Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and Ethnological Materials From Peru, 26340-26348 [2017-11841]

Download as PDF 26340 Federal Register / Vol. 82, No. 108 / Wednesday, June 7, 2017 / Rules and Regulations Administrative Procedure Act (APA) because this action is administrative in nature. This action postpones the effectiveness of the discharge requirements in the regulations for CBNMS and GFNMS in the areas added to the sanctuaries’ boundaries in 2015 (subject to notice and comment review) with regard to USCG activities for six months to provide adequate time for public scoping, completion of an environmental assessment, and subsequent rulemaking, as appropriate. Should NOAA decide to amend the regulations governing discharges in CBNMS and GFNMS, it would publish a proposed rule followed by an appropriate public comment period as required by the APA. The substance of the underlying regulations remains unchanged. Therefore, providing notice and opportunity for public comment under the APA would serve no useful purpose. The delay in effectiveness provided by this action will also enable NOAA to fully implement its statutory responsibilities under the NMSA to protect resources of a national marine sanctuary. For the reasons above, the Assistant Administrator also finds good cause under 5 U.S.C. 553(d) to waive the 30-day delay in effectiveness and make this action effective immediately upon publication. Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1431 et seq. Dated: May 30, 2017. W. Russell Callender, Assistant Administrator for Ocean Services and Coastal Management. [FR Doc. 2017–11794 Filed 6–6–17; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510–NK–P DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 12 [CBP Dec. 17–03] RIN 1515–AE29 Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and Ethnological Materials From Peru U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security; Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Final rule. pmangrum on DSK3GDR082PROD with RULES AGENCY: This final rule amends the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) regulations to reflect the extension of import restrictions on SUMMARY: VerDate Sep<11>2014 15:10 Jun 06, 2017 Jkt 241001 certain archaeological and ethnological materials from Peru. The restrictions, which were originally imposed by Treasury Decision (T.D.) 97–50 and last extended by CBP Dec. 12–11, are due to expire on June 9, 2017, unless extended. The Acting Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs, United States Department of State, has determined that conditions continue to warrant the imposition of import restrictions. The Designated List of archaeological and ethnological materials described in T.D. 97–50 is revised in this document to reflect the addition of Colonial period documents and manuscripts. Accordingly, the restrictions will remain in effect for an additional 5 years, and the CBP regulations are being amended to indicate this fourth extension. These restrictions are being extended pursuant to determinations of the United States Department of State made under the terms of the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act, which implements the 1970 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. DATES: Effective Date: June 9, 2017. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For legal aspects, Lisa L. Burley, Chief, Cargo Security, Carriers and Restricted Merchandise Branch, Regulations and Rulings, Office of Trade, (202) 325– 0215, lisa.burley@cbp.dhs.gov. For operational aspects, William R. Scopa, Branch Chief, Partner Government Agency Branch, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of Trade, (202) 863– 6554, william.r.scopa@cbp.dhs.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Pursuant to the provisions of the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act (Pub. L. 97–446, 19 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.), which implements the 1970 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Convention, in U.S. law, the United States entered into a bilateral agreement with the Republic of Peru on June 9, 1997, concerning the imposition of import restrictions on archaeological material from the Pre-Hispanic cultures and certain ethnological material from the Colonial period of Peru (‘‘the Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and the Republic of Peru’’). On June 11, 1997, the former United States Customs Service published T.D. 97–50 in the Federal Register (62 FR 31713), which amended 19 CFR 12.104g(a) to reflect PO 00000 Frm 00006 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 the imposition of these restrictions, and included a list designating the types of archaeological and ethnological materials covered by the restrictions. These restrictions continued the protection of archaeological materials ´ from the Sipan Archaeological Region forming part of the remains of the Moche culture that were first subject to emergency import restriction on May 7, 1990 (T.D. 90–37). Import restrictions listed in 19 CFR 12.104g(a) are ‘‘effective for no more than five years beginning on the date on which the agreement enters into force with respect to the United States. This period may be extended for additional periods no more than five years if it is determined that the factors which justified the initial agreement still pertain and no cause for suspension of the agreement exists’’ (19 CFR 12.104g(a)). On June 6, 2002, the former United States Customs Service published T.D. 02–30 in the Federal Register (67 FR 38877), which amended 19 CFR 12.104g(a) to reflect the extension of these import restrictions for an additional period of five years until June 9, 2007. On June 6, 2007, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), published CBP Dec. 07–27 in the Federal Register (72 FR 31176), which amended 19 CFR 12.104g(a) to reflect the extension of these import restrictions for an additional period of five years until June 9, 2012. On June 7, 2012, CBP published CBP Dec. 12–11 in the Federal Register (77 FR 33624), which amended 19 CFR 12.104g(a) to reflect the extension of these import restrictions for an additional period of five years until June 9, 2017. On January 11, 2017, after reviewing the findings and recommendations of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee, the Acting Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs, United States Department of State, concluding that the cultural heritage of Peru continues to be in jeopardy from pillage of archaeological and certain ethnological materials, made the necessary statutory determinations and decided to extend the import restrictions for an additional five-year period. Diplomatic notes have been exchanged reflecting the extension of those restrictions for an additional fiveyear period and amendment of their coverage to include Colonial manuscripts and documents. CBP is amending 19 CFR 12.104g(a) accordingly. E:\FR\FM\07JNR1.SGM 07JNR1 Federal Register / Vol. 82, No. 108 / Wednesday, June 7, 2017 / Rules and Regulations Amended Designated List The Designated List of Archaeological and Ethnological Materials from Peru is amended to include Colonial period documents and manuscripts. For the reader’s convenience, the Designated List from T.D. 97–50 is reproduced below with the additional category of Colonial manuscripts and documents. Note that the Designated List also subsumes those categories of Moche ´ objects from the Sipan Archaeological Region of Peru for which import restrictions have been in place since 1990 (see T.D. 90–37). The Designated List includes archaeological materials known to originate in Peru, ranging in date from approximately 12,000 B.C. to A.D. 1532, and including, but not limited to, objects comprised of textiles, metals, ceramics, lithics, perishable remains, and human remains that represent cultures that include, but are not limited ´ ´ to, the Chavın, Paracas, Vicus, Moche, ´ Viru, Lima, Nazca, Recuay, Tiahuanaco, ´ Huari, Chimu, Chancay, Cuzco, and Inca cultