finch Chloris sinica, Oriental Greenfinch Acanthis flammea, Common Redpoll Acanthis hornemanni, Hoary Redpoll Loxia curvirostra, Red Crossbill Loxia sinesciuris, Cassia Crossbill Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill Spinus spinus, Eurasian Siskin Spinus pinus, Pine Siskin Spinus psaltria, Lesser Goldfinch Spinus lawrencei, Lawrence’s Goldfinch Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch Family CALCARIIDAE Calcarius lapponicus, Lapland Longspur Calcarius ornatus, Chestnut-collared Longspur Calcarius pictus, Smith’s Longspur Rhynchophanes mccownii, McCown’s Longspur Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting Plectrophenax hyperboreus, McKay’s Bunting Family EMBERIZIDAE Emberiza leucocephalos, Pine Bunting Emberiza chrysophrys, Yellow-browed Bunting Emberiza pusilla, Little Bunting Emberiza rustica, Rustic Bunting Emberiza elegans, Yellow-throated Bunting Emberiza aureola, Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza variabilis, Gray Bunting Emberiza pallasi, Pallas’s Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus, Reed Bunting Family PASSERELLIDAE Arremonops rufivirgatus, Olive Sparrow Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow Melozone fusca, Canyon Towhee Melozone crissalis, California Towhee Melozone aberti, Abert’s Towhee Peucaea carpalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow Peucaea botterii, Botteri’s Sparrow Peucaea cassinii, Cassin’s Sparrow Peucaea aestivalis, Bachman’s Sparrow Spizelloides arborea, American Tree Sparrow Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow Spizella pallida, Clay-colored Sparrow Spizella breweri, Brewer’s Sparrow Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow Spizella wortheni, Worthen’s Sparrow Spizella atrogularis, Black-chinned Sparrow Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow Amphispiza quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow Artemisiospiza nevadensis, Sagebrush Sparrow Artemisiospiza belli, Bell’s Sparrow Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow PO 00000 Frm 00020 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 Centronyx bairdii, Baird’s Sparrow Centronyx henslowii, Henslow’s Sparrow Ammospiza leconteii, LeConte’s Sparrow Ammospiza maritima, Seaside Sparrow Ammospiza nelsoni, Nelson’s Sparrow Ammospiza caudacuta, Saltmarsh Sparrow Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln’s Sparrow Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis, White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia querula, Harris’s Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia atricapilla, Golden-crowned Sparrow Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco Junco phaeonotus, Yellow-eyed Junco Family NESOSPINGIDAE Nesospingus speculiferus, Puerto Rican Tanager Family SPINDALIDAE Spindalis zena, Western Spindalis Spindalis portoricensis, Puerto Rican Spindalis Family ICTERIIDAE Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat Family ICTERIDAE Subfamily XANTHOCEPHALINAE Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Yellowheaded Blackbird Subfamily DOLICHONYCHINAE Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink Subfamily STURNELLINAE Sturnella magna, Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark Subfamily ICTERINAE Icterus portoricensis, Puerto Rican Oriole Icterus wagleri, Black-vented Oriole Icterus spurius, Orchard Oriole Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole Icterus pustulatus, Streak-backed Oriole Icterus bullockii, Bullock’s Oriole Icterus gularis, Altamira Oriole Icterus graduacauda, Audubon’s Oriole Icterus galbula, Baltimore Oriole Icterus parisorum, Scott’s Oriole Subfamily AGELAIINAE Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius tricolor, Tricolored Blackbird Agelaius humeralis, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird Agelaius xanthomus, Yellow-shouldered Blackbird Molothrus bonariensis, Shiny Cowbird Molothrus aeneus, Bronzed Cowbird Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird Euphagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer’s Blackbird Quiscalus quiscula, Common Grackle Quiscalus major, Boat-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus, Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus niger, Greater Antillean Grackle Family PARULIDAE Seiurus aurocapilla, Ovenbird Helmitheros vermivorum, Worm-eating Warbler Parkesia motacilla, Louisiana Waterthrush Parkesia noveboracensis, Northern Waterthrush Vermivora bachmanii, Bachman’s Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera, Golden-winged Warbler E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / Proposed Rules Vermivora cyanoptera, Blue-winged Warbler Mniotilta varia, Black-and-white Warbler Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson’s Warbler Oreothlypis superciliosa, Crescent-chested Warbler Oreothlypis peregrina, Tennessee Warbler Oreothlypis celata, Orange-crowned Warbler Oreothlypis crissalis, Colima Warbler Oreothlypis luciae, Lucy’s Warbler Oreothlypis ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler Oreothlypis virginiae, Virginia’s Warbler Oporornis agilis, Connecticut Warbler Geothlypis poliocephala, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat Geothlypis tolmiei, MacGillivray’s Warbler Geothlypis philadelphia, Mourning Warbler Geothlypis formosa, Kentucky Warbler Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat Setophaga angelae, Elfin-woods Warbler Setophaga citrina, Hooded Warbler Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart Setophaga kirtlandii, Kirtland’s Warbler Setophaga tigrina, Cape May Warbler Setophaga cerulea, Cerulean Warbler Setophaga americana, Northern Parula Setophaga pitiayumi, Tropical Parula Setophaga magnolia, Magnolia Warbler Setophaga castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler Setophaga fusca, Blackburnian Warbler Setophaga petechia, Yellow Warbler Setophaga pensylvanica, Chestnut-sided Warbler Setophaga striata, Blackpoll Warbler VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:18 Nov 27, 2018 Jkt 247001 Setophaga caerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler Setophaga palmarum, Palm Warbler Setophaga pinus, Pine Warbler Setophaga coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler Setophaga dominica, Yellow-throated Warbler Setophaga discolor, Prairie Warbler Setophaga adelaidae, Adelaide’s Warbler Setophaga graciae, Grace’s Warbler Setophaga nigrescens, Black-throated Gray Warbler Setophaga townsendi, Townsend’s Warbler Setophaga occidentalis, Hermit Warbler Setophaga chrysoparia, Golden-cheeked Warbler Setophaga virens, Black-throated Green Warbler Basileuterus lachrymosus, Fan-tailed Warbler Basileuterus rufifrons, Rufous-capped Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus, Golden-crowned Warbler Cardellina canadensis, Canada Warbler Cardellina pusilla, Wilson’s Warbler Cardellina rubrifrons, Red-faced Warbler Myioborus pictus, Painted Redstart Myioborus miniatus, Slate-throated Redstart Family CARDINALIDAE Piranga flava, Hepatic Tanager Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager Piranga ludoviciana, Western Tanager Piranga bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager Rhodothraupis celaeno, Crimson-collared Grosbeak PO 00000 Frm 00021 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 9990 61307 Cardinalis cardinalis, Northern Cardinal Cardinalis sinuatus, Pyrrhuloxia Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Yellow Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus, Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus melanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak Cyanocompsa parellina, Blue Bunting Passerina caerulea, Blue Grosbeak Passerina amoena, Lazuli Bunting Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting Passerina versicolor, Varied Bunting Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting Spiza americana, Dickcissel Family THRAUPIDAE Subfamily DACNINAE Cyanerpes cyaneus, Red-legged Honeycreeper Subfamily COEREBINAE Coereba flaveola, Bananaquit Tiaris olivaceus, Yellow-faced Grassquit Tiaris bicolor, Black-faced Grassquit Loxigilla portoricensis, Puerto Rican Bullfinch Subfamily SPOROPHILINAE Sporophila morelleti, Morelet’s Seedeater * * * * * Dated: October 29, 2018. Andrea Travnicek, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary—Water and Science, Exercising the Authority of the Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks. [FR Doc. 2018–25634 Filed 11–27–18; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4333–15–P E:\FR\FM\28NOP2.SGM 28NOP2

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 83, Number 229 (Wednesday, November 28, 2018)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 61288-61307]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2018-25634]



[[Page 61287]]

Vol. 83

Wednesday,

No. 229

November 28, 2018

Part IV





Department of the Interior





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 Fish and Wildlife Service





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50 CFR Part 10





General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds; Proposed Rules

Federal Register / Vol. 83 , No. 229 / Wednesday, November 28, 2018 / 
Proposed Rules

[[Page 61288]]


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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 10

[Docket No. FWS-HQ-MB-2018-0047; FXMB 12320900000//189//FF09M29000]
RIN 1018-BC67


General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Proposed rule.

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SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to 
revise the List of Migratory Birds protected by the Migratory Bird 
Treaty Act (MBTA) by both adding and removing species. Reasons for the 
changes to the list include adding species based on new taxonomy and 
new evidence of natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. 
territories, removing species no longer known to occur within the 
United States or U.S. territories, and changing names to conform to 
accepted use. The net increase of 59 species (66 added and 7 removed) 
would bring the total number of species protected by the MBTA to 1,085. 
We regulate the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, 
barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate 
and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for 
public notification and regulatory purposes.

DATES: We will accept comments received or postmarked on or before 
January 28, 2019. Comments submitted electronically using the Federal 
eRulemaking Portal (see ADDRESSES, below) must be received by 11:59 
p.m. Eastern Time on the closing date.

ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by one of the following methods:
    (1) Electronically: Go to the Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. In the Search box, enter FWS-HQ-MB-2018-0047, 
which is the docket number for this rulemaking. Then, click on the 
Search button. On the resulting page, in the Search panel on the left 
side of the screen, under the Document Type heading, click on the 
Proposed Rule box to locate this document. You may submit a comment by 
clicking on ``Comment Now!''
    (2) By hard copy: Submit by U.S. mail or hand-delivery to: Public 
Comments Processing, Attn: FWS-HQ-MB-2018-0047, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, MS: BPHC, 5275 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041-3803.
    We request that you send comments only by the methods described 
above. We will post all comments on http://www.regulations.gov. This 
generally means that we will post any personal information you provide 
us (see Public Comments, below, for more information).

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Eric L. Kershner, Chief of the Branch 
of Conservation, Permits, and Regulations; Division of Migratory Bird 
Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; MS: MB; 5275 Leesburg Pike, 
Falls Church, VA 22041-3803; (703) 358-2376.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

What statutory authority does the service have for this rulemaking?

    We have statutory authority and responsibility for enforcing the 
MBTA (16 U.S.C. 703-712), the Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 
(16 U.S.C. 742l), and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 
742a-j). The MBTA implements Conventions between the United States and 
four neighboring countries for the protection of migratory birds, as 
follows:
    (1) Canada: Convention between the United States and Great Britain 
[on behalf of Canada] for the Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 
1916, 39 Stat. 1702 (T.S. No. 628), as amended by Protocol between the 
Government of the United States and the Government of Canada Amending 
the 1916 Convention between the United Kingdom and the United States of 
America for the Protection of Migratory Birds, Sen. Treaty Doc. 104-28 
(December 14, 1995);
    (2) Mexico: Convention between the United States and Mexico for the 
Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, 50 
Stat. 1311 (T.S. No. 912), as amended by Protocol with Mexico amending 
Convention for Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, Sen. 
Treaty Doc. 105-26 (May 5, 1997);
    (3) Japan: Convention between the Government of the United States 
of America and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory 
Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 
4, 1972, 25 U.S.T. 3329 (T.I.A.S. No. 7990); and
    (4) Russia: Convention between the United States of America and the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning the Conservation of 
Migratory Birds and Their Environment (Russia), November 19, 1976, 29 
U.S.T. 4647 (T.I.A.S. No. 9073).

What is the purpose of this rulemaking?

    Our purpose is to inform the public of the species protected by the 
MBTA and its implementing regulations. These regulations are found in 
Title 50, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), parts 10, 20, and 21. We 
regulate the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, 
barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate 
and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for 
notifying the public of regulatory protections.

Why is the amendment of the list of migratory birds necessary?

    The amendments we are proposing are needed to:
    (1) Add 17 species that qualify for protection under the MBTA;
    (2) Correct the spelling of 3 species names on the alphabetized 
list;
    (3) Correct the spelling of 3 species names on the taxonomic list;
    (4) Add 22 species based on new distributional records documenting 
their natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories since 
2010;
    (5) Add one species moved from a family that was not protected to a 
family now protected under the MBTA as a result of taxonomic changes;
    (6) Add 26 species newly recognized as a result of recent taxonomic 
changes;
    (7) Remove 7 species not known to occur within the boundaries of 
the United States or U.S. territories as a result of recent taxonomic 
changes;
    (8) Change the common (English) names of 40 species to conform to 
accepted use; and
    (9) Change the scientific names of 114 species to conform to 
accepted use.
    The List of Migratory Birds (50 CFR 10.13) was last revised on 
November 1, 2013 (78 FR 65844). The amendments proposed in this rule 
were necessitated by eight published supplements to the 7th (1998) 
edition of the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU, now recognized as 
American Ornithological Society (AOS)) Check-list of North American 
Birds (AOU 2011, AOU 2012, AOU 2013, AOU 2014, AOU 2015, AOU 2016, AOS 
2017, and AOS 2018) and the 2017 publication of the Clements Checklist 
of Birds of the World (Clements et al. 2017).

What scientific authorities are used to amend the list of migratory 
birds?

    Although bird names (common and scientific) are relatively stable, 
staying current with standardized use is necessary to avoid confusion 
in communications. In making our determinations, we primarily relied on

[[Page 61289]]

the AOS's Checklist of North American birds (AOU 1998), as amended 
annually (AOU 1999 through 2016, AOS 2017, AOS 2018), on matters of 
taxonomy, nomenclature, and the sequence of species and other higher 
taxonomic categories (Orders, Families, Subfamilies) for species that 
occur in North America. The AOS Checklist contains all bird species 
that have occurred in North America from the Arctic through Panama, 
including the West Indies and the Hawaiian Islands, and includes 
distributional information for each species, which specifies whether 
the species is known to occur in the United States. For the species 
that occur outside the geographic area covered by the AOS Checklist, we 
relied on Clements et al. (2017) and peer-reviewed literature. Although 
we primarily rely on the above sources, when informed taxonomic opinion 
is inconsistent or controversial, we evaluate available published and 
unpublished information and come to our own conclusion regarding the 
validity of taxa.

What criteria are used to identify individual species protected by the 
MBTA?

    A species qualifies for protection under the MBTA by meeting one or 
more of the following criteria:
    (1) It occurs in the United States or U.S. territories as the 
result of natural biological or ecological processes and is currently, 
or was previously listed as, a species or part of a family protected by 
one of the four international treaties or their amendments. Any species 
that occurs in the United States or U.S. territories solely as a result 
of intentional or unintentional human-assisted introduction does not 
qualify for the MBTA list, regardless of whether the family the species 
belongs to is listed in any of the treaties, unless:

     It was native to the United States or its territories 
and extant in 1918;
     It was extirpated after 1918 throughout its range in 
the United States and its territories; and
     After such extirpation, it was reintroduced in the 
United States or its territories as part of a program carried out by 
a Federal agency.

    (2) Revised taxonomy results in it being newly split from a species 
that was previously on the list, and the new species occurs in the 
United States or U.S. territories as the result of natural biological 
or ecological processes. If a newly recognized native species is 
considered extinct (following the classification of the American 
Ornithological Society (AOS) or, for species not covered by the AOS, 
the Clements checklist or peer-reviewed literature), that species will 
still be included if either of the following criteria apply:
     The species resembles extant species included in the list 
that may be affected by trade if the species is not included; or
     Not including the species may create difficulties 
implementing the MBTA and its underlying Conventions.
    (3) New evidence exists for its natural occurrence in the United 
States or U.S. territories resulting from new or natural distributional 
changes and the species occurs in a protected family. Records must be 
documented, accepted, and published by the AOS committee. For the U.S. 
Pacific territories that fall outside the geographic scope of the AOS 
and for which there is no identified ornithological authority, new 
evidence of a species' natural occurrence will be based on the Clements 
checklist and then published peer-reviewed literature, in that order.
    In accordance with the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act of 2004 
(MBTRA) (Pub. L. 108-447, 118 Stat. 2809, 3071-72), we only include 
migratory bird species that are native to the United States or U.S. 
territories. A native migratory bird species is one that is present as 
a result of natural biological or ecological processes. The list at 50 
CFR 10.13 does not include nonnative species that occur in the United 
States or U.S. territories solely as a result of intentional or 
unintentional human-assisted introduction(s). Elsewhere in today's 
Federal Register, we publish a notice of availability of the draft 
revised list of nonnative bird species that are not protected under the 
MBTA.

How would the proposed changes affect the list of migratory birds?

    Several taxonomic changes were made at the Order and Family level 
by the AOS since our 2013 publication of the list (78 FR 65844; 
November 1, 2013). These changes affect the inclusion and taxonomic 
order of species on this list. Specifically, the Order Cathartiformes 
(New World vultures) was split from the Accipitriformes (diurnal birds 
of prey). Cathartiformes now includes the Family Cathartidae (vultures 
and California condor). At the Family level, the Oceanitidae (southern 
storm-petrels) was split from the Hydrobatidae (northern storm-
petrels), the Tityridae (becards and tityras) was split from the 
Tyrannidae (tyrant flycatchers), the Passerellidae (towhees, sparrows, 
and juncos) was split from the Emberizidae (buntings), the Megaluridae 
(Locustella warblers) was renamed to Locustellidae. The Ptilogonatidae 
(silky-flycatchers) was renamed to the Ptiliogonatidae. The 
Nesospingidae (Puerto Rican tanager) and the Spindalidae (Spindalis 
genus) were split from the Thraupidae (tanagers). The yellow-breasted 
chat was split from the Parulidae (wood-warblers) and placed into 
Icteriidae (chats). Within the Scolopacidae (sandpipers, phalaropes, 
and allies), new Subfamilies were created: The curlews were moved to 
Numeniinae; the godwits to Limosinae; and small sandpipers to 
Arenariinae and larger sandpipers to Tringinae, including phalaropes 
whose previous Subfamily Phalaropodinae was removed. Within the 
Accipitridae (hawks, eagles, and kites), new Subfamilies were created: 
The white-tailed kite was move to Elaninae, hook-billed and swallow-
tailed kite were moved to Gypaetinae, and all other members of the 
family were moved to Accipitrinae. Within the Icteridae (blackbirds), 
new Subfamilies were created: Yellow-headed blackbird was moved to 
Xanthocephalinae; bobolink was moved to Dolichonychinae; meadowlarks 
were moved to Sturnellinae; orioles were moved to Icterinae; and 
blackbirds, cowbirds, and grackles were moved to Agelaiinae. In the 
Falconidae (caracaras and falcons), collared forest-falcon was moved 
into the new Subfamily Herpetotherinae, and the Subfamily Caracarinae 
was removed, with crested caracara moved to the Subfamily Falconinae. 
In the Fringillidae (finches and allies), the Hawaiian fringillids were 
moved from the Subfamily Drepanidinae to Carduelinae. The Old World 
flycatchers in the Turdidae (thrushes) were moved to the Muscicapidae 
(Old World flycatchers). Bananaquit was moved from the Coerebidae (a 
family not protected by MBTA) to the Thraupidae (tanagers and allies), 
which is a family protected by the MBTA. All other tanagers were also 
moved from the Emberizidae (sparrows) to the Thraupidae. Within 
Thraupidae, the seedeaters were moved into the Subfamily Sporophilinae, 
and bananaquit, grassquits, and bullfinches were moved into the 
Subfamily Coerebinae.
    All species previously receiving protection under the MBTA that 
have been moved to newly created Families continue to be protected 
under the MBTA.
    The proposed amendments (66 additions, 7 removals, and 154 name 
changes) would affect a total of 204 species and would result in a net 
addition of 59 species to the List of Migratory Birds, increasing the 
number of species on the list from 1,026 to

[[Page 61290]]

1,085. Of the 66 species that we would add to the list, 26 were 
previously covered under the MBTA as members of the same species 
(conspecific) of listed species. These proposed amendments can be 
logically arranged in the following nine categories:
    (1) Add 17 species that qualify for protection by the MBTA but have 
not been added previously. The addition of these species is the result 
of either accepting AOS taxonomic updates that were previously excluded 
or determinations of documented natural occurrence in the United States 
or U.S. territories. The species and relevant publication(s) are:

Pink-footed Goose, Anser brachyrhynchus (AOU 1983);
Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii (AOU 2003);
European Turtle-Dove, Streptopelia turtur (AOU 2007);
Long-tailed Koel, Urodynamis taitensis (Wiles 2005);
White-tailed Nightjar, Hydropsalis cayennensis (AOU 1983);
Vervain Hummingbird, Mellisuga minima (AOU 1983);
Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus (Enbring and Owen 1981);
Common Redshank, Tringa totanus (Wiles 2005);
Nazca Booby, Sula granti (AOU 2000);
Abbott's Booby, Papasula abbotti (Pratt et al. 2009);
Rufous Night-Heron, Nycticorax caledonicus (Glass et al. 1990);
Gray-faced Buzzard, Butastur indicus (Stinson et al. 1997);
Eastern Marsh-Harrier, Circus spilonotus (Wiles et al. 2000);
Amur Falcon, Falco amurensis (Stinson et al. 1991);
Eurasian Jackdaw, Corvus monedula (AOU 1998);
Redwing, Turdus iliacus (AOU 1983);
Common Kingfisher, Alcedo atthis (Wiles et al. 1993).

