Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation; Model SF50 Airplane; Installation of Rechargeable Lithium Batteries, 38011-38014 [2018-16609]

Download as PDF 38011 Rules and Regulations Federal Register Vol. 83, No. 150 Friday, August 3, 2018 This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains regulatory documents having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed to and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, which is published under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510. The Code of Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 [Docket No. FAA–2018–0697; Special Conditions No. 23–289–SC] Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation; Model SF50 Airplane; Installation of Rechargeable Lithium Batteries Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special conditions; request for comments. AGENCY: These special conditions are issued for the Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature associated with the installation of a rechargeable lithium battery. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to SUMMARY: that established by the existing airworthiness standards. DATES: The effective date of these special conditions is August 3, 2018. We must receive your comments by September 17, 2018. ADDRESSES: Send comments identified by docket number FAA–2018–0697 using any of the following methods: • Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov and follow the online instructions for sending your comments electronically. • Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M–30, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Room W12–140, West Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC 20590–0001. • Hand Delivery of Courier: Take comments to Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. • Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202–493–2251. Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without change, to http://regulations.gov, including any personal information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the docket website, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT’s complete Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477–19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov. Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at http://www.regulations.gov at any time. Follow the online instructions for accessing the docket or go to the Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James Brady, Federal Aviation Administration, Aircraft Certification Service, Small Airplane Directorate, AIR–691, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, MO; telephone (816) 329–4132; facsimile (816) 329–4090. The FAA has determined that notice and opportunity for prior public comment are unnecessary because the substance of these special conditions has been subjected to the public comment process in several prior instances with no substantive comments received. It is unlikely that prior public comment would result in a significant change from the substance contained herein. The FAA therefore finds that good cause exists for making these special conditions effective upon issuance. The FAA is requesting comments to allow interested persons to submit views that may not have been submitted in response to the prior opportunities for comment. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Special conditions No. Company/airplane model 23–15–01–SC 1 ........................................................................................................................... 23–09–02–SC 2 ........................................................................................................................... 23–08–05–SC 3 ........................................................................................................................... amozie on DSK3GDR082PROD with RULES Comments Invited We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by sending 1 http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_ Library/rgSC.nsf/0/39B156C006E B842E86257EF3004BB13C? OpenDocument&Highlight= installation%20of%20rechargeable %20lithium%20battery. 2 http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_ Library/rgSC.nsf/0/902232309C19 F0D4862575CB0045AC0D? OpenDocument&Highlight= installation%20of%20rechargeable %20lithium%20battery. VerDate Sep<11>2014 23:08 Aug 02, 2018 Jkt 244001 written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. We ask that you send us two copies of written comments. 3 http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_ Library/rgSC.nsf/0/28E630294DCC 27B986257513005968A3? OpenDocument&Highlight= installation%20of%20rechargeable %20lithium%20battery. PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 Kestrel Aircraft Company/Model K–350. Cessna Aircraft Company/Model 525C (CJ4). Spectrum Aeronautical, LLC/Model 40. We will consider all comments we receive on or before the closing date for comments. We will consider comments filed late if it is possible to do so without incurring expense or delay. We may change these special conditions based on the comments we receive. Background On October 19, 2017, Cirrus Design Corporation (Cirrus) applied for a change to Type Certificate No. A00018CH for installation of rechargeable lithium batteries and E:\FR\FM\03AUR1.SGM 03AUR1 38012 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 150 / Friday, August 3, 2018 / Rules and Regulations battery systems in the Model SF50. The SF50 is a normal category single-enginejet airplane powered by a Williams International Model FJ33–5A turbofan engine capable of carrying eight occupants including one pilot, with a maximum takeoff weight of 6,000 pounds and a maximum operating altitude 28,000 feet. The current regulatory requirements for part 23 airplanes do not contain adequate requirements for use of rechargeable lithium batteries in airborne applications. This type of battery possesses certain failure and operational characteristics with maintenance requirements that differ significantly from that of the nickelcadmium (Ni-Cd) and lead-acid rechargeable batteries currently approved in other normal, utility, acrobatic, and commuter category airplanes. Therefore, the FAA is applying this special condition to address— • All characteristics of the rechargeable lithium batteries and their installation that could affect safe operation of the modified SF50 airplanes; and • Appropriate Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (ICA) that include maintenance requirements to ensure the availability of electrical power from the batteries when needed. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of § 21.101, Cirrus must show that the SF50 airplane, as changed, continues to meet the applicable provisions of the regulations incorporated by reference in Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) No. A00018CH 4 or the applicable regulations in effect on the date of application for the change. The regulations incorporated by reference in the type certificate are commonly referred to as the ‘‘original type certification basis.’’ The regulations incorporated by reference in TCDS No. A00018CH are as follows: 14 CFR part 23, effective February 1, 1965, as amended by amendments 23– 1 through 23–62. 14 CFR part 34, effective September 10, 1990, as amended by amendments 34–1 through 34–5A. 14 CFR part 36, effective December 1, 1969, as amended by amendments 36– 1 through 36–28. Special Conditions 23–261–SC, issued September 4, 2013, Inflatable Three-Point Restraint Safety Belt with an Integrated Airbag Device. 23–267–SC, issued September 14, 2015, Full Authority Digital Engine Control System. 23–272–SC, issued December 2, 2015, Auto Throttle. 23–275–SC, issued July 6, 2016, Whole Airplane Parachute Recovery System. EQUIVALENT LEVEL OF SAFETY (ELOS) FINDINGS ELOS No., date and subject Regulation requiring an ELOS ACE–14–06, dated April 10, 2014: Electronic Placards .......................... ACE–15–04, dated October 17, 2016: Landing Gear Warning Horn ...... ACE–15–14, dated June 25, 2015: Cockpit Control Knob Shape ........... TC6444CH–A–F–2, dated July 12, 2016: Spin Requirements ................ TC06444CH–A–F–5, dated July 15, 2016: Amendment 62 Corrections §§ 23.1559, 23.1567. § 23.729(f). § 23.781(b). § 23.221. §§ 23.45, 23.51, 23.63, 23.67, 23.73, 23.77, 23.161, 23.181, 23.221, 23.251, 23.253, 23.571, 23.785, 23.831, 23.1195, 23.1197, 23.1199, 23.1201, 23.1527, 23.1545, 23.1583.OW≤ § 23.1353(h). TC6444CH–A–S–11, dated June 23, 2016: Storage Battery Design and Installation. amozie on DSK3GDR082PROD with RULES Exemptions Exemption No. 9948, dated October 23, 2009, §§ 23.562(b) and 23.785(a), Installation of seats limited to occupants weighing 90 pounds or less. Exemption No. 11092, dated October 23, 2014, § 23.177(b), Use of electric roll trim for static lateral stability. Exemption No. 16970, dated June 23, 2016, § 23.1419(a), 61-knot stall speed with critical ice accretions. If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 23) do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for the SF50 airplane because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed under the provisions of § 21.16. In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special conditions, the SF50 must comply with 4 http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_ Library/rgMakeModel.nsf/0/ 4ec2ccf1759afb61862581860056ef39/$FILE/ A00018CH_Rev_3.pdf. VerDate Sep<11>2014 23:08 Aug 02, 2018 Jkt 244001 the fuel vent and exhaust emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the noise certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36. The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in § 11.19, under § 11.38 and they become part of the type certification basis under § 21.101. Special conditions are initially applicable to the models for which they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended later to include any other model that incorporates the same novel or unusual design feature, or should any other model already included on the same type certificate be modified to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, the FAA would apply these special conditions to the other model(s). Novel or Unusual Design Features The Cirrus SF50 airplane will incorporate the following novel or unusual design features: The installation of a rechargeable lithium PO 00000 Frm 00002 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 battery as a main or engine start airplane battery. Discussion The applicable regulations governing the installation of batteries in general aviation airplanes were derived from Civil Air Regulations (CAR) 3 as part of the recodification that established 14 CFR part 23. The battery requirements identified in § 23.1353 were a rewording of the CAR requirements. Additional rulemaking activities—resulting from increased incidents of Ni-Cd battery fire or failures—incorporated § 23.1353(f) and (g), amendments 23–20 and 23–21, respectively. The FAA did not envision the introduction of lithium battery installations at the time these regulations were published. The proposed use of rechargeable lithium batteries prompted the FAA to review the adequacy of these existing regulations. We determined the existing regulations do not adequately address the safety of lithium battery installations. E:\FR\FM\03AUR1.SGM 03AUR1 amozie on DSK3GDR082PROD with RULES Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 150 / Friday, August 3, 2018 / Rules and Regulations Current experience with rechargeable lithium batteries in commercial or general aviation is limited. However, other users of this technology—ranging from personal computers, to wireless telephone manufacturers, to the electric vehicle industry—have noted safety problems with rechargeable lithium batteries. These problems, as described in the following paragraphs, include overcharging, over-discharging, flammability of cell components, cell internal defects, and hazards resulting from exposure to extreme temperatures. 1. Overcharging: In general, rechargeable lithium batteries are significantly more susceptible than their Ni-Cd or lead-acid counterparts to thermal runway, which is an internal failure that can result in self-sustaining increases in temperature and pressure. This is especially true for overcharging, which causes heating and destabilization of the components of the cell, leading to the formation (by plating) of highly unstable metallic lithium. The metallic lithium can ignite, resulting in a self-sustaining fire or explosion. Finally, the severity of thermal runaway due to overcharging increases with increasing battery capacity due to the higher amount of electrolyte in large batteries. 