Census Designated Places (CDPs) for the 2020 Census-Final Criteria, 56290-56293 [2018-24571]

Download as PDF 56290 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 219 / Tuesday, November 13, 2018 / Notices for the NSCH. An additional 4,000 addresses will receive the screener card in place of the traditional screener instrument. They will have the option to report only if there are children present at the address or not. Respondents will also have the option to report using the web instrument. We anticipate that the screener card instrument will reduce respondent burden for households without children and allow us to more efficiently identify households with children. III. Data OMB Control Number: 0607–0990. Form Number(s): NSCH–S1 (English Screener), NSCH–T1 (English Topical for 0- to 5-year-old children), NSCH–T2 (English Topical for 6- to 11-year-old children), NSCH–T3 (English Topical for 12- to 17-year-old children), NSCH– S–S1 (Spanish Screener), NSCH–S–T1 (Spanish Topical for 0- to 5-year-old children), NSCH–S–T2 (Spanish Topical for 6- to 11-year-old children), NSCH– S–T3 (Spanish Topical for 12- to 17year-old children), and NSCH–SC1 (Screener Card—perforated). Type of Review: Regular submission. Affected Public: Parents, researchers, policymakers, and family advocates. Estimated Number of Respondents: 72,900 for the screener, 25,515 for the topical, 2,000 for the screener card, and 400 screener card respondents using the web instrument. Estimated Time per Response: 5 minutes per screener response, 33 minutes per topical response, 2 minutes per screener card response, and 38 minutes per screener card response using the web instrument. Estimated Total Annual Burden Hours: 20,428 hours. Estimated Total Annual Cost to Public: $0 (This is not the cost of respondents’ time, but the indirect costs respondents may incur for such things as purchases of specialized software or hardware needed to report, or expenditures for accounting or records maintenance services required specifically by the collection.) Respondent’s Obligation: Voluntary. amozie on DSK3GDR082PROD with NOTICES1 Legal Authority: Title 13 U.S.C. Section 8(b);42 U.S.C. 701; 1769d(a)(4)(B); 42 U.S.C. 241; 7 U.S.C. 136r(a); and 15 U.S.C. 2609. IV. Request for Comments Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, including whether the information shall have practical utility; (b) the accuracy of the agency’s estimate of the burden (including hours and cost) of the proposed collection of information; (c) VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:34 Nov 09, 2018 Jkt 247001 ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (d) ways to minimize the burden of the collection of information on respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Comments submitted in response to this notice will be summarized and/or included in the request for OMB approval of this information collection; they also will become a matter of public record. Sheleen Dumas, Departmental Lead PRA Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer. [FR Doc. 2018–24681 Filed 11–9–18; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510–07–P DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of the Census [Docket Number 180927893–8893–01] Census Designated Places (CDPs) for the 2020 Census—Final Criteria Bureau of the Census, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of final criteria and program implementation. AGENCY: Census designated places (CDPs) are statistical geographic entities representing closely settled, unincorporated communities that are locally recognized and identified by name. They are the statistical equivalents of incorporated places, with the primary differences being the lack of a legally defined boundary and an active, functioning governmental structure, chartered by the state and administered by elected officials. CDPs defined for the 2020 Census will also be used to tabulate American Community Survey, Puerto Rico Community Survey, and Economic Census data after 2020, and potentially data from other Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) censuses and surveys. The Census Bureau is publishing this notice in the Federal Register to announce final criteria for defining CDPs for the 2020 Census. In addition to CDPs, the program also encompasses the review and update of census tracts, block groups, and census county divisions. DATES: This notice’s final criteria will be applicable on December 13, 2018. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information on this program should be directed to Vincent Osier, Geographic Standards, Criteria, and Quality Branch, Geography Division, U.S. Census Bureau, via email SUMMARY: PO 00000 Frm 00017 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 at geo.psap.list@census.gov or telephone at 301–763–3056. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Census designated places (CDPs) 1 are statistical geographic entities representing closely settled, unincorporated communities that are locally recognized and identified by name. They are the statistical equivalents of incorporated places, with the primary differences being the lack of a legally defined boundary and an active, functioning governmental structure, chartered by the state and administered by elected officials. CDPs defined for the 2020 Census will also be used to tabulate American Community Survey, Puerto Rico Community Survey, and Economic Census data after 2020, and potentially data from other Census Bureau censuses and surveys. The Census Bureau is publishing this notice in the Federal Register to announce final criteria for defining CDPs for the 2020 Census. The Census Bureau did not receive any comments in response to proposed criteria published in the Federal Register on February 15, 2018 (83 FR 6934). After publication of final criteria in the Federal Register, the Census Bureau will offer designated governments or organizations an opportunity to review and, if necessary, suggest updates to the boundaries and