    (2) Correct the spelling of three common or scientific names on the 
alphabetized list:
Eared Quetzel, Euptilotis neoxenus, becomes Eared Quetzal
Red-footed falcon, Flaco vespertinus, becomes Falco vespertinus
Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophalus becomes Legatus leucophaius
    (3) Correct the spelling of three common or scientific names on the 
taxonomic list:
Eared Quetzel, Euptilotis neoxenus, becomes Eared Quetzal
White-crested Eleania, Elaenia albiceps becomes White-crested Elaenia
Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophalus becomes Legatus leucophaius
    (4) Add 22 species based on review and acceptance by the AOS (since 
2010) or by other appropriate ornithological authorities of new 
distributional records documenting their occurrence in the United 
States or U.S. territories. These species belong to families covered by 
at least one of the four international conventions, and all are 
considered to be of accidental or casual occurrence. For each species, 
we list the State in which it has been recorded plus the relevant 
publication:

Common Scoter, Melanitta nigra--California and Oregon (AOS 2017);
Amethyst-throated Hummingbird, Lampornis amethystinus--Texas (AOS 
2018);
Rufous-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides axillaris--New Mexico (AOU 2016);
Solitary Snipe, Gallinago solitaria--Alaska (AOU 2011);
Chatham Albatross, Thalassarche eremita--California (AOS 2017);
Providence Petrel, Pterodroma solandri--Alaska (AOU 2013);
Fea's Petrel, Pterodroma feae--North Carolina, Georgia, Virginia 
(AOU 2013);
Zino's Petrel, Pterodroma madeira--North Carolina, (AOU 2015);
White-chinned Petrel, Procellaria aequinoctialis--Texas, California, 
Maine (AOU 2011);
Bryan's Shearwater, Puffinus bryani--Hawaii (AOU 2012);
Bare-throated Tiger-Heron, Tigrisoma mexicanum--Texas (AOU 2011);
Double-toothed Kite, Harpagus bidentatus--Texas (AOU 2013);
Amazon Kingfisher, Chloroceryle amazona--Texas (AOU 2011);
Gray-collared Becard, Pachyramphus major--Arizona (AOU 2011);
Pine Flycatcher, Empidonax affinis--Arizona (AOS 2018);
Cuban Vireo, Vireo gundlachii--Florida (AOS 2018);
Common Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita--Alaska (AOU 2014);
Blyth's Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus dumetorum--Alaska (AOU 2017);
Common Redstart, Phoenicurus phoenicurus--Alaska (AOU 2015);
Brown-backed Solitaire, Myadestes occidentalis--Arizona (AOU 2011);
Asian Rosy-Finch, Leucosticte arctoa--Alaska (AOU 2013);
Red-legged Honeycreeper, Cyanerpes cyaneus--Texas (AOS 2017).

    (5) Add one species because of recent taxonomic changes 
transferring a species in a Family formerly not protected by the MBTA 
(Coerebidae) into a Family protected under the MBTA (Thraupidae). We 
reference the AOU publication supporting the change: Bananaquit, 
Coereba flaveola, (AOU 2015).
    (6) Add 26 species because of recent taxonomic changes in which 
taxa formerly treated as conspecific have been determined to be 
distinct species. Given that each of these species was formerly treated 
as conspecific with a listed species, these additions would not change 
the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which 
they are known. In each case, we reference the AOS or relevant 
publication supporting the change:

Ridgway's Rail, Rallus obsoletus--formerly considered conspecific 
with Clapper Rail, Rallus longirostris (AOU 2014);
Common Gallinule, Gallinula galeata--formerly considered conspecific 
with Common Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus (AOU 2011);
Scripps's Murrelet, Synthliboramphus scrippsi--formerly considered 
conspecific with Xantus's Murrelet, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (AOU 
2012);
Salvin's Albatross, Thalassarche salvini--formerly considered 
conspecific with Shy Albatross, Thalassarche cauta (AOU 2014);
Trindade Petrel, Pterodroma arminjoniana --formerly considered 
conspecific with Herald Petrel, Pterodroma heraldica (AOU 2015);
Newell's Shearwater, Puffinus newelli--formerly considered 
conspecific with Townsend's Shearwater, Puffinus auricularis (AOU 
2015);
Barolo Shearwater, Puffinus baroli--formerly considered conspecific 
with Little Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis (AOU 2013);
Townsend's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma socorroensis--formerly 
considered conspecific with Leach's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma 
leucorhoa (AOU 2016);
Northern Boobook, Ninox japonica--formerly considered conspecific 
with Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata (AOU 2014);
Pacific Kingfisher, Todiramphus sacer--formerly considered 
conspecific with Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements 
et al. 2015);
Mariana Kingfisher, Todiramphus albicilla--formerly considered 
conspecific with Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements 
et al. 2015);
Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma woodhouseii--formerly considered 
conspecific with Western Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma californica (AOU 
2016);
Kamchatka Leaf Warbler, Phylloscopus examinandus--formerly 
considered conspecific with Arctic Warbler, Phylloscopus borealis 
(AOU 2014);
Saipan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus hiwae--formerly considered 
conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius 
(Clements et al. 2013);
Aguiguan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus nijoi--formerly considered 
conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius 
(Clements et al. 2013);
Pagan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus yamashinae--formerly considered 
conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius 
(Clements et al. 2013);
Laysan Honeycreeper, Himatione fraithii-- formerly considered 
conspecific with Apapane, Himatione sanguinea (AOU 2015)
Kauai Nukupu[revaps]u, Hemignathus hanapepe--formerly considered 
conspecific with Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus (AOU 2015);
Maui Nukupu[revaps]u, Hemignathus affins--formerly considered 
conspecific with

[[Page 61291]]

Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus (AOU 2015);
Kauai [revaps]Akialoa, Akialoa stejnegeri--formerly considered 
conspecific with Greater Akialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (AOU 2015);
Maui Nui [revaps]Akialoa, Akialoa lanaiensis--formerly considered 
conspecific with Greater Akialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (AOU 2015);
O[revaps]ahu [revaps]Akepa, Loxops wolstenholmei--formerly 
considered conspecific with Akepa, Loxops coccineus (AOU 2015);
Maui [revaps]Akepa, Loxops ochraceus--formerly considered 
conspecific with Akepa, Loxops coccineus (AOU 2015);
Cassia Crossbill, Loxia sinesciuris--formerly considered conspecific 
with Red Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra (AOS 2017);
Sagebrush Sparrow, Artemisiospiza nevadensis--formerly considered 
conspecific with Sage Sparrow, Amphispiza belli (AOU 2013);
Morelet's Seedeater, Sporophila morelleti--formerly considered 
conspecific with White-collared Seedeater, Sporophila torqueola (AOS 
2018).

    (7) Remove seven species based on revised taxonomic treatments, 
either because a species is taxonomically merged with another species, 
either on or off the list; a species previously on the list is 
taxonomically split into multiple species and the new species is not 
known to occur within the United States or U.S. territories; or the 
species is considered extinct (following the classification of the AOS 
or, for species not covered by the AOS, the Clements checklist or peer-
reviewed literature) unless any of the following criteria apply: It is 
protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 
U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), or the Convention on International Trade in 
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES; 27 U.S.T. 1087); it 
resembles extant species included in the list that may be affected by 
its removal; or its removal would create difficulties implementing the 
MBTA and its underlying Conventions. In each case, we reference the 
publication supporting these changes:

Thayer's Gull, Larus thayeri, now a subspecies of Iceland Gull, 
Larus glaucoides (AOS 2017);
Townsend's Shearwater, Puffinus auricularis (AOU 2015);
Little Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis (AOU 2015);
Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata (AOU 2014);
Caribbean Coot, Fulica caribaea (AOU 2016);
Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements et al. 2015);
White-collared Seedeater, Sporophila torqueola (AOS 2018).

    (8) Revise the common (English) names of 40 species to conform to 
the most recent nomenclatural treatment as described in AOU 
publications 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, AOS 2017, AOS 2018, 
and Clements et al. (2017). Hawaiian species names are modified to 
official Hawaiian spelling, following the Pukui-Elbert Hawaiian 
Dictionary, adding the diacritical marks to the common names where 
applicable. The Government Publishing Office Style Manual requires the 
words Hawaii and Kauai to be spelled without the diacritical mark. 
These revisions do not change the protective status of any of these 
taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, the update 
is described in the table, below.
    (9) Revise the scientific names of 114 species to conform to the 
most recent nomenclatural treatment as described in AOU publications 
2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, AOS 2017, AOS 2018, and Clements et 
al. (2017). These revisions do not change the protective status of any 
of these taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, 
the update is described in the table, below.
    Table of Proposed Name Changes, as described in categories 8 and 9, 
above. Table is organized following AOS (2017) taxonomic order. The 
relevant AOS publication is provided. Hawaiian common name changes are 
indicated with a (--).

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    Previous common     Current common
   Publication source and year           name                name
------------------------------------------------------------------------
AOU 2004........................  Canada Goose        Canada Goose,
                                   (including Branta   Branta
                                   hutchinsii),        canadensis.
                                   Branta canadensis.
AOU 2016........................  Green Violetear,    Mexican Violetear,
                                   Colibri             Colibri
                                   thalassinus.        thalassinus.
AOS 2017........................  Magnificent         Rivoli's
                                   hummingbird,        Hummingbird,
                                   Eugenes fulgens.    Eugenes fulgens.
AOU 2012........................  Xantus's Murrelet,  Guadalupe
                                   Synthliboramphus    Murrelet,
                                   hypoleucus.         Synthliboramphus
                                                       hypoleucus.
AOU 2014........................  Shy Albatross,      White-capped
                                   Thalassarche        Albatross,
                                   cauta.              Thalassarche
                                                       cauta.
AOU 2015........................  Herald Petrel,      Trindade Petrel,
                                   Pterodroma          Pterodroma
                                   arminjoniana.       arminjoniana.
Clements et al. 2000............  Pacific Reef-       Pacific Reef-
                                   Egret, Egretta      Heron, Egretta
                                   sacra.              sacra.
AOU 2012........................  Gray Frog-Hawk,     Chinese
                                   Accipiter           Sparrowhawk,
                                   soloensis.          Accipiter
                                                       soloensis.
AOU 2014........................  Common Black-Hawk,  Common Black Hawk,
                                   Buteogallus         Buteogallus
                                   anthracinus.        anthracinus.
AOS 2018........................  Gray Jay,           Canada Jay,
                                   Perisoreus          Perisoreus
                                   canadensis.         canadensis.
AOU 2016........................  Western Scrub-Jay,  California Scrub-
                                   Aphelocoma          Jay, Aphelocoma
                                   californica.        californica.
AOU 2016........................  Eurasian Sky Lark,  Eurasian Skylark,
                                   Alauda arvensis.    Alauda arvensis.
AOU 2014........................  Pallas's Leaf-      Pallas's Leaf
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Phylloscopus        Phylloscopus
                                   proregulus.         proregulus.
--..............................  Kamao, Myadestes    K[atilde]ma`o,
                                   myadestinus.        Myadestes
                                                       myadestinus.
--..............................  Olomao, Myadestes   Oloma`o, Myadestes
                                   lanaiensis.         lanaiensis.
--..............................  Omao, Myadestes     `[Otilde]ma'o,
                                   obscurus.           Myadestes
                                                       obscurus.
AOS 2017........................  Le Conte's          LeConte's
                                   Thrasher,           Thrasher,
                                   Toxostoma           Toxostoma
                                   lecontei.           lecontei.
AOU 2015........................  Nukupuu,            O`ahu Nukupu`u,
                                   Hemignathus         Hemignathus
                                   lucidus.            lucidus.
--..............................  Poo-uli,            Po`ouli,
                                   Melamprosops        Melamprosops
                                   phaeosoma.          phaeosoma.
--..............................  Akikiki,            `Akikiki,
                                   Oreomystis bairdi.  Oreomystis
                                                       bairdi.
--..............................  Oahu Alauahio,      O`ahu `Alauahio,
                                   Paroreomyza         Paroreomyza
                                   maculata.           maculata.
--..............................  Kakawahie,          K[atilde]k[atilde]
                                   Paroreomyza         wahie,
                                   flammea.            Paroreomyza
                                                       flammea.
--..............................  Maui Alauahio,      Maui `Alauahio,
                                   Paroreomyza         Paroreomyza
                                   montana.            montana.
--..............................  Akohekohe,          `Akohekohe,
                                   Palmeria dolei.     Palmeria dolei.
--..............................  Apapane, Himatione  `Apapane,
                                   sanguinea.          Himatione
                                                       sanguinea.
--..............................  Iiwi, Drepanis      `I`iwi, Drepanis
                                   coccinea.           coccinea.
--..............................  Ou, Psittirostra    `[Otilde]`[utilde]
                                   psittacea.          , Psittirostra
                                                       psittacea.
--..............................  Anianiau, Magumma   `Anianiau, Magumma
                                   parva.              parva.
--..............................  Akekee, Loxops      `Akeke`e, Loxops
                                   caeruleirostris.    caeruleirostris.
AOU 2015........................  Akepa, Loxops       Hawaii `Akepa,
                                   coccineus.          Loxops coccineus.
AOS 2017........................  Le Conte's          LeConte's Sparrow,
                                   Sparrow,            Ammodramus
                                   Ammodramus          leconteii.
                                   leconteii.
AOS 2017........................  Emperor Goose,      Emperor Goose,
                                   Chen canagica.      Anser canagicus.
AOS 2017........................  Snow Goose, Chen    Snow Goose, Anser
                                   caerulescens.       caerulescens.

[[Page 61292]]

