Special Conditions: Textron Aviation Inc. Model 700 Series Airplanes; Side-Facing Seats-Installation of Airbag Systems, 15304-15310 [2018-07278]

Download as PDF Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 69 / Tuesday, April 10, 2018 / Rules and Regulations Qj = (Tj)(Pj) Where: Tj = Average time spent in failure condition j (in hours) Pj = Probability of occurrence of failure mode j (per hour) Note: If Pj is greater than 10¥3 per flight hour then a 1.5 factor of safety must be applied to all limit load conditions specified in Subpart C. V′ = Clearance speed as defined by § 25.629(b)(2). V″ = Clearance speed as defined by § 25.629(b)(1). Qj = (Tj)(Pj) where: Tj = Average time spent in failure condition j (in hours) Pj = Probability of occurrence of failure mode j (per hour) jstallworth on DSKBBY8HB2PROD with RULES Note: If Pj is greater than 10¥3 per flight hour, then the flutter clearance speed must not be less than V″. vi. Freedom from aeroelastic instability must also be shown up to V′ in Figure 3 above, for any probable system failure condition combined with any damage required or selected for investigation by § 25.571(b). c. Consideration of certain failure conditions may be required by other sections of 14 CFR part 25 regardless of calculated system reliability. Where analysis shows the probability of these failure conditions to be less than 10¥9 per flight hour, criteria other than those specified in this paragraph may be used for structural substantiation to show continued safe flight and landing. 7. Failure indications. For system failure detection and indication, the following apply: a. The system must be checked for failure conditions, not extremely improbable, that degrade the structural capability below the level required by part 25 or significantly reduce the reliability of the remaining system. As far as reasonably practicable, the flight crew must be made aware of these failures before flight. Certain elements of the control system, such as mechanical and hydraulic components, VerDate Sep<11>2014 14:31 Apr 09, 2018 Jkt 244001 iii. For residual strength substantiation, the airplane must be able to withstand two thirds of the ultimate loads defined in paragraph (6)(b)(ii) of the special condition. For pressurized cabins, these loads must be combined with the normal operating differential pressure. iv. If the loads induced by the failure condition have a significant effect on fatigue or damage tolerance then their effects must be taken into account. v. Freedom from aeroelastic instability must be shown up to a speed determined from Figure 3. Flutter clearance speeds V′ and V″ may be based on the speed limitation specified for the remainder of the flight using the margins defined by § 25.629(b). may use special periodic inspections, and electronic components may use daily checks, in lieu of detection and indication systems to achieve the objective of this requirement. These certification maintenance requirements must be limited to components that are not readily detectable by normal detection and indication systems and where service history shows that inspections will provide an adequate level of safety. b. The existence of any failure condition, not extremely improbable, during flight that could significantly affect the structural capability of the airplane and for which the associated reduction in airworthiness can be minimized by suitable flight limitations, must be signaled to the flight crew. For example, failure conditions that result in a factor of safety between the airplane strength and the loads of 14 CFR part 25, subpart C, below 1.25, or flutter margins below V″, must be signaled to the crew during flight. 8. Dispatch with known failure conditions. If the airplane is to be dispatched in a known system failure condition that affects structural performance, or affects the reliability of the remaining system to maintain structural performance, then the provisions of this special condition must be met, including the provisions of paragraph (5) for the dispatched condition, and paragraph (6) for subsequent failures. Expected operational limitations may be taken into account in establishing Pj as the probability of failure occurrence for determining the safety margin in Figure 1. Flight limitations and expected operational limitations may be taken into account in establishing Qj as the combined probability of being in the dispatched failure condition and the subsequent failure condition for the safety margins in Figures 2 and 3. These limitations must be such that the probability of being in this combined failure state and then subsequently encountering limit load conditions is extremely improbable. No reduction in these safety margins is allowed if the subsequent system failure rate is greater than 10¥3 per flight hour. PO 00000 Frm 00014 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 Issued in Des Moines, Washington. Victor Wicklund, Manager, Transport Standards Branch, Policy and Innovation Division, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2018–07277 Filed 4–9–18; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–13–P DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 [Docket No. FAA–2018–0247; Special Conditions No. 25–721–SC] Special Conditions: Textron Aviation Inc. Model 700 Series Airplanes; SideFacing Seats—Installation of Airbag Systems Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. AGENCY: E:\FR\FM\10APR1.SGM 10APR1 ER10AP18.002</GPH> 15304 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 69 / Tuesday, April 10, 2018 / Rules and Regulations Final special conditions; request for comments. ACTION: These special conditions are issued for the Textron Aviation Inc. (Textron), Model 700 series airplanes that feature an inflatable airbag system on multiple-place and single-place sidefacing seats (i.e., seats positioned in the airplane with the occupant facing 90 degrees to the direction of airplane travel). The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. DATES: This action is effective on Textron Aviation Inc. on April 10, 2018. Send comments on or before May 25, 2018. SUMMARY: Send comments identified by Docket No. FAA–2018–0247 using any of the following methods: • Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/and follow the online instructions for sending your comments electronically. • Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M–30, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Room W12–140, West Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC 20590–0001. • Hand Delivery or Courier: Take comments to Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. • Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202–493–2251. Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without change, to http://www.regulations.gov/, including any personal information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the docket website, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT’s complete Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477–19478). Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at http://www.regulations.gov/ at any time. Follow the online instructions for accessing the docket or go to Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 jstallworth on DSKBBY8HB2PROD with RULES ADDRESSES: VerDate Sep<11>2014 14:31 Apr 09, 2018 Jkt 244001 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alan Sinclair, FAA, Airframe and Cabin Safety Section, AIR–675, Transport Standards Branch, Aircraft Certification Service, 2200 South 216th St., Des Moines, Washington 98198–6547, telephone 206–231–3215, email Alan.Sinclair@faa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA has determined that notice of, and opportunity for prior public comment on, these special conditions is unnecessary because the substance of these special conditions has been published in the Federal Register for public comment in several prior instances with no substantive comments received. The FAA therefore has determined that prior public notice and comment are unnecessary, and finds that, for the same reason, good cause exists for making these special conditions effective upon publication in the Federal Register. Comments Invited We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. We will consider all comments we receive by the closing date for comments. We may change these special conditions based on the comments we receive. Background On November 20, 2014, Textron applied for a type certificate for the Textron Model 700 series airplanes. The Textron Model 700 series airplanes are low-wing, executive jet airplanes with seating provisions for 2 crewmembers and up to 12 passengers. These airplanes will have a maximum takeoff weight of 38,514 lbs. Textron’s proposed passenger seating arrangement(s) include a baseline 9place and an optional 8-place and 10place configuration. The baseline configuration includes a forward right hand belted single-place side-facing seat. An optional 10-place seat configuration includes a left hand, aftbelted, three-place side-facing couch. The multiple-place and single-place side-facing seats can be occupied for taxi, takeoff, and landing, and incorporate an inflatable airbag occupant protection system integrated into the side-facing seats. The FAA PO 00000 Frm 00015 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 15305 determined that inflatable airbag systems are a novel or unusual design feature and the existing airworthiness regulations do not provide adequate or appropriate safety standards. Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 21.17, Textron must show that the Textron Model 700 series airplanes meet the applicable provisions of part 25, as amended by Amendments 25–1 through 25–141. If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for the Textron Model 700 series airplanes because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed under the provisions of § 21.16. Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended later to include any other model that incorporates the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would also apply to the other model under § 21.101. In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special conditions, the Textron Model 700 series airplanes must comply with the fuel-vent and exhaust-emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the noise-certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36. The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in accordance with § 11.38, and they become part of the type certification basis under § 21.17(a)(2). Novel or Unusual Design Features The Textron Model 700 series airplanes will incorporate the following novel or unusual design feature: An inflatable airbag system on multiple-place and single-place sidefacing seats installed in Textron Model 700 series airplanes, in order to reduce the potential for both head and leg injury in the event of an accident. Discussion Side-facing seats are considered a novel design for transport category airplanes that include §§ 25.562 and 25.785 at Amendment 25–64 in their certification basis, and were not considered when those airworthiness standards were issued. The FAA has determined that the existing regulations do not provide adequate or appropriate safety standards for occupants of sidefacing seats. To provide a level of safety E:\FR\FM\10APR1.SGM 10APR1 jstallworth on DSKBBY8HB2PROD with RULES 15306 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 69 / Tuesday, April 10, 2018 / Rules and Regulations that is equivalent to that afforded to occupants of forward- and aft-facing seats, additional airworthiness standards in the form of special conditions are necessary. On June 16, 1988, 14 CFR part 25 was amended by Amendment 25–64 to revise the emergency-landing conditions that must be considered in the design of transport category airplanes. Amendment 25–64 revised the staticload conditions in § 25.561, and added a new § 25.562 that required dynamic testing for all seats approved for occupancy during takeoff and landing. The intent of Amendment 25–64 was to provide an improved level of safety for occupants on transport category airplanes. However, because most seating on transport category airplanes is forward-facing, the pass/fail criteria developed in Amendment 25–64 focused primarily on these seats. For some time, the FAA granted exemptions for the multiple-place side-facing-seat installations because the existing test methods and acceptance criteria did not produce a level of safety equivalent to the level of safety provided for forwardand aft-facing seats. These exemptions were subject to many conditions that reflected the injury-evaluation criteria and mitigation strategies available at the time of the exemption issuance. The FAA also issued special conditions to address single-place sidefacing seats based on the data available at the time the FAA issued those special conditions. Continuing concerns regarding the safety of side-facing seats prompted the FAA to conduct research to develop an acceptable method of compliance with §§ 25.562 and 25.785(b) for side-facing seat installations. That research has identified injury considerations and evaluation criteria in addition to those previously used to approve side-facing seats (see published report DOT/FAA/ AR–09/41, July 2011). One particular concern that was identified during the FAA’s research program, but not addressed in the previous special conditions, was the significant leg injuries that can occur to occupants of both single- and multipleplace side-facing seats. Because this type of injury does not occur on forward- and aft-facing seats, the FAA determined that, to achieve the level of safety envisioned in Amendment 25–64, additional requirements would be needed as compared to previously issued special conditions. Nonetheless, the research has now allowed the development of a single set of special conditions that is applicable to all fully side-facing seats. VerDate Sep<11>2014 14:31 Apr 09, 2018 Jkt 244001 On November 5, 2012, the FAA released Policy Statement PS–ANM–25– 03–R1, ‘‘Technical Criteria for Approving Side-Facing Seats,’’ to update existing FAA certification policy on §§ 25.562 and 25.785(a) at Amendment 25–64 for single- and multiple-place side-facing seats. This policy addresses both the technical criteria for approving side-facing seats and the implementation of those criteria. The FAA methodology detailed in Policy Statement PS–ANM–25–03–R1 was used to establish a new set of proposed special conditions that incorporated conditions for exemptions developed prior to the policy and included in these new special conditions, others that reflect current research findings specifically for neck and leg protection. We have frequently issued these new special conditions for airbag systems in the shoulder belts. While the Textron design integrate the airbag systems into the side-facing seats that deploy from a different location then the shoulder belts, the airbag will inflate at the same locations as those in the shoulder belts. Therefore, the FAA is using the same special conditions as for airbag systems in shoulder belts for this Textron design as the airbag system functions the same. In Policy Statement PS–ANM–25–03– R1, conditions 1 and 2 are applicable to all side-facing seat installations, whereas conditions 3 through 16 represent additional requirements applicable to side-facing seats equipped with an airbag system in the shoulder belt. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. Applicability As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the Textron Model 700 series airplanes Should Textron apply at a later date for a change to the type certificate to include another model incorporating the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would apply to that model as well. Conclusion This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features on one model of airplane. It is not a rule of general applicability. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25 Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. PO 00000 Frm 00016 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 Authority Citation The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704. The Special Conditions Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of the type certification basis. In addition to the requirements of §§ 25.562 and 25.785, the following special condition numbers 1 and 2 are part of the type certification basis of the Textron Model 700 series airplanes with side-facing seat installations. For seat places equipped with airbag systems, additional special condition numbers 3 through 16 are part of the type certification basis. 1. Additional requirements applicable to tests or rational analysis conducted to show compliance with §§ 25.562 and 25.785 for side-facing seats: a. The longitudinal test(s) conducted in accordance with § 25.562(b)(2) to show compliance with the seat-strength requirements of § 25.562(c)(7) and (8), and these special conditions must have an ES–2re anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD) (49 CFR part 572, subpart U) or equivalent, or a Hybrid-II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as specified in § 25.562) or equivalent, occupying each seat position and including all items contactable by the occupant (e.g., armrest, interior wall, or furnishing) if those items are necessary to restrain the occupant. If included, the floor representation and contactable items must be located such that their relative position, with respect to the center of the nearest seat place, is the same at the start of the test as before floor misalignment is applied. For example, if floor misalignment rotates the centerline of the seat place nearest the contactable item 8 degrees clockwise about the airplane x-axis, then the item and floor representations must be rotated by 8 degrees clockwise also to maintain the same relative position to the seat place, as shown in Figure 1. Each ATD’s relative position to the seat after application of floor misalignment must be the same as before misalignment is applied. To ensure proper loading of the seat by the occupants, the ATD pelvis must remain supported by the seat pan, and the restraint system must remain on the pelvis and shoulder of the ATD until rebound begins. No injury-criteria evaluation is necessary for tests conducted only to assess seat-strength requirements. E:\FR\FM\10APR1.SGM 10APR1 b. The longitudinal test(s) conducted in accordance with § 25.562(b)(2), to show compliance with the injury assessments required by § 25.562(c) and these special conditions, may be conducted separately from the test(s) to show structural integrity. In this case, structural-assessment tests must be conducted as specified in paragraph 1a, above, and the injury-assessment test must be conducted