attributes of the CDPs in their geographic area under the Participant Statistical Areas Program (PSAP). In addition to CDPs, the program also encompasses the review and update of census tracts, block groups, and census county divisions. I. History The CDP concept and delineation criteria have evolved over the past seven decades in response to data user needs for place-level data. This evolution has taken into account differences in the way in which places were perceived, and the propensity for places to incorporate in various states. The result, over time, has been an increase in the number and types of unincorporated communities identified as CDPs. This also results in an increasing consistency in the relationship between the CDP concept and the kinds of places encompassed by the incorporated place category, or a compromise between localized perceptions of place and a concept that would be familiar to data 1 The term CDP includes comunidades and zonas urbanas in Puerto Rico. E:\FR\FM\13NON1.SGM 13NON1 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 219 / Tuesday, November 13, 2018 / Notices users throughout the United States,2 Puerto Rico, and the Island Areas.3 Although not as numerous as incorporated places or municipalities,4 CDPs have been important geographic entities since their introduction for the 1950 Census (CDPs were referred to as ‘‘unincorporated places’’ from 1950 through the 1970 decennial censuses). For the 1950 Census, CDPs were defined only outside urbanized areas and were required to have at least 1,000 residents. For the 1960 Census, CDPs could also be identified inside urbanized areas outside of New England, but these were required to have at least 10,000 residents. The Census Bureau modified the population threshold within urbanized areas to 5,000 residents in 1970, allowed for CDPs in urbanized areas in New England in 1980, and lowered the threshold for CDPs within urbanized areas to 2,500 in 1990. In time, other population thresholds were adopted for identification of CDPs in Alaska, Puerto Rico, the Island Areas, and on American Indian reservations (AIRs). The Census Bureau eliminated all population threshold requirements for Census 2000, achieving consistency between CDPs and incorporated places, for which the Census Bureau historically has published data without regard to population size. According to the 2010 Census, more than 38.7 million people in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Island Areas lived in CDPs. The relative importance of CDPs varies from state to state depending on laws governing municipal incorporation and annexation, but also depending on local preferences and attitudes regarding the identification of places. amozie on DSK3GDR082PROD with NOTICES1 II. Summary of Comments Received in Response to Proposed Criteria The Census Bureau’s proposed criteria for the 2020 Census were unchanged from the final criteria used to delineate CDPs for the 2010 Census. The Census Bureau did not receive any comments in response to the proposed criteria published in the Federal 2 For Census Bureau purposes, the United States typically refers to only the fifty states and the District of Columbia, and does not include the U.S. territories (Puerto Rico, the Island Areas, and the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands). 3 The Island Areas include the U.S. territories American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. There are no CDPs in American Samoa or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands because villages are considered incorporated places and cover the entire territory and population in each territory 4 Known by various terms throughout the United States: Cities, towns (except in the six New England states, New York, and Wisconsin), villages, and boroughs (except in New York and Alaska). VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:34 Nov 09, 2018 Jkt 247001 Register on February 15, 2018 (83 FR 6934). As a result, the proposed criteria are adopted as final criteria without change. III. CDP Criteria and Guidelines for the 2020 Census The criteria outlined herein apply to the United States, including AIRs and off-reservation trust lands, Puerto Rico, and the Island Areas. In accordance with the final criteria, the Census Bureau may modify and, if necessary, reject any proposals for CDPs that do not meet the established criteria. In addition, the Census Bureau reserves the right to modify the boundaries and attributes of CDPs as needed to maintain geographic relationships before the final tabulation geography is set for the 2020 Census. The Census Bureau proposes the following criteria and guidelines for use in identifying the areas that will qualify for designation as CDPs for use in tabulating data from the 2020 Census, the American Community Survey, the Puerto Rico Community Survey, the Economic Census, and potentially other Census Bureau censuses and surveys. 1. A CDP constitutes a single, closely settled center of population that is named. To the extent possible, individual unincorporated communities should be identified as separate CDPs. Similarly, a single community should be defined as a single CDP rather than multiple CDPs with each part referencing the community name and a directional term (i.e., north, south, east, or west). Since a CDP is defined to provide data for a single, named locality, the Census Bureau generally will not accept combinations of places and hyphenated place names defined as a CDP. In the past, communities were often combined as a single CDP in order to comply with the Census Bureau’s former minimum population requirements. The Census Bureau’s elimination of population threshold criteria starting with Census 2000 made such combinations unnecessary. Other communities were combined because visible features were not available for use as boundaries for separate CDPs. The Census Bureau’s policy to allow the use of some nonvisible boundaries so that participants can separate individual communities has dispensed with the