 
AOS 2017........................  Ross's Goose, Chen  Ross's Goose,
                                   rossii.             Anser rossii.
AOS 2017........................  Baikal Teal, Anas   Baikal Teal,
                                   formosa.            Sibirionetta
                                                       formosa.
AOS 2017........................  Garganey, Anas      Garganey, Spatula
                                   querquedula.        querquedula.
AOS 2017........................  Blue-winged Teal,   Blue-winged Teal,
                                   Anas discors.       Spatula discors.
AOS 2017........................  Cinnamon Teal,      Cinnamon Teal,
                                   Anas cyanoptera.    Spatula
                                                       cyanoptera.
AOS 2017........................  Northern Shoveler,  Northern Shoveler,
                                   Anas clypeata.      Spatula clypeata.
AOS 2017........................  Gadwall, Anas       Gadwall, Mareca
                                   strepera.           strepera.
AOS 2017........................  Falcated Duck,      Falcated Duck,
                                   Anas falcata.       Mareca falcata.
AOS 2017........................  Eurasian Wigeon,    Eurasian Wigeon,
                                   Anas penelope.      Mareca penelope.
AOS 2017........................  American Wigeon,    American Wigeon,
                                   Anas americana.     Mareca americana.
Clements et al. 2017............  White-throated      White-throated
                                   Ground-Dove,        Ground-Dove,
                                   Gallicolumba        Alopecoenas
                                   xanthonura.         xanthonura.
Clements et al. 2010............  Hodgson's Hawk-     Hodgson's Hawk-
                                   Cuckoo, Cuculus     Cuckoo,
                                   fugax.              Hierococcyx
                                                       nisicolor.
AOU 2012........................  Chuck-will's-       Chuck-will's-
                                   widow,              widow,
                                   Caprimulgus         Antrostomus
                                   carolinensis.       carolinensis.
AOU 2012........................  Buff-collared       Buff-collared
                                   Nightjar,           Nightjar,
                                   Caprimulgus         Antrostomus
                                   ridgwayi.           ridgwayi.
AOU 2012........................  Eastern Whip-poor-  Eastern Whip-poor-
                                   will, Caprimulgus   will, Antrostomus
                                   vociferus.          vociferus.
AOU 2012........................  Mexican Whip-poor-  Mexican Whip-poor-
                                   will, Caprimulgus   will, Antrostomus
                                   arizonae.           arizonae.
AOU 2012........................  Puerto Rican        Puerto Rican
                                   Nightjar,           Nightjar,
                                   Caprimulgus         Antrostomus
                                   noctitherus.        noctitherus.
AOS 2018........................  Gray Nightjar,      Gray Nightjar,
                                   Caprimulgus         Caprimulgus
                                   indicus.            jotaka.
AOU 2012........................  Calliope            Calliope
                                   Hummingbird,        Hummingbird,
                                   Stellula calliope.  Selasphorus
                                                       calliope.
AOU 2014........................  Clapper Rail,       Clapper Rail,
                                   Rallus              Rallus crepitans.
                                   longirostris.
AOU 2016........................  Yellow-breasted     Yellow-breasted
                                   Crake, Porzana      Crake, Hapalocrex
                                   flaviventer.        flaviventer.
AOU 2012........................  Purple Gallinule,   Purple Gallinule,
                                   Porphyrio           Porphyrio
                                   martinica.          martinicus.
AOU 2016........................  Sandhill Crane,     Sandhill Crane,
                                   Grus canadensis.    Antigone
                                                       canadensis.
AOU 2011........................  Snowy Plover,       Snowy Plover,
                                   Charadrius          Charadrius
                                   alexandrinus.       nivosus.
AOU 2013........................  Surfbird, Aphriza   Surfbird, Calidris
                                   virgata.            virgata.
AOU 2013........................  Ruff, Philomachus   Ruff, Calidris
                                   pugnax.             pugnax.
AOU 2013........................  Broad-billed        Broad-billed
                                   Sandpiper,          Sandpiper,
                                   Limicola            Calidris
                                   falcinellus.        falcinellus.
AOU 2013........................  Spoon-billed        Spoon-billed
                                   Sandpiper,          Sandpiper,
                                   Eurynorhynchus      Calidris pygmea.
                                   pygmeus.
AOU 2013........................  Buff-breasted       Buff-breasted
                                   Sandpiper,          Sandpiper,
                                   Tryngites           Calidris
                                   subruficollis.      subruficollis.
AOS 2017........................  Blue-gray Noddy,    Blue-gray Noddy,
                                   Procelsterna        Anous ceruleus.
                                   cerulea.
AOU 2003........................  Whiskered Tern,     Whiskered Tern,
                                   Chlidonias          Chlidonias
                                   hybridus.           hybrida.
AOS 2018........................  Tahiti Petrel,      Tahiti Petrel,
                                   Pterodroma          Pseudobulweria
                                   rostrata.           rostrata.
AOU 2016........................  Wedge-tailed        Wedge-tailed
                                   Shearwater,         Shearwater,
                                   Puffinus            Ardenna pacifica.
                                   pacificus.
AOU 2016........................  Buller's            Buller's
                                   Shearwater,         Shearwater,
                                   Puffinus bulleri.   Ardenna bulleri.
AOU 2016........................  Short-tailed        Short-tailed
                                   Shearwater,         Shearwater,
                                   Puffinus            Ardenna
                                   tenuirostris.       tenuirostris.
AOU 2016........................  Sooty Shearwater,   Sooty Shearwater,
                                   Puffinus griseus.   Ardenna grisea.
AOU 2016........................  Great Shearwater,   Great Shearwater,
                                   Puffinus gravis.    Ardenna gravis.
AOU 2016........................  Pink-footed         Pink-footed
                                   Shearwater,         Shearwater,
                                   Puffinus            Ardenna
                                   creatopus.          creatopus.
AOU 2016........................  Flesh-footed        Flesh-footed
                                   Shearwater,         Shearwater,
                                   Puffinus            Ardenna
                                   carneipes.          carneipes.
AOS 2017........................  Intermediate        Intermediate
                                   Egret, Mesophoyx    Egret, Ardea
                                   intermedia.         intermedia.
AOS 2017........................  Northern Harrier,   Northern Harrier,
                                   Circus cyaneus.     Circus hudsonius.
AOU 2015........................  Roadside Hawk,      Roadside Hawk,
                                   Buteo               Rupornis
                                   magnirostris.       magnirostris.
AOU 2015........................  White-tailed Hawk,  White-tailed Hawk,
                                   Buteo               Geranoaetus
                                   albicaudatus.       albicaudatus.
AOS 2018........................  Downy Woodpecker,   Downy Woodpecker,
                                   Picoides            Dryobates
                                   pubescens.          pubescens.
AOS 2018........................  Nuttall's           Nuttall's
                                   Woodpecker,         Woodpecker,
                                   Picoides            Dryobates
                                   nuttallii.          nuttallii.
AOS 2018........................  Ladder-backed       Ladder-backed
                                   Woodpecker,         Woodpecker,
                                   Picoides scalaris.  Dryobates
                                                       scalaris.
AOS 2018........................  Red-cockaded        Red-cockaded
                                   Woodpecker,         Woodpecker,
                                   Picoides borealis.  Dryobates
                                                       borealis.
AOS 2018........................  Hairy Woodpecker,   Hairy Woodpecker,
                                   Picoides villosus.  Dryobates
                                                       villosus.
AOS 2018........................  White-headed        White-headed
                                   Woodpecker,         Woodpecker,
                                   Picoides            Dryobates
                                   albolarvatus.       albolarvatus.
AOS 2018........................  Arizona             Arizona
                                   Woodpecker,         Woodpecker,
                                   Picoides arizonae.  Dryobates
                                                       arizonae.
AOU 2013........................  Flammulated Owl,    Flammulated Owl,
                                   Otus flammeolus.    Psiloscops
                                                       flammeolus.
AOS 2017........................  Northern Shrike,    Northern Shrike,
                                   Lanius excubitor.   Lanius borealis.
AOU 2011........................  Mexican Jay,        Mexican Jay,
                                   Aphelocoma          Aphelocoma
                                   ultramarina.        wollweberi.
AOU 2012........................  Sinaloa Wren,       Sinaloa Wren,
                                   Thryothorus         Thryophilus
                                   sinaloa.            sinaloa.
AOS 2018........................  Siberian Blue       Siberian Blue
                                   Robin, Luscinia     Robin, Larvivora
                                   cyane.              cyane.
AOS 2018........................  Rufous-tailed       Rufous-tailed
                                   Robin, Luscinia     Robin, Larvivora
                                   sibilans.           sibilans.
AOS 2018........................  Bluethroat,         Bluethroat,
                                   Luscinia svecica.   Cyanecula
                                                       svecica.
AOS 2018........................  Siberian            Siberian
                                   Rubythroat,         Rubythroat,
                                   Luscinia calliope.  Calliope
                                                       calliope.
Clements et al. 2015............  Chestnut-cheeked    Chestnut-cheeked
                                   Starling, Sturnus   Starling,
                                   phillippensis.      Agropsar
                                                       philippensis.
Clements et al. 2015............  White-cheeked       White-cheeked
                                   Starling, Sturnus   Starling,
                                   cineraceus.         Spodiopsar
                                                       cineraceus.
AOU 2013........................  Gray Silky-         Gray Silky-
                                   flycatcher,         flycatcher,
                                   Ptilogonys          Ptiliogonys
                                   cinereus.           cinereus.
AOU 2012........................  House Finch,        House Finch,
                                   Carpodacus          Haemorhous
                                   mexicanus.          mexicanus.
AOU 2012........................  Purple Finch,       Purple Finch,
                                   Carpodacus          Haemorhous
                                   purpureus.          purpureus.
AOU 2012........................  Cassin's Finch,     Cassin's Finch,
                                   Carpodacus          Haemorhous
                                   cassinii.           cassinii.
AOU 2015........................  American Tree       American Tree
                                   Sparrow, Spizella   Sparrow,
                                   arborea.            Spizelloides
                                                       arborea.
AOS 2018........................  Baird's Sparrow,    Baird's Sparrow,
                                   Ammodramus          Centronyx
                                   bairdii.            bairdii.
AOS 2018........................  Henslow's Sparrow,  Henslow's Sparrow,
                                   Ammodramus          Centronyx
                                   henslowii.          henslowii.
AOS 2018........................  LeConte's Sparrow,  LeConte's Sparrow,
                                   Ammodramus          Ammospiza
                                   leconteii.          leconteii.
AOS 2018........................  Seaside Sparrow,    Seaside Sparrow,
                                   Ammodramus          Ammospiza
                                   maritima.           maritima.
AOS 2018........................  Nelson's Sparrow,   Nelson's Sparrow,
                                   Ammodramus          Ammospiza
                                   nelsoni.            nelsoni.
AOS 2018........................  Saltmarsh Sparrow,  Saltmarsh Sparrow,
                                   Ammodramus          Ammospiza
                                   caudacuta.          caudacuta.
AOU 2011........................  MacGillivray's      MacGillivray's
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Oporornis tolmiei.  Geothlypis
                                                       tolmiei.
AOU 2011........................  Mourning Warbler,   Mourning Warbler,
                                   Oporornis           Geothlypis
                                   philadelphia.       philadelphia.

[[Page 61293]]

 
AOU 2011........................  Kentucky Warbler,   Kentucky Warbler,
                                   Oporornis           Geothlypis
                                   formosus.           formosa.
AOU 2011........................  Elfin-woods         Elfin-woods
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica angelae.  Setophaga
                                                       angelae.
AOU 2011........................  Hooded Warbler,     Hooded Warbler,
                                   Wilsonia citrina.   Setophaga
                                                       citrina.
AOU 2011........................  Kirtland's          Kirtland's
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   kirtlandii.         kirtlandii.
AOU 2011........................  Cape May Warbler,   Cape May Warbler,
                                   Dendroica tigrina.  Setophaga
                                                       tigrina.
AOU 2011........................  Cerulean Warbler,   Cerulean Warbler,
                                   Dendroica cerulea.  Setophaga
                                                       cerulea.
AOU 2011........................  Northern Parula,    Northern Parula,
                                   Parula americana.   Setophaga
                                                       americana.
AOU 2011........................  Tropical Parula,    Tropical Parula,
                                   Parula pitiayumi.   Setophaga
                                                       pitiayumi.
AOU 2011........................  Magnolia Warbler,   Magnolia Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   magnolia.           magnolia.
AOU 2011........................  Bay-breasted        Bay-breasted
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   castanea.           castanea.
AOU 2011........................  Blackburnian        Blackburnian
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica fusca.    Setophaga fusca.
AOU 2011........................  Yellow Warbler,     Yellow Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   petechia.           petechia.
AOU 2011........................  Chestnut-sided      Chestnut-sided
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   pensylvanica.       pensylvanica.
AOU 2011........................  Blackpoll Warbler,  Blackpoll Warbler,
                                   Dendroica striata.  Setophaga
                                                       striata.
AOU 2011........................  Black-throated      Black-throated
                                   Blue Warbler,       Blue Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   caerulescens.       caerulescens.
AOU 2011........................  Palm Warbler,       Palm Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   palmarum.           palmarum.
AOU 2011........................  Pine Warbler,       Pine Warbler,
                                   Dendroica pinus.    Setophaga pinus.
AOU 2011........................  Yellow-rumped       Yellow-rumped
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   coronata.           coronata.
AOU 2011........................  Yellow-throated     Yellow-throated
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   dominica.           dominica.
AOU 2011........................  Prairie Warbler,    Prairie Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   discolor.           discolor.
AOU 2011........................  Adelaide's          Adelaide's
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   adelaidae.          adelaidae.
AOU 2011........................  Grace's Warbler,    Grace's Warbler,
                                   Dendroica graciae.  Setophaga
                                                       graciae.
AOU 2011........................  Black-throated      Black-throated
                                   Gray Warbler,       Gray Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   nigrescens.         nigrescens.
AOU 2011........................  Townsend's          Townsend's
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   townsendi.          townsendi.
AOU 2011........................  Hermit Warbler,     Hermit Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   occidentalis.       occidentalis.
AOU 2011........................  Golden-cheeked      Golden-cheeked
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Dendroica           Setophaga
                                   chrysoparia.        chrysoparia.
AOU 2011........................  Black-throated      Black-throated
                                   Green Warbler,      Green Warbler,
                                   Dendroica virens.   Setophaga virens.
AOU 2011........................  Fan-tailed          Fan-tailed
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Euthlypis           Basileuterus
                                   lachrymosa.         lachrymosus.
AOU 2011........................  Canada Warbler,     Canada Warbler,
                                   Wilsonia            Cardellina
                                   canadensis.         canadensis.
AOU 2011........................  Wilson's Warbler,   Wilson's Warbler,
                                   Wilsonia pusilla.   Cardellina
                                                       pusilla.
Clements et al. 2017............  Friendly Ground-    Shy Ground-Dove,
                                   Dove,               Alopecoenas
                                   Gallicolumba        stairi.
                                   stairi.
Clements et al. 2006............  Micronesian         Guam Kingfisher,
                                   Kingfisher,         Todiramphus
                                   Todirhamphus        cinnamominus.
                                   cinnamominus.
Clements et al. 2006, 2017......  Nightingale Reed-   Nightingale Reed
                                   Warbler,            Warbler,
                                   Acrocephalus        Acrocephalus
                                   luscinia.           luscinius.
AOU 2015........................  Akiapolaau,         `Akiapola`au,
                                   Hemignathus         Hemignathus
                                   munroi.             wilsoni.
AOU 2015........................  Greater Akialoa,    O`ahu `Akialoa,
                                   Hemignathus         Akialoa
                                   ellisianus.         ellisiana.
AOU 2015........................  Hawaii Amakihi,     Hawaii `Amakihi,
                                   Hemignathus         Chlorodrepanis
                                   virens.             virens.
AOU 2015........................  Oahu Amakihi,       O`ahu `Amakihi,
                                   Hemignathus         Chlorodrepanis
                                   flavus.             flava.
AOU 2015........................  Kauai Amakihi,      Kauai `Amakihi,
                                   Hemignathus         Chlorodrepanis
                                   kauaiensis.         stejnegeri.
AOU 2012, 2013..................  Sage Sparrow,       Bell's Sparrow,
                                   Amphispiza belli.   Artemisiospiza
                                                       belli.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

How is the list of migratory birds organized?

    The species are listed in two formats to suit the needs of 
different segments of the public: alphabetically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(1) 
and taxonomically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(2). In the alphabetical listing, 
species are listed by common (English) group names, with the scientific 
name of each species following the English group name. This format, 
similar to that used in modern telephone directories, is most useful to 
members of the lay public. In the taxonomic listing, species are listed 
in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the English name 
following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, 
we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, 
and Subfamily. This format follows the sequence adopted by the AOS 
(1998, 2017) and is most useful to ornithologists and other scientists.

What species are not protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act?

    The MBTA does not apply to:
    (1) Nonnative species introduced into the United States or U.S. 
territories by means of intentional or unintentional human assistance 
that belong to families or groups covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or 
Russian Conventions. Elsewhere in today's Federal Register, we publish 
a notice of availability of the draft revised list of nonnative bird 
species that are not protected under the MBTA. Note, though, that 
native species that are introduced into parts of the United States 
where they are not native are still protected under the MBTA regardless 
of where they occur in the United States or U.S. territories.
    (2) Species native or nonnative to the United States or U.S. 
territories that either belong to families or groups not referred to in 
the Canada, Mexico, and Russia Conventions or are not included by 
species name in the Japan Convention. This includes the Tinamidae 
(tinamous), Megapodiidae (megapodes), Cracidae (chachalacas), 
Odontophoridae (New World quail), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and 
turkeys), Pteroclidae (sandgrouse), Heliornithidae (finfoots), 
Burhinidae (thick-knees), Glareolidae (pratincoles), Todidae (todies), 
Psittacidae (parrots), Psittaculidae (Old World parrots), Meliphagidae 
(honeyeaters), Dicruridae (drongos), Monarchidae (monarchs), 
Pycnonotidae (bulbuls), Scotocercidae (bush warblers and allies), 
Zosteropidae (white-eyes), Sturnidae (starlings, except as listed in 
Japanese treaty), Ploceidae (weavers), Estrildidae (estrildid finches), 
and Passeridae (Old World sparrows, including house or English 
sparrow), as well as numerous other families not represented in the 
United States or U.S. territories.

Public Comments

    Any final action resulting from this proposed rule must be based on 
the best scientific and commercial data available and be as accurate 
and as effective as possible. We request comments or information from 
other concerned governmental agencies, the scientific community, 
industry, or any other

[[Page 61294]]

interested parties concerning this proposed rule.
    Please include sufficient information with your submission (such as 
electronic copies of scientific journal articles or other publications, 
preferably in English) to allow us to verify any scientific or 
commercial information you include.
    You may submit your comments and materials concerning this proposed 
rule by one of the methods listed in ADDRESSES. We request that you 
send comments only by the methods described in ADDRESSES.
    If you submit information via http://www.regulations.gov, your 
entire submission--including any personal identifying information--will 
be posted on the website. If your submission is made via a hardcopy 
that includes personal identifying information, you may request at the 
top of your document that we withhold this information from public 
review. However, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. We 
will post all hardcopy submissions on http://www.regulations.gov.
    Comments and materials we receive, as well as supporting 
documentation we used in preparing this proposed rule, will be 
available for public inspection on http://www.regulations.gov, or by 
appointment, during normal business hours, at the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management (see FOR 
FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).

Required Determinations

Regulatory Planning and Review

    Executive Order (E.O.) 12866 provides that the Office of 
Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) in the Office of Management 
and Budget will review all significant rules. OIRA has determined that 
this proposed rule is not significant.
    E.O. 13563 reaffirms the principles of E.O. 12866, while calling 
for improvements in the nation's regulatory system to promote 
predictability, to reduce uncertainty, and to use the best, most 
innovative, and least burdensome tools for achieving regulatory ends. 
E.O. 13563 directs agencies to consider regulatory approaches that 
reduce burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of choice for the 
public where these approaches are relevant, feasible, and consistent 
with regulatory objectives. E.O. 13563 emphasizes further that 
regulations must be based on the best available science and that the 
rulemaking process must allow for public participation and an open 
exchange of ideas. We have developed this proposed rule in a manner 
consistent with these requirements.

Executive Order 13771--Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory 
Costs

    This proposed rule is not an Executive Order (E.O.) 13771 (82 FR 
9339, February 3, 2017) regulatory action because this proposed rule is 
not significant under E.O. 12866.

Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.)

    Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., as 
amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act 
(SBREFA) of 1996 (5 U.S.C. 804(2)), whenever an agency is required to 
publish a notice of rulemaking for any proposed or final rule, it must 
prepare and make available for public comment a regulatory flexibility 
analysis that describes the effect of the rule on small entities (i.e., 
small businesses, small organizations, and small government 
jurisdictions). However, no regulatory flexibility analysis is required 
if the head of an agency certifies the rule does not have a significant 
economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.
    SBREFA amended the Regulatory Flexibility Act to require Federal 
agencies to provide the statement of the factual basis for certifying 
that a rule will not have a significant economic impact on a 
substantial number of small entities. We have examined this proposed 
rule's potential effects on small entities as required by the 
Regulatory Flexibility Act, and have determined that, if adopted as 
proposed, this action would not have a significant economic impact on a 
substantial number of small entities. This rule is an administrative 
action to update the list of migratory bird species protected under the 
Conventions. Consequently, we certify that, if adopted as proposed, 
this rule would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial 
number of small entities; therefore, a regulatory flexibility analysis 
is not required.
    This proposed rule is not a major rule under SBREFA (5 U.S.C. 
804(2)). It would not have a significant impact on a substantial number 
of small entities.
    a. This proposed rule would not have an annual effect on the 
economy of $100 million or more.
    b. This proposed rule would not cause a major increase in costs or 
prices for consumers, individual industries, Federal, State, or local 
government agencies, or geographic regions.
    c. This proposed rule would not have significant adverse effects on 
competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or the 
ability of U.S.-based enterprises to compete with foreign-based 
enterprises.

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    In accordance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 
et seq.), we have determined the following:
    a. This proposed rule would not ``significantly or uniquely'' 
affect small governments. A small government agency plan is not 
required. This proposed rule is an administrative action to update the 
list of migratory bird species protected under the Conventions; it 
would not affect small government activities in any significant way.
    b. This proposed rule would not produce a Federal mandate of $100 
million or greater in any year; i.e., it is not a ``significant 
regulatory action'' under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.

Takings

    In accordance with Executive Order 12630, this proposed rule does 
not have significant takings implications. This proposed rule does not 
contain a provision for taking of private property. Therefore, a 
takings implication assessment is not required.

Federalism

    This proposed rule does not have sufficient Federalism effects to 
warrant preparation of a federalism summary impact statement under 
Executive Order 13132. It does not interfere with the States' ability 
to manage themselves or their funds. No significant economic impacts 
are expected to result from the updating of the list of migratory bird 
species.

Civil Justice Reform

    In accordance with Executive Order 12988, the Office of the 
Solicitor has determined that this proposed rule does not unduly burden 
the judicial system and meets the requirements of sections 3(a) and 
3(b)(2) of the Order.

Paperwork Reduction Act

    This proposed rule does not contain information collection 
requirements, and a submission to the Office of Management and Budget 
(OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et 
seq.) is not required. We may not conduct or sponsor and you are not 
required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a 
currently valid OMB control number.

[[Page 61295]]

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

    Given that the proposed revision of 50 CFR 10.13 is strictly 
administrative in nature and will have no or minor environmental 
effects, it is categorically excluded from further NEPA requirements 
(43 CFR 46.210(i)).

Endangered Species Act (ESA)

    Of the species on the List of Migratory Birds, 84 species, 
subspecies, or distinct population segments are also listed as 
endangered or threatened under section 4 of the ESA of 1973, as amended 
(16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). No legal complications arise from the dual 
listing as the two lists are developed under separate authorities and 
for different purposes. Because this proposed rule is strictly 
administrative in nature, it has no effect on endangered or threatened 
species. Thus, it does not require consultation under section 7 of the 
ESA.

Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes

    In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994, 
``Government-to-Government Relations with Native American tribal 
Governments'' (59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175, and 512 DM 2, we 
have evaluated potential effects on federally recognized Indian tribes 
and have determined that there are no potential effects. The proposed 
revisions to existing regulations in this rule are purely 
administrative in nature and do not interfere with the tribes' ability 
to manage themselves or their funds or to regulate migratory bird 
activities on tribal lands.

Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (Executive Order 13211)

    On May 18, 2001, the President issued Executive Order 13211 
addressing regulations that significantly affect energy supply, 
distribution, and use. Executive Order 13211 requires agencies to 
prepare Statements of Energy Effects when undertaking certain actions. 
Because this proposed rule would only affect the listing of protected 
species in the United States, it is not a significant regulatory action 
under Executive Order 12866, and does not significantly affect energy 
supplies, distribution, or use. Therefore, this action is not a 
significant energy action and no Statement of Energy Effects is 
required.

Clarity of the Proposed Rule

    We are required by Executive Orders 12866 and 12988 and by the 
Presidential Memorandum of June 1, 1998, to write all rules in plain 
language. This means that each rule we publish must:
    (1) Be logically organized;
    (2) Use the active voice to address readers directly;
    (3) Use clear language rather than jargon;
    (4) Be divided into short sections and sentences; and
    (5) Use lists and tables wherever possible.
    If you feel that we have not met these requirements, send us 
comments by one of the methods listed in ADDRESSES. To better help us 
revise the rule, your comments should be as specific as possible. For 
example, you should tell us the numbers of the sections or paragraphs 
that are unclearly written, which sections or sentences are too long, 
the sections where you feel lists or tables would be useful, etc.

