Special Conditions: Textron Aviation Inc. Model 700 Series Airplanes; Interaction of Systems and Structures, 15301-15304 [2018-07277]

Download as PDF Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 69 / Tuesday, April 10, 2018 / Rules and Regulations regulations to better serve the goals of the CRA.’’ 4. On page 55736, the first full paragraph in the third column is revised to read as follows: ‘‘The Agencies received two comments on the proposed changes to the CRA public file content requirements. One trade association supported the Agencies’ efforts to streamline the public file content requirements to make it consistent with the new HMDA public disclosure requirements. Another trade association suggested that because financial institutions will no longer need to provide HMDA Loan Application Registers to the public, financial institutions should also not be required to produce their CRA Loan Application Registers (CRA LARs) so as to reduce regulatory burden. Changing the requirements in the CRA public file with respect to CRA LARs would require a regulation change that was not proposed by the Agencies and did not have the benefit of notice and comment. Accordingly, the Agencies are adopting the revisions as proposed.’’ Dated: March 30, 2018. Joseph M. Otting, Comptroller of the Currency. By order of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, March 13, 2018. Ann E. Misback, Secretary of the Board. Dated at Washington, DC, this 12th of March, 2018. By order of the Board of Directors. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Robert E. Feldman, Executive Secretary. [FR Doc. 2018–06963 Filed 4–9–18; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4810–33; 6210–01; 6714–01–P DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 [Docket No. FAA–2018–0293; Special Conditions No. 25–723–SC] Special Conditions: Textron Aviation Inc. Model 700 Series Airplanes; Interaction of Systems and Structures Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special conditions; request for comments. jstallworth on DSKBBY8HB2PROD with RULES AGENCY: These special conditions are issued for the Textron Aviation Inc. (Textron) Model 700 series airplanes. These airplanes will have novel or unusual design features when compared SUMMARY: VerDate Sep<11>2014 14:31 Apr 09, 2018 Jkt 244001 to the state of technology envisioned in the airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes. These design features are systems that affect structural performance, either directly or as a result of a failure or malfunction. The influence of these systems and their failure conditions must be taken into account when showing compliance with the FAA’s requirements. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for these design features. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. DATES: This action is effective on Textron Aviation Inc. on April 10, 2018. Send comments on or before May 25, 2018. Send comments identified by Docket No. FAA–2018–0293 using any of the following methods: • Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/ and follow the online instructions for sending your comments electronically. • Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M–30, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Room W12–140, West Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC, 20590–0001. • Hand Delivery or Courier: Take comments to Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. • Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202–493–2251. Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without change, to http://www.regulations.gov/, including any personal information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the docket website, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT’s complete Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477–19478). Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at http://www.regulations.gov/ at any time. Follow the online instructions for accessing the docket or go to Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, ADDRESSES: PO 00000 Frm 00011 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 15301 DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Schneider, Airframe and Cabin Safety Section, AIR–675, Transport Standards Branch, Policy and Innovation Division, Aircraft Certification Service, Federal Aviation Administration, 2200 South 216th Street, Des Moines, Washington 98198; telephone 206–231–3213; email Greg.Schneider@faa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The substance of these special conditions previously has been published in the Federal Register for public comment. These special conditions have been derived without substantive change from those previously issued. It is unlikely that prior public comment would result in a significant change from the substance contained herein. Therefore, the FAA has determined that prior public notice and comment are unnecessary, and finds that, for the same reason, good cause exists for adopting these special conditions upon publication in the Federal Register. Comments Invited We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. We will consider all comments we receive by the closing date for comments. We may change these special conditions based on the comments we receive. Background On November 20, 2014, Textron applied for a type certificate for their new Model 700 series airplanes. The Textron Model 700 series airplanes are transport-category, twin turbofanpowered airplanes with standard seating provisions for up to 12 passengers and 2 crewmembers, and a maximum takeoff weight of 39,500 lbs. Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 21.17, Textron must show that the Model 700 series airplanes meet the applicable provisions of part 25, as amended by amendments 25–1 through 25–141. If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for the Textron Model 700 series airplanes because of novel or unusual design features, special conditions are E:\FR\FM\10APR1.SGM 10APR1 15302 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 69 / Tuesday, April 10, 2018 / Rules and Regulations prescribed under the provisions of § 21.16. Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended later to include any other model that incorporates the same novel or unusual design features, these special conditions would also apply to the other model under § 21.101. In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special conditions, the Textron Model 700 series airplanes must comply with the fuel vent and exhaust emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the noise certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36. The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in accordance with § 11.38, and they become part of the type certification basis under § 21.17. jstallworth on DSKBBY8HB2PROD with RULES Novel or Unusual Design Features The Textron Model 700 series airplanes will incorporate the following novel or unusual design features: These airplanes are equipped with systems (i.e. with flight control systems, autopilots, stability augmentation systems, load alleviation systems, flutter control systems, fuel management systems, etc.) that, directly or as a result of failure or malfunction, affect its structural performance. Discussion Current regulations do not take into account the effects of systems on structural performance including normal operation and failure conditions. Special conditions are needed to account for these features. These special conditions define criteria to be used in the assessment of the effects of these systems on structures. The general approach of accounting for the effect of system failures on structural performance is extended to include any system in which partial or complete failure, alone or in combination with other system partial or complete failures, would affect structural performance. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. Applicability As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the Textron Model 700 series airplanes. Should Textron apply at a later date for a change to the type certificate to include VerDate Sep<11>2014 14:31 Apr 09, 2018 Jkt 244001 another model incorporating the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would apply to that model as well. Conclusion This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features on one model series of airplanes. It is not a rule of general applicability. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25 Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Authority Citation The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704. The Special Conditions Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of the type certification basis for Textron Aviation Inc. Model 700 series airplanes. Interaction of Systems and Structures For airplanes equipped with systems that affect structural performance, either directly or as a result of a failure or malfunction, the influence of these systems and their failure conditions must be taken into account when showing compliance with the requirements of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 25, subpart C and D. The following criteria must be used for showing compliance with these special conditions for airplanes equipped with flight control systems, autopilots, stability augmentation systems, load alleviation systems, flutter control systems, fuel management systems, and other systems that either directly, or as a result of failure or malfunction, affect structural performance. If these special conditions are used for other systems, it may be necessary to adapt the criteria to the specific system. 1. The criteria defined herein only addresses the direct structural consequences of the system responses and performances and cannot be considered in isolation but should be included in the overall safety evaluation of the airplane. These criteria may, in some instances, duplicate standards already established for this evaluation. These criteria are only applicable to structures whose failure could prevent continued safe flight and landing. Specific criteria that define acceptable limits on handling characteristics or stability requirements when operating PO 00000 Frm 00012 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 in the system degraded or inoperative mode are not provided in these special conditions. 2. Depending upon the specific characteristics of the airplane, additional studies may be required that go beyond the criteria provided in these special conditions in order to demonstrate the capability of the airplane to meet other realistic conditions, such as alternative gust or maneuver descriptions for an airplane equipped with a load alleviation system. 