need to have multi-place CDPs. Multiple communities may only be combined to form a single CDP when the identities of these communities have become so intertwined that the communities are commonly perceived and referenced as a single place. For example, the communities of Arden and Arcade in California have grown PO 00000 Frm 00018 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 56291 together over time and residents commonly use the place name ArdenArcade. Further, because of the intertwined identity, residents would have difficulty identifying a boundary between the separate, historical communities of Arden and Arcade. Multiple communities may also be defined as a single CDP when there are no distinguishable or suitable features in the landscape that can be used as a boundary between the communities, even if the two communities still have separate identities. For example, the CDP of Ashton-Sandy Spring in Maryland encompasses two communities that still maintain separate identities in common, daily usage. The two communities, however, have grown together to such an extent that a clear break between the two communities is no longer identifiable in the landscape. In general, when considering whether to combine multiple communities as a single CDP, the following questions should be taken into account: • Do residents commonly perceive and refer to the communities as a single entity? • Are there landscape elements, such as signs, that use a hyphenated name for the community? • Can residents or other knowledgeable individuals identify clear, commonly accepted boundaries for the individual communities? 2. A CDP generally consists of a contiguous cluster of census blocks comprising a single piece of territory and containing a mix of residential, nonresidential, and commercial uses similar to that of an incorporated place of similar size. Some CDPs, however, may be predominantly residential; such places should represent recognizably distinct, locally known communities, but not typical suburban subdivisions. Examples of such predominantly residential communities that can be recognized as CDPs are colonias, small rural communities, and unincorporated resort and retirement communities. 3. A CDP may not be located, either partially or entirely, within an incorporated place or another CDP. 4. A CDP may be located in more than one county but must not cross state boundaries. It is important to note, however, that since county boundaries provide important demarcations for communities, CDPs that cross county lines should be kept to a minimum and identified only when the community clearly sees itself existing on both sides of a county boundary. 5. There are no minimum population or housing unit thresholds for defining CDPs; however, a CDP must contain some population or housing units or E:\FR\FM\13NON1.SGM 13NON1 amozie on DSK3GDR082PROD with NOTICES1 56292 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 219 / Tuesday, November 13, 2018 / Notices both. For the 2020 Census, the Census Bureau will not accept a CDP delineated with zero population and zero housing units. The Census Bureau recognizes that some communities, such as a resort or other kinds of seasonal communities, may lack population at certain times of the year. Nevertheless, there should be some evidence, generally in the form of houses, barracks, dormitories, commercial buildings and/or other nonresidential structures, providing the basis for local perception of the place’s existence. The Census Bureau will review the number of housing units within the place, as reported in the previous decennial census or as seen in imagery, and consider whether additional information is needed before recognizing the CDP. Participants submitting boundaries for places with less than ten housing units may be asked to provide additional information attesting to the existence of the CDP. 6. CDP boundaries should follow visible features, except in those circumstances when a CDP’s boundary is coincident with the nonvisible boundary of a state, county, minor civil division (in the six New England states, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin), or incorporated place. CDP boundaries may follow other nonvisible features in instances where reliance upon visible features would result in overbounding of the CDP in order to include housing units on both sides of a road or street feature. Such boundaries might include parcel boundaries and public land survey system lines; fence lines; national, state, or local park boundaries; ridgelines; or drainage ditches. 7. The CDP name should be one that is recognized and used in daily communication by the residents of the community. Because unincorporated communities generally lack legally defined boundaries, a commonly used community name and the geographic extent of its use by local residents is often the best identifier of the extent of a place, the assumption being that if residents associate with a particular name and use it to identify the place in which they live, then the CDP’s boundaries can be mapped based on the use of the name. There should be features in the landscape that use the name, such that a non-resident would have a general sense of the location or extent of the community; for example, signs indicating when one is entering the community; highway exit signs that use the name; or businesses, schools, or other buildings that make use of the name. It should not be a name developed solely for planning or other purposes (including simply to obtain VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:34 Nov 09, 2018 Jkt 247001 data from the Census Bureau) that is not in regular daily use by the local residents and business establishments. 