References Cited

    A complete list of all references cited is available on http://www.regulations.gov under Docket No. FWS-HQ-MB-2018-0047, and upon 
request (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT, above).

List of Subjects in Part 10

    Exports, Fish, Imports, Law enforcement, Plants, Transportation, 
Wildlife.

Proposed Regulation Promulgation

    For the reasons discussed in the preamble, we propose to amend 
title 50, chapter I, subchapter B, part 10 of the Code of Federal 
Regulations, as follows:

PART 10--GENERAL PROVISIONS

0
1. The authority citation for part 10 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 16 U.S.C. 668a-d, 703-712, 742a-j-l, 1361-1384, 1401-
1407, 1531-1543, 3371-3378; 18 U.S.C. 42; 19 U.S.C. 1202.

0
2. Amend Sec.  [thinsp]10.13 by revising paragraph (c) to read as 
follows:


Sec.  10.13  List of Migratory Birds.

* * * * *
    (c) What species are protected as migratory birds? Species 
protected as migratory birds are listed in two formats to suit the 
varying needs of the user: Alphabetically in paragraph (c)(1) of this 
section and taxonomically in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Taxonomy 
and nomenclature generally follow the 7th edition of the American 
Ornithologists' Union's (AOU, now recognized as American Ornithological 
Society (AOS)) Check-list of North American birds (1998, as amended 
through 2018). For species not treated by the AOS Check-list, we 
generally follow Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (Clements et 
al. 2017).
    (1) Alphabetical listing. Species are listed alphabetically by 
common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species 
following the common name.

ACCENTOR, Siberian, Prunella montanella
`AKEKE`E, Loxops caeruleirostris
`AKEPA, Hawaii, Loxops coccineus
    Maui, Loxops ochraceus
    O`ahu, Loxops wolstenholmei
`AKIALOA, Kauai, Akialoa stejnegeri
    Maui Nui, Akialoa lanaiensis
    O`ahu, Akialoa ellisiana
`AKIAPOLA`AU, Hemignathus wilsoni
`AKIKIKI, Oreomystis bairdi
`AKOHEKOHE, Palmeria dolei
`ALAUAHIO, Maui, Paroreomyza montana
    O`ahu, Paroreomyza maculata
ALBATROSS, Black-browed, Thalassarche melanophris
    Black-footed, Phoebastria nigripes
    Chatham, Thalassarche eremita
    Laysan, Phoebastria immutabilis
    Light-mantled, Phoebetria palpebrata
    Salvin's, Thalassarche salvini
    Short-tailed, Phoebastria albatrus
    Wandering, Diomedea exulans
    White-capped, Thalassarche cauta
    Yellow-nosed, Thalassarche chlororhynchos
`AMAKIHI, Hawaii, Chlorodrepanis virens
    Kauai, Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri
    O`ahu, Chlorodrepanis flava
ANHINGA, Anhinga anhinga
ANI, Groove-billed, Crotophaga sulcirostris
    Smooth-billed, Crotophaga ani
`ANIANIAU, Magumma parva
`APAPANE, Himatione sanguinea
AUKLET, Cassin's, Ptychoramphus aleuticus
    Crested, Aethia cristatella
    Least, Aethia pusilla
    Parakeet, Aethia psittacula
    Rhinoceros, Cerorhinca monocerata
    Whiskered, Aethia pygmaea
AVOCET, American, Recurvirostra americana
BANANAQUIT, Coereba flaveola
BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis
    Tundra, Anser serrirostris
BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET, Northern, Camptostoma imberbe
BECARD, Gray-collared, Pachyramphus major
    Rose-throated, Pachyramphus aglaiae
BITTERN, American, Botaurus lentiginosus
    Black, Ixobrychus flavicollis
    Least, Ixobrychus exilis
    Schrenck's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus
    Yellow, Ixobrychus sinensis
BLACKBIRD, Brewer's, Euphagus cyanocephalus
    Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus
    Rusty, Euphagus carolinus
    Tawny-shouldered, Agelaius humeralis
    Tricolored, Agelaius tricolor
    Yellow-headed, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
    Yellow-shouldered, Agelaius xanthomus
BLUEBIRD, Eastern, Sialia sialis
    Mountain, Sialia currucoides
    Western, Sialia mexicana
BLUETAIL, Red-flanked, Tarsiger cyanurus
BLUETHROAT, Cyanecula svecica

[[Page 61296]]

BOBOLINK, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
BOOBOOK, Northern, Ninox japonica
BOOBY, Abbott's, Papasula abbotti
    Blue-footed, Sula nebouxii
    Brown, Sula leucogaster
    Masked, Sula dactylatra
    Nazca, Sula granti
    Red-footed, Sula sula
BRAMBLING, Fringilla montifringilla
BRANT, Branta bernicla
BUFFLEHEAD, Bucephala albeola
BULLFINCH, Eurasian, Pyrrhula pyrrhula
    Puerto Rican, Melopyrrha portoricensis
BUNTING, Blue, Cyanocompsa parellina
    Gray, Emberiza variabilis
    Indigo, Passerina cyanea
    Lark, Calamospiza melanocorys
    Lazuli, Passerina amoena
    Little, Emberiza pusilla
    McKay's, Plectrophenax hyperboreus
    Painted, Passerina ciris
    Pallas's, Emberiza pallasi
    Pine, Emberiza leucocephalos
    Reed, Emberiza schoeniclus
    Rustic, Emberiza rustica
    Snow, Plectrophenax nivalis
    Varied, Passerina versicolor
    Yellow-breasted, Emberiza aureola
    Yellow-browed, Emberiza chrysophrys
    Yellow-throated, Emberiza elegans
BUSHTIT, Psaltriparus minimus
BUZZARD, Gray-faced, Butastur indicus
CANVASBACK, Aythya valisineria
CARACARA, Crested, Caracara cheriway
CARDINAL, Northern, Cardinalis cardinalis
CARIB, Green-throated, Eulampis holosericeus
    Purple-throated, Eulampis jugularis
CATBIRD, Black, Melanoptila glabrirostris
    Gray, Dumetella carolinensis
CHAFFINCH, Common, Fringilla coelebs
CHAT, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens
CHICKADEE, Black-capped, Poecile atricapillus
    Boreal, Poecile hudsonicus
    Carolina, Poecile carolinensis
    Chestnut-backed, Poecile rufescens
    Gray-headed, Poecile cinctus
    Mexican, Poecile sclateri
    Mountain, Poecile gambeli
CHIFFCHAFF, Common, Phylloscopus collybita
CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW, Antrostomus carolinensis
CONDOR, California, Gymnogyps californianus
COOT, American, Fulica americana
    Eurasian, Fulica atra
    Hawaiian, Fulica alai
CORMORANT, Brandt's, Phalacrocorax penicillatus
    Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auritus
    Great, Phalacrocorax carbo
    Little Pied, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
    Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus
    Pelagic, Phalacrocorax pelagicus
    Red-faced, Phalacrocorax urile
COWBIRD, Bronzed, Molothrus aeneus
    Brown-headed, Molothrus ater
    Shiny, Molothrus bonariensis
CRAKE, Corn, Crex crex
    Paint-billed, Neocrex erythrops
    Spotless, Porzana tabuensis
    Yellow-breasted, Hapalocrex flaviventer
CRANE, Common, Grus grus
    Sandhill, Antigone canadensis
    Whooping, Grus americana
CREEPER, Brown, Certhia americana
    Hawaii, Loxops mana
CROSSBILL, Cassia, Loxia sinesciuris
    Red, Loxia curvirostra
    White-winged, Loxia leucoptera
CROW, American, Corvus brachyrhynchos
    Fish, Corvus ossifragus
    Hawaiian, Corvus hawaiiensis
    Mariana, Corvus kubaryi
    Northwestern, Corvus caurinus
    Tamaulipas, Corvus imparatus
    White-necked, Corvus leucognaphalus
CUCKOO, Black-billed, Coccyzus erythropthalmus
    Common, Cuculus canorus
    Mangrove, Coccyzus minor
    Oriental, Cuculus optatus
    Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus
CURLEW, Bristle-thighed, Numenius tahitiensis
    Eskimo, Numenius borealis
    Eurasian, Numenius arquata
    Far Eastern, Numenius madagascariensis
    Little, Numenius minutus
    Long-billed, Numenius americanus
DICKCISSEL, Spiza americana
DIPPER, American, Cinclus mexicanus
DOTTEREL, Eurasian, Charadrius morinellus
DOVE, Inca, Columbina inca
    Mourning, Zenaida macroura
    White-tipped, Leptotila verreauxi
    White-winged, Zenaida asiatica
    Zenaida, Zenaida aurita
DOVEKIE, Alle alle
DOWITCHER, Long-billed, Limnodromus scolopaceus
    Short-billed, Limnodromus griseus
DUCK, American Black, Anas rubripes
    Eastern Spot-billed, Anas zonorhyncha
    Falcated, Mareca falcata
    Harlequin, Histrionicus histrionicus
    Hawaiian, Anas wyvilliana
    Laysan, Anas laysanensis
    Long-tailed, Clangula hyemalis
    Masked, Nomonyx dominicus
    Mottled, Anas fulvigula
    Muscovy, Cairina moschata
    Pacific Black, Anas superciliosa
    Ring-necked, Aythya collaris
    Ruddy, Oxyura jamaicensis
    Tufted, Aythya fuligula
    Wood, Aix sponsa
DUNLIN, Calidris alpina
EAGLE, Bald, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
    Golden, Aquila chrysaetos
    White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla
EGRET, Cattle, Bubulcus ibis
    Chinese, Egretta eulophotes
    Great, Ardea alba
    Intermediate, Ardea intermedia
    Little, Egretta garzetta
    Reddish, Egretta rufescens
    Snowy, Egretta thula
EIDER, Common, Somateria mollissima
    King, Somateria spectabilis
    Spectacled, Somateria fischeri
    Steller's, Polysticta stelleri
ELAENIA, Caribbean, Elaenia martinica
    Greenish, Myiopagis viridicata
    White-crested, Elaenia albiceps
EMERALD, Puerto Rican, Chlorostilbon maugaeus
EUPHONIA, Antillean, Euphonia musica
FALCON, Amur, Falco amurensis
    Aplomado, Falco femoralis
    Peregrine, Falco peregrinus
    Prairie, Falco mexicanus
    Red-footed, Falco vespertinus
FIELDFARE, Turdus pilaris
FINCH, Cassin's, Haemorhous cassinii
    House, Haemorhous mexicanus
    Laysan, Telespiza cantans
    Nihoa, Telespiza ultima
    Purple, Haemorhous purpureus
FLAMINGO, American, Phoenicopterus ruber
FLICKER, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides
    Northern, Colaptes auratus
FLYCATCHER, Acadian, Empidonax virescens
    Alder, Empidonax alnorum
    Ash-throated, Myiarchus cinerascens
    Asian Brown, Muscicapa dauurica
    Brown-crested, Myiarchus tyrannulus
    Buff-breasted, Empidonax fulvifrons
    Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis
    Crowned Slaty, Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus
    Dark-sided, Muscicapa sibirica
    Dusky, Empidonax oberholseri
    Dusky-capped, Myiarchus tuberculifer
    Fork-tailed, Tyrannus savana
    Gray, Empidonax wrightii
    Gray-streaked, Muscicapa griseisticta
    Great Crested, Myiarchus crinitus
    Hammond's, Empidonax hammondii
    La Sagra's, Myiarchus sagrae
    Least, Empidonax minimus
    Mugimaki, Ficedula mugimaki
    Narcissus, Ficedula narcissina
    Nutting's, Myiarchus nuttingi
    Olive-sided, Contopus cooperi
    Pacific-slope, Empidonax difficilis
    Pine, Empidonax affinis
    Piratic, Legatus leucophaius
    Puerto Rican, Myiarchus antillarum
    Scissor-tailed, Tyrannus forficatus
    Social, Myiozetetes similis
    Spotted, Muscicapa striata
    Sulphur-bellied, Myiodynastes luteiventris
    Taiga, Ficedula albicilla
    Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus
    Variegated, Empidonomus varius
    Vermilion, Pyrocephalus rubinus
    Willow, Empidonax traillii
    Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris
FOREST-FALCON, Collared, Micrastur semitorquatus
FRIGATEBIRD, Great, Fregata minor
    Lesser, Fregata ariel
    Magnificent, Fregata magnificens
FRUIT-DOVE, Crimson-crowned, Ptilinopus porphyraceus
    Many-colored, Ptilinopus perousii
    Mariana, Ptilinopus roseicapilla
FULMAR, Northern, Fulmarus glacialis
GADWALL, Mareca strepera
GALLINULE, Azure, Porphyrio flavirostris
    Common, Gallinula galeata
    Purple, Porphyrio martinicus
GANNET, Northern, Morus bassanus
GARGANEY, Spatula querquedula
GNATCATCHER, Black-capped, Polioptila nigriceps
    Black-tailed, Polioptila melanura
    Blue-Gray, Polioptila caerulea
    California, Polioptila californica
GODWIT, Bar-tailed, Limosa lapponica
    Black-tailed, Limosa limosa
    Hudsonian, Limosa haemastica
    Marbled, Limosa fedoa

[[Page 61297]]

GOLDENEYE, Barrow's, Bucephala islandica
    Common, Bucephala clangula
GOLDEN-PLOVER, American, Pluvialis dominica
    European, Pluvialis apricaria
    Pacific, Pluvialis fulva
GOLDFINCH, American, Spinus tristis
    Lawrence's, Spinus lawrencei
    Lesser, Spinus psaltria
GOOSE, Barnacle, Branta leucopsis
    Cackling, Branta hutchinsii
    Canada, Branta canadensis
    Emperor, Anser canagicus
    Greater White-fronted, Anser albifrons
    Hawaiian, Branta sandvicensis
    Lesser White-fronted, Anser erythropus
    Pink-footed, Anser brachyrhynchus
    Ross's, Anser rossii
    Snow, Anser caerulescens
GOSHAWK, Northern, Accipiter gentilis
GRACKLE, Boat-tailed, Quiscalus major
    Common, Quiscalus quiscula
    Greater Antillean, Quiscalus niger
    Great-tailed, Quiscalus mexicanus
GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER, Middendorff's, Locustella ochotensis
GRASSQUIT, Black-faced, Tiaris bicolor
    Yellow-faced, Tiaris olivaceus
GREBE, Clark's, Aechmophorus clarkii
    Eared, Podiceps nigricollis
    Horned, Podiceps auritus
    Least, Tachybaptus dominicus
    Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps
    Red-necked, Podiceps grisegena
    Western, Aechmophorus occidentalis
GREENFINCH, Oriental, Chloris sinica
GREENSHANK, Common, Tringa nebularia
    Nordmann's, Tringa guttifer
GROSBEAK, Black-headed, Pheucticus melanocephalus
    Blue, Passerina caerulea
    Crimson-collared, Rhodothraupis celaeno
    Evening, Coccothraustes vespertinus
    Pine, Pinicola enucleator
    Rose-breasted, Pheucticus ludovicianus
    Yellow, Pheucticus chrysopeplus
GROUND-DOVE, Common, Columbina passerina
    Ruddy, Columbina talpacoti
    Shy, Alopecoenas stairi
    White-throated, Alopecoenas xanthonura
GUILLEMOT, Black, Cepphus grylle
    Pigeon, Cepphus columba
GULL, Belcher's, Larus belcheri
    Black-headed, Chroicocephalus ridibundus
    Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris
    Bonaparte's, Chroicocephalus philadelphia
    California, Larus californicus
    Franklin's, Leucophaeus pipixcan
    Glaucous, Larus hyperboreus
    Glaucous-winged, Larus glaucescens
    Gray-hooded, Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus
    Great Black-backed, Larus marinus
    Heermann's, Larus heermanni
    Herring, Larus argentatus
    Iceland, Larus glaucoides
    Ivory, Pagophila eburnea
    Kelp, Larus dominicanus
    Laughing, Leucophaeus atricilla
    Lesser Black-backed, Larus fuscus
    Little, Hydrocoloeus minutus
    Mew, Larus canus
    Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis
    Ross's, Rhodostethia rosea
    Sabine's, Xema sabini
    Slaty-backed, Larus schistisagus
    Swallow-tailed, Creagrus furcatus
    Western, Larus occidentalis
    Yellow-footed, Larus livens
    Yellow-legged, Larus michahellis
GYRFALCON, Falco rusticolus
HARRIER, Northern, Circus hudsonius
HAWFINCH, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
HAWK, Broad-winged, Buteo platypterus
    Common Black, Buteogallus anthracinus
    Cooper's, Accipiter cooperii
    Crane, Geranospiza caerulescens
    Ferruginous, Buteo regalis
    Gray, Buteo plagiatus
    Harris's, Parabuteo unicinctus
    Hawaiian, Buteo solitarius
    Red-shouldered, Buteo lineatus
    Red-tailed, Buteo jamaicensis
    Roadside, Rupornis magnirostris
    Rough-legged, Buteo lagopus
    Sharp-shinned, Accipiter striatus
    Short-tailed, Buteo brachyurus
    Swainson's, Buteo swainsoni
    White-tailed, Geranoaetus albicaudatus
    Zone-tailed, Buteo albonotatus
HAWK-CUCKOO, Hodgson's, Hierococcyx nisicolor
HERON, Gray, Ardea cinerea
    Great Blue, Ardea herodias
    Green, Butorides virescens
    Little Blue, Egretta caerulea
    Tricolored, Egretta tricolor
HOBBY, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo
HONEYCREEPER, Laysan, Himatione fraithii
    Red-legged, Cyanerpes cyaneus
HOOPOE, Eurasian, Upupa epops
HOUSE-MARTIN, Common, Delichon urbicum
HUMMINGBIRD, Allen's, Selasphorus sasin
    Amethyst-throated, Lampornis amethystinus
    Anna's, Calypte anna
    Antillean Crested, Orthorhyncus cristatus
    Berylline, Amazilia beryllina
    Black-chinned, Archilochus alexandri
    Blue-throated, Lampornis clemenciae
    Broad-billed, Cynanthus latirostris
    Broad-tailed, Selasphorus platycercus
    Buff-bellied, Amazilia yucatanensis
    Bumblebee, Atthis heloisa
    Calliope, Selasphorus calliope
    Cinnamon, Amazilia rutila
    Costa's, Calypte costae
    Lucifer, Calothorax lucifer
    Rivoli's, Eugenes fulgens
    Ruby-throated, Archilochus colubris
    Rufous, Selasphorus rufus
    Vervain, Mellisuga minima
    Violet-crowned, Amazilia violiceps
    White-eared, Hylocharis leucotis
    Xantus's, Hylocharis xantusii
IBIS, Glossy, Plegadis falcinellus
    Scarlet, Eudocimus ruber
    White, Eudocimus albus
    White-faced, Plegadis chihi
`I`IWI, Drepanis coccinea
IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Pacific, Ducula pacifica
JABIRU, Jabiru mycteria
JACANA, Northern, Jacana spinosa
JACKDAW, Eurasian, Corvus monedula
JAEGER, Long-tailed, Stercorarius longicaudus
    Parasitic, Stercorarius parasiticus
    Pomarine, Stercorarius pomarinus
JAY, Blue, Cyanocitta cristata
    Brown, Psilorhinus morio
    Canada, Perisoreus canadensis
    Green, Cyanocorax yncas
    Mexican, Aphelocoma wollweberi
    Pinyon, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus
    Steller's, Cyanocitta stelleri
JUNCO, Dark-eyed, Junco hyemalis
    Yellow-eyed, Junco phaeonotus
K[Amacr]K[Amacr]WAHIE, Paroreomyza flammea
K[Amacr]MA`O, Myadestes myadestinus
KESTREL, American, Falco sparverius
    Eurasian, Falco tinnunculus
KILLDEER, Charadrius vociferus
KINGBIRD, Cassin's, Tyrannus vociferans
    Couch's, Tyrannus couchii
    Eastern, Tyrannus tyrannus
    Gray, Tyrannus dominicensis
    Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus
    Thick-billed, Tyrannus crassirostris
    Tropical, Tyrannus melancholicus
    Western, Tyrannus verticalis
KINGFISHER, Amazon, Chloroceryle amazona
    Belted, Megaceryle alcyon
    Common, Alcedo atthis
    Green, Chloroceryle americana
    Guam, Todiramphus cinnamominus
    Mariana, Todiramphus albicilla
    Pacific, Todiramphus sacer
    Ringed, Megaceryle torquata
KINGLET, Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa
    Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula
KISKADEE, Great, Pitangus sulphuratus
KITE, Black, Milvus migrans
    Double-toothed, Harpagus bidentatus
    Hook-billed, Chondrohierax uncinatus
    Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis
    Snail, Rostrhamus sociabilis
    Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus
    White-tailed, Elanus leucurus
KITTIWAKE, Black-legged, Rissa tridactyla
    Red-legged, Rissa brevirostris
KNOT, Great, Calidris tenuirostris
    Red, Calidris canutus
KOEL, Long-tailed, Urodynamis taitensis
LAPWING, Northern, Vanellus vanellus
LARK, Horned, Eremophila alpestris
LIMPKIN, Aramus guarauna
LIZARD-CUCKOO, Puerto Rican, Coccyzus vieilloti
LONGSPUR, Chestnut-collared, Calcarius ornatus
    Lapland, Calcarius lapponicus
    McCown's, Rhynchophanes mccownii
    Smith's, Calcarius pictus
LOON, Arctic, Gavia arctica
    Common, Gavia immer
    Pacific, Gavia pacifica
    Red-throated, Gavia stellata
    Yellow-billed, Gavia adamsii
MAGPIE, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia
    Yellow-billed, Pica nuttalli
MALLARD, Anas platyrhynchos
MANGO, Antillean, Anthracothorax dominicus
    Green, Anthracothorax viridis
    Green-breasted, Anthracothorax prevostii
MARSH-HARRIER, Eastern, Circus spilonotus
MARTIN, Brown-chested, Progne tapera
    Caribbean, Progne dominicensis
    Cuban, Progne cryptoleuca
    Gray-breasted, Progne chalybea
    Purple, Progne subis
    Southern, Progne elegans
MEADOWLARK, Eastern, Sturnella magna
    Western, Sturnella neglecta