3. The following definitions are applicable to these special conditions: a. Structural performance: Capability of the airplane to meet the structural requirements of 14 CFR part 25. b. Flight limitations: Limitations that can be applied to the airplane flight conditions following an in-flight occurrence and that are included in the flight manual (e.g., speed limitations, avoidance of severe weather conditions, etc.). c. Operational limitations: Limitations, including flight limitations that can be applied to the airplane operating conditions before dispatch (e.g., fuel, payload and Master Minimum Equipment List limitations). d. Probabilistic terms: The probabilistic terms (probable, improbable, extremely improbable) used in these special conditions are the same as those used in § 25.1309. e. Failure condition: The term failure condition is the same as that used in § 25.1309, however these special conditions apply only to system failure conditions that affect the structural performance of the airplane (e.g., system failure conditions that induce loads, change the response of the airplane to inputs such as gusts or pilot actions, or lower flutter margins). 4. General. The following criteria will be used in determining the influence of a system and its failure conditions on the airplane structure. 5. System fully operative. With the system fully operative, the following apply: a. Limit loads must be derived in all normal operating configurations of the system from all the limit conditions specified in 14 CFR part 25, subpart C (or defined by special condition or equivalent level of safety in lieu of those specified in part 25, subpart C), taking into account any special behavior of such a system or associated functions or any effect on the structural performance of the airplane that may occur up to the limit loads. In particular, any significant nonlinearity (rate of displacement of control surface, thresholds or any other system nonlinearities) must be accounted for in a realistic or E:\FR\FM\10APR1.SGM 10APR1 Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 69 / Tuesday, April 10, 2018 / Rules and Regulations 15303 realistic scenario, including pilot corrective actions, must be established to determine the loads occurring at the time of failure and immediately after failure. i. For static strength substantiation, these loads, multiplied by an appropriate factor of safety that is related to the probability of occurrence of the failure, are ultimate loads to be considered for design. The factor of safety (FS) is defined in Figure 1. loads that could result in detrimental deformation of primary structure. b. For the continuation of the flight. For the airplane, in the system failed state and considering any appropriate reconfiguration and flight limitations, the following apply: i. The loads derived from the following conditions (or defined by special condition or equivalent level of safety in lieu of the following conditions) at speeds up to VC/MC, or the speed limitation prescribed for the remainder of the flight, must be determined: (1) The limit symmetrical maneuvering conditions specified in § 25.331 and in § 25.345. (2) the limit gust and turbulence conditions specified in § 25.341 and in § 25.345. (3) the limit rolling conditions specified in § 25.349 and the limit unsymmetrical conditions specified in § 25.367 and § 25.427(b) and (c). (4) the limit yaw maneuvering conditions specified in § 25.351. (5) the limit ground loading conditions specified in §§ 25.473, 25.491, 25.493(d) and 25.503. ii. For static strength substantiation, each part of the structure must be able to withstand the loads in paragraph (6)(b)(i) of the special condition multiplied by a factor of safety depending on the probability of being in this failure state. The factor of safety is defined in Figure 2. VerDate Sep<11>2014 14:31 Apr 09, 2018 Jkt 244001 PO 00000 Frm 00013 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4725 E:\FR\FM\10APR1.SGM 10APR1 ER10AP18.000</GPH> ER10AP18.001</GPH> conditions need not be considered when it can be shown that the airplane has design features that will not allow it to exceed those limit conditions. c. The airplane must meet the aeroelastic stability requirements of § 25.629. 6. System in the failure condition. For any system failure condition not shown to be extremely improbable, the following apply: a. At the time of occurrence. Starting from 1-g level flight conditions, a ii. For residual strength substantiation, the airplane must be able to withstand two thirds of the ultimate loads defined in subparagraph (6)(a)(i). For pressurized cabins, these loads must be combined with the normal operating differential pressure. iii. Freedom from aeroelastic instability must be shown up to the speeds defined in § 25.629(b)(2). For failure conditions that result in speeds beyond VC/MC, freedom from aeroelastic instability must be shown to increased speeds, so that the margins intended by § 25.629(b)(2) are maintained. iv. Failures of the system that result in forced structural vibrations (oscillatory failures) must not produce jstallworth on DSKBBY8HB2PROD with RULES conservative way when deriving limit loads from limit conditions. b. The airplane must meet the strength requirements of 14 CFR part 25 (static strength, residual strength), using the specified factors to derive ultimate loads from the limit loads defined above. The effect of nonlinearities must be investigated beyond limit conditions to ensure the behavior of