8. A CDP may not have the same name as an adjacent or nearby incorporated place. If the community does not have a name that distinguishes it from other nearby communities, then the community is not a distinct place. The use of directional terms (‘‘north’’, ‘‘south’’, ‘‘east’’, ‘‘west’’, and so forth) to merely differentiate the name of a CDP from a nearby municipality where this name is not in local use is not acceptable. For example, the name ‘‘North Laurel’’ would be permitted if this name were in local use. The name ‘‘Laurel North’’ would not be permitted if it were not in local use. Again, this has much to do with the way in which people typically refer to the places in which they live. It is permissible to change the name of a 2010 CDP for the 2020 Census if the new name provides a better identification of the community. IV. Definitions of Key Terms American Indian off-reservation trust land—An area of land located outside the boundaries of an AIR, whose boundaries are established by deed, and which are held in trust by the U.S. federal government for a federally recognized American Indian tribe or members of that tribe. American Indian reservation (AIR)— An area of land with boundaries established by final treaty, statute, executive order, and/or court order and over which a federally recognized American Indian tribal government has governmental authority. Along with ‘‘reservation,’’ designations such as colonies, communities, pueblos, rancherias, and reserves apply to AIRs. Census block—A geographic area bounded by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared by the Census Bureau. A block is the smallest geographic entity for which the Census Bureau tabulates and publishes decennial census data. Coextensive—A description of two or more geographic entities that cover exactly the same area, with all boundaries shared. Colonia—A small, generally unincorporated community located in one of the states on the U.S.-Mexico border where residents often build or provide their own housing and that usually lacks utilities, paved roads, and other infrastructure typically found other similarly sized communities. Comunidad—A CDP in Puerto Rico that is not related to a municipio’s seat of government, called an aldea or a ciudad prior to the 1990 Census. PO 00000 Frm 00019 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 Contiguous—A description of areas sharing common boundary lines, more than a single point, such that the areas, when combined, form a single piece of territory. Noncontiguous areas form disjoint pieces. Housing unit—A house, an apartment, a mobile home or trailer, or a group of rooms or a single room occupied as a separate living quarter or, if vacant, intended for occupancy as a separate living quarter. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other residents of the building and which have direct access from outside the building or through a common hall. Incorporated place—A type of governmental unit, incorporated under state law as a city, town (except in New England, New York, and Wisconsin), borough (except in Alaska and New York), or village, generally to provide governmental services for a concentration of people within legally prescribed boundaries. Minor civil division (MCD)—The primary governmental or administrative division of a county in 28 states and the Island Areas having legal boundaries, names, and descriptions. The MCDs represent many different types of legal entities with a wide variety of characteristics, powers, and functions depending on the state and type of MCD. In some states, some or all of the incorporated places also constitute MCDs. Municipio—A type of governmental unit that is the primary legal subdivision of Puerto Rico. The Census Bureau treats the municipio as the statistical equivalent of a county. Nonvisible feature—A map feature that is not visible on the ground and in imagery such as a city or county boundary through space, a property line, or line-of-sight extension of a road. Statistical geographic entity—A geographic entity that is specially defined and delineated, such as block group, CDP, or census tract, so that the Census Bureau may tabulate data for it. Designation as a statistical entity neither conveys nor confers legal ownership, entitlement, or jurisdictional authority. Urbanized area (UA)—An area consisting of a central place(s) and adjacent urban fringe that together have a minimum residential population of at least 50,000 people and generally an overall population density of at least 1,000 people per square mile. The Census Bureau uses published criteria to determine the qualification and boundaries of UAs at the time of each decennial census. Visible feature—A map feature that can be seen on the ground and in E:\FR\FM\13NON1.SGM 13NON1 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 219 / Tuesday, November 13, 2018 / Notices imagery, such as a road, railroad track, major above-ground transmission line or pipeline, river, stream, shoreline, fence, sharply defined mountain ridge, or cliff. A nonstandard visible feature is a feature that may not be clearly defined on the ground (such as a ridge), may be seasonal (such as an intermittent stream), or may be relatively impermanent (such as a fence). The Census Bureau generally requests verification that nonstandard features used as boundaries for the PSAP geographic areas pose no problem in their location during field work. Zona urbana—In Puerto Rico, the settled area functioning as the seat of government for a municipio. A zona urbana cannot cross a municipio boundary. Dated: October 30, 2018. Ron S. Jarmin, Deputy Director, Performing the NonExclusive Functions and Duties of the Director, Bureau of the Census. [FR Doc. 2018–24571 Filed 11–9–18; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510–07–P DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of the Census [Docket Number 180926886–8886–01] Block Groups for the 2020 Census— Final Criteria Bureau of the Census, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of final criteria and program implementation. AGENCY: Block groups are statistical geographic subdivisions of a census tract defined for the tabulation and presentation of data from the decennial census and selected other statistical programs. Block groups also will be used to tabulate and publish estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) after 2020 and potentially data from other Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) censuses and surveys. The Census Bureau is publishing this notice in the Federal Register to announce final criteria for defining block groups for the 2020 Census Participant Statistical Areas Program (PSAP). In addition to block groups, the program also encompasses the review and update of census tracts, census designated places, and census county divisions. amozie on DSK3GDR082PROD with NOTICES1 SUMMARY: This notice’s final criteria will be applicable on December 13, 2018. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information on this program should be directed to DATES: VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:34 Nov 09, 2018 Jkt 247001 Vincent Osier at the Geographic Standards, Criteria, and Quality Branch, Geography Division, U.S. Census Bureau, via email at geo.psap.list@ census.gov or by telephone at 301–763– 3056. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Block groups are statistical geographic subdivisions of a census tract defined for the tabulation and presentation of data from the decennial census and selected other statistical programs. Block groups also will be used to tabulate and publish estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS) 1 after 2020 and potentially data from other Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) censuses and surveys. The Census Bureau is publishing this notice in the Federal Register to announce final criteria for defining block groups for the 2020 Census. In addition to providing final criteria for block groups, this notice also contains a summary of comments received in response to proposed criteria published in the Federal Register on February 15, 2018 (83 FR 6937), as well as the Census Bureau’s response to those comments. After publication of this final criteria in the Federal Register, the Census Bureau will offer designated governments or organizations an opportunity to review and, if necessary, suggest updates to the boundaries and attributes of the block groups in their geographic area under the Participant Statistical Areas Program (PSAP). In addition to block groups, the program also encompasses the review and update of census tracts, census designated places, and census county divisions. The Census Bureau published a notice, explaining PSAP process and participation, in the Federal Register on November 28, 2017 (82 FR 56208). I. History of Block Groups The Census Bureau first delineated block groups as statistical geographic divisions of census tracts for the 1970 Census, comprising contiguous combinations of census blocks for data presentation purposes. At that time, census block groups only existed in urbanized areas in which census blocks were defined. Block groups were defined without regard to political and administrative boundaries, with an average population of 1,000, and to be approximately equal in area. 1 The ACS is conducted in the United States and in Puerto Rico. In Puerto Rico the survey is called the Puerto Rico Community Survey. For ease of discussion, throughout this document the term ACS is used to represent the surveys conducted in the United States and in Puerto Rico. PO 00000 Frm 00020 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 56293 As use of census block, block group, and census tract data increased among data users, the Census Bureau expanded these programs to cover additional geographic areas while redefining the population threshold criteria to more adequately suit data users’ needs. The 1990 Census was the first in which census blocks and block groups were defined throughout the entirety of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Island Areas. For the 2000 Census, as with census tracts, the Census Bureau increased the number of geographic areas whose boundaries could be used as block group boundaries, and allowed tribal governments of federally recognized American Indian tribes with a reservation and/or off-reservation trust lands to delineate tribal block groups without regard to state and/or county boundaries, provided the tribe had a 1990 Census population of at least 1,000. For the 2010 Census, the Census Bureau adopted changes to block group criteria that recognized their utility as a framework of small geographic areas and established tribal block groups as a geographic framework for presenting and analyzing statistical and other data for a variety of communities, settlement patterns, and landscapes. The Census Bureau augmented its minimum and maximum population threshold with housing unit thresholds for use in defining block groups for seasonal communities that have no or low population on census day (April 1). In addition, the Census Bureau formalized criteria for block groups defined for employment centers, airports, parks, large water bodies, and other special land uses that had been permitted in previous decades, but never specified within the criteria. The Census Bureau also established tribal block groups as a geographic framework defined within federally recognized American Indian reservations and off-reservation trust lands that is fully separate from the standard block groups defined within counties. II. Summary of Comments Received in Response to the Proposed Criteria The Federal Register notice published on February 15, 2018 (83 FR 6937) requested comment on the proposed block group criteria for the 2020 Census. The proposed criteria were unchanged from the final criteria adopted for the 2010 Census. The Census Bureau received comments from 16 individuals on one or more topics related to (1) use of nonvisible political boundaries when defining block groups, (2) use of employment data to define block groups E:\FR\FM\13NON1.SGM 13NON1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 83, Number 219 (Tuesday, November 13, 2018)]
[Notices]
[Pages 56290-56293]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2018-24571]