[[Page 61298]]

MERGANSER, Common, Mergus merganser
    Hooded, Lophodytes cucullatus
    Red-breasted, Mergus serrator
MERLIN, Falco columbarius
MILLERBIRD, Acrocephalus familiaris
MOCKINGBIRD, Bahama, Mimus gundlachii
    Blue, Melanotis caerulescens
    Northern, Mimus polyglottos
MOORHEN, Common, Gallinula chloropus
MURRE, Common, Uria aalge
    Thick-billed, Uria lomvia
MURRELET, Ancient, Synthliboramphus antiquus
    Craveri's, Synthliboramphus craveri
    Guadalupe, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus
    Kittlitz's, Brachyramphus brevirostris
    Long-billed, Brachyramphus perdix
    Marbled, Brachyramphus marmoratus
    Scripps's, Synthliboramphus scrippsi
NEEDLETAIL, White-throated, Hirundapus caudacutus
NIGHTHAWK, Antillean, Chordeiles gundlachii
    Common, Chordeiles minor
    Lesser, Chordeiles acutipennis
NIGHT-HERON, Black-crowned, Nycticorax nycticorax
    Japanese, Gorsachius goisagi
    Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus
    Rufous, Nycticorax caledonicus
    Yellow-crowned, Nyctanassa violacea
NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH, Black-headed, Catharus mexicanus
    Orange-billed, Catharus aurantiirostris
NIGHTJAR, Buff-collared, Antrostomus ridgwayi
    Gray, Caprimulgus jotaka
    Puerto Rican, Antrostomus noctitherus
    White-tailed, Hydropsalis cayennensis
NODDY, Black, Anous minutus
    Blue-gray, Anous ceruleus
    Brown, Anous stolidus
NUKUPU`U, Kauai, Hemignathus hanapepe
    Maui, Hemignathus affinis
    O`ahu, Hemignathus lucidus
NUTCRACKER, Clark's, Nucifraga columbiana
NUTHATCH, Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla
    Pygmy, Sitta pygmaea
    Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis
    White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis
OLOMA`O, Myadestes lanaiensis
`[Otilde]MA'O, Myadestes obscurus
ORIOLE, Altamira, Icterus gularis
    Audubon's, Icterus graduacauda
    Baltimore, Icterus galbula
    Black-vented, Icterus wagleri
    Bullock's, Icterus bullockii
    Hooded, Icterus cucullatus
    Orchard, Icterus spurius
    Puerto Rican, Icterus portoricensis
    Scott's, Icterus parisorum
    Streak-backed, Icterus pustulatus
OSPREY, Pandion haliaetus
`[Otilde]`[Utilde], Psittirostra psittacea
OVENBIRD, Seiurus aurocapilla
OWL, Barn, Tyto alba
    Barred, Strix varia
    Boreal, Aegolius funereus
    Burrowing, Athene cunicularia
    Elf, Micrathene whitneyi
    Flammulated, Psiloscops flammeolus
    Great Gray, Strix nebulosa
    Great Horned, Bubo virginianus
    Long-eared, Asio otus
    Mottled, Ciccaba virgata
    Northern Hawk, Surnia ulula
    Northern Saw-whet, Aegolius acadicus
    Short-eared, Asio flammeus
    Snowy, Bubo scandiacus
    Spotted, Strix occidentalis
    Stygian, Asio stygius
OYSTERCATCHER, American, Haematopus palliatus
    Black, Haematopus bachmani
    Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus
PALILA, Loxioides bailleui
PALM-SWIFT, Antillean, Tachornis phoenicobia
PARROTBILL, Maui, Pseudonestor xanthophrys
PARULA, Northern, Setophaga americana
    Tropical, Setophaga pitiayumi
PAURAQUE, Common, Nyctidromus albicollis
PELICAN, American White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
    Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis
PETREL, Bermuda, Pterodroma cahow
    Black-capped, Pterodroma hasitata
    Black-winged, Pterodroma nigripennis
    Bonin, Pterodroma hypoleuca
    Bulwer's, Bulweria bulwerii
    Cook's, Pterodroma cookii
    Fea's, Pterodroma feae
    Gould's, Pterodroma leucoptera
    Great-winged, Pterodroma macroptera
    Hawaiian, Pterodroma sandwichensis
    Herald, Pterodroma heraldica
    Jouanin's, Bulweria fallax
    Juan Fernandez, Pterodroma externa
    Kermadec, Pterodroma neglecta
    Mottled, Pterodroma inexpectata
    Murphy's, Pterodroma ultima
    Parkinson's, Procellaria parkinsoni
    Phoenix, Pterodroma alba
    Providence, Pterodroma solandri
    Stejneger's, Pterodroma longirostris
    Tahiti, Pseudobulweria rostrata
    Trindade, Pterodroma arminjoniana
    White-chinned, Procellaria aequinoctialis
    White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis
    Zino's, Pterodroma madeira
PEWEE, Cuban, Contopus caribaeus
    Greater, Contopus pertinax
    Hispaniolan, Contopus hispaniolensis
    Lesser Antillean, Contopus latirostris
PHAINOPEPLA, Phainopepla nitens
PHALAROPE, Red, Phalaropus fulicarius
    Red-necked, Phalaropus lobatus
    Wilson's, Phalaropus tricolor
PHOEBE, Black, Sayornis nigricans
    Eastern, Sayornis phoebe
    Say's, Sayornis saya
PIGEON, Band-tailed, Patagioenas fasciata
    Plain, Patagioenas inornata
    Red-billed, Patagioenas flavirostris
    Scaly-naped, Patagioenas squamosa
    White-crowned, Patagioenas leucocephala
PINTAIL, Northern, Anas acuta
    White-cheeked, Anas bahamensis
PIPIT, American, Anthus rubescens
    Olive-backed, Anthus hodgsoni
    Pechora, Anthus gustavi
    Red-throated, Anthus cervinus
    Sprague's, Anthus spragueii
    Tree, Anthus trivialis
PLOVER, Black-bellied, Pluvialis squatarola
    Collared, Charadrius collaris
    Common Ringed, Charadrius hiaticula
    Kentish, Charadrius alexandrinus
    Little Ringed, Charadrius dubius
    Mountain, Charadrius montanus
    Piping, Charadrius melodus
    Semipalmated, Charadrius semipalmatus
    Snowy, Charadrius nivosus
    Wilson's, Charadrius wilsonia
POCHARD, Baer's, Aythya baeri
    Common, Aythya ferina
POND-HERON, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus
POORWILL, Common, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii
PO`OULI, Melamprosops phaeosoma
PUAIOHI, Myadestes palmeri
PUFFIN, Atlantic, Fratercula arctica
    Horned, Fratercula corniculata
    Tufted, Fratercula cirrhata
PYGMY-OWL, Ferruginous, Glaucidium brasilianum
    Northern, Glaucidium gnoma
PYRRHULOXIA, Cardinalis sinuatus
QUAIL-DOVE, Bridled, Geotrygon mystacea
    Key West, Geotrygon chrysia
    Ruddy, Geotrygon montana
QUETZAL, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus
RAIL, Black, Laterallus jamaicensis
    Buff-banded, Gallirallus philippensis
    Clapper, Rallus crepitans
    Guam, Gallirallus owstoni
    King, Rallus elegans
    Ridgway's, Rallus obsoletus
    Spotted, Pardirallus maculatus
    Virginia, Rallus limicola
    Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis
RAVEN, Chihuahuan, Corvus cryptoleucus
    Common, Corvus corax
RAZORBILL, Alca torda
REDHEAD, Aythya americana
REDPOLL, Common, Acanthis flammea
    Hoary, Acanthis hornemanni
REDSHANK, Common, Tringa totanus
    Spotted, Tringa erythropus
REDSTART, American, Setophaga ruticilla
    Common, Phoenicurus phoenicurus
    Painted, Myioborus pictus
    Slate-throated, Myioborus miniatus
REDWING, Turdus iliacus
    REEF-HERON, Pacific, Egretta sacra
    Western, Egretta gularis
ROADRUNNER, Greater, Geococcyx californianus
ROBIN, American, Turdus migratorius
    Rufous-backed, Turdus rufopalliatus
    Rufous-tailed, Larvivora sibilans
    Siberian Blue, Larvivora cyane
ROCK-THRUSH, Blue, Monticola solitarius
ROSEFINCH, Common, Carpodacus erythrinus
ROSY-FINCH, Asian, Leucosticte arctoa
    Black, Leucosticte atrata
    Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis
    Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis
RUBYTHROAT, Siberian, Calliope calliope
RUFF, Calidris pugnax
SANDERLING, Calidris alba
SANDPIPER, Baird's, Calidris bairdii
    Broad-billed, Calidris falcinellus
    Buff-breasted, Calidris subruficollis
    Common, Actitis hypoleucos
    Curlew, Calidris ferruginea
    Green, Tringa ochropus
    Least, Calidris minutilla
    Marsh, Tringa stagnatilis
    Pectoral, Calidris melanotos
    Purple, Calidris maritima
    Rock, Calidris ptilocnemis
    Semipalmated, Calidris pusilla
    Sharp-tailed, Calidris acuminata

[[Page 61299]]

    Solitary, Tringa solitaria
    Spoon-billed, Calidris pygmea
    Spotted, Actitis macularius
    Stilt, Calidris himantopus
    Terek, Xenus cinereus
    Upland, Bartramia longicauda
    Western, Calidris mauri
    White-rumped, Calidris fuscicollis
    Wood, Tringa glareola
SAND-PLOVER, Greater, Charadrius leschenaultii
    Lesser, Charadrius mongolus
SAPSUCKER, Red-breasted, Sphyrapicus ruber
    Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis
    Williamson's, Sphyrapicus thyroideus
    Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius
SCAUP, Greater, Aythya marila
    Lesser, Aythya affinis
SCOPS-OWL, Oriental, Otus sunia
SCOTER, Black, Melanitta americana
    Common, Melanitta nigra
    Surf, Melanitta perspicillata
    White-winged, Melanitta fusca
SCREECH-OWL, Eastern, Megascops asio
    Puerto Rican, Megascops nudipes
    Western, Megascops kennicottii
    Whiskered, Megascops trichopsis
SCRUB-JAY, California, Aphelocoma californica
    Florida, Aphelocoma coerulescens
    Island, Aphelocoma insularis
    Woodhouse's, Aphelocoma woodhouseii
SEA-EAGLE, Steller's, Haliaeetus pelagicus
SEEDEATER, Morelet's, Sporophila morelleti
SHEARWATER, Audubon's, Puffinus lherminieri
    Barolo, Puffinus baroli
    Black-vented, Puffinus opisthomelas
    Bryan's, Puffinus bryani
    Buller's, Ardenna bulleri
    Cape Verde, Calonectris edwardsii
    Christmas, Puffinus nativitatis
    Cory's, Calonectris diomedea
    Flesh-footed, Ardenna carneipes
    Great, Ardenna gravis
    Manx, Puffinus puffinus
    Newell's, Puffinus newelli
    Pink-footed, Ardenna creatopus
    Short-tailed, Ardenna tenuirostris
    Sooty, Ardenna grisea
    Streaked, Calonectris leucomelas
    Wedge-tailed, Ardenna pacifica
SHOVELER, Northern, Spatula clypeata
SHRIKE, Brown, Lanius cristatus
    Loggerhead, Lanius ludovicianus
    Northern, Lanius borealis
SILKY-FLYCATCHER, Gray, Ptiliogonys cinereus
SISKIN, Eurasian, Spinus spinus
    Pine, Spinus pinus
SKIMMER, Black, Rynchops niger
SKUA, Great, Stercorarius skua
    South Polar, Stercorarius maccormicki
SKYLARK, Eurasian, Alauda arvensis
SMEW, Mergellus albellus
SNIPE, Common, Gallinago gallinago
    Jack, Lymnocryptes minimus
    Pin-tailed, Gallinago stenura
    Solitary, Gallinago solitaria
    Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala
    Wilson's, Gallinago delicata
SOLITAIRE, Brown-backed, Myadestes occidentalis
    Townsend's, Myadestes townsendi
SORA, Porzana carolina
SPARROW, American Tree, Spizelloides arborea
    Bachman's, Peucaea aestivalis
    Baird's, Centronyx bairdii
    Bell's, Artemisiospiza belli
    Black-chinned, Spizella atrogularis
    Black-throated, Amphispiza bilineata
    Botteri's, Peucaea botterii
    Brewer's, Spizella breweri
    Cassin's, Peucaea cassinii
    Chipping, Spizella passerina
    Clay-colored, Spizella pallida
    Field, Spizella pusilla
    Five-striped, Amphispiza quinquestriata
    Fox, Passerella iliaca
    Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia atricapilla
    Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum
    Harris's, Zonotrichia querula
    Henslow's, Centronyx henslowii
    Lark, Chondestes grammacus
    LeConte's, Ammospiza leconteii
    Lincoln's, Melospiza lincolnii
    Nelson's, Ammospiza nelsoni
    Olive, Arremonops rufivirgatus
    Rufous-crowned, Aimophila ruficeps
    Rufous-winged, Peucaea carpalis
    Sagebrush, Artemisiospiza nevadensis
    Saltmarsh, Ammospiza caudacuta
    Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis
    Seaside, Ammospiza maritima
    Song, Melospiza melodia
    Swamp, Melospiza georgiana
    Vesper, Pooecetes gramineus
    White-crowned, Zonotrichia leucophrys
    White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis
    Worthen's, Spizella wortheni
SPARROWHAWK, Chinese, Accipiter soloensis
    Japanese, Accipiter gularis
SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis
    Western, Spindalis zena
SPOONBILL, Roseate, Platalea ajaja
STARLING, Chestnut-cheeked, Agropsar philippensis
    White-cheeked, Spodiopsar cineraceus
STARTHROAT, Plain-capped, Heliomaster constantii
STILT, Black-necked, Himantopus mexicanus
    Black-winged, Himantopus himantopus
STINT, Little, Calidris minuta
    Long-toed, Calidris subminuta
    Red-necked, Calidris ruficollis
    Temminck's, Calidris temminckii
STONECHAT, Saxicola torquatus
STORK, Wood, Mycteria americana
STORM-PETREL, Ashy, Oceanodroma homochroa
    Band-rumped, Oceanodroma castro
    Black, Oceanodroma melania
    Black-bellied, Fregetta tropica
    Fork-tailed, Oceanodroma furcata
    Leach's, Oceanodroma leucorhoa
    Least, Oceanodroma microsoma
    Matsudaira's, Oceanodroma matsudairae
    Polynesian, Nesofregetta fuliginosa
    Ringed, Oceanodroma hornbyi
    Swinhoe's, Oceanodroma monorhis
    Townsend's, Oceanodroma socorroensis
    Tristram's, Oceanodroma tristrami
    Wedge-rumped, Oceanodroma tethys
    White-bellied, Fregetta grallaria
    White-faced, Pelagodroma marina
    Wilson's, Oceanites oceanicus
SURFBIRD, Calidris virgata
SWALLOW, Bahama, Tachycineta cyaneoviridis
    Bank, Riparia riparia
    Barn, Hirundo rustica
    Cave, Petrochelidon fulva
    Cliff, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
    Mangrove, Tachycineta albilinea
    Northern Rough-winged, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
    Tree, Tachycineta bicolor
    Violet-green, Tachycineta thalassina
SWAMPHEN, Purple, Porphyrio porphyrio
SWAN, Trumpeter, Cygnus buccinator
    Tundra, Cygnus columbianus
    Whooper, Cygnus cygnus
SWIFT, Alpine, Apus melba
    Black, Cypseloides niger
    Chimney, Chaetura pelagica
    Common, Apus apus
    Fork-tailed, Apus pacificus
    Short-tailed, Chaetura brachyura
    Vaux's, Chaetura vauxi
    White-collared, Streptoprocne zonaris
    White-throated, Aeronautes saxatalis
SWIFTLET, Mariana, Aerodramus bartschi
    White-rumped, Aerodramus spodiopygius
TANAGER, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata
    Hepatic, Piranga flava
    Puerto Rican, Nesospingus speculiferus
    Scarlet, Piranga olivacea
    Summer, Piranga rubra
    Western, Piranga ludoviciana
TATTLER, Gray-tailed, Tringa brevipes
    Wandering, Tringa incana
TEAL, Baikal, Sibirionetta formosa
    Blue-winged, Spatula discors
    Cinnamon, Spatula cyanoptera
    Green-winged, Anas crecca
TERN, Aleutian, Onychoprion aleuticus
    Arctic, Sterna paradisaea
    Black, Chlidonias niger
    Black-naped, Sterna sumatrana
    Bridled, Onychoprion anaethetus
    Caspian, Hydroprogne caspia
    Common, Sterna hirundo
    Elegant, Thalasseus elegans
    Forster's, Sterna forsteri
    Gray-backed, Onychoprion lunatus
    Great Crested, Thalasseus bergii
    Gull-billed, Gelochelidon nilotica
    Large-billed, Phaetusa simplex
    Least, Sternula antillarum
    Little, Sternula albifrons
    Roseate, Sterna dougallii
    Royal, Thalasseus maximus
    Sandwich, Thalasseus sandvicensis
    Sooty, Onychoprion fuscatus
    Whiskered, Chlidonias hybrida
    White, Gygis alba
    White-winged, Chlidonias leucopterus
THRASHER, Bendire's, Toxostoma bendirei
    Brown, Toxostoma rufum
    California, Toxostoma redivivum
    Crissal, Toxostoma crissale
    Curve-billed, Toxostoma curvirostre
    LeConte's, Toxostoma lecontei
    Long-billed, Toxostoma longirostre
    Pearly-eyed, Margarops fuscatus
    Sage, Oreoscoptes montanus
THRUSH, Aztec, Ridgwayia pinicola
    Bicknell's, Catharus bicknelli
    Clay-colored, Turdus grayi
    Dusky, Turdus naumanni
    Eyebrowed, Turdus obscurus
    Gray-cheeked, Catharus minimus
    Hermit, Catharus guttatus