the system presents no anomaly compared to the behavior below limit conditions. However, conditions beyond limit Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 69 / Tuesday, April 10, 2018 / Rules and Regulations Qj = (Tj)(Pj) Where: Tj = Average time spent in failure condition j (in hours) Pj = Probability of occurrence of failure mode j (per hour) Note: If Pj is greater than 10¥3 per flight hour then a 1.5 factor of safety must be applied to all limit load conditions specified in Subpart C. V′ = Clearance speed as defined by § 25.629(b)(2). V″ = Clearance speed as defined by § 25.629(b)(1). Qj = (Tj)(Pj) where: Tj = Average time spent in failure condition j (in hours) Pj = Probability of occurrence of failure mode j (per hour) jstallworth on DSKBBY8HB2PROD with RULES Note: If Pj is greater than 10¥3 per flight hour, then the flutter clearance speed must not be less than V″. vi. Freedom from aeroelastic instability must also be shown up to V′ in Figure 3 above, for any probable system failure condition combined with any damage required or selected for investigation by § 25.571(b). c. Consideration of certain failure conditions may be required by other sections of 14 CFR part 25 regardless of calculated system reliability. Where analysis shows the probability of these failure conditions to be less than 10¥9 per flight hour, criteria other than those specified in this paragraph may be used for structural substantiation to show continued safe flight and landing. 7. Failure indications. For system failure detection and indication, the following apply: a. The system must be checked for failure conditions, not extremely improbable, that degrade the structural capability below the level required by part 25 or significantly reduce the reliability of the remaining system. As far as reasonably practicable, the flight crew must be made aware of these failures before flight. Certain elements of the control system, such as mechanical and hydraulic components, VerDate Sep<11>2014 14:31 Apr 09, 2018 Jkt 244001 iii. For residual strength substantiation, the airplane must be able to withstand two thirds of the ultimate loads defined in paragraph (6)(b)(ii) of the special condition. For pressurized cabins, these loads must be combined with the normal operating differential pressure. iv. If the loads induced by the failure condition have a significant effect on fatigue or damage tolerance then their effects must be taken into account. v. Freedom from aeroelastic instability must be shown up to a speed determined from Figure 3. Flutter clearance speeds V′ and V″ may be based on the speed limitation specified for the remainder of the flight using the margins defined by § 25.629(b). may use special periodic inspections, and electronic components may use daily checks, in lieu of detection and indication systems to achieve the objective of this requirement. These certification maintenance requirements must be limited to components that are not readily detectable by normal detection and indication systems and where service history shows that inspections will provide an adequate level of safety. b. The existence of any failure condition, not extremely improbable, during flight that could significantly affect the structural capability of the airplane and for which the associated reduction in airworthiness can be minimized by suitable flight limitations, must be signaled to the flight crew. For example, failure conditions that result in a factor of safety between the airplane strength and the loads of 14 CFR part 25, subpart C, below 1.25, or flutter margins below V″, must be signaled to the crew during flight. 8. Dispatch with known failure conditions. If the airplane is to be dispatched in a known system failure condition that affects structural performance, or affects the reliability of the remaining system to maintain structural performance, then the provisions of this special condition must be met, including the provisions of paragraph (5) for the dispatched condition, and paragraph (6) for subsequent failures. Expected operational limitations may be taken into account in establishing Pj as the probability of failure occurrence for determining the safety margin in Figure 1. Flight limitations and expected operational limitations may be taken into account in establishing Qj as the combined probability of being in the dispatched failure condition and the subsequent failure condition for the safety margins in Figures 2 and 3. These limitations must be such that the probability of being in this combined failure state and then subsequently encountering limit load conditions is extremely improbable. No reduction in these safety margins is allowed if the subsequent system failure rate is greater than 10¥3 per flight hour. PO 00000 Frm 00014 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 Issued in Des Moines, Washington. Victor Wicklund, Manager, Transport Standards Branch, Policy and Innovation Division, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2018–07277 Filed 4–9–18; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–13–P DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 [Docket No. FAA–2018–0247; Special Conditions No. 25–721–SC] Special Conditions: Textron Aviation Inc. Model 700 Series Airplanes; SideFacing Seats—Installation of Airbag Systems Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. AGENCY: E:\FR\FM\10APR1.SGM 10APR1 ER10AP18.002</GPH> 15304