without yaw or floor misalignment. Injury assessments may be accomplished by testing with ES–2re ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart U) or equivalent at all places. Alternatively, these assessments may be accomplished by multiple tests that use an ES–2re at VerDate Sep<11>2014 14:31 Apr 09, 2018 Jkt 244001 the seat place being evaluated, and a Hybrid-II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as specified in § 25.562) or equivalent used in all seat places forward of the one being assessed, to evaluate occupant interaction. In this case, seat places aft of the one being assessed may be unoccupied. If a seat installation includes adjacent items that are contactable by the occupant, the injury potential of that contact must be assessed. To make this assessment, tests may be conducted that include the actual item, located and attached in a representative fashion. Alternatively, the injury potential may be assessed by a combination of tests with items having PO 00000 Frm 00017 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 15307 the same geometry as the actual item, but having stiffness characteristics that would create the worst case for injury (injuries due to both contact with the item and lack of support from the item). c. If a seat is installed aft of structure (e.g., an interior wall or furnishing) that does not have a homogeneous surface contactable by the occupant, additional analysis and/or test(s) may be required to demonstrate that the injury criteria are met for the area which an occupant could contact. For example, different yaw angles could result in different injury considerations and may require additional analysis or separate test(s) to evaluate. E:\FR\FM\10APR1.SGM 10APR1 ER10AP18.005</GPH> jstallworth on DSKBBY8HB2PROD with RULES Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 69 / Tuesday, April 10, 2018 / Rules and Regulations 15308 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 69 / Tuesday, April 10, 2018 / Rules and Regulations assessment tests may be necessary. Any surface (inflatable or otherwise) that provides support for the occupant of any seat place must provide that support in a consistent manner regardless of occupant stature. For example, if an inflatable shoulder belt is used to mitigate injury risk, then it must be demonstrated by inspection to bear against the range of occupants in a similar manner before and after inflation. Likewise, the means of limiting lower-leg flail must be demonstrated by inspection to provide protection for the range of occupants in a similar manner. e. For longitudinal test(s) conducted in accordance with § 25.562(b)(2) and these special conditions, the ATDs must be positioned, clothed, and have lateral instrumentation configured as follows: i. ATD positioning: (1) Lower the ATD vertically into the seat while simultaneously (see Figure 2 for illustration): (a) Aligning the midsagittal plane (a vertical plane through the midline of the body; dividing the body into right and left halves) with approximately the middle of the seat place. (b) Applying a horizontal x-axis direction (in the ATD coordinate system) force of about 20 lbs. (89 N) to the torso at approximately the intersection of the midsagittal plane and the bottom rib of the ES–2re or lower sternum of the Hybrid-II at the midsagittal plane, to compress the seat back cushion. (c) Keeping the upper legs nearly horizontal by supporting them just behind the knees. (2) Once all lifting devices have been removed from the ATD: Rock it slightly to settle it in the seat. (a) Separate the knees by about 4 inches (100 mm). (b) Set the ES–2re’s head at approximately the midpoint of the available range of z-axis rotation (to align the head and torso midsagittal planes). (c) Position the ES–2re’s arms at the joint’s mechanical detent that puts them at approximately a 40 degree angle with respect to the torso. Position the HybridII ATD hands on top of its upper legs. (d) Position the feet such that the centerlines of the lower legs are approximately parallel to a lateral vertical plane (in the aircraft coordinate system). ii. ATD clothing: Clothe each ATD in form-fitting, mid-calf-length (minimum) pants and shoes (size 11E) weighing about 2.5 lbs. (1.1 Kg) total. The color of the clothing should be in contrast to the color of the restraint system. The ES–2re jacket is sufficient for torso clothing, although a form-fitting shirt may be used in addition if desired. VerDate Sep<11>2014 14:31 Apr 09, 2018 Jkt 244001 PO 00000 Frm 00018 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\10APR1.SGM 10APR1 ER10AP18.006</GPH> jstallworth on DSKBBY8HB2PROD with RULES d. To accommodate a range of occupant heights (5th percentile female to 95th percentile male), the surface of items contactable by the occupant must be homogenous 7.3 inches (185 mm) above and 7.9 inches (200 mm) below the point (center of area) that is contacted by the 50th percentile male size ATD’s head during the longitudinal test(s) conducted in accordance with paragraphs 1a, 1b, and 1c, of these special conditions. Otherwise, additional head-injury criteria (HIC) jstallworth on DSKBBY8HB2PROD with RULES Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 69 / Tuesday, April 10, 2018 / Rules and Regulations iii. ES–2re ATD lateral instrumentation: The rib-module linear slides are directional, i.e., deflection occurs in either a positive or negative ATD y-axis direction. The modules must be installed such that the moving end of the rib module is toward the front of the aircraft. The three abdominal-force sensors must be installed such that they are on the side of the ATD toward the front of the aircraft. f. The combined horizontal/vertical test, required by § 25.562(b)(1) and these special conditions, must be conducted with a Hybrid II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as specified in § 25.562), or equivalent, occupying each seat position. g. Restraint systems: i. If inflatable restraint systems are used, they must be active during all dynamic tests conducted to show compliance with § 25.562. ii. The design and installation of seatbelt buckles must prevent unbuckling due to applied inertial forces or impact of the hands/arms of the occupant during an emergency landing. 2. Additional performance measures applicable to tests and rational analysis conducted to show compliance with §§ 25.562 and 25.785 for side-facing seats: a. Body-to-body contact: Contact between the head, pelvis, torso, or shoulder area of one ATD with the adjacent-seated ATD’s head, pelvis, torso, or shoulder area is not allowed. Contact during rebound is allowed. b. Thoracic: The deflection of any of the ES–2re ATD upper, middle, and lower ribs must not exceed 1.73 inches (44 mm). Data must be processed as defined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 571.214. c. Abdominal: The sum of the measured ES–2re ATD front, middle, and rear abdominal forces must not exceed 562 lbs. (2,500 N). Data must be processed as defined in FMVSS 571.214. d. Pelvic: The pubic symphysis force measured by the ES–2re ATD must not exceed 1,350 lbs. (6,000 N). Data must be processed as defined in FMVSS 571.214. e. Leg: Axial rotation of the upper-leg (femur) must be limited to 35 degrees in either direction from the nominal seated position. f. Neck: As measured by the ES–2re ATD and filtered at CFC 600 as defined in SAE J211: i. The upper-neck tension force at the occipital condyle (O.C.) location must be less than 405 lbs. (1,800 N). VerDate Sep<11>2014 14:31 Apr 09, 2018 Jkt 244001 ii. The upper-neck compression force at the O.C. location must be less than 405 lbs. (1,800 N). iii. The upper-neck bending torque about the ATD x-axis at the O.C. location must be less than 1,018 in lbs. (115 Nm). iv. The upper-neck resultant shear force at the O.C. location must be less than 186 lbs. (825 N). g. Occupant (ES–2re ATD) retention: The pelvic restraint must remain on the ES–2re ATD’s pelvis during the impact and rebound phases of the test. The upper-torso restraint straps (if present) must remain on the ATD’s shoulder during the impact. h. Occupant (ES–2re ATD) support: i. Pelvis excursion: The load-bearing portion of the bottom of the ATD pelvis must not translate beyond the edges of its seat’s bottom seat-cushion supporting structure. ii. Upper-torso support: The lateral flexion of the ATD torso must not exceed 40 degrees from the normal upright position during the impact. 3. For seats with an airbag system, show that the airbag system will deploy and provide protection under crash conditions where it is necessary to prevent serious injury. The means of protection must take into consideration a range of stature from a 2-year-old child to 95th percentile male. The airbag system must provide a consistent approach to energy absorption throughout that range of occupants. When the seat systems include airbag systems, the systems must be included in each of the certification tests as they would be installed in the airplane. In addition, the following situations must be considered: a. The seat occupant is holding an infant. b. The seat occupant is a pregnant woman. 4. The airbag systems must provide adequate protection for each occupant regardless of the number of occupants of the seat assembly, considering that unoccupied seats may have an active airbag system. 