[[Page 61300]]

    Red-legged, Turdus plumbeus
    Swainson's, Catharus ustulatus
    Varied, Ixoreus naevius
    White-throated, Turdus assimilis
    Wood, Hylocichla mustelina
TIGER-HERON, Bare-throated, Tigrisoma mexicanum
TITMOUSE, Black-crested, Baeolophus atricristatus
    Bridled, Baeolophus wollweberi
    Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi
    Oak, Baeolophus inornatus
    Tufted, Baeolophus bicolor
TITYRA, Masked, Tityra semifasciata
TOWHEE, Abert's, Melozone aberti
    California, Melozone crissalis
    Canyon, Melozone fusca
    Eastern, Pipilo erythrophthalmus
    Green-tailed, Pipilo chlorurus
    Spotted, Pipilo maculatus
TROGON, Elegant, Trogon elegans
TROPICBIRD, Red-billed, Phaethon aethereus
    Red-tailed, Phaethon rubricauda
    White-tailed, Phaethon lepturus
TURNSTONE, Black, Arenaria melanocephala
    Ruddy, Arenaria interpres
TURTLE-DOVE, European, Streptopelia turtur
    Oriental, Streptopelia orientalis
VEERY, Catharus fuscescens
VERDIN, Auriparus flaviceps
VIOLETEAR, Mexican, Colibri thalassinus
VIREO, Bell's, Vireo bellii
    Black-capped, Vireo atricapilla
    Black-whiskered, Vireo altiloquus
    Blue-headed, Vireo solitarius
    Cassin's, Vireo cassinii
    Cuban, Vireo gundlachii
    Gray, Vireo vicinior
    Hutton's, Vireo huttoni
    Philadelphia, Vireo philadelphicus
    Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus
    Puerto Rican, Vireo latimeri
    Red-eyed, Vireo olivaceus
    Thick-billed, Vireo crassirostris
    Warbling, Vireo gilvus
    White-eyed, Vireo griseus
    Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis
    Yellow-throated, Vireo flavifrons
    Yucatan, Vireo magister
VULTURE, Black, Coragyps atratus
    Turkey, Cathartes aura
WAGTAIL, Citrine, Motacilla citreola
    Eastern Yellow, Motacilla tschutschensis
    Gray, Motacilla cinerea
    White, Motacilla alba
WARBLER, Adelaide's, Setophaga adelaidae
    Aguiguan Reed, Acrocephalus nijoi
    Arctic, Phylloscopus borealis
    Bachman's, Vermivora bachmanii
    Bay-breasted, Setophaga castanea
    Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia
    Blackburnian, Setophaga fusca
    Blackpoll, Setophaga striata
    Black-throated Blue, Setophaga caerulescens
    Black-throated Gray, Setophaga nigrescens
    Black-throated Green, Setophaga virens
    Blue-winged, Vermivora cyanoptera
    Blyth's Reed, Acrocephalus dumetorum
    Canada, Cardellina canadensis
    Cape May, Setophaga tigrina
    Cerulean, Setophaga cerulea
    Chestnut-sided, Setophaga pensylvanica
    Colima, Oreothlypis crissalis
    Connecticut, Oporornis agilis
    Crescent-chested, Oreothlypis superciliosa
    Dusky, Phylloscopus fuscatus
    Elfin-woods, Setophaga angelae
    Fan-tailed, Basileuterus lachrymosus
    Golden-cheeked, Setophaga chrysoparia
    Golden-crowned, Basileuterus culicivorus
    Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera
    Grace's, Setophaga graciae
    Hermit, Setophaga occidentalis
    Hooded, Setophaga citrina
    Kamchatka Leaf, Phylloscopus examinandus
    Kentucky, Geothlypis formosa
    Kirtland's, Setophaga kirtlandii
    Lanceolated, Locustella lanceolata
    Lucy's, Oreothlypis luciae
    MacGillivray's, Geothlypis tolmiei
    Magnolia, Setophaga magnolia
    Mourning, Geothlypis philadelphia
    Nashville, Oreothlypis ruficapilla
    Nightingale Reed, Acrocephalus luscinius
    Olive, Peucedramus taeniatus
    Orange-crowned, Oreothlypis celata
    Pagan Reed, Acrocephalus yamashinae
    Pallas's Leaf, Phylloscopus proregulus
    Palm, Setophaga palmarum
    Pine, Setophaga pinus
    Prairie, Setophaga discolor
    Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea
    Red-faced, Cardellina rubrifrons
    Rufous-capped, Basileuterus rufifrons
    Saipan Reed, Acrocephalus hiwae
    Sedge, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus
    Swainson's, Limnothlypis swainsonii
    Tennessee, Oreothlypis peregrina
    Townsend's, Setophaga townsendi
    Virginia's, Oreothlypis virginiae
    Willow, Phylloscopus trochilus
    Wilson's, Cardellina pusilla
    Wood, Phylloscopus sibilatrix
    Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorum
    Yellow, Setophaga petechia
    Yellow-browed, Phylloscopus inornatus
    Yellow-rumped, Setophaga coronata
    Yellow-throated, Setophaga dominica
WATERTHRUSH, Louisiana, Parkesia motacilla
    Northern, Parkesia noveboracensis
WAXWING, Bohemian, Bombycilla garrulus
    Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum
WHEATEAR, Northern, Oenanthe oenanthe
WHIMBREL, Numenius phaeopus
WHIP-POOR-WILL, Eastern, Antrostomus vociferus
    Mexican, Antrostomus arizonae
WHISTLING-DUCK, Black-bellied, Dendrocygna autumnalis
    Fulvous, Dendrocygna bicolor
    West Indian, Dendrocygna arborea
WHITETHROAT, Lesser, Sylvia curruca
WIGEON, American, Mareca americana
    Eurasian, Mareca penelope
WILLET, Tringa semipalmata
WOODCOCK, American, Scolopax minor
    Eurasian, Scolopax rusticola
WOODPECKER, Acorn, Melanerpes formicivorus
    American Three-toed, Picoides dorsalis
    Arizona, Dryobates arizonae
    Black-backed, Picoides arcticus
    Downy, Dryobates pubescens
    Gila, Melanerpes uropygialis
    Golden-fronted, Melanerpes aurifrons
    Great Spotted, Dendrocopos major
    Hairy, Dryobates villosus
    Ivory-billed, Campephilus principalis
    Ladder-backed, Dryobates scalaris
    Lewis's, Melanerpes lewis
    Nuttall's, Dryobates nuttallii
    Pileated, Dryocopus pileatus
    Puerto Rican, Melanerpes portoricensis
    Red-bellied, Melanerpes carolinus
    Red-cockaded, Dryobates borealis
    Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus
    White-headed, Dryobates albolarvatus
WOOD-PEWEE, Eastern, Contopus virens
    Western, Contopus sordidulus
WOOD-RAIL, Rufous-necked, Aramides axillaris
WOODSTAR, Bahama, Calliphlox evelynae
WREN, Bewick's, Thryomanes bewickii
    Cactus, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus
    Canyon, Catherpes mexicanus
    Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus
    House, Troglodytes aedon
    Marsh, Cistothorus palustris
    Pacific, Troglodytes pacificus
    Rock, Salpinctes obsoletus
    Sedge, Cistothorus platensis
    Sinaloa, Thryophilus sinaloa
    Winter, Troglodytes hiemalis
WRENTIT, Chamaea fasciata
WRYNECK, Eurasian, Jynx torquilla
YELLOWLEGS, Greater, Tringa melanoleuca
    Lesser, Tringa flavipes
YELLOWTHROAT, Common, Geothlypis trichas
    Gray-crowned, Geothlypis poliocephala
    (2) Taxonomic listing. Species are listed in phylogenetic 
sequence by scientific name, with the common (English) name 
following the scientific name. To help clarify species 
relationships, we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of 
Order, Family, and Subfamily.

Order ANSERIFORMES
Family ANATIDAE
Subfamily DENDROCYGNINAE
    Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-Duck
Subfamily ANSERINAE
    Anser canagicus, Emperor Goose
    Anser caerulescens, Snow Goose
    Anser rossii, Ross's Goose
    Anser albifrons, Greater White-fronted Goose
    Anser erythropus, Lesser White-fronted Goose
    Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose
    Anser serrirostris, Tundra Bean-Goose
    Anser brachyrhynchus, Pink-footed Goose
    Branta bernicla, Brant
    Branta leucopsis, Barnacle Goose
    Branta hutchinsii, Cackling Goose
    Branta canadensis, Canada Goose
    Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian Goose
    Cygnus buccinator, Trumpeter Swan
    Cygnus columbianus, Tundra Swan
    Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan
Subfamily ANATINAE
    Cairina moschata, Muscovy Duck
    Aix sponsa, Wood Duck
    Sibirionetta formosa, Baikal Teal
    Spatula querquedula, Garganey
    Spatula discors, Blue-winged Teal
    Spatula cyanoptera, Cinnamon Teal

[[Page 61301]]

    Spatula clypeata, Northern Shoveler
    Mareca strepera, Gadwall
    Mareca falcata, Falcated Duck
    Mareca penelope, Eurasian Wigeon
    Mareca americana, American Wigeon
    Anas laysanensis, Laysan Duck
    Anas wyvilliana, Hawaiian Duck
    Anas zonorhyncha, Eastern Spot-billed Duck
    Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard
    Anas rubripes, American Black Duck
    Anas fulvigula, Mottled Duck
    Anas superciliosa, Pacific Black Duck
    Anas bahamensis, White-cheeked Pintail
    Anas acuta, Northern Pintail
    Anas crecca, Green-winged Teal
    Aythya valisineria, Canvasback
    Aythya americana, Redhead
    Aythya ferina, Common Pochard
    Aythya baeri, Baer's Pochard
    Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck
    Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck
    Aythya marila, Greater Scaup
    Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup
    Polysticta stelleri, Steller's Eider
    Somateria fischeri, Spectacled Eider
    Somateria spectabilis, King Eider
    Somateria mollissima, Common Eider
    Histrionicus histrionicus, Harlequin Duck
    Melanitta perspicillata, Surf Scoter
    Melanitta fusca, White-winged Scoter
    Melanitta nigra, Common Scoter
    Melanitta americana, Black Scoter
    Clangula hyemalis, Long-tailed Duck
    Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead
    Bucephala clangula, Common Goldeneye
    Bucephala islandica, Barrow's Goldeneye
    Mergellus albellus, Smew
    Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser
    Mergus merganser, Common Merganser
    Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser
    Nomonyx dominicus, Masked Duck
    Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck
Order PHOENICOPTERIFORMES
Family PHOENICOPTERIDAE
    Phoenicopterus ruber, American Flamingo
Order PODICIPEDIFORMES
Family PODICIPEDIDAE
    Tachybaptus dominicus, Least Grebe
    Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe
    Podiceps auritus, Horned Grebe
    Podiceps grisegena, Red-necked Grebe
    Podiceps nigricollis, Eared Grebe
    Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe
    Aechmophorus clarkii, Clark's Grebe
Order COLUMBIFORMES
Family COLUMBIDAE
    Patagioenas squamosa, Scaly-naped Pigeon
    Patagioenas leucocephala, White-crowned Pigeon
    Patagioenas flavirostris, Red-billed Pigeon
    Patagioenas inornata, Plain Pigeon
    Patagioenas fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon
    Streptopelia orientalis, Oriental Turtle-Dove
    Alopecoenas xanthonura, White-throated Ground-Dove
    Alopecoenas stairi, Shy Ground-Dove
    Streptopelia turtur, European Turtle-Dove
    Columbina inca, Inca Dove
    Columbina passerina, Common Ground-Dove
    Columbina talpacoti, Ruddy Ground-Dove
    Geotrygon montana, Ruddy Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon chrysia, Key West Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon mystacea, Bridled Quail-Dove
    Leptotila verreauxi, White-tipped Dove
    Zenaida asiatica, White-winged Dove
    Zenaida aurita, Zenaida Dove
    Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove
    Ptilinopus perousii, Many-colored Fruit-Dove
    Ptilinopus porphyraceus, Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove
    Ptilinopus roseicapilla, Mariana Fruit-Dove
    Ducula pacifica, Pacific Imperial-Pigeon
Order CUCULIFORMES
Family CUCULIDAE
Subfamily CUCULINAE
    Urodynamis taitensis, Long-tailed Koel
    Hierococcyx nisicolor, Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo
    Cuculus canorus, Common Cuckoo
    Cuculus optatus, Oriental Cuckoo
    Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus minor, Mangrove Cuckoo
    Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Black-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus vieilloti, Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo
Subfamily NEOMORPHINAE
    Geococcyx californianus, Greater Roadrunner
Subfamily CROTOPHAGINAE
    Crotophaga ani, Smooth-billed Ani
    Crotophaga sulcirostris, Groove-billed Ani
Order CAPRIMULGIFORMES
Family CAPRIMULGIDAE
Subfamily CHORDEILINAE
    Chordeiles acutipennis, Lesser Nighthawk
    Chordeiles minor, Common Nighthawk
    Chordeiles gundlachii, Antillean Nighthawk
Subfamily CAPRIMULGINAE
    Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Pauraque
    Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Common Poorwill
    Antrostomus carolinensis, Chuck-will's-widow
    Antrostomus ridgwayi, Buff-collared Nightjar
    Antrostomus vociferus, Eastern Whip-poor-will
    Antrostomus arizonae, Mexican Whip-poor-will
    Antrostomus noctitherus, Puerto Rican Nightjar
    Hydropsalis cayennensis, White-tailed Nightjar
    Caprimulgus jotaka, Gray Nightjar
Order APODIFORMES
Family APODIDAE
Subfamily CYPSELOIDINAE
    Cypseloides niger, Black Swift
    Streptoprocne zonaris, White-collared Swift
Subfamily CHAETURINAE
    Chaetura pelagica, Chimney Swift
    Chaetura vauxi, Vaux's Swift
    Chaetura brachyura, Short-tailed Swift
    Hirundapus caudacutus, White-throated Needletail
    Aerodramus spodiopygius, White-rumped Swiftlet
    Aerodramus bartschi, Mariana Swiftlet
Subfamily APODINAE
    Apus apus, Common Swift
    Apus pacificus, Fork-tailed Swift
    Apus melba, Alpine Swift
    Aeronautes saxatalis, White-throated Swift
    Tachornis phoenicobia, Antillean Palm-Swift
Family TROCHILIDAE
Subfamily TROCHILINAE
    Colibri thalassinus, Mexican Violetear
    Anthracothorax prevostii, Green-breasted Mango
    Anthracothorax dominicus, Antillean Mango
    Anthracothorax viridis, Green Mango
    Eulampis jugularis, Purple-throated Carib
    Eulampis holosericeus, Green-throated Carib
    Eugenes fulgens, Rivoli's Hummingbird
    Heliomaster constantii, Plain-capped Starthroat
    Lampornis amethystinus, Amethyst-throated Hummingbird
    Lampornis clemenciae, Blue-throated Hummingbird
    Calliphlox evelynae, Bahama Woodstar
    Calothorax lucifer, Lucifer Hummingbird
    Archilochus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird
    Archilochus alexandri, Black-chinned Hummingbird
    Mellisuga minima, Vervain Hummingbird
    Calypte anna, Anna's Hummingbird
    Calypte costae, Costa's Hummingbird
    Atthis heloisa, Bumblebee Hummingbird
    Selasphorus platycercus, Broad-tailed Hummingbird
    Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird
    Selasphorus sasin, Allen's Hummingbird
    Selasphorus calliope, Calliope Hummingbird
    Chlorostilbon maugaeus, Puerto Rican Emerald
    Cynanthus latirostris, Broad-billed Hummingbird
    Orthorhyncus cristatus, Antillean Crested Hummingbird
    Amazilia beryllina, Berylline Hummingbird
    Amazilia yucatanensis, Buff-bellied Hummingbird
    Amazilia rutila, Cinnamon Hummingbird
    Amazilia violiceps, Violet-crowned Hummingbird
    Hylocharis leucotis, White-eared Hummingbird
    Hylocharis xantusii, Xantus's Hummingbird
Order GRUIFORMES
Family RALLIDAE
    Coturnicops noveboracensis, Yellow Rail
    Laterallus jamaicensis, Black Rail
    Gallirallus philippensis, Buff-banded Rail
    Gallirallus owstoni, Guam Rail
    Crex crex, Corn Crake
    Rallus obsoletus, Ridgway's Rail
    Rallus crepitans, Clapper Rail
    Rallus elegans, King Rail
    Rallus limicola, Virginia Rail
    Aramides axillaris, Rufous-necked Wood-Rail
    Porzana carolina, Sora
    Porzana tabuensis, Spotless Crake
    Hapalocrex flaviventer, Yellow-breasted Crake
    Neocrex erythrops, Paint-billed Crake
    Pardirallus maculatus, Spotted Rail
    Porphyrio martinicus, Purple Gallinule
    Porphyrio flavirostris, Azure Gallinule
    Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Swamphen
    Gallinula galeata, Common Gallinule

[[Page 61302]]