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 83, Number 69 (Tuesday, April 10, 2018)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 15301-15304]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2018-07277]


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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Part 25

[Docket No. FAA-2018-0293; Special Conditions No. 25-723-SC]


Special Conditions: Textron Aviation Inc. Model 700 Series 
Airplanes; Interaction of Systems and Structures

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION: Final special conditions; request for comments.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Textron Aviation 
Inc. (Textron) Model 700 series airplanes. These airplanes will have 
novel or unusual design features when compared to the state of 
technology envisioned in the airworthiness standards for transport 
category airplanes. These design features are systems that affect 
structural performance, either directly or as a result of a failure or 
malfunction. The influence of these systems and their failure 
conditions must be taken into account when showing compliance with the 
FAA's requirements. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not 
contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for these design 
features. These special conditions contain the additional safety 
standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a 
level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing 
airworthiness standards.

DATES: This action is effective on Textron Aviation Inc. on April 10, 
2018. Send comments on or before May 25, 2018.

ADDRESSES: Send comments identified by Docket No. FAA-2018-0293 using 
any of the following methods:
     Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/ and follow the online instructions for sending 
your comments electronically.
     Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M-30, U.S. 
Department of Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Room 
W12-140, West Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC, 20590-0001.
     Hand Delivery or Courier: Take comments to Docket 
Operations in Room W12-140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 
New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday 
through Friday, except Federal holidays.
     Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202-493-2251.
    Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without 
change, to http://www.regulations.gov/, including any personal 
information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the 
docket website, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all 
comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the 
individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an 
association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT's complete Privacy Act 
Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 
2000 (65 FR 19477-19478).
    Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at 
http://www.regulations.gov/ at any time. Follow the online instructions 
for accessing the docket or go to Docket Operations in Room W12-140 of 
the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, 
Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, 
except Federal holidays.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Schneider, Airframe and Cabin 
Safety Section, AIR-675, Transport Standards Branch, Policy and 
Innovation Division, Aircraft Certification Service, Federal Aviation 
Administration, 2200 South 216th Street, Des Moines, Washington 98198; 
telephone 206-231-3213; email [email protected].

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The substance of these special conditions 
previously has been published in the Federal Register for public 
comment. These special conditions have been derived without substantive 
change from those previously issued. It is unlikely that prior public 
comment would result in a significant change from the substance 
contained herein. Therefore, the FAA has determined that prior public 
notice and comment are unnecessary, and finds that, for the same 
reason, good cause exists for adopting these special conditions upon 
publication in the Federal Register.

Comments Invited

    We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by 
sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments 
reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the 
reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data.
    We will consider all comments we receive by the closing date for 
comments. We may change these special conditions based on the comments 
we receive.

Background

    On November 20, 2014, Textron applied for a type certificate for 
their new Model 700 series airplanes. The Textron Model 700 series 
airplanes are transport-category, twin turbofan-powered airplanes with 
standard seating provisions for up to 12 passengers and 2 crewmembers, 
and a maximum takeoff weight of 39,500 lbs.

Type Certification Basis

    Under the provisions of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 
CFR) 21.17, Textron must show that the Model 700 series airplanes meet 
the applicable provisions of part 25, as amended by amendments 25-1 
through 25-141.
    If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness 
regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or 
appropriate safety standards for the Textron Model 700 series airplanes 
because of novel or unusual design features, special conditions are

[[Page 15302]]

prescribed under the provisions of Sec.  21.16.
    Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which 
they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended 
later to include any other model that incorporates the same novel or 
unusual design features, these special conditions would also apply to 
the other model under Sec.  21.101.
    In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special 
conditions, the Textron Model 700 series airplanes must comply with the 
fuel vent and exhaust emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the 
noise certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36.
    The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in 
accordance with Sec.  11.38, and they become part of the type 
certification basis under Sec.  21.17.