2. Over-discharging: Discharge of some types of rechargeable lithium battery cells beyond the manufacturer’s recommended specification can cause corrosion of the electrodes of the cell, resulting in loss of battery capacity that cannot be reversed by recharging. This loss of capacity may not be detected by the simple voltage measurements commonly available to flight crews as a means of checking battery status—a problem shared with Ni-Cd batteries. In addition, over-discharging has the potential to lead to an unsafe condition (creation of dendrites that could result in internal short circuit during the recharging cycle). 3. Flammability of Cell Components: Unlike Ni-Cd and lead-acid batteries, some types of rechargeable lithium batteries use liquid electrolytes that are flammable. The electrolyte can serve as a source of fuel for an external fire, if there is a breach of the battery container. 4. Cell Internal Defects: The rechargeable lithium batteries and rechargeable battery systems have a history of undetected cell internal defects. These defects may or may not be detected during normal operational evaluation, test, and validation. This may lead to an unsafe condition during in-service operation. 5. Extreme Temperatures: Exposure to an extreme temperature environment VerDate Sep<11>2014 23:08 Aug 02, 2018 Jkt 244001 has the potential to create major hazards. Care must be taken to ensure that the lithium battery remains within the manufacturer’s recommended specification. Applicability As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the SF50 airplane. Should Cirrus apply at a later date for a change to the type certificate to include another model incorporating the same novel or unusual design feature, the FAA would apply these special conditions to that model as well. Conclusion This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features on the SF50 airplane. It is not a rule of general applicability and affects only the applicant who applied to the FAA for approval of these features on the airplane. The substance of these special conditions has been subjected to the notice and comment period in several prior instances and has been derived without substantive change from those previously issued. It is unlikely that prior public comment would result in a significant change from the subject contained herein. Therefore, notice and opportunity for prior public comment hereon are unnecessary and the FAA finds good cause, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(3)(B) and 553(d)(3), for making these special conditions effective upon issuance. The FAA is requesting comments to allow interested persons to submit views that may not have been submitted in response to the prior opportunities for comment described above. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 23 Aircraft, Aviation safety, Signs and symbols. Citation The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701–44702, 44704; Pub. L. 113–53, 127 Stat 584 (49 U.S.C. 44704) note; 14 CFR 21.16 and 21.101; and 14 CFR 11.38 and 11.19. The Special Conditions Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of the type certification basis for the Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 airplane. 1. Installation of Lithium Battery In lieu of the requirements in § 23.1353 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e), amendment 23–62, rechargeable lithium PO 00000 Frm 00003 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 38013 battery installations on the Cirrus Model SF50 must be designed and installed as follows: (1) Maintain safe cell temperatures and pressures during— i. Normal operations; ii. Any probable failure conditions of charging or discharging or battery monitoring system; iii. Any failure of the charging or battery monitoring system shown to not be extremely remote. (2) Prevent explosion or fire in the event of a failure under (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) above. (3) Prevent the occurrence of selfsustaining, uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure. (4) Not emit explosive or toxic gases in hazardous quantities within the airplane either in normal operation or as a result of any failure. (5) Comply with the requirements of § 23.863(a) through (d) at amendment 23–62. (6) Escaped corrosive fluids or gases shall not damage surrounding structure or any adjacent systems, equipment, electrical wiring, or the airplane in such a way as to cause a major or more severe failure condition, in accordance with § 23.1309(c) at amendment 23–62—or commensurate § 23.1309 paragraphs of older amendment—and applicable regulatory guidance. (7) The maximum amount of heat resulting from a short circuit of the battery or internal cell, or any other failure, shall not have any hazardous effect on structure or essential systems. (8) Rechargeable lithium battery installations must have a system to automatically control the charging rate of the battery to prevent battery overheating and overcharging, and either— i. A battery temperature sensing and over-temperature warning system with a means for automatically disconnecting the battery from its charging source in the event of an over-temperature condition; or ii. A battery failure sensing and warning system with a means for automatically disconnecting the battery from its charging source in the event of battery failure. (9) Any rechargeable lithium battery installation, the function of which is required for safe operation of the aircraft, must incorporate a monitoring and warning feature that will provide an indication to the appropriate flight crewmembers whenever the state of charge of the batteries has fallen below levels considered acceptable for dispatch of the aircraft. Note 1 to paragraph (9): Reference § 23.1353(h) for dispatch consideration. E:\FR\FM\03AUR1.SGM 03AUR1 38014 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 150 / Friday, August 3, 2018 / Rules and Regulations (10) The Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (ICA) required by § 23.1529 must contain maintenance requirements to ensure that the battery has been sufficiently charged at appropriate intervals