5. The design must prevent the airbag systems from being incorrectly installed, such that the airbag systems would not properly deploy. Alternatively, it must be shown that such deployment is not hazardous to the occupant and will provide the required injury protection. 6. It must be shown that the airbag system is not susceptible to inadvertent deployment as a result of wear and tear, or inertial loads resulting from in-flight or ground maneuvers (including gusts and hard landings), and other operating and environment conditions (vibrations, moisture, etc.) likely to occur in service. PO 00000 Frm 00019 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 15309 7. Deployment of the airbag system must not introduce injury mechanisms to the seated occupant or result in injuries that could impede rapid egress. This assessment should include an occupant whose belt is loosely fastened. 8. It must be shown that inadvertent deployment of the airbag system during the most critical part of the flight, will either meet the requirement of § 25.1309(b) or not cause a hazard to the airplane or its occupants. 9. It must be shown that the airbag system will not impede rapid egress of occupants 10 seconds after airbag deployment. 10. The airbag systems must be protected from lightning and highintensity radiated fields (HIRF). The threats to the airplane specified in existing regulations regarding lightning, § 25.1316, and HIRF, § 25.1317, are incorporated by reference for the purpose of measuring lightning and HIRF protection. 11. The airbag system must function properly after loss of normal aircraft electrical power, and after a transverse separation of the fuselage at the most critical location. A separation at the location of the airbag systems does not have to be considered. 12. It must be shown that the airbag system will not release hazardous quantities of gas or particulate matter into the cabin. 13. The airbag system installations must be protected from the effects of fire such that no hazard to occupants will result. 14. A means must be available for a crew member to verify the integrity of the airbag activation system prior to each flight or it must be demonstrated to reliably operate between inspection intervals. The FAA considers that the loss of the airbag system deployment function alone (i.e., independent of the conditional event that requires the airbag system deployment) is a majorfailure condition. 15. The inflatable material may not have an average burn rate of greater than 2.5 inches/minute when tested using the horizontal flammability test defined in part 25, appendix F, part I, paragraph (b)(5). 16. The airbag system, once deployed, must not adversely affect the emergency lighting system (e.g., block floor proximity lights to the extent that the lights no longer meet their intended function). E:\FR\FM\10APR1.SGM 10APR1 15310 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 69 / Tuesday, April 10, 2018 / Rules and Regulations Issued in Des Moines, Washington. Victor Wicklund, Manager, Transport Standards Branch, Policy and Innovation Division, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2018–07278 Filed 4–9–18; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–13–P DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA–2017–1120; Product Identifier 2017–CE–030–AD; Amendment 39–19244; AD 2018–07–13] RIN 2120–AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Textron Aviation Inc. Airplanes Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. AGENCY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Textron Aviation Inc. Models 510, 680, and 680A airplanes equipped with certain part number brake assemblies. This AD was prompted by a report that brake pad wear indicator pins were set incorrectly, which could lead to brake pad wear beyond the acceptable limits without indication. This AD requires inspection of the brake pad wear indicator pins and replacement of the brake assembly if any pin is set incorrectly. We are issuing this AD to address the unsafe condition on these products. SUMMARY: jstallworth on DSKBBY8HB2PROD with RULES DATES: This AD is effective May 15, 2018. The Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in this AD as of May 15, 2018. ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this final rule, contact Textron Aviation Inc., One Cessna Boulevard, P.O. Box 7704, Wichita, Kansas 67277; phone: 316–517–6215; email: citationpubs@txtav.com; internet: https://support.cessna.com/custsupt/ csupport/newlogin.jsp; or UTC Aerospace Systems, Goodrich Corporation, 101 Waco Street, P.O. Box 340, Troy, Ohio 45373; phone: 937– 339–3811; email: awb.techpubs@ utas.utc.com; internet: https:// www.customers.utcaero spacesystems.com/. You may view this service information at the FAA, Policy and Innovation Division, 901 Locust, Kansas City, Missouri 64106. For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call (816) 329– VerDate Sep<11>2014 14:31 Apr 09, 2018 Jkt 244001 4148. It is also available on the internet at http://www.regulations.gov by searching for and locating Docket No. FAA–2017–1120. Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the internet at http:// www.regulations.gov by searching for and locating Docket No. FAA–2017– 1120; or in person at Docket Operations between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this final rule, the regulatory evaluation, any comments received, and other information. The address for Docket Operations (phone: 800–647–5527) is U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M–30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12–140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: CONTACT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: • For the Model 510: David Enns, Aerospace Engineer, Wichita ACO Branch, FAA, 1801 Airport Road, Room 100, Wichita, Kansas 67209; phone: 316–946–4147; fax: 913–946–4107; email: david.enns@faa.gov; or • For the Models 680 and 680A: Adam Hein, Aerospace Engineer, Wichita ACO Branch, FAA, 1801 Airport Road, Room 100, Wichita, Kansas 67209; phone: 316–946–4116; fax: 316–946–4107; email: adam.hein@ faa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion We issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 by adding an AD that would apply to certain Textron Aviation Inc. (Textron) Models 510, 680, and 680A airplanes equipped with brake assemblies, part numbers (P/Ns) 2– 1706–1 and 2–1675–1, with certain serial numbers. The NPRM published in the Federal Register on December 11, 2017 (82 FR 58140). The NPRM was prompted by a report that brake pad wear indicator pins were set incorrectly, which could lead to brake pad wear beyond the acceptable limits without indication. Brakes overhauled by UTC may have wear indicator pins set longer than specified. UTC discovered this condition during their inspection of incoming brakes. This condition, if not corrected, could result in brake pad wear beyond the acceptable limits without indication and consequent loss of braking ability, which could lead to a runway excursion. We are issuing this AD to address the unsafe condition on these products. PO 00000 Frm 00020 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 Comments We gave the public the opportunity to participate in developing this final rule. The following presents the comments received on the NPRM and the FAA’s response to each comment. Request Clarification for FAAApproved Replacement Instructions Mark Mitcheson of NetJets Aviation requested specifics on ‘‘FAA-approved replacement instructions approved specifically for this AD.’’ We infer he wants clarification of the intent of this statement. We agree that the language quoted by the commenter and used in the NPRM was confusing. We intended to direct those responsible for complying with the requirements of the AD to the type certificate holder, in this case Textron Aviation Inc., to obtain the replacement instructions (i.e., maintenance manuals) specific to the applicable airplane models affected by this AD. We modified in this AD the language quoted by the commenter to more accurately reflect our intent. Request Parts Installation Prohibition Mark Mitcheson requested whether the AD should prohibit the installation of the affected parts. We partially agree. We agree operators should avoid installing the affected part because parts that do not meet type design could introduce the unsafe condition onto the airplane. However, we disagree with adding a specific requirement to the AD prohibiting the installation of the affected part. This AD requires inspection of the installed affected parts, and, if an affected part is installed, the airplane will immediately be subject to the requirements of this AD. Conclusion We reviewed the relevant data, considered the comments received, and determined that air safety and the public interest require adopting this final rule with the change described previously and minor editorial changes. We have determined that these changes: • Are consistent with the intent that was proposed in the NPRM for addressing the unsafe condition; and • Do not add any additional burden upon the public than was already proposed in the NPRM. We also determined that these changes will not increase the economic burden on any operator or increase the scope of this final rule. E:\FR\FM\10APR1.SGM 10APR1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 83, Number 69 (Tuesday, April 10, 2018)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 15304-15310]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2018-07278]