Novel or Unusual Design Features

    The Textron Model 700 series airplanes will incorporate the 
following novel or unusual design features:
    These airplanes are equipped with systems (i.e. with flight control 
systems, autopilots, stability augmentation systems, load alleviation 
systems, flutter control systems, fuel management systems, etc.) that, 
directly or as a result of failure or malfunction, affect its 
structural performance.

Discussion

    Current regulations do not take into account the effects of systems 
on structural performance including normal operation and failure 
conditions. Special conditions are needed to account for these 
features. These special conditions define criteria to be used in the 
assessment of the effects of these systems on structures. The general 
approach of accounting for the effect of system failures on structural 
performance is extended to include any system in which partial or 
complete failure, alone or in combination with other system partial or 
complete failures, would affect structural performance.
    These special conditions contain the additional safety standards 
that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of 
safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness 
standards.

Applicability

    As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the 
Textron Model 700 series airplanes. Should Textron apply at a later 
date for a change to the type certificate to include another model 
incorporating the same novel or unusual design feature, these special 
conditions would apply to that model as well.

Conclusion

    This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features 
on one model series of airplanes. It is not a rule of general 
applicability.

List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25

    Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements.

Authority Citation

    The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704.

The Special Conditions

    Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the 
Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of 
the type certification basis for Textron Aviation Inc. Model 700 series 
airplanes.

Interaction of Systems and Structures

    For airplanes equipped with systems that affect structural 
performance, either directly or as a result of a failure or 
malfunction, the influence of these systems and their failure 
conditions must be taken into account when showing compliance with the 
requirements of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 25, 
subpart C and D.
    The following criteria must be used for showing compliance with 
these special conditions for airplanes equipped with flight control 
systems, autopilots, stability augmentation systems, load alleviation 
systems, flutter control systems, fuel management systems, and other 
systems that either directly, or as a result of failure or malfunction, 
affect structural performance. If these special conditions are used for 
other systems, it may be necessary to adapt the criteria to the 
specific system.
    1. The criteria defined herein only addresses the direct structural 
consequences of the system responses and performances and cannot be 
considered in isolation but should be included in the overall safety 
evaluation of the airplane. These criteria may, in some instances, 
duplicate standards already established for this evaluation. These 
criteria are only applicable to structures whose failure could prevent 
continued safe flight and landing. Specific criteria that define 
acceptable limits on handling characteristics or stability requirements 
when operating in the system degraded or inoperative mode are not 
provided in these special conditions.
    2. Depending upon the specific characteristics of the airplane, 
additional studies may be required that go beyond the criteria provided 
in these special conditions in order to demonstrate the capability of 
the airplane to meet other realistic conditions, such as alternative 
gust or maneuver descriptions for an airplane equipped with a load 
alleviation system.
    3. The following definitions are applicable to these special 
conditions:
    a. Structural performance: Capability of the airplane to meet the 
structural requirements of 14 CFR part 25.
    b. Flight limitations: Limitations that can be applied to the 
airplane flight conditions following an in-flight occurrence and that 
are included in the flight manual (e.g., speed limitations, avoidance 
of severe weather conditions, etc.).
    c. Operational limitations: Limitations, including flight 
limitations that can be applied to the airplane operating conditions 
before dispatch (e.g., fuel, payload and Master Minimum Equipment List 
limitations).
    d. Probabilistic terms: The probabilistic terms (probable, 
improbable, extremely improbable) used in these special conditions are 
the same as those used in Sec.  25.1309.
    e. Failure condition: The term failure condition is the same as 
that used in Sec.  25.1309, however these special conditions apply only 
to system failure conditions that affect the structural performance of 
the airplane (e.g., system failure conditions that induce loads, change 
the response of the airplane to inputs such as gusts or pilot actions, 
or lower flutter margins).
    4. General. The following criteria will be used in determining the 
influence of a system and its failure conditions on the airplane 
structure.
    5. System fully operative. With the system fully operative, the 
following apply:
    a. Limit loads must be derived in all normal operating 
configurations of the system from all the limit conditions specified in 
14 CFR part 25, subpart C (or defined by special condition or 
equivalent level of safety in lieu of those specified in part 25, 
subpart C), taking into account any special behavior of such a system 
or associated functions or any effect on the structural performance of 
the airplane that may occur up to the limit loads. In particular, any 
significant nonlinearity (rate of displacement of control surface, 
thresholds or any other system nonlinearities) must be accounted for in 
a realistic or

[[Page 15303]]

conservative way when deriving limit loads from limit conditions.
    b. The airplane must meet the strength requirements of 14 CFR part 
25 (static strength, residual strength), using the specified factors to 
derive ultimate loads from the limit loads defined above. The effect of 
nonlinearities must be investigated beyond limit conditions to ensure 
the behavior of the system presents no anomaly compared to the behavior 
below limit conditions. However, conditions beyond limit conditions 
need not be considered when it can be shown that the airplane has 
design features that will not allow it to exceed those limit 
conditions.
    c. The airplane must meet the aeroelastic stability requirements of 
Sec.  25.629.
    6. System in the failure condition. For any system failure 
condition not shown to be extremely improbable, the following apply:
    a. At the time of occurrence. Starting from 1-g level flight 
conditions, a realistic scenario, including pilot corrective actions, 
must be established to determine the loads occurring at the time of 
failure and immediately after failure.
    i. For static strength substantiation, these loads, multiplied by 
an appropriate factor of safety that is related to the probability of 
occurrence of the failure, are ultimate loads to be considered for 
design. The factor of safety (FS) is defined in Figure 1.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR10AP18.000

    ii. For residual strength substantiation, the airplane must be able 
to withstand two thirds of the ultimate loads defined in subparagraph 
(6)(a)(i). For pressurized cabins, these loads must be combined with 
the normal operating differential pressure.
    iii. Freedom from aeroelastic instability must be shown up to the 
speeds defined in Sec.  25.629(b)(2). For failure conditions that 
result in speeds beyond VC/MC, freedom from 
aeroelastic instability must be shown to increased speeds, so that the 
margins intended by Sec.  25.629(b)(2) are maintained.
    iv. Failures of the system that result in forced structural 
vibrations (oscillatory failures) must not produce loads that could 
result in detrimental deformation of primary structure.
    b. For the continuation of the flight. For the airplane, in the 
system failed state and considering any appropriate reconfiguration and 
flight limitations, the following apply:
    i. The loads derived from the following conditions (or defined by 
special condition or equivalent level of safety in lieu of the 
following conditions) at speeds up to VC/MC, or 
the speed limitation prescribed for the remainder of the flight, must 
be determined:
    (1) The limit symmetrical maneuvering conditions specified in Sec.  
25.331 and in Sec.  25.345.
    (2) the limit gust and turbulence conditions specified in Sec.  
25.341 and in Sec.  25.345.
    (3) the limit rolling conditions specified in Sec.  25.349 and the 
limit unsymmetrical conditions specified in Sec.  25.367 and Sec.  
25.427(b) and (c).
    (4) the limit yaw maneuvering conditions specified in Sec.  25.351.
    (5) the limit ground loading conditions specified in Sec. Sec.  
25.473, 25.491, 25.493(d) and 25.503.
    ii. For static strength substantiation, each part of the structure 
must be able to withstand the loads in paragraph (6)(b)(i) of the 
special condition multiplied by a factor of safety depending on the 
probability of being in this failure state. The factor of safety is 
defined in Figure 2.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR10AP18.001


[[Page 15304]]


Qj = (Tj)(Pj)

Where:

Tj = Average time spent in failure condition j (in hours)
Pj = Probability of occurrence of failure mode j (per 
hour)