specified by the battery manufacturer and the equipment manufacturer that contain the rechargeable lithium battery or rechargeable lithium battery system. The lithium rechargeable batteries and lithium rechargeable battery systems must not degrade below specified ampere-hour levels sufficient to power the aircraft system. The ICA must also contain procedures for the maintenance of replacement batteries to prevent the installation of batteries that have degraded charge retention ability or other damage due to prolonged storage at a low state of charge. Replacement batteries must be of the same manufacturer and part number as approved by the FAA. Note 2 to paragraph (10): Maintenance requirements include procedures that check battery capacity, charge degradation at manufacturers recommended inspection intervals, and replace batteries at manufacturer’s recommended replacement schedule/time to prevent age-related degradation. Note 3 to paragraph (10): The term ‘‘sufficiently charged’’ means that the battery must retain enough charge, expressed in ampere-hours, to ensure that the battery cells will not be damaged. A battery cell may be damaged by low charge (i.e., below a certain level), resulting in a reduction in the ability to charge and retain a full charge. This reduction would be greater than the reduction that may result from normal operational degradation. Note 4 to paragraph (10): Replacement battery in spares storage may be subject to prolonged storage at a low state of charge. Issued in Kansas City, Missouri, on July 25, 2018. Pat Mullen, Manager, Small Airplane Standards Branch, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2018–16609 Filed 8–2–18; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–13–P DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA–2018–0720; Product Identifier 2017–SW–012–AD; Amendment 39–19348; AD 2018–16–08] RIN 2120–AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Leonardo S.p.A. Helicopters (Type Certificate Previously Held By Finmeccanica S.p.A., AgustaWestland S.p.A) Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule; request for comments. AGENCY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Leonardo S.p.A. (Leonardo) Model A109E, A109S, and AW109SP helicopters with an oil cooler fan assembly (fan assembly) installed. This AD requires inspecting each oil cooler system pulley assembly (pulley assembly) bearing and replacing each fan assembly. This AD is prompted by reports of degraded pulley assembly bearings. The actions of this AD are intended to correct an unsafe condition on these products. DATES: This AD becomes effective August 20, 2018. We must receive comments on this AD by October 2, 2018. ADDRESSES: You may send comments by any of the following methods: • Federal eRulemaking Docket: Go to http://www.regulations.gov. Follow the online instructions for sending your comments electronically. • Fax: 202–493–2251. • Mail: Send comments to the U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M–30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12–140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC 20590–0001. • Hand Delivery: Deliver to the ‘‘Mail’’ address between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. SUMMARY: amozie on DSK3GDR082PROD with RULES Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the internet at http:// www.regulations.gov by searching for and locating Docket No. FAA–2018– 0720; or in person at Docket Operations between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this AD, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) AD, the economic evaluation, VerDate Sep<11>2014 23:08 Aug 02, 2018 Jkt 244001 PO 00000 Frm 00004 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 any comments received, and other information. The street address for Docket Operations (telephone 800- 647– 5527) is in the ADDRESSES section. Comments will be available in the AD docket shortly after receipt. For service information identified in this final rule, contact Leonardo S.p.A. Helicopters, Matteo Ragazzi, Head of Airworthiness, Viale G.Agusta 520, 21017 C.Costa di Samarate (Va) Italy; telephone +39–0331–711756; fax +39– 0331–229046; or at http:// www.leonardocompany.com/-/bulletins. You may review the referenced service information at the FAA, Office of the Regional Counsel, Southwest Region, 10101 Hillwood Pkwy, Room 6N–321, Fort Worth, TX 76177. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Eric Haight, Aviation Safety Engineer, Regulations and Policy Section, Rotorcraft Standards Branch, FAA, 10101 Hillwood Pkwy., Fort Worth, TX 76177; telephone (817) 222 5110; email eric.haight@faa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Comments Invited This AD is a final rule that involves requirements affecting flight safety, and we did not provide you with notice and an opportunity to provide your comments prior to it becoming effective. However, we invite you to participate in this rulemaking by submitting written comments, data, or views. We also invite comments relating to the economic, environmental, energy, or federalism impacts that resulted from adopting this AD. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the AD, explain the reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. To ensure the docket does not contain duplicate comments, commenters should send only one copy of written comments, or if comments are filed electronically, commenters should submit them only one time. We will file in the docket all comments that we receive, as well as a report summarizing each substantive public contact with FAA personnel concerning this rulemaking during the comment period. We will consider all the comments we receive and may conduct additional rulemaking based on those comments. Discussion EASA, which is the Technical Agent for the Member States of the European Union, has issued EASA Emergency AD No. 2017–0046–E, dated March 10, 2017, to correct an unsafe condition for Leonardo (previously Finmeccanica S.p.A, AgustaWestland S.p.A.) Model A109E, A109LUH, A109S, and E:\FR\FM\03AUR1.SGM 03AUR1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 83, Number 150 (Friday, August 3, 2018)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 38011-38014]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2018-16609]