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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Part 25

[Docket No. FAA-2018-0247; Special Conditions No. 25-721-SC]


Special Conditions: Textron Aviation Inc. Model 700 Series 
Airplanes; Side-Facing Seats--Installation of Airbag Systems

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

[[Page 15305]]


ACTION: Final special conditions; request for comments.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Textron Aviation 
Inc. (Textron), Model 700 series airplanes that feature an inflatable 
airbag system on multiple-place and single-place side-facing seats 
(i.e., seats positioned in the airplane with the occupant facing 90 
degrees to the direction of airplane travel). The applicable 
airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety 
standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the 
additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary 
to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the 
existing airworthiness standards.

DATES: This action is effective on Textron Aviation Inc. on April 10, 
2018. Send comments on or before May 25, 2018.

ADDRESSES: Send comments identified by Docket No. FAA-2018-0247 using 
any of the following methods:
     Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/and follow the online instructions for sending your 
comments electronically.
     Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M-30, U.S. 
Department of Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Room 
W12-140, West Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC 20590-0001.
     Hand Delivery or Courier: Take comments to Docket 
Operations in Room W12-140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 
New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday 
through Friday, except Federal holidays.
     Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202-493-2251.
    Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without 
change, to http://www.regulations.gov/, including any personal 
information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the 
docket website, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all 
comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the 
individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an 
association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT's complete Privacy Act 
Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 
2000 (65 FR 19477-19478).
    Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at 
http://www.regulations.gov/ at any time. Follow the online instructions 
for accessing the docket or go to Docket Operations in Room W12-140 of 
the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, 
Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, 
except Federal holidays.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alan Sinclair, FAA, Airframe and Cabin 
Safety Section, AIR-675, Transport Standards Branch, Aircraft 
Certification Service, 2200 South 216th St., Des Moines, Washington 
98198-6547, telephone 206-231-3215, email [email protected].

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA has determined that notice of, and 
opportunity for prior public comment on, these special conditions is 
unnecessary because the substance of these special conditions has been 
published in the Federal Register for public comment in several prior 
instances with no substantive comments received. The FAA therefore has 
determined that prior public notice and comment are unnecessary, and 
finds that, for the same reason, good cause exists for making these 
special conditions effective upon publication in the Federal Register.