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DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

Bureau of the Census

[Docket Number 180927893-8893-01]


Census Designated Places (CDPs) for the 2020 Census--Final 
Criteria

AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Commerce.

ACTION: Notice of final criteria and program implementation.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: Census designated places (CDPs) are statistical geographic 
entities representing closely settled, unincorporated communities that 
are locally recognized and identified by name. They are the statistical 
equivalents of incorporated places, with the primary differences being 
the lack of a legally defined boundary and an active, functioning 
governmental structure, chartered by the state and administered by 
elected officials. CDPs defined for the 2020 Census will also be used 
to tabulate American Community Survey, Puerto Rico Community Survey, 
and Economic Census data after 2020, and potentially data from other 
Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) censuses and surveys. The Census 
Bureau is publishing this notice in the Federal Register to announce 
final criteria for defining CDPs for the 2020 Census. In addition to 
CDPs, the program also encompasses the review and update of census 
tracts, block groups, and census county divisions.

DATES: This notice's final criteria will be applicable on December 13, 
2018.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information on 
this program should be directed to Vincent Osier, Geographic Standards, 
Criteria, and Quality Branch, Geography Division, U.S. Census Bureau, 
via email at [email protected] or telephone at 301-763-3056.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

    Census designated places (CDPs) \1\ are statistical geographic 
entities representing closely settled, unincorporated communities that 
are locally recognized and identified by name. They are the statistical 
equivalents of incorporated places, with the primary differences being 
the lack of a legally defined boundary and an active, functioning 
governmental structure, chartered by the state and administered by 
elected officials. CDPs defined for the 2020 Census will also be used 
to tabulate American Community Survey, Puerto Rico Community Survey, 
and Economic Census data after 2020, and potentially data from other 
Census Bureau censuses and surveys.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \1\ The term CDP includes comunidades and zonas urbanas in 
Puerto Rico.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Census Bureau is publishing this notice in the Federal Register 
to announce final criteria for defining CDPs for the 2020 Census. The 
Census Bureau did not receive any comments in response to proposed 
criteria published in the Federal Register on February 15, 2018 (83 FR 
6934). After publication of final criteria in the Federal Register, the 
Census Bureau will offer designated governments or organizations an 
opportunity to review and, if necessary, suggest updates to the 
boundaries and attributes of the CDPs in their geographic area under 
the Participant Statistical Areas Program (PSAP). In addition to CDPs, 
the program also encompasses the review and update of census tracts, 
block groups, and census county divisions.

I. History

    The CDP concept and delineation criteria have evolved over the past 
seven decades in response to data user needs for place-level data. This 
evolution has taken into account differences in the way in which places 
were perceived, and the propensity for places to incorporate in various 
states. The result, over time, has been an increase in the number and 
types of unincorporated communities identified as CDPs. This also 
results in an increasing consistency in the relationship between the 
CDP concept and the kinds of places encompassed by the incorporated 
place category, or a compromise between localized perceptions of place 
and a concept that would be familiar to data

[[Page 56291]]

users throughout the United States,\2\ Puerto Rico, and the Island 
Areas.\3\
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    \2\ For Census Bureau purposes, the United States typically 
refers to only the fifty states and the District of Columbia, and 
does not include the U.S. territories (Puerto Rico, the Island 
Areas, and the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands).
    \3\ The Island Areas include the U.S. territories American 
Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and 
the U.S. Virgin Islands. There are no CDPs in American Samoa or the 
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands because villages are 
considered incorporated places and cover the entire territory and 
population in each territory
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Although not as numerous as incorporated places or 
municipalities,\4\ CDPs have been important geographic entities since 
their introduction for the 1950 Census (CDPs were referred to as 
``unincorporated places'' from 1950 through the 1970 decennial 
censuses). For the 1950 Census, CDPs were defined only outside 
urbanized areas and were required to have at least 1,000 residents. For 
the 1960 Census, CDPs could also be identified inside urbanized areas 
outside of New England, but these were required to have at least 10,000 
residents. The Census Bureau modified the population threshold within 
urbanized areas to 5,000 residents in 1970, allowed for CDPs in 
urbanized areas in New England in 1980, and lowered the threshold for 
CDPs within urbanized areas to 2,500 in 1990. In time, other population 
thresholds were adopted for identification of CDPs in Alaska, Puerto 
Rico, the Island Areas, and on American Indian reservations (AIRs). The 
Census Bureau eliminated all population threshold requirements for 
Census 2000, achieving consistency between CDPs and incorporated 
places, for which the Census Bureau historically has published data 
without regard to population size.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \4\ Known by various terms throughout the United States: Cities, 
towns (except in the six New England states, New York, and 
Wisconsin), villages, and boroughs (except in New York and Alaska).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    According to the 2010 Census, more than 38.7 million people in the 
United States, Puerto Rico, and the Island Areas lived in CDPs. The 
relative importance of CDPs varies from state to state depending on 
laws governing municipal incorporation and annexation, but also 
depending on local preferences and attitudes regarding the 
identification of places.

II. Summary of Comments Received in Response to Proposed Criteria

    The Census Bureau's proposed criteria for the 2020 Census were 
unchanged from the final criteria used to delineate CDPs for the 2010 
Census. The Census Bureau did not receive any comments in response to 
the proposed criteria published in the Federal Register on February 15, 
2018 (83 FR 6934). As a result, the proposed criteria are adopted as 
final criteria without change.