========================================================================
Rules and Regulations
                                                Federal Register
________________________________________________________________________

This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains regulatory documents 
having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed 
to and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, which is published 
under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510.

The Code of Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. 

========================================================================


Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 150 / Friday, August 3, 2018 / Rules 
and Regulations

[[Page 38011]]



DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Part 23

[Docket No. FAA-2018-0697; Special Conditions No. 23-289-SC]


Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation; Model SF50 
Airplane; Installation of Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION: Final special conditions; request for comments.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Cirrus Design 
Corporation Model SF50 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or 
unusual design feature associated with the installation of a 
rechargeable lithium battery. The applicable airworthiness regulations 
do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design 
feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety 
standards the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of 
safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness 
standards.

DATES: The effective date of these special conditions is August 3, 
2018.
    We must receive your comments by September 17, 2018.

ADDRESSES: Send comments identified by docket number FAA-2018-0697 
using any of the following methods:
     Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov and follow the online instructions for sending your 
comments electronically.
     Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M-30, U.S. 
Department of Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Room 
W12-140, West Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC 20590-0001.
     Hand Delivery of Courier: Take comments to Docket 
Operations in Room W12-140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 
New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday 
through Friday, except Federal holidays.
     Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202-493-2251.
    Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without 
change, to http://regulations.gov, including any personal information 
the commenter provides. Using the search function of the docket 
website, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all comments 
received into any FAA docket, including the name of the individual 
sending the comment (or signing the comment for an association, 
business, labor union, etc.). DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement can 
be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 
19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov.
    Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at 
http://www.regulations.gov at any time. Follow the online instructions 
for accessing the docket or go to the Docket Operations in Room W12-140 
of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., 
Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, 
except Federal holidays.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James Brady, Federal Aviation 
Administration, Aircraft Certification Service, Small Airplane 
Directorate, AIR-691, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, MO; telephone 
(816) 329-4132; facsimile (816) 329-4090.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA has determined that notice and 
opportunity for prior public comment are unnecessary because the 
substance of these special conditions has been subjected to the public 
comment process in several prior instances with no substantive comments 
received. It is unlikely that prior public comment would result in a 
significant change from the substance contained herein. The FAA 
therefore finds that good cause exists for making these special 
conditions effective upon issuance. The FAA is requesting comments to 
allow interested persons to submit views that may not have been 
submitted in response to the prior opportunities for comment.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Special conditions No.                                   Company/airplane model
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
23-15-01-SC \1\........................  Kestrel Aircraft Company/Model K-350.
23-09-02-SC \2\........................  Cessna Aircraft Company/Model 525C (CJ4).
23-08-05-SC \3\........................  Spectrum Aeronautical, LLC/Model 40.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Comments Invited
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    \1\ http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgSC.nsf/0/39B156C006EB842E86257EF3004BB13C?OpenDocument&Highlight=installation%20of%20rechargeable%20lithium%20battery.
    \2\ http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgSC.nsf/0/902232309C19F0D4862575CB0045AC0D?OpenDocument&Highlight=installation%20of%20rechargeable%20lithium%20battery.
    \3\ http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgSC.nsf/0/28E630294DCC27B986257513005968A3?OpenDocument&Highlight=installation%20of%20rechargeable%20lithium%20battery.
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    We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by 
sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments 
reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the 
reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. We ask 
that you send us two copies of written comments.
    We will consider all comments we receive on or before the closing 
date for comments. We will consider comments filed late if it is 
possible to do so without incurring expense or delay. We may change 
these special conditions based on the comments we receive.