Comments Invited

    We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by 
sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments 
reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the 
reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data.
    We will consider all comments we receive by the closing date for 
comments. We may change these special conditions based on the comments 
we receive.

Background

    On November 20, 2014, Textron applied for a type certificate for 
the Textron Model 700 series airplanes. The Textron Model 700 series 
airplanes are low-wing, executive jet airplanes with seating provisions 
for 2 crewmembers and up to 12 passengers. These airplanes will have a 
maximum takeoff weight of 38,514 lbs.
    Textron's proposed passenger seating arrangement(s) include a 
baseline 9-place and an optional 8-place and 10-place configuration. 
The baseline configuration includes a forward right hand belted single-
place side-facing seat. An optional 10-place seat configuration 
includes a left hand, aft-belted, three-place side-facing couch. The 
multiple-place and single-place side-facing seats can be occupied for 
taxi, takeoff, and landing, and incorporate an inflatable airbag 
occupant protection system integrated into the side-facing seats. The 
FAA determined that inflatable airbag systems are a novel or unusual 
design feature and the existing airworthiness regulations do not 
provide adequate or appropriate safety standards.

Type Certification Basis

    Under the provisions of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 
CFR) 21.17, Textron must show that the Textron Model 700 series 
airplanes meet the applicable provisions of part 25, as amended by 
Amendments 25-1 through 25-141.
    If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness 
regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or 
appropriate safety standards for the Textron Model 700 series airplanes 
because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are 
prescribed under the provisions of Sec.  21.16.
    Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which 
they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended 
later to include any other model that incorporates the same novel or 
unusual design feature, these special conditions would also apply to 
the other model under Sec.  21.101.
    In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special 
conditions, the Textron Model 700 series airplanes must comply with the 
fuel-vent and exhaust-emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the 
noise-certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36.
    The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in 
accordance with Sec.  11.38, and they become part of the type 
certification basis under Sec.  21.17(a)(2).

Novel or Unusual Design Features

    The Textron Model 700 series airplanes will incorporate the 
following novel or unusual design feature:
    An inflatable airbag system on multiple-place and single-place 
side-facing seats installed in Textron Model 700 series airplanes, in 
order to reduce the potential for both head and leg injury in the event 
of an accident.

Discussion

    Side-facing seats are considered a novel design for transport 
category airplanes that include Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 25.785 at 
Amendment 25-64 in their certification basis, and were not considered 
when those airworthiness standards were issued. The FAA has determined 
that the existing regulations do not provide adequate or appropriate 
safety standards for occupants of side-facing seats. To provide a level 
of safety

[[Page 15306]]

that is equivalent to that afforded to occupants of forward- and aft-
facing seats, additional airworthiness standards in the form of special 
conditions are necessary.
    On June 16, 1988, 14 CFR part 25 was amended by Amendment 25-64 to 
revise the emergency-landing conditions that must be considered in the 
design of transport category airplanes. Amendment 25-64 revised the 
static-load conditions in Sec.  25.561, and added a new Sec.  25.562 
that required dynamic testing for all seats approved for occupancy 
during takeoff and landing. The intent of Amendment 25-64 was to 
provide an improved level of safety for occupants on transport category 
airplanes. However, because most seating on transport category 
airplanes is forward-facing, the pass/fail criteria developed in 
Amendment 25-64 focused primarily on these seats. For some time, the 
FAA granted exemptions for the multiple-place side-facing-seat 
installations because the existing test methods and acceptance criteria 
did not produce a level of safety equivalent to the level of safety 
provided for forward- and aft-facing seats. These exemptions were 
subject to many conditions that reflected the injury-evaluation 
criteria and mitigation strategies available at the time of the 
exemption issuance.
    The FAA also issued special conditions to address single-place 
side-facing seats based on the data available at the time the FAA 
issued those special conditions. Continuing concerns regarding the 
safety of side-facing seats prompted the FAA to conduct research to 
develop an acceptable method of compliance with Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 
25.785(b) for side-facing seat installations. That research has 
identified injury considerations and evaluation criteria in addition to 
those previously used to approve side-facing seats (see published 
report DOT/FAA/AR-09/41, July 2011).
    One particular concern that was identified during the FAA's 
research program, but not addressed in the previous special conditions, 
was the significant leg injuries that can occur to occupants of both 
single- and multiple-place side-facing seats. Because this type of 
injury does not occur on forward- and aft-facing seats, the FAA 
determined that, to achieve the level of safety envisioned in Amendment 
25-64, additional requirements would be needed as compared to 
previously issued special conditions. Nonetheless, the research has now 
allowed the development of a single set of special conditions that is 
applicable to all fully side-facing seats.
    On November 5, 2012, the FAA released Policy Statement PS-ANM-25-
03-R1, ``Technical Criteria for Approving Side-Facing Seats,'' to 
update existing FAA certification policy on Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 
25.785(a) at Amendment 25-64 for single- and multiple-place side-facing 
seats. This policy addresses both the technical criteria for approving 
side-facing seats and the implementation of those criteria. The FAA 
methodology detailed in Policy Statement PS-ANM-25-03-R1 was used to 
establish a new set of proposed special conditions that incorporated 
conditions for exemptions developed prior to the policy and included in 
these new special conditions, others that reflect current research 
findings specifically for neck and leg protection. We have frequently 
issued these new special conditions for airbag systems in the shoulder 
belts. While the Textron design integrate the airbag systems into the 
side-facing seats that deploy from a different location then the 
shoulder belts, the airbag will inflate at the same locations as those 
in the shoulder belts. Therefore, the FAA is using the same special 
conditions as for airbag systems in shoulder belts for this Textron 
design as the airbag system functions the same.
    In Policy Statement PS-ANM-25-03-R1, conditions 1 and 2 are 
applicable to all side-facing seat installations, whereas conditions 3 
through 16 represent additional requirements applicable to side-facing 
seats equipped with an airbag system in the shoulder belt. These 
special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the 
Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety 
equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards.

Applicability

    As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the 
Textron Model 700 series airplanes Should Textron apply at a later date 
for a change to the type certificate to include another model 
incorporating the same novel or unusual design feature, these special 
conditions would apply to that model as well.

Conclusion

    This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features 
on one model of airplane. It is not a rule of general applicability.

List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25

    Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements.

Authority Citation

    The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704.