III. CDP Criteria and Guidelines for the 2020 Census

    The criteria outlined herein apply to the United States, including 
AIRs and off-reservation trust lands, Puerto Rico, and the Island 
Areas. In accordance with the final criteria, the Census Bureau may 
modify and, if necessary, reject any proposals for CDPs that do not 
meet the established criteria. In addition, the Census Bureau reserves 
the right to modify the boundaries and attributes of CDPs as needed to 
maintain geographic relationships before the final tabulation geography 
is set for the 2020 Census.
    The Census Bureau proposes the following criteria and guidelines 
for use in identifying the areas that will qualify for designation as 
CDPs for use in tabulating data from the 2020 Census, the American 
Community Survey, the Puerto Rico Community Survey, the Economic 
Census, and potentially other Census Bureau censuses and surveys.
    1. A CDP constitutes a single, closely settled center of population 
that is named. To the extent possible, individual unincorporated 
communities should be identified as separate CDPs. Similarly, a single 
community should be defined as a single CDP rather than multiple CDPs 
with each part referencing the community name and a directional term 
(i.e., north, south, east, or west). Since a CDP is defined to provide 
data for a single, named locality, the Census Bureau generally will not 
accept combinations of places and hyphenated place names defined as a 
CDP. In the past, communities were often combined as a single CDP in 
order to comply with the Census Bureau's former minimum population 
requirements. The Census Bureau's elimination of population threshold 
criteria starting with Census 2000 made such combinations unnecessary. 
Other communities were combined because visible features were not 
available for use as boundaries for separate CDPs. The Census Bureau's 
policy to allow the use of some nonvisible boundaries so that 
participants can separate individual communities has dispensed with the 
need to have multi-place CDPs.
    Multiple communities may only be combined to form a single CDP when 
the identities of these communities have become so intertwined that the 
communities are commonly perceived and referenced as a single place. 
For example, the communities of Arden and Arcade in California have 
grown together over time and residents commonly use the place name 
Arden-Arcade. Further, because of the intertwined identity, residents 
would have difficulty identifying a boundary between the separate, 
historical communities of Arden and Arcade. Multiple communities may 
also be defined as a single CDP when there are no distinguishable or 
suitable features in the landscape that can be used as a boundary 
between the communities, even if the two communities still have 
separate identities. For example, the CDP of Ashton-Sandy Spring in 
Maryland encompasses two communities that still maintain separate 
identities in common, daily usage. The two communities, however, have 
grown together to such an extent that a clear break between the two 
communities is no longer identifiable in the landscape. In general, 
when considering whether to combine multiple communities as a single 
CDP, the following questions should be taken into account:
     Do residents commonly perceive and refer to the 
communities as a single entity?
     Are there landscape elements, such as signs, that use a 
hyphenated name for the community?
     Can residents or other knowledgeable individuals identify 
clear, commonly accepted boundaries for the individual communities?
    2. A CDP generally consists of a contiguous cluster of census 
blocks comprising a single piece of territory and containing a mix of 
residential, nonresidential, and commercial uses similar to that of an 
incorporated place of similar size. Some CDPs, however, may be 
predominantly residential; such places should represent recognizably 
distinct, locally known communities, but not typical suburban 
subdivisions. Examples of such predominantly residential communities 
that can be recognized as CDPs are colonias, small rural communities, 
and unincorporated resort and retirement communities.
    3. A CDP may not be located, either partially or entirely, within 
an incorporated place or another CDP.
    4. A CDP may be located in more than one county but must not cross 
state boundaries. It is important to note, however, that since county 
boundaries provide important demarcations for communities, CDPs that 
cross county lines should be kept to a minimum and identified only when 
the community clearly sees itself existing on both sides of a county 
boundary.
    5. There are no minimum population or housing unit thresholds for 
defining CDPs; however, a CDP must contain some population or housing 
units or

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both. For the 2020 Census, the Census Bureau will not accept a CDP 
delineated with zero population and zero housing units. The Census 
Bureau recognizes that some communities, such as a resort or other 
kinds of seasonal communities, may lack population at certain times of 
the year. Nevertheless, there should be some evidence, generally in the 
form of houses, barracks, dormitories, commercial buildings and/or 
other nonresidential structures, providing the basis for local 
perception of the place's existence. The Census Bureau will review the 
number of housing units within the place, as reported in the previous 
decennial census or as seen in imagery, and consider whether additional 
information is needed before recognizing the CDP. Participants 
submitting boundaries for places with less than ten housing units may 
be asked to provide additional information attesting to the existence 
of the CDP.
    6. CDP boundaries should follow visible features, except in those 
circumstances when a CDP's boundary is coincident with the nonvisible 
boundary of a state, county, minor civil division (in the six New 
England states, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, 
Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin), or incorporated place. CDP boundaries may 
follow other nonvisible features in instances where reliance upon 
visible features would result in overbounding of the CDP in order to 
include housing units on both sides of a road or street feature. Such 
boundaries might include parcel boundaries and public land survey 
system lines; fence lines; national, state, or local park boundaries; 
ridgelines; or drainage ditches.
    7. The CDP name should be one that is recognized and used in daily 
communication by the residents of the community. Because unincorporated 
communities generally lack legally defined boundaries, a commonly used 
community name and the geographic extent of its use by local residents 
is often the best identifier of the extent of a place, the assumption 
being that if residents associate with a particular name and use it to 
identify the place in which they live, then the CDP's boundaries can be 
mapped based on the use of the name. There should be features in the 
landscape that use the name, such that a non-resident would have a 
general sense of the location or extent of the community; for example, 
signs indicating when one is entering the community; highway exit signs 
that use the name; or businesses, schools, or other buildings that make 
use of the name. It should not be a name developed solely for planning 
or other purposes (including simply to obtain data from the Census 
Bureau) that is not in regular daily use by the local residents and 
business establishments.
    8. A CDP may not have the same name as an adjacent or nearby 
incorporated place. If the community does not have a name that 
distinguishes it from other nearby communities, then the community is 
not a distinct place. The use of directional terms (``north'', 
``south'', ``east'', ``west'', and so forth) to merely differentiate 
the name of a CDP from a nearby municipality where this name is not in 
local use is not acceptable. For example, the name ``North Laurel'' 
would be permitted if this name were in local use. The name ``Laurel 
North'' would not be permitted if it were not in local use. Again, this 
has much to do with the way in which people typically refer to the 
places in which they live. It is permissible to change the name of a 
2010 CDP for the 2020 Census if the new name provides a better 
identification of the community.