Background

    On October 19, 2017, Cirrus Design Corporation (Cirrus) applied for 
a change to Type Certificate No. A00018CH for installation of 
rechargeable lithium batteries and

[[Page 38012]]

battery systems in the Model SF50. The SF50 is a normal category 
single-engine-jet airplane powered by a Williams International Model 
FJ33-5A turbofan engine capable of carrying eight occupants including 
one pilot, with a maximum takeoff weight of 6,000 pounds and a maximum 
operating altitude 28,000 feet.
    The current regulatory requirements for part 23 airplanes do not 
contain adequate requirements for use of rechargeable lithium batteries 
in airborne applications. This type of battery possesses certain 
failure and operational characteristics with maintenance requirements 
that differ significantly from that of the nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) and 
lead-acid rechargeable batteries currently approved in other normal, 
utility, acrobatic, and commuter category airplanes. Therefore, the FAA 
is applying this special condition to address--
     All characteristics of the rechargeable lithium batteries 
and their installation that could affect safe operation of the modified 
SF50 airplanes; and
     Appropriate Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (ICA) 
that include maintenance requirements to ensure the availability of 
electrical power from the batteries when needed.

Type Certification Basis

    Under the provisions of Sec.  21.101, Cirrus must show that the 
SF50 airplane, as changed, continues to meet the applicable provisions 
of the regulations incorporated by reference in Type Certificate Data 
Sheet (TCDS) No. A00018CH \4\ or the applicable regulations in effect 
on the date of application for the change. The regulations incorporated 
by reference in the type certificate are commonly referred to as the 
``original type certification basis.'' The regulations incorporated by 
reference in TCDS No. A00018CH are as follows:

Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations

    14 CFR part 23, effective February 1, 1965, as amended by 
amendments 23-1 through 23-62.
    14 CFR part 34, effective September 10, 1990, as amended by 
amendments 34-1 through 34-5A.
    14 CFR part 36, effective December 1, 1969, as amended by 
amendments 36-1 through 36-28.

Special Conditions

    23-261-SC, issued September 4, 2013, Inflatable Three-Point 
Restraint Safety Belt with an Integrated Airbag Device.
    23-267-SC, issued September 14, 2015, Full Authority Digital Engine 
Control System.
    23-272-SC, issued December 2, 2015, Auto Throttle.
    23-275-SC, issued July 6, 2016, Whole Airplane Parachute Recovery 
System.

               Equivalent Level of Safety (ELOS) Findings
------------------------------------------------------------------------
       ELOS No., date and subject          Regulation requiring an ELOS
------------------------------------------------------------------------
ACE-14-06, dated April 10, 2014:         Sec.  Sec.   23.1559, 23.1567.
 Electronic Placards.
ACE-15-04, dated October 17, 2016:       Sec.   23.729(f).
 Landing Gear Warning Horn.
ACE-15-14, dated June 25, 2015: Cockpit  Sec.   23.781(b).
 Control Knob Shape.
TC6444CH-A-F-2, dated July 12, 2016:     Sec.   23.221.
 Spin Requirements.
TC06444CH-A-F-5, dated July 15, 2016:    Sec.  Sec.   23.45, 23.51,
 Amendment 62 Corrections.                23.63, 23.67, 23.73, 23.77,
                                          23.161, 23.181, 23.221,
                                          23.251, 23.253, 23.571,
                                          23.785, 23.831, 23.1195,
                                          23.1197, 23.1199, 23.1201,
                                          23.1527, 23.1545, 23.1583.OW>
TC6444CH-A-S-11, dated June 23, 2016:    Sec.   23.1353(h).
 Storage Battery Design and
 Installation.
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Exemptions
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rgMakeModel.nsf/0/4ec2ccf1759afb61862581860056ef39/$FILE/
A00018CH_Rev_3.pdf.
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    Exemption No. 9948, dated October 23, 2009, Sec. Sec.  23.562(b) 
and 23.785(a), Installation of seats limited to occupants weighing 90 
pounds or less.
    Exemption No. 11092, dated October 23, 2014, Sec.  23.177(b), Use 
of electric roll trim for static lateral stability.
    Exemption No. 16970, dated June 23, 2016, Sec.  23.1419(a), 61-knot 
stall speed with critical ice accretions.
    If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness 
regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 23) do not contain adequate or 
appropriate safety standards for the SF50 airplane because of a novel 
or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed under the 
provisions of Sec.  21.16.
    In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special 
conditions, the SF50 must comply with the fuel vent and exhaust 
emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the noise certification 
requirements of 14 CFR part 36.
    The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in Sec.  11.19, under 
Sec.  11.38 and they become part of the type certification basis under 
Sec.  21.101.
    Special conditions are initially applicable to the models for which 
they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended 
later to include any other model that incorporates the same novel or 
unusual design feature, or should any other model already included on 
the same type certificate be modified to incorporate the same novel or 
unusual design feature, the FAA would apply these special conditions to 
the other model(s).