    Note: If Pj is greater than 10-3 per 
flight hour then a 1.5 factor of safety must be applied to all limit 
load conditions specified in Subpart C.

    iii. For residual strength substantiation, the airplane must be 
able to withstand two thirds of the ultimate loads defined in paragraph 
(6)(b)(ii) of the special condition. For pressurized cabins, these 
loads must be combined with the normal operating differential pressure.
    iv. If the loads induced by the failure condition have a 
significant effect on fatigue or damage tolerance then their effects 
must be taken into account.
    v. Freedom from aeroelastic instability must be shown up to a speed 
determined from Figure 3. Flutter clearance speeds V' and V'' may be 
based on the speed limitation specified for the remainder of the flight 
using the margins defined by Sec.  25.629(b).
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR10AP18.002

V' = Clearance speed as defined by Sec.  25.629(b)(2).
V'' = Clearance speed as defined by Sec.  25.629(b)(1).
Qj = (Tj)(Pj) where:
Tj = Average time spent in failure condition j (in hours)
Pj = Probability of occurrence of failure mode j (per hour)

    Note: If Pj is greater than 10-3 per flight hour, 
then the flutter clearance speed must not be less than V''.

    vi. Freedom from aeroelastic instability must also be shown up to 
V' in Figure 3 above, for any probable system failure condition 
combined with any damage required or selected for investigation by 
Sec.  25.571(b).
    c. Consideration of certain failure conditions may be required by 
other sections of 14 CFR part 25 regardless of calculated system 
reliability. Where analysis shows the probability of these failure 
conditions to be less than 10-9 per flight hour, criteria 
other than those specified in this paragraph may be used for structural 
substantiation to show continued safe flight and landing.
    7. Failure indications. For system failure detection and 
indication, the following apply:
    a. The system must be checked for failure conditions, not extremely 
improbable, that degrade the structural capability below the level 
required by part 25 or significantly reduce the reliability of the 
remaining system. As far as reasonably practicable, the flight crew 
must be made aware of these failures before flight. Certain elements of 
the control system, such as mechanical and hydraulic components, may 
use special periodic inspections, and electronic components may use 
daily checks, in lieu of detection and indication systems to achieve 
the objective of this requirement. These certification maintenance 
requirements must be limited to components that are not readily 
detectable by normal detection and indication systems and where service 
history shows that inspections will provide an adequate level of 
safety.
    b. The existence of any failure condition, not extremely 
improbable, during flight that could significantly affect the 
structural capability of the airplane and for which the associated 
reduction in airworthiness can be minimized by suitable flight 
limitations, must be signaled to the flight crew. For example, failure 
conditions that result in a factor of safety between the airplane 
strength and the loads of 14 CFR part 25, subpart C, below 1.25, or 
flutter margins below V'', must be signaled to the crew during flight.
    8. Dispatch with known failure conditions. If the airplane is to be 
dispatched in a known system failure condition that affects structural 
performance, or affects the reliability of the remaining system to 
maintain structural performance, then the provisions of this special 
condition must be met, including the provisions of paragraph (5) for 
the dispatched condition, and paragraph (6) for subsequent failures. 
Expected operational limitations may be taken into account in 
establishing Pj as the probability of failure occurrence for 
determining the safety margin in Figure 1. Flight limitations and 
expected operational limitations may be taken into account in 
establishing Qj as the combined probability of being in the dispatched 
failure condition and the subsequent failure condition for the safety 
margins in Figures 2 and 3. These limitations must be such that the 
probability of being in this combined failure state and then 
subsequently encountering limit load conditions is extremely 
improbable. No reduction in these safety margins is allowed if the 
subsequent system failure rate is greater than 10-3 per 
flight hour.

    Issued in Des Moines, Washington.
Victor Wicklund,
Manager, Transport Standards Branch, Policy and Innovation Division, 
Aircraft Certification Service.
[FR Doc. 2018-07277 Filed 4-9-18; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 4910-13-P