    Gallinula chloropus, Common Moorhen
    Fulica atra, Eurasian Coot
    Fulica alai, Hawaiian Coot
    Fulica americana, American Coot
Family ARAMIDAE
    Aramus guarauna, Limpkin
Family GRUIDAE
Subfamily GRUINAE
    Antigone canadensis, Sandhill Crane
    Grus grus, Common Crane
    Grus americana, Whooping Crane
Order CHARADRIIFORMES
Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE
    Himantopus himantopus, Black-winged Stilt
    Himantopus mexicanus, Black-necked Stilt
    Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet
Family HAEMATOPODIDAE
    Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian Oystercatcher
    Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher
    Haematopus bachmani, Black Oystercatcher
Family CHARADRIIDAE
Subfamily VANELLINAE
    Vanellus vanellus, Northern Lapwing
Subfamily CHARADRIINAE
    Pluvialis squatarola, Black-bellied Plover
    Pluvialis apricaria, European Golden-Plover
    Pluvialis dominica, American Golden-Plover
    Pluvialis fulva, Pacific Golden-Plover
    Charadrius mongolus, Lesser Sand-Plover
    Charadrius leschenaultii, Greater Sand-Plover
    Charadrius collaris, Collared Plover
    Charadrius alexandrinus, Kentish Plover
    Charadrius nivosus, Snowy Plover
    Charadrius wilsonia, Wilson's Plover
    Charadrius hiaticula, Common Ringed Plover
    Charadrius semipalmatus, Semipalmated Plover
    Charadrius melodus, Piping Plover
    Charadrius dubius, Little Ringed Plover
    Charadrius vociferus, Killdeer
    Charadrius montanus, Mountain Plover
    Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Dotterel
Family JACANIDAE
    Jacana spinosa, Northern Jacana
Family SCOLOPACIDAE
Subfamily NUMENIINAE
    Bartramia longicauda, Upland Sandpiper
    Numenius tahitiensis, Bristle-thighed Curlew
    Numenius phaeopus, Whimbrel
    Numenius minutus, Little Curlew
    Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew
    Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew
    Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew
    Numenius arquata, Eurasian Curlew
Subfamily LIMOSINAE
    Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit
    Limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit
    Limosa haemastica, Hudsonian Godwit
    Limosa fedoa, Marbled Godwit
Subfamily ARENARIINAE
    Arenaria interpres, Ruddy Turnstone
    Arenaria melanocephala, Black Turnstone
    Calidris tenuirostris, Great Knot
    Calidris canutus, Red Knot
    Calidris virgata, Surfbird
    Calidris pugnax, Ruff
    Calidris falcinellus, Broad-billed Sandpiper
    Calidris acuminata, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper
    Calidris himantopus, Stilt Sandpiper
    Calidris ferruginea, Curlew Sandpiper
    Calidris temminckii, Temminck's Stint
    Calidris subminuta, Long-toed Stint
    Calidris pygmea, Spoon-billed Sandpiper
    Calidris ruficollis, Red-necked Stint
    Calidris alba, Sanderling
    Calidris alpina, Dunlin
    Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper
    Calidris maritima, Purple Sandpiper
    Calidris bairdii, Baird's Sandpiper
    Calidris minuta, Little Stint
    Calidris minutilla, Least Sandpiper
    Calidris fuscicollis, White-rumped Sandpiper
    Calidris subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper
    Calidris melanotos, Pectoral Sandpiper
    Calidris pusilla, Semipalmated Sandpiper
    Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper
Subfamily SCOLOPACINAE
    Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher
    Limnodromus scolopaceus, Long-billed Dowitcher
    Lymnocryptes minimus, Jack Snipe
    Scolopax rusticola, Eurasian Woodcock
    Scolopax minor, American Woodcock
    Gallinago solitaria, Solitary Snipe
    Gallinago stenura, Pin-tailed Snipe
    Gallinago megala, Swinhoe's Snipe
    Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe
    Gallinago delicata, Wilson's Snipe
Subfamily TRINGINAE
    Xenus cinereus, Terek Sandpiper
    Actitis hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper
    Actitis macularius, Spotted Sandpiper
    Tringa ochropus, Green Sandpiper
    Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper
    Tringa brevipes, Gray-tailed Tattler
    Tringa incana, Wandering Tattler
    Tringa flavipes, Lesser Yellowlegs
    Tringa semipalmata, Willet
    Tringa erythropus, Spotted Redshank
    Tringa nebularia, Common Greenshank
    Tringa guttifer, Nordmann's Greenshank
    Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs
    Tringa totanus, Common Redshank
    Tringa glareola, Wood Sandpiper
    Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper
    Phalaropus tricolor, Wilson's Phalarope
    Phalaropus lobatus, Red-necked Phalarope
    Phalaropus fulicarius, Red Phalarope
Family STERCORARIIDAE
    Stercorarius skua, Great Skua
    Stercorarius maccormicki, South Polar Skua
    Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Jaeger
    Stercorarius parasiticus, Parasitic Jaeger
    Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger
Family ALCIDAE
    Alle alle, Dovekie
    Uria aalge, Common Murre
    Uria lomvia, Thick-billed Murre
    Alca torda, Razorbill
    Cepphus grylle, Black Guillemot
    Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot
    Brachyramphus perdix, Long-billed Murrelet
    Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet
    Brachyramphus brevirostris, Kittlitz's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus scrippsi, Scripps's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Guadalupe Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus craveri, Craveri's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus antiquus, Ancient Murrelet
    Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin's Auklet
    Aethia psittacula, Parakeet Auklet
    Aethia pusilla, Least Auklet
    Aethia pygmaea, Whiskered Auklet
    Aethia cristatella, Crested Auklet
    Cerorhinca monocerata, Rhinoceros Auklet
    Fratercula arctica, Atlantic Puffin
    Fratercula corniculata, Horned Puffin
    Fratercula cirrhata, Tufted Puffin
Family LARIDAE
Subfamily LARINAE
    Creagrus furcatus, Swallow-tailed Gull
    Rissa tridactyla, Black-legged Kittiwake
    Rissa brevirostris, Red-legged Kittiwake
    Pagophila eburnea, Ivory Gull
    Xema sabini, Sabine's Gull
    Chroicocephalus philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull
    Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus, Gray-hooded Gull
    Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Black-headed Gull
    Hydrocoloeus minutus, Little Gull
    Rhodostethia rosea, Ross's Gull
    Leucophaeus atricilla, Laughing Gull
    Leucophaeus pipixcan, Franklin's Gull
    Larus belcheri, Belcher's Gull
    Larus crassirostris, Black-tailed Gull
    Larus heermanni, Heermann's Gull
    Larus canus, Mew Gull
    Larus delawarensis, Ring-billed Gull
    Larus occidentalis, Western Gull
    Larus livens, Yellow-footed Gull
    Larus californicus, California Gull
    Larus argentatus, Herring Gull
    Larus michahellis, Yellow-legged Gull
    Larus glaucoides, Iceland Gull
    Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull
    Larus schistisagus, Slaty-backed Gull
    Larus glaucescens, Glaucous-winged Gull
    Larus hyperboreus, Glaucous Gull
    Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull
    Larus dominicanus, Kelp Gull
Subfamily STERNINAE
    Anous stolidus, Brown Noddy
    Anous minutus, Black Noddy
    Anous ceruleus, Blue-gray Noddy
    Gygis alba, White Tern
    Onychoprion fuscatus, Sooty Tern
    Onychoprion lunatus, Gray-backed Tern
    Onychoprion anaethetus, Bridled Tern
    Onychoprion aleuticus, Aleutian Tern
    Sternula albifrons, Little Tern
    Sternula antillarum, Least Tern
    Phaetusa simplex, Large-billed Tern
    Gelochelidon nilotica, Gull-billed Tern
    Hydroprogne caspia, Caspian Tern
    Chlidonias niger, Black Tern
    Chlidonias leucopterus, White-winged Tern
    Chlidonias hybrida, Whiskered Tern
    Sterna dougallii, Roseate Tern
    Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern
    Sterna hirundo, Common Tern
    Sterna paradisaea, Arctic Tern
    Sterna forsteri, Forster's Tern

[[Page 61303]]

    Thalasseus maximus, Royal Tern
    Thalasseus bergii, Great Crested Tern
    Thalasseus sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern
    Thalasseus elegans, Elegant Tern
Subfamily RYNCHOPINAE
    Rynchops niger, Black Skimmer
Order PHAETHONTIFORMES
Family PHAETHONTIDAE
    Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird
    Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird
    Phaethon rubricauda, Red-tailed Tropicbird
Order GAVIIFORMES
Family GAVIIDAE
    Gavia stellata, Red-throated Loon
    Gavia arctica, Arctic Loon
    Gavia pacifica, Pacific Loon
    Gavia immer, Common Loon
    Gavia adamsii, Yellow-billed Loon
Order PROCELLARIIFORMES
Family DIOMEDEIDAE
    Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Yellow-nosed Albatross
    Thalassarche cauta, White-capped Albatross
    Thalassarche eremita, Chatham Albatross
    Thalassarche salvini, Salvin's Albatross
    Thalassarche melanophris, Black-browed Albatross
    Phoebetria palpebrata, Light-mantled Albatross
    Diomedea exulans, Wandering Albatross
    Phoebastria immutabilis, Laysan Albatross
    Phoebastria nigripes, Black-footed Albatross
    Phoebastria albatrus, Short-tailed Albatross
Family OCEANITIDAE
    Oceanites oceanicus, Wilson's Storm-Petrel
    Pelagodroma marina, White-faced Storm-Petrel
    Fregetta tropica, Black-bellied Storm-Petrel
Family HYDROBATIDAE
    Fregetta grallaria, White-bellied Storm-Petrel
    Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Polynesian Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma furcata, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma hornbyi, Ringed Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma monorhis, Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Leach's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma socorroensis, Townsend's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma homochroa, Ashy Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma castro, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma tethys, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma matsudairae, Matsudaira's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma melania, Black Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma tristrami, Tristram's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma microsoma, Least Storm-Petrel
Family PROCELLARIIDAE
    Fulmarus glacialis, Northern Fulmar
    Pterodroma macroptera, Great-winged Petrel
    Pterodroma solandri, Providence Petrel
    Pterodroma neglecta, Kermadec Petrel
    Pterodroma arminjoniana, Trindade Petrel
    Pterodroma heraldica, Herald Petrel
    Pterodroma ultima, Murphy's Petrel
    Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel
    Pterodroma cahow, Bermuda Petrel
    Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel
    Pterodroma externa, Juan Fernandez Petrel
    Pterodroma sandwichensis, Hawaiian Petrel
    Pterodroma cervicalis, White-necked Petrel
    Pterodroma hypoleuca, Bonin Petrel
    Pterodroma nigripennis, Black-winged Petrel
    Pterodroma feae, Fea's Petrel
    Pterodroma madeira, Zino's Petrel
    Pterodroma cookii, Cook's Petrel
    Pterodroma longirostris, Stejneger's Petrel
    Pterodroma alba, Phoenix Petrel
    Pterodroma leucoptera, Gould's Petrel
    Pseudobulweria rostrata, Tahiti Petrel
    Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer's Petrel
    Bulweria fallax, Jouanin's Petrel
    Procellaria aequinoctialis, White-chinned Petrel
    Procellaria parkinsoni, Parkinson's Petrel
    Calonectris leucomelas, Streaked Shearwater
    Calonectris diomedea, Cory's Shearwater
    Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Shearwater
    Ardenna pacifica, Wedge-tailed Shearwater
    Ardenna bulleri, Buller's Shearwater
    Ardenna tenuirostris, Short-tailed Shearwater
    Ardenna grisea, Sooty Shearwater
    Ardenna gravis, Great Shearwater
    Ardenna creatopus, Pink-footed Shearwater
    Ardenna carneipes, Flesh-footed Shearwater
    Puffinus nativitatis, Christmas Shearwater
    Puffinus puffinus, Manx Shearwater
    Puffinus newelli, Newell's Shearwater
    Puffinus bryani, Bryan's Shearwater
    Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented Shearwater
    Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon's Shearwater
    Puffinus baroli, Barolo Shearwater
Order CICONIIFORMES
Family CICONIIDAE
    Jabiru mycteria, Jabiru
    Mycteria americana, Wood Stork
Order SULIFORMES
Family FREGATIDAE
    Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird
    Fregata minor, Great Frigatebird
    Fregata ariel, Lesser Frigatebird
Family SULIDAE
    Sula dactylatra, Masked Booby
    Sula granti, Nazca Booby
    Sula nebouxii, Blue-footed Booby
    Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby
    Sula sula, Red-footed Booby
    Papasula abbotti, Abbott's Booby
    Morus bassanus, Northern Gannet
Family PHALACROCORACIDAE
    Phalacrocorax melanoleucos, Little Pied Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt's Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Neotropic Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax auritus, Double-crested Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax carbo, Great Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax urile, Red-faced Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pelagic Cormorant
Family ANHINGIDAE
    Anhinga anhinga, Anhinga
Order PELECANIFORMES
Family PELECANIDAE
    Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, American White Pelican
    Pelecanus occidentalis, Brown Pelican
Family ARDEIDAE
    Botaurus lentiginosus, American Bittern
    Ixobrychus sinensis, Yellow Bittern
    Ixobrychus exilis, Least Bittern
    Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Schrenck's Bittern
    Ixobrychus flavicollis, Black Bittern
    Tigrisoma mexicanum, Bare-throated Tiger-Heron
    Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron
    Ardea cinerea, Gray Heron
    Ardea alba, Great Egret
    Ardea intermedia, Intermediate Egret
    Egretta eulophotes, Chinese Egret
    Egretta garzetta, Little Egret
    Egretta sacra, Pacific Reef-Heron
    Egretta gularis, Western Reef-Heron
    Egretta thula, Snowy Egret
    Egretta caerulea, Little Blue Heron
    Egretta tricolor, Tricolored Heron
    Egretta rufescens, Reddish Egret
    Bubulcus ibis, Cattle Egret
    Ardeola bacchus, Chinese Pond-Heron
    Butorides virescens, Green Heron
    Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron
    Nycticorax caledonicus, Rufous Night-Heron
    Nyctanassa violacea, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron
    Gorsachius goisagi, Japanese Night-Heron
    Gorsachius melanolophus, Malayan Night-Heron
Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE
Subfamily THRESKIORNITHINAE
    Eudocimus albus, White Ibis
    Eudocimus ruber, Scarlet Ibis
    Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis
    Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis
Subfamily PLATALEINAE
    Platalea ajaja, Roseate Spoonbill
Order CARTHARTIFORMES
Family CATHARTIDAE
    Coragyps atratus, Black Vulture
    Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture
    Gymnogyps californianus, California Condor
Order ACCIPITRIFORMES
Family PANDIONIDAE
    Pandion haliaetus, Osprey
Family ACCIPITRIDAE
Subfamily ELANINAE
    Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite
Subfamily GYPAETINAE
    Chondrohierax uncinatus, Hook-billed Kite
    Elanoides forficatus, Swallow-tailed Kite
Subfamily ACCIPITRINAE
    Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle
    Harpagus bidentatus, Double-toothed Kite
    Circus spilonotus, Eastern Marsh-Harrier
    Circus hudsonius, Northern Harrier
    Accipiter soloensis, Chinese Sparrowhawk
    Accipiter gularis, Japanese Sparrowhawk
    Accipiter striatus, Sharp-shinned Hawk

[[Page 61304]]

    Accipiter cooperii, Cooper's Hawk
    Accipiter gentilis, Northern Goshawk
    Milvus migrans, Black Kite
    Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle
    Haliaeetus albicilla, White-tailed Eagle
    Haliaeetus pelagicus, Steller's Sea-Eagle
    Ictinia mississippiensis, Mississippi Kite
    Butastur indicus, Gray-faced Buzzard
    Geranospiza caerulescens, Crane Hawk
    Rostrhamus sociabilis, Snail Kite
    Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black Hawk
    Rupornis magnirostris, Roadside Hawk
    Parabuteo unicinctus, Harris's Hawk
    Geranoaetus albicaudatus, White-tailed Hawk
    Buteo plagiatus, Gray Hawk
    Buteo lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk
    Buteo platypterus, Broad-winged Hawk
    Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian Hawk
    Buteo brachyurus, Short-tailed Hawk
    Buteo swainsoni, Swainson's Hawk
    Buteo albonotatus, Zone-tailed Hawk
    Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk
    Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Hawk
    Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk
Order STRIGIFORMES
Family TYTONIDAE
    Tyto alba, Barn Owl
Family STRIGIDAE
    Otus sunia, Oriental Scops-Owl
    Psiloscops flammeolus, Flammulated Owl
    Megascops kennicottii, Western Screech-Owl
    Megascops asio, Eastern Screech-Owl
    Megascops trichopsis, Whiskered Screech-Owl
    Megascops nudipes, Puerto Rican Screech-Owl
    Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl
    Bubo scandiacus, Snowy Owl
    Surnia ulula, Northern Hawk Owl
    Glaucidium gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl
    Glaucidium brasilianum, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl
    Micrathene whitneyi, Elf Owl
    Athene cunicularia, Burrowing Owl
    Ciccaba virgata, Mottled Owl
    Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl
    Strix varia, Barred Owl
    Strix nebulosa, Great Gray Owl
    Asio otus, Long-eared Owl
    Asio stygius, Stygian Owl
    Asio flammeus, Short-eared Owl
    Aegolius funereus, Boreal Owl
    Aegolius acadicus, Northern Saw-whet Owl
    Ninox japonica, Northern Boobook
Order TROGONIFORMES
Family TROGONIDAE
Subfamily TROGONINAE
    Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon
    Euptilotis neoxenus, Eared Quetzal
Order UPUPIFORMES
Family UPUPIDAE
    Upupa epops, Eurasian Hoopoe
Order CORACIIFORMES
Family ALCEDINIDAE
Subfamily ALCEDININAE
    Alcedo atthis, Common Kingfisher
Subfamily HALCYONINAE
    Todiramphus sacer, Pacific Kingfisher
    Todiramphus cinnamominus, Guam Kingfisher
    Todiramphus albicilla, Mariana Kingfisher
Subfamily CERYLINAE
    Megaceryle torquata, Ringed Kingfisher
    Megaceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher
    Chloroceryle amazona, Amazon Kingfisher
    Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher
Order PICIFORMES
Family PICIDAE
Subfamily JYNGINAE
    Jynx torquilla, Eurasian Wryneck
Subfamily PICINAE
    Melanerpes lewis, Lewis's Woodpecker
    Melanerpes portoricensis, Puerto Rican Woodpecker
    Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Red-headed Woodpecker
    Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker
    Melanerpes uropygialis, Gila Woodpecker
    Melanerpes aurifrons, Golden-fronted Woodpecker
    Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker
    Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Williamson's Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus nuchalis, Red-naped Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker
    Picoides dorsalis, American Three-toed Woodpecker
    Picoides arcticus, Black-backed Woodpecker
    Dendrocopos major, Great Spotted Woodpecker
    Dryobates pubescens, Downy Woodpecker
    Dryobates nuttallii, Nuttall's Woodpecker
    Dryobates scalaris, Ladder-backed Woodpecker
    Dryobates borealis, Red-cockaded Woodpecker
    Dryobates villosus, Hairy Woodpecker
    Dryobates albolarvatus, White-headed Woodpecker
    Dryobates arizonae, Arizona Woodpecker
    Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker
    Colaptes chrysoides, Gilded Flicker
    Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker
    Campephilus principalis, Ivory-billed Woodpecker
Order FALCONIFORMES
Family FALCONIDAE
Subfamily HERPETOTHERINAE
    Micrastur semitorquatus, Collared Forest-Falcon
Subfamily FALCONINAE
    Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara
    Falco tinnunculus, Eurasian Kestrel
    Falco sparverius, American Kestrel
    Falco vespertinus, Red-footed Falcon
    Falco amurensis, Amur Falcon
    Falco columbarius, Merlin
    Falco subbuteo, Eurasian Hobby
    Falco femoralis, Aplomado Falcon
    Falco rusticolus, Gyrfalcon
    Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon
    Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon
Order PASSERIFORMES
Family TITYRIDAE
    Tityra semifasciata, Masked Tityra
    Pachyramphus major, Gray-collared Becard
    Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard
Family TYRANNIDAE
Subfamily ELAENIINAE
    Camptostoma imberbe, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet
    Myiopagis viridicata, Greenish Elaenia
    Elaenia martinica, Caribbean Elaenia
    Elaenia albiceps, White-crested Elaenia
Subfamily FLUVICOLINAE
    Mitrephanes phaeocercus, Tufted Flycatcher
    Contopus cooperi, Olive-sided Flycatcher
    Contopus pertinax, Greater Pewee
    Contopus sordidulus, Western Wood-Pewee
    Contopus virens, Eastern Wood-Pewee
    Contopus caribaeus, Cuban Pewee
    Contopus hispaniolensis, Hispaniolan Pewee
    Contopus latirostris, Lesser Antillean Pewee
    Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
    Empidonax virescens, Acadian Flycatcher
    Empidonax alnorum, Alder Flycatcher
    Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher
    Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher
    Empidonax hammondii, Hammond's Flycatcher
    Empidonax wrightii, Gray Flycatcher
    Empidonax oberholseri, Dusky Flycatcher
    Empidonax affinis, Pine Flycatcher
    Empidonax difficilis, Pacific-slope Flycatcher
    Empidonax occidentalis, Cordilleran Flycatcher
    Empidonax fulvifrons, Buff-breasted Flycatcher
    Sayornis nigricans, Black Phoebe
    Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe
    Sayornis saya, Say's Phoebe
    Pyrocephalus rubinus, Vermilion Flycatcher
Subfamily TYRANNINAE
    Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher
    Myiarchus cinerascens, Ash-throated Flycatcher
    Myiarchus nuttingi, Nutting's Flycatcher
    Myiarchus crinitus, Great Crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus tyrannulus, Brown-crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus sagrae, La Sagra's Flycatcher
    Myiarchus antillarum, Puerto Rican Flycatcher
    Pitangus sulphuratus, Great Kiskadee
    Myiozetetes similis, Social Flycatcher
    Myiodynastes luteiventris, Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher
    Legatus leucophaius, Piratic Flycatcher
    Empidonomus varius, Variegated Flycatcher
    Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus, Crowned Slaty Flycatcher
    Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird
    Tyrannus couchii, Couch's Kingbird
    Tyrannus vociferans, Cassin's Kingbird
    Tyrannus crassirostris, Thick-billed Kingbird
    Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird
    Tyrannus tyrannus, Eastern Kingbird
    Tyrannus dominicensis, Gray Kingbird
    Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Loggerhead Kingbird
    Tyrannus forficatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
    Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher
Family LANIIDAE
    Lanius cristatus, Brown Shrike

[[Page 61305]]

    Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike
    Lanius borealis, Northern Shrike
Family VIREONIDAE
    Vireo atricapilla, Black-capped Vireo
    Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo
    Vireo crassirostris, Thick-billed Vireo
    Vireo latimeri, Puerto Rican Vireo
    Vireo gundlachii, Cuban Vireo
    Vireo bellii, Bell's Vireo
    Vireo vicinior, Gray Vireo
    Vireo huttoni, Hutton's Vireo
    Vireo flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo
    Vireo cassinii, Cassin's Vireo
    Vireo solitarius, Blue-headed Vireo
    Vireo plumbeus, Plumbeous Vireo
    Vireo philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo
    Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo
    Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo
    Vireo flavoviridis, Yellow-green Vireo
    Vireo altiloquus, Black-whiskered Vireo
    Vireo magister, Yucatan Vireo
Family CORVIDAE
    Perisoreus canadensis, Canada Jay
    Psilorhinus morio, Brown Jay
    Cyanocorax yncas, Green Jay
    Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Pinyon Jay
    Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller's Jay
    Cyanocitta cristata, Blue Jay
    Aphelocoma coerulescens, Florida Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma insularis, Island Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma californica, California Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma woodhouseii, Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma wollweberi, Mexican Jay
    Nucifraga columbiana, Clark's Nutcracker
    Pica hudsonia, Black-billed Magpie
    Pica nuttalli, Yellow-billed Magpie
    Corvus monedula, Eurasian Jackdaw
    Corvus kubaryi, Mariana Crow
    Corvus brachyrhynchos, American Crow
    Corvus caurinus, Northwestern Crow
    Corvus leucognaphalus, White-necked Crow
    Corvus imparatus, Tamaulipas Crow
    Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow
    Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian Crow
    Corvus cryptoleucus, Chihuahuan Raven
    Corvus corax, Common Raven
Family ALAUDIDAE
    Alauda arvensis, Eurasian Skylark
    Eremophila alpestris, Horned Lark
Family HIRUNDINIDAE
Subfamily HIRUNDININAE
    Progne subis, Purple Martin
    Progne cryptoleuca, Cuban Martin
    Progne dominicensis, Caribbean Martin
    Progne chalybea, Gray-breasted Martin
    Progne elegans, Southern Martin
    Progne tapera, Brown-chested Martin
    Tachycineta bicolor, Tree Swallow
    Tachycineta albilinea, Mangrove Swallow
    Tachycineta thalassina, Violet-green Swallow
    Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Bahama Swallow
    Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Northern Rough-winged Swallow
    Riparia riparia, Bank Swallow
    Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow
    Petrochelidon fulva, Cave Swallow
    Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow
    Delichon urbicum, Common House-Martin
Family PARIDAE
    Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee
    Poecile atricapillus, Black-capped Chickadee
    Poecile gambeli, Mountain Chickadee
    Poecile sclateri, Mexican Chickadee
    Poecile rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee
    Poecile hudsonicus, Boreal Chickadee
    Poecile cinctus, Gray-headed Chickadee
    Baeolophus wollweberi, Bridled Titmouse
    Baeolophus inornatus, Oak Titmouse
    Baeolophus ridgwayi, Juniper Titmouse
    Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse
    Baeolophus atricristatus, Black-crested Titmouse
Family REMIZIDAE
    Auriparus flaviceps, Verdin
Family AEGITHALIDAE
    Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit
Family SITTIDAE
Subfamily SITTINAE
    Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta pygmaea, Pygmy Nuthatch
    Sitta pusilla, Brown-headed Nuthatch
Family CERTHIIDAE
Subfamily CERTHIINAE
    Certhia americana, Brown Creeper
Family TROGLODYTIDAE
    Salpinctes obsoletus, Rock Wren
    Catherpes mexicanus, Canyon Wren
    Troglodytes aedon, House Wren
    Troglodytes pacificus, Pacific Wren
    Troglodytes hiemalis, Winter Wren
    Cistothorus platensis, Sedge Wren
    Cistothorus palustris, Marsh Wren
    Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren
    Thryomanes bewickii, Bewick's Wren
    Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren
    Thryophilus sinaloa, Sinaloa Wren
Family POLIOPTILIDAE
    Polioptila caerulea, Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila californica, California Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher
Family CINCLIDAE
    Cinclus mexicanus, American Dipper
Family REGULIDAE
    Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet
    Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned Kinglet
Family PHYLLOSCOPIDAE
    Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler
    Phylloscopus collybita, Common Chiffchaff
    Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Wood Warbler
    Phylloscopus fuscatus, Dusky Warbler
    Phylloscopus proregulus, Pallas's Leaf Warbler
    Phylloscopus inornatus, Yellow-browed Warbler
    Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler
    Phylloscopus examinandus, Kamchatka Leaf Warbler
Family SYLVIIDAE
    Sylvia curruca, Lesser Whitethroat
    Chamaea fasciata, Wrentit
Family ACROCEPHALIDAE
    Acrocephalus luscinius, Nightingale Reed Warbler
    Acrocephalus hiwae, Saipan Reed warbler
    Acrocephalus nijoi, Aguiguan Reed Warbler
    Acrocephalus yamashinae, Pagan Reed Warbler
    Acrocephalus familiaris, Millerbird
    Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Sedge Warbler
    Acrocephalus dumetorum, Blyth's Reed Warbler
Family LOCUSTELLIDAE
    Locustella ochotensis, Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler
    Locustella lanceolata, Lanceolated Warbler
Family MUSCICAPIDAE
    Muscicapa griseisticta, Gray-streaked Flycatcher
    Muscicapa dauurica, Asian Brown Flycatcher
    Muscicapa striata, Spotted Flycatcher
    Muscicapa sibirica, Dark-sided Flycatcher
    Larvivora cyane, Siberian Blue Robin
    Larvivora sibilans, Rufous-tailed Robin
    Cyanecula svecica, Bluethroat
    Calliope calliope, Siberian Rubythroat
    Tarsiger cyanurus, Red-flanked Bluetail
    Ficedula narcissina, Narcissus Flycatcher
    Ficedula mugimaki, Mugimaki Flycatcher
    Ficedula albicilla, Taiga Flycatcher
    Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Common Redstart
    Saxicola torquatus, Stonechat
    Oenanthe oenanthe, Northern Wheatear
Family TURDIDAE
    Monticola solitarius, Blue Rock-Thrush
    Sialia sialis, Eastern Bluebird
    Sialia mexicana, Western Bluebird
    Sialia currucoides, Mountain Bluebird
    Myadestes townsendi, Townsend's Solitaire
    Myadestes occidentalis, Brown-backed Solitaire
    Myadestes myadestinus, K[ccedil]ma`o
    Myadestes lanaiensis, Oloma`o
    Myadestes obscurus, `O[ccedil]ma'o
    Myadestes palmeri, Puaiohi
    Catharus aurantiirostris, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush
    Catharus mexicanus, Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush
    Catharus fuscescens, Veery
    Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush
    Catharus bicknelli, Bicknell's Thrush
    Catharus ustulatus, Swainson's Thrush
    Catharus guttatus, Hermit Thrush
    Hylocichla mustelina, Wood Thrush
    Turdus obscurus, Eyebrowed Thrush
    Turdus naumanni, Dusky Thrush
    Turdus pilaris, Fieldfare
    Turdus iliacus, Redwing
    Turdus grayi, Clay-colored Thrush
    Turdus assimilis, White-throated Thrush
    Turdus rufopalliatus, Rufous-backed Robin
    Turdus migratorius, American Robin
    Turdus plumbeus, Red-legged Thrush
    Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush
    Ridgwayia pinicola, Aztec Thrush
Family MIMIDAE
    Melanotis caerulescens, Blue Mockingbird
    Melanoptila glabrirostris, Black Catbird
    Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird
    Margarops fuscatus, Pearly-eyed Thrasher
    Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma rufum, Brown Thrasher
    Toxostoma longirostre, Long-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma bendirei, Bendire's Thrasher
    Toxostoma redivivum, California Thrasher
    Toxostoma lecontei, LeConte's Thrasher
    Toxostoma crissale, Crissal Thrasher

[[Page 61306]]

    Oreoscoptes montanus, Sage Thrasher
    Mimus gundlachii, Bahama Mockingbird
    Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird
Family STURNIDAE
    Agropsar philippensis, Chestnut-cheeked Starling
    Spodiopsar cineraceus, White-cheeked Starling
Family BOMBYCILLIDAE
    Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing
    Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing
Family PTILIOGONATIDAE
    Ptiliogonys cinereus, Gray Silky-flycatcher
    Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla
Family PEUCEDRAMIDAE
    Peucedramus taeniatus, Olive Warbler
    Family PRUNELLIDAE
    Prunella montanella, Siberian Accentor
Family MOTACILLIDAE
    Motacilla tschutschensis, Eastern Yellow Wagtail
    Motacilla citreola, Citrine Wagtail
    Motacilla cinerea, Gray Wagtail
    Motacilla alba, White Wagtail
    Anthus trivialis, Tree Pipit
    Anthus hodgsoni, Olive-backed Pipit
    Anthus gustavi, Pechora Pipit
    Anthus cervinus, Red-throated Pipit
    Anthus rubescens, American Pipit
    Anthus spragueii, Sprague's Pipit
Family FRINGILLIDAE
Subfamily FRINGILLINAE
    Fringilla coelebs, Common Chaffinch
    Fringilla montifringilla, Brambling
Subfamily EUPHONIINAE
    Euphonia musica, Antillean Euphonia
Subfamily CARDUELINAE
    Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak
    Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Hawfinch
    Carpodacus erythrinus, Common Rosefinch
    Melamprosops phaeosoma, Po`ouli
    Oreomystis bairdi, `Akikiki
    Paroreomyza maculata, O`ahu `Alauahio
    Paroreomyza flammea, K[atilde]k[atilde]wahie
    Paroreomyza montana, Maui `Alauahio
    Loxioides bailleui, Palila
    Telespiza cantans, Laysan Finch
    Telespiza ultima, Nihoa Finch
    Palmeria dolei, `Akohekohe
    Himatione fraithii, Laysan Honeycreeper
    Himatione sanguinea, `Apapane
    Drepanis coccinea, `I`iwi
    Psittirostra psittacea, `[Otilde]`[utilde]
    Pseudonestor xanthophrys, Maui Parrotbill
    Hemignathus hanapepe, Kauai Nukupu`u
    Hemignathus lucidus, O`ahu Nukupu`u
    Hemignathus affinis, Maui Nukupu`u
    Hemignathus wilsoni, `Akiapola`au
    Akialoa stejnegeri, Kauai `Akialoa
    Akialoa ellisiana, O`ahu `Akialoa
    Akialoa lanaiensis, Maui Nui `Akialoa
    Magumma parva, `Anianiau
    Chlorodrepanis virens, Hawaii `Amakihi
    Chlorodrepanis flava, O`ahu `Amakihi
    Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri, Kauai `Amakihi
    Loxops mana, Hawaii Creeper
    Loxops caeruleirostris, `Akeke`e
    Loxops wolstenholmei, O`ahu `Akepa
    Loxops ochraceus, Maui `Akepa
    Loxops coccineus, Hawaii `Akepa
    Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak
    Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Eurasian Bullfinch
    Leucosticte arctoa, Asian Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte tephrocotis, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte atrata, Black Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte australis, Brown-capped Rosy-Finch
    Haemorhous mexicanus, House Finch
    Haemorhous purpureus, Purple Finch
    Haemorhous cassinii, Cassin's Finch
    Chloris sinica, Oriental Greenfinch
    Acanthis flammea, Common Redpoll
    Acanthis hornemanni, Hoary Redpoll
    Loxia curvirostra, Red Crossbill
    Loxia sinesciuris, Cassia Crossbill
    Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill
    Spinus spinus, Eurasian Siskin
    Spinus pinus, Pine Siskin
    Spinus psaltria, Lesser Goldfinch
    Spinus lawrencei, Lawrence's Goldfinch
    Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch
Family CALCARIIDAE
    Calcarius lapponicus, Lapland Longspur
    Calcarius ornatus, Chestnut-collared Longspur
    Calcarius pictus, Smith's Longspur
    Rhynchophanes mccownii, McCown's Longspur
    Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting
    Plectrophenax hyperboreus, McKay's Bunting
Family EMBERIZIDAE
    Emberiza leucocephalos, Pine Bunting
    Emberiza chrysophrys, Yellow-browed Bunting
    Emberiza pusilla, Little Bunting
    Emberiza rustica, Rustic Bunting
    Emberiza elegans, Yellow-throated Bunting
    Emberiza aureola, Yellow-breasted Bunting
    Emberiza variabilis, Gray Bunting
    Emberiza pallasi, Pallas's Bunting
    Emberiza schoeniclus, Reed Bunting
Family PASSERELLIDAE
    Arremonops rufivirgatus, Olive Sparrow
    Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee
    Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee
    Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee
    Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow
    Melozone fusca, Canyon Towhee
    Melozone crissalis, California Towhee
    Melozone aberti, Abert's Towhee
    Peucaea carpalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow
    Peucaea botterii, Botteri's Sparrow
    Peucaea cassinii, Cassin's Sparrow
    Peucaea aestivalis, Bachman's Sparrow
    Spizelloides arborea, American Tree Sparrow
    Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow
    Spizella pallida, Clay-colored Sparrow
    Spizella breweri, Brewer's Sparrow
    Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow
    Spizella wortheni, Worthen's Sparrow
    Spizella atrogularis, Black-chinned Sparrow
    Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow
    Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow
    Amphispiza quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow
    Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow
    Artemisiospiza nevadensis, Sagebrush Sparrow
    Artemisiospiza belli, Bell's Sparrow
    Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting
    Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow
    Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow
    Centronyx bairdii, Baird's Sparrow
    Centronyx henslowii, Henslow's Sparrow
    Ammospiza leconteii, LeConte's Sparrow
    Ammospiza maritima, Seaside Sparrow
    Ammospiza nelsoni, Nelson's Sparrow
    Ammospiza caudacuta, Saltmarsh Sparrow
    Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow
    Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow
    Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln's Sparrow
    Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow
    Zonotrichia albicollis, White-throated Sparrow
    Zonotrichia querula, Harris's Sparrow
    Zonotrichia leucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow
    Zonotrichia atricapilla, Golden-crowned Sparrow
    Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco
    Junco phaeonotus, Yellow-eyed Junco
Family NESOSPINGIDAE
    Nesospingus speculiferus, Puerto Rican Tanager
Family SPINDALIDAE
    Spindalis zena, Western Spindalis
    Spindalis portoricensis, Puerto Rican Spindalis
Family ICTERIIDAE
    Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat
Family ICTERIDAE
Subfamily XANTHOCEPHALINAE
    Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Yellow-headed Blackbird
Subfamily DOLICHONYCHINAE
    Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink
Subfamily STURNELLINAE
    Sturnella magna, Eastern Meadowlark
    Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark
Subfamily ICTERINAE
    Icterus portoricensis, Puerto Rican Oriole
    Icterus wagleri, Black-vented Oriole
    Icterus spurius, Orchard Oriole
    Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole
    Icterus pustulatus, Streak-backed Oriole
    Icterus bullockii, Bullock's Oriole
    Icterus gularis, Altamira Oriole
    Icterus graduacauda, Audubon's Oriole
    Icterus galbula, Baltimore Oriole
    Icterus parisorum, Scott's Oriole
Subfamily AGELAIINAE
    Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird
    Agelaius tricolor, Tricolored Blackbird
    Agelaius humeralis, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird
    Agelaius xanthomus, Yellow-shouldered Blackbird
    Molothrus bonariensis, Shiny Cowbird
    Molothrus aeneus, Bronzed Cowbird
    Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird
    Euphagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird
    Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer's Blackbird
    Quiscalus quiscula, Common Grackle
    Quiscalus major, Boat-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus mexicanus, Great-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus niger, Greater Antillean Grackle
Family PARULIDAE
    Seiurus aurocapilla, Ovenbird
    Helmitheros vermivorum, Worm-eating Warbler
    Parkesia motacilla, Louisiana Waterthrush
    Parkesia noveboracensis, Northern Waterthrush
    Vermivora bachmanii, Bachman's Warbler
    Vermivora chrysoptera, Golden-winged Warbler

[[Page 61307]]

    Vermivora cyanoptera, Blue-winged Warbler
    Mniotilta varia, Black-and-white Warbler
    Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler
    Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson's Warbler
    Oreothlypis superciliosa, Crescent-chested Warbler
    Oreothlypis peregrina, Tennessee Warbler
    Oreothlypis celata, Orange-crowned Warbler
    Oreothlypis crissalis, Colima Warbler
    Oreothlypis luciae, Lucy's Warbler
    Oreothlypis ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler
    Oreothlypis virginiae, Virginia's Warbler
    Oporornis agilis, Connecticut Warbler
    Geothlypis poliocephala, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat
    Geothlypis tolmiei, MacGillivray's Warbler
    Geothlypis philadelphia, Mourning Warbler
    Geothlypis formosa, Kentucky Warbler
    Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat
    Setophaga angelae, Elfin-woods Warbler
    Setophaga citrina, Hooded Warbler
    Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart
    Setophaga kirtlandii, Kirtland's Warbler
    Setophaga tigrina, Cape May Warbler
    Setophaga cerulea, Cerulean Warbler
    Setophaga americana, Northern Parula
    Setophaga pitiayumi, Tropical Parula
    Setophaga magnolia, Magnolia Warbler
    Setophaga castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler
    Setophaga fusca, Blackburnian Warbler
    Setophaga petechia, Yellow Warbler
    Setophaga pensylvanica, Chestnut-sided Warbler
    Setophaga striata, Blackpoll Warbler
    Setophaga caerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler
    Setophaga palmarum, Palm Warbler
    Setophaga pinus, Pine Warbler
    Setophaga coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler
    Setophaga dominica, Yellow-throated Warbler
    Setophaga discolor, Prairie Warbler
    Setophaga adelaidae, Adelaide's Warbler
    Setophaga graciae, Grace's Warbler
    Setophaga nigrescens, Black-throated Gray Warbler
    Setophaga townsendi, Townsend's Warbler
    Setophaga occidentalis, Hermit Warbler
    Setophaga chrysoparia, Golden-cheeked Warbler
    Setophaga virens, Black-throated Green Warbler
    Basileuterus lachrymosus, Fan-tailed Warbler
    Basileuterus rufifrons, Rufous-capped Warbler
    Basileuterus culicivorus, Golden-crowned Warbler
    Cardellina canadensis, Canada Warbler
    Cardellina pusilla, Wilson's Warbler
    Cardellina rubrifrons, Red-faced Warbler
    Myioborus pictus, Painted Redstart
    Myioborus miniatus, Slate-throated Redstart
Family CARDINALIDAE
    Piranga flava, Hepatic Tanager
    Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager
    Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager
    Piranga ludoviciana, Western Tanager
    Piranga bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager
    Rhodothraupis celaeno, Crimson-collared Grosbeak
    Cardinalis cardinalis, Northern Cardinal
    Cardinalis sinuatus, Pyrrhuloxia
    Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Yellow Grosbeak
    Pheucticus ludovicianus, Rose-breasted Grosbeak
    Pheucticus melanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak
    Cyanocompsa parellina, Blue Bunting
    Passerina caerulea, Blue Grosbeak
    Passerina amoena, Lazuli Bunting
    Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting
    Passerina versicolor, Varied Bunting
    Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting
    Spiza americana, Dickcissel
Family THRAUPIDAE
Subfamily DACNINAE
    Cyanerpes cyaneus, Red-legged Honeycreeper
Subfamily COEREBINAE
    Coereba flaveola, Bananaquit
    Tiaris olivaceus, Yellow-faced Grassquit
    Tiaris bicolor, Black-faced Grassquit
    Loxigilla portoricensis, Puerto Rican Bullfinch
Subfamily SPOROPHILINAE
    Sporophila morelleti, Morelet's Seedeater
* * * * *

    Dated: October 29, 2018.
Andrea Travnicek,
Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary--Water and Science, Exercising the 
Authority of the Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks.
 [FR Doc. 2018-25634 Filed 11-27-18; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 4333-15-P