Novel or Unusual Design Features

    The Cirrus SF50 airplane will incorporate the following novel or 
unusual design features: The installation of a rechargeable lithium 
battery as a main or engine start airplane battery.

Discussion

    The applicable regulations governing the installation of batteries 
in general aviation airplanes were derived from Civil Air Regulations 
(CAR) 3 as part of the recodification that established 14 CFR part 23. 
The battery requirements identified in Sec.  23.1353 were a rewording 
of the CAR requirements. Additional rulemaking activities--resulting 
from increased incidents of Ni-Cd battery fire or failures--
incorporated Sec.  23.1353(f) and (g), amendments 23-20 and 23-21, 
respectively. The FAA did not envision the introduction of lithium 
battery installations at the time these regulations were published.
    The proposed use of rechargeable lithium batteries prompted the FAA 
to review the adequacy of these existing regulations. We determined the 
existing regulations do not adequately address the safety of lithium 
battery installations.

[[Page 38013]]

    Current experience with rechargeable lithium batteries in 
commercial or general aviation is limited. However, other users of this 
technology--ranging from personal computers, to wireless telephone 
manufacturers, to the electric vehicle industry--have noted safety 
problems with rechargeable lithium batteries. These problems, as 
described in the following paragraphs, include overcharging, over-
discharging, flammability of cell components, cell internal defects, 
and hazards resulting from exposure to extreme temperatures.
    1. Overcharging: In general, rechargeable lithium batteries are 
significantly more susceptible than their Ni-Cd or lead-acid 
counterparts to thermal runway, which is an internal failure that can 
result in self-sustaining increases in temperature and pressure. This 
is especially true for overcharging, which causes heating and 
destabilization of the components of the cell, leading to the formation 
(by plating) of highly unstable metallic lithium. The metallic lithium 
can ignite, resulting in a self-sustaining fire or explosion. Finally, 
the severity of thermal runaway due to overcharging increases with 
increasing battery capacity due to the higher amount of electrolyte in 
large batteries.
    2. Over-discharging: Discharge of some types of rechargeable 
lithium battery cells beyond the manufacturer's recommended 
specification can cause corrosion of the electrodes of the cell, 
resulting in loss of battery capacity that cannot be reversed by 
recharging. This loss of capacity may not be detected by the simple 
voltage measurements commonly available to flight crews as a means of 
checking battery status--a problem shared with Ni-Cd batteries. In 
addition, over-discharging has the potential to lead to an unsafe 
condition (creation of dendrites that could result in internal short 
circuit during the recharging cycle).
    3. Flammability of Cell Components: Unlike Ni-Cd and lead-acid 
batteries, some types of rechargeable lithium batteries use liquid 
electrolytes that are flammable. The electrolyte can serve as a source 
of fuel for an external fire, if there is a breach of the battery 
container.
    4. Cell Internal Defects: The rechargeable lithium batteries and 
rechargeable battery systems have a history of undetected cell internal 
defects. These defects may or may not be detected during normal 
operational evaluation, test, and validation. This may lead to an 
unsafe condition during in-service operation.
    5. Extreme Temperatures: Exposure to an extreme temperature 
environment has the potential to create major hazards. Care must be 
taken to ensure that the lithium battery remains within the 
manufacturer's recommended specification.

Applicability

    As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the 
SF50 airplane. Should Cirrus apply at a later date for a change to the 
type certificate to include another model incorporating the same novel 
or unusual design feature, the FAA would apply these special conditions 
to that model as well.

Conclusion

    This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features 
on the SF50 airplane. It is not a rule of general applicability and 
affects only the applicant who applied to the FAA for approval of these 
features on the airplane.
    The substance of these special conditions has been subjected to the 
notice and comment period in several prior instances and has been 
derived without substantive change from those previously issued. It is 
unlikely that prior public comment would result in a significant change 
from the subject contained herein. Therefore, notice and opportunity 
for prior public comment hereon are unnecessary and the FAA finds good 
cause, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(3)(B) and 553(d)(3), for 
making these special conditions effective upon issuance. The FAA is 
requesting comments to allow interested persons to submit views that 
may not have been submitted in response to the prior opportunities for 
comment described above.