IV. Definitions of Key Terms

    American Indian off-reservation trust land--An area of land located 
outside the boundaries of an AIR, whose boundaries are established by 
deed, and which are held in trust by the U.S. federal government for a 
federally recognized American Indian tribe or members of that tribe.
    American Indian reservation (AIR)--An area of land with boundaries 
established by final treaty, statute, executive order, and/or court 
order and over which a federally recognized American Indian tribal 
government has governmental authority. Along with ``reservation,'' 
designations such as colonies, communities, pueblos, rancherias, and 
reserves apply to AIRs.
    Census block--A geographic area bounded by visible and/or invisible 
features shown on a map prepared by the Census Bureau. A block is the 
smallest geographic entity for which the Census Bureau tabulates and 
publishes decennial census data.
    Coextensive--A description of two or more geographic entities that 
cover exactly the same area, with all boundaries shared.
    Colonia--A small, generally unincorporated community located in one 
of the states on the U.S.-Mexico border where residents often build or 
provide their own housing and that usually lacks utilities, paved 
roads, and other infrastructure typically found other similarly sized 
communities.
    Comunidad--A CDP in Puerto Rico that is not related to a 
municipio's seat of government, called an aldea or a ciudad prior to 
the 1990 Census.
    Contiguous--A description of areas sharing common boundary lines, 
more than a single point, such that the areas, when combined, form a 
single piece of territory. Noncontiguous areas form disjoint pieces.
    Housing unit--A house, an apartment, a mobile home or trailer, or a 
group of rooms or a single room occupied as a separate living quarter 
or, if vacant, intended for occupancy as a separate living quarter. 
Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live and eat 
separately from any other residents of the building and which have 
direct access from outside the building or through a common hall.
    Incorporated place--A type of governmental unit, incorporated under 
state law as a city, town (except in New England, New York, and 
Wisconsin), borough (except in Alaska and New York), or village, 
generally to provide governmental services for a concentration of 
people within legally prescribed boundaries.
    Minor civil division (MCD)--The primary governmental or 
administrative division of a county in 28 states and the Island Areas 
having legal boundaries, names, and descriptions. The MCDs represent 
many different types of legal entities with a wide variety of 
characteristics, powers, and functions depending on the state and type 
of MCD. In some states, some or all of the incorporated places also 
constitute MCDs.
    Municipio--A type of governmental unit that is the primary legal 
subdivision of Puerto Rico. The Census Bureau treats the municipio as 
the statistical equivalent of a county.
    Nonvisible feature--A map feature that is not visible on the ground 
and in imagery such as a city or county boundary through space, a 
property line, or line-of-sight extension of a road.
    Statistical geographic entity--A geographic entity that is 
specially defined and delineated, such as block group, CDP, or census 
tract, so that the Census Bureau may tabulate data for it. Designation 
as a statistical entity neither conveys nor confers legal ownership, 
entitlement, or jurisdictional authority.
    Urbanized area (UA)--An area consisting of a central place(s) and 
adjacent urban fringe that together have a minimum residential 
population of at least 50,000 people and generally an overall 
population density of at least 1,000 people per square mile. The Census 
Bureau uses published criteria to determine the qualification and 
boundaries of UAs at the time of each decennial census.
    Visible feature--A map feature that can be seen on the ground and 
in

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imagery, such as a road, railroad track, major above-ground 
transmission line or pipeline, river, stream, shoreline, fence, sharply 
defined mountain ridge, or cliff. A nonstandard visible feature is a 
feature that may not be clearly defined on the ground (such as a 
ridge), may be seasonal (such as an intermittent stream), or may be 
relatively impermanent (such as a fence). The Census Bureau generally 
requests verification that nonstandard features used as boundaries for 
the PSAP geographic areas pose no problem in their location during 
field work.
    Zona urbana--In Puerto Rico, the settled area functioning as the 
seat of government for a municipio. A zona urbana cannot cross a 
municipio boundary.

    Dated: October 30, 2018.
Ron S. Jarmin,
Deputy Director, Performing the Non-Exclusive Functions and Duties of 
the Director, Bureau of the Census.
[FR Doc. 2018-24571 Filed 11-9-18; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 3510-07-P