The Special Conditions

    Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the 
Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of 
the type certification basis.
    In addition to the requirements of Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 25.785, 
the following special condition numbers 1 and 2 are part of the type 
certification basis of the Textron Model 700 series airplanes with 
side-facing seat installations. For seat places equipped with airbag 
systems, additional special condition numbers 3 through 16 are part of 
the type certification basis.
    1. Additional requirements applicable to tests or rational analysis 
conducted to show compliance with Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 25.785 for 
side-facing seats:
    a. The longitudinal test(s) conducted in accordance with Sec.  
25.562(b)(2) to show compliance with the seat-strength requirements of 
Sec.  25.562(c)(7) and (8), and these special conditions must have an 
ES-2re anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD) (49 CFR part 572, subpart U) or 
equivalent, or a Hybrid-II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as 
specified in Sec.  25.562) or equivalent, occupying each seat position 
and including all items contactable by the occupant (e.g., armrest, 
interior wall, or furnishing) if those items are necessary to restrain 
the occupant. If included, the floor representation and contactable 
items must be located such that their relative position, with respect 
to the center of the nearest seat place, is the same at the start of 
the test as before floor misalignment is applied. For example, if floor 
misalignment rotates the centerline of the seat place nearest the 
contactable item 8 degrees clockwise about the airplane x-axis, then 
the item and floor representations must be rotated by 8 degrees 
clockwise also to maintain the same relative position to the seat 
place, as shown in Figure 1. Each ATD's relative position to the seat 
after application of floor misalignment must be the same as before 
misalignment is applied. To ensure proper loading of the seat by the 
occupants, the ATD pelvis must remain supported by the seat pan, and 
the restraint system must remain on the pelvis and shoulder of the ATD 
until rebound begins. No injury-criteria evaluation is necessary for 
tests conducted only to assess seat-strength requirements.

[[Page 15307]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR10AP18.005

    b. The longitudinal test(s) conducted in accordance with Sec.  
25.562(b)(2), to show compliance with the injury assessments required 
by Sec.  25.562(c) and these special conditions, may be conducted 
separately from the test(s) to show structural integrity. In this case, 
structural-assessment tests must be conducted as specified in paragraph 
1a, above, and the injury-assessment test must be conducted without yaw 
or floor misalignment. Injury assessments may be accomplished by 
testing with ES-2re ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart U) or equivalent at 
all places. Alternatively, these assessments may be accomplished by 
multiple tests that use an ES-2re at the seat place being evaluated, 
and a Hybrid-II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as specified in Sec.  
25.562) or equivalent used in all seat places forward of the one being 
assessed, to evaluate occupant interaction. In this case, seat places 
aft of the one being assessed may be unoccupied. If a seat installation 
includes adjacent items that are contactable by the occupant, the 
injury potential of that contact must be assessed. To make this 
assessment, tests may be conducted that include the actual item, 
located and attached in a representative fashion. Alternatively, the 
injury potential may be assessed by a combination of tests with items 
having the same geometry as the actual item, but having stiffness 
characteristics that would create the worst case for injury (injuries 
due to both contact with the item and lack of support from the item).
    c. If a seat is installed aft of structure (e.g., an interior wall 
or furnishing) that does not have a homogeneous surface contactable by 
the occupant, additional analysis and/or test(s) may be required to 
demonstrate that the injury criteria are met for the area which an 
occupant could contact. For example, different yaw angles could result 
in different injury considerations and may require additional analysis 
or separate test(s) to evaluate.

[[Page 15308]]

    d. To accommodate a range of occupant heights (5th percentile 
female to 95th percentile male), the surface of items contactable by 
the occupant must be homogenous 7.3 inches (185 mm) above and 7.9 
inches (200 mm) below the point (center of area) that is contacted by 
the 50th percentile male size ATD's head during the longitudinal 
test(s) conducted in accordance with paragraphs 1a, 1b, and 1c, of 
these special conditions. Otherwise, additional head-injury criteria 
(HIC) assessment tests may be necessary. Any surface (inflatable or 
otherwise) that provides support for the occupant of any seat place 
must provide that support in a consistent manner regardless of occupant 
stature. For example, if an inflatable shoulder belt is used to 
mitigate injury risk, then it must be demonstrated by inspection to 
bear against the range of occupants in a similar manner before and 
after inflation. Likewise, the means of limiting lower-leg flail must 
be demonstrated by inspection to provide protection for the range of 
occupants in a similar manner.
    e. For longitudinal test(s) conducted in accordance with Sec.  
25.562(b)(2) and these special conditions, the ATDs must be positioned, 
clothed, and have lateral instrumentation configured as follows:
    i. ATD positioning:
    (1) Lower the ATD vertically into the seat while simultaneously 
(see Figure 2 for illustration):
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR10AP18.006

    (a) Aligning the midsagittal plane (a vertical plane through the 
midline of the body; dividing the body into right and left halves) with 
approximately the middle of the seat place.
    (b) Applying a horizontal x-axis direction (in the ATD coordinate 
system) force of about 20 lbs. (89 N) to the torso at approximately the 
intersection of the midsagittal plane and the bottom rib of the ES-2re 
or lower sternum of the Hybrid-II at the midsagittal plane, to compress 
the seat back cushion.
    (c) Keeping the upper legs nearly horizontal by supporting them 
just behind the knees.
    (2) Once all lifting devices have been removed from the ATD:
    Rock it slightly to settle it in the seat.
    (a) Separate the knees by about 4 inches (100 mm).
    (b) Set the ES-2re's head at approximately the midpoint of the 
available range of z-axis rotation (to align the head and torso 
midsagittal planes).
    (c) Position the ES-2re's arms at the joint's mechanical detent 
that puts them at approximately a 40 degree angle with respect to the 
torso. Position the Hybrid-II ATD hands on top of its upper legs.
    (d) Position the feet such that the centerlines of the lower legs 
are approximately parallel to a lateral vertical plane (in the aircraft 
coordinate system).
    ii. ATD clothing: Clothe each ATD in form-fitting, mid-calf-length 
(minimum) pants and shoes (size 11E) weighing about 2.5 lbs. (1.1 Kg) 
total. The color of the clothing should be in contrast to the color of 
the restraint system. The ES-2re jacket is sufficient for torso 
clothing, although a form-fitting shirt may be used in addition if 
desired.