List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 23

    Aircraft, Aviation safety, Signs and symbols.

Citation

    The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:

    Authority:  49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701-44702, 44704; 
Pub. L. 113-53, 127 Stat 584 (49 U.S.C. 44704) note; 14 CFR 21.16 
and 21.101; and 14 CFR 11.38 and 11.19.

The Special Conditions

    Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the 
Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of 
the type certification basis for the Cirrus Design Corporation Model 
SF50 airplane.

1. Installation of Lithium Battery

    In lieu of the requirements in Sec.  23.1353 (a), (b), (c), (d), 
and (e), amendment 23-62, rechargeable lithium battery installations on 
the Cirrus Model SF50 must be designed and installed as follows:
    (1) Maintain safe cell temperatures and pressures during--
    i. Normal operations;
    ii. Any probable failure conditions of charging or discharging or 
battery monitoring system;
    iii. Any failure of the charging or battery monitoring system shown 
to not be extremely remote.
    (2) Prevent explosion or fire in the event of a failure under 
(1)(ii) and (1)(iii) above.
    (3) Prevent the occurrence of self-sustaining, uncontrolled 
increases in temperature or pressure.
    (4) Not emit explosive or toxic gases in hazardous quantities 
within the airplane either in normal operation or as a result of any 
failure.
    (5) Comply with the requirements of Sec.  23.863(a) through (d) at 
amendment 23-62.
    (6) Escaped corrosive fluids or gases shall not damage surrounding 
structure or any adjacent systems, equipment, electrical wiring, or the 
airplane in such a way as to cause a major or more severe failure 
condition, in accordance with Sec.  23.1309(c) at amendment 23-62--or 
commensurate Sec.  23.1309 paragraphs of older amendment--and 
applicable regulatory guidance.
    (7) The maximum amount of heat resulting from a short circuit of 
the battery or internal cell, or any other failure, shall not have any 
hazardous effect on structure or essential systems.
    (8) Rechargeable lithium battery installations must have a system 
to automatically control the charging rate of the battery to prevent 
battery overheating and overcharging, and either--
    i. A battery temperature sensing and over-temperature warning 
system with a means for automatically disconnecting the battery from 
its charging source in the event of an over-temperature condition; or
    ii. A battery failure sensing and warning system with a means for 
automatically disconnecting the battery from its charging source in the 
event of battery failure.
    (9) Any rechargeable lithium battery installation, the function of 
which is required for safe operation of the aircraft, must incorporate 
a monitoring and warning feature that will provide an indication to the 
appropriate flight crewmembers whenever the state of charge of the 
batteries has fallen below levels considered acceptable for dispatch of 
the aircraft.

    Note 1 to paragraph (9):  Reference Sec.  23.1353(h) for 
dispatch consideration.


[[Page 38014]]


    (10) The Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (ICA) required by 
Sec.  23.1529 must contain maintenance requirements to ensure that the 
battery has been sufficiently charged at appropriate intervals 
specified by the battery manufacturer and the equipment manufacturer 
that contain the rechargeable lithium battery or rechargeable lithium 
battery system. The lithium rechargeable batteries and lithium 
rechargeable battery systems must not degrade below specified ampere-
hour levels sufficient to power the aircraft system. The ICA must also 
contain procedures for the maintenance of replacement batteries to 
prevent the installation of batteries that have degraded charge 
retention ability or other damage due to prolonged storage at a low 
state of charge. Replacement batteries must be of the same manufacturer 
and part number as approved by the FAA.

    Note 2 to paragraph (10):  Maintenance requirements include 
procedures that check battery capacity, charge degradation at 
manufacturers recommended inspection intervals, and replace 
batteries at manufacturer's recommended replacement schedule/time to 
prevent age-related degradation.


    Note 3 to paragraph (10): The term ``sufficiently charged'' 
means that the battery must retain enough charge, expressed in 
ampere-hours, to ensure that the battery cells will not be damaged. 
A battery cell may be damaged by low charge (i.e., below a certain 
level), resulting in a reduction in the ability to charge and retain 
a full charge. This reduction would be greater than the reduction 
that may result from normal operational degradation.


    Note 4 to paragraph (10):  Replacement battery in spares storage 
may be subject to prolonged storage at a low state of charge.


    Issued in Kansas City, Missouri, on July 25, 2018.
Pat Mullen,
Manager, Small Airplane Standards Branch, Aircraft Certification 
Service.
[FR Doc. 2018-16609 Filed 8-2-18; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 4910-13-P