[[Page 15309]]

    iii. ES-2re ATD lateral instrumentation: The rib-module linear 
slides are directional, i.e., deflection occurs in either a positive or 
negative ATD y-axis direction. The modules must be installed such that 
the moving end of the rib module is toward the front of the aircraft. 
The three abdominal-force sensors must be installed such that they are 
on the side of the ATD toward the front of the aircraft.
    f. The combined horizontal/vertical test, required by Sec.  
25.562(b)(1) and these special conditions, must be conducted with a 
Hybrid II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as specified in Sec.  
25.562), or equivalent, occupying each seat position.
    g. Restraint systems:
    i. If inflatable restraint systems are used, they must be active 
during all dynamic tests conducted to show compliance with Sec.  
25.562.
    ii. The design and installation of seat-belt buckles must prevent 
unbuckling due to applied inertial forces or impact of the hands/arms 
of the occupant during an emergency landing.
    2. Additional performance measures applicable to tests and rational 
analysis conducted to show compliance with Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 25.785 
for side-facing seats:
    a. Body-to-body contact: Contact between the head, pelvis, torso, 
or shoulder area of one ATD with the adjacent-seated ATD's head, 
pelvis, torso, or shoulder area is not allowed. Contact during rebound 
is allowed.
    b. Thoracic: The deflection of any of the ES-2re ATD upper, middle, 
and lower ribs must not exceed 1.73 inches (44 mm). Data must be 
processed as defined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 
571.214.
    c. Abdominal: The sum of the measured ES-2re ATD front, middle, and 
rear abdominal forces must not exceed 562 lbs. (2,500 N). Data must be 
processed as defined in FMVSS 571.214.
    d. Pelvic: The pubic symphysis force measured by the ES-2re ATD 
must not exceed 1,350 lbs. (6,000 N). Data must be processed as defined 
in FMVSS 571.214.
    e. Leg: Axial rotation of the upper-leg (femur) must be limited to 
35 degrees in either direction from the nominal seated position.
    f. Neck:
    As measured by the ES-2re ATD and filtered at CFC 600 as defined in 
SAE J211:
    i. The upper-neck tension force at the occipital condyle (O.C.) 
location must be less than 405 lbs. (1,800 N).
    ii. The upper-neck compression force at the O.C. location must be 
less than 405 lbs. (1,800 N).
    iii. The upper-neck bending torque about the ATD x-axis at the O.C. 
location must be less than 1,018 in lbs. (115 Nm).
    iv. The upper-neck resultant shear force at the O.C. location must 
be less than 186 lbs. (825 N).
    g. Occupant (ES-2re ATD) retention: The pelvic restraint must 
remain on the ES-2re ATD's pelvis during the impact and rebound phases 
of the test. The upper-torso restraint straps (if present) must remain 
on the ATD's shoulder during the impact.
    h. Occupant (ES-2re ATD) support:
    i. Pelvis excursion: The load-bearing portion of the bottom of the 
ATD pelvis must not translate beyond the edges of its seat's bottom 
seat-cushion supporting structure.
    ii. Upper-torso support: The lateral flexion of the ATD torso must 
not exceed 40 degrees from the normal upright position during the 
impact.
    3. For seats with an airbag system, show that the airbag system 
will deploy and provide protection under crash conditions where it is 
necessary to prevent serious injury. The means of protection must take 
into consideration a range of stature from a 2-year-old child to 95th 
percentile male. The airbag system must provide a consistent approach 
to energy absorption throughout that range of occupants. When the seat 
systems include airbag systems, the systems must be included in each of 
the certification tests as they would be installed in the airplane. In 
addition, the following situations must be considered:
    a. The seat occupant is holding an infant.
    b. The seat occupant is a pregnant woman.
    4. The airbag systems must provide adequate protection for each 
occupant regardless of the number of occupants of the seat assembly, 
considering that unoccupied seats may have an active airbag system.
    5. The design must prevent the airbag systems from being 
incorrectly installed, such that the airbag systems would not properly 
deploy. Alternatively, it must be shown that such deployment is not 
hazardous to the occupant and will provide the required injury 
protection.
    6. It must be shown that the airbag system is not susceptible to 
inadvertent deployment as a result of wear and tear, or inertial loads 
resulting from in-flight or ground maneuvers (including gusts and hard 
landings), and other operating and environment conditions (vibrations, 
moisture, etc.) likely to occur in service.
    7. Deployment of the airbag system must not introduce injury 
mechanisms to the seated occupant or result in injuries that could 
impede rapid egress. This assessment should include an occupant whose 
belt is loosely fastened.
    8. It must be shown that inadvertent deployment of the airbag 
system during the most critical part of the flight, will either meet 
the requirement of Sec.  25.1309(b) or not cause a hazard to the 
airplane or its occupants.
    9. It must be shown that the airbag system will not impede rapid 
egress of occupants 10 seconds after airbag deployment.
    10. The airbag systems must be protected from lightning and high-
intensity radiated fields (HIRF). The threats to the airplane specified 
in existing regulations regarding lightning, Sec.  25.1316, and HIRF, 
Sec.  25.1317, are incorporated by reference for the purpose of 
measuring lightning and HIRF protection.
    11. The airbag system must function properly after loss of normal 
aircraft electrical power, and after a transverse separation of the 
fuselage at the most critical location. A separation at the location of 
the airbag systems does not have to be considered.
    12. It must be shown that the airbag system will not release 
hazardous quantities of gas or particulate matter into the cabin.
    13. The airbag system installations must be protected from the 
effects of fire such that no hazard to occupants will result.
    14. A means must be available for a crew member to verify the 
integrity of the airbag activation system prior to each flight or it 
must be demonstrated to reliably operate between inspection intervals. 
The FAA considers that the loss of the airbag system deployment 
function alone (i.e., independent of the conditional event that 
requires the airbag system deployment) is a major-failure condition.
    15. The inflatable material may not have an average burn rate of 
greater than 2.5 inches/minute when tested using the horizontal 
flammability test defined in part 25, appendix F, part I, paragraph 
(b)(5).
    16. The airbag system, once deployed, must not adversely affect the 
emergency lighting system (e.g., block floor proximity lights to the 
extent that the lights no longer meet their intended function).


[[Page 15310]]


    Issued in Des Moines, Washington.
Victor Wicklund,
Manager, Transport Standards Branch, Policy and Innovation Division, 
Aircraft Certification Service.
[FR Doc. 2018-07278 Filed 4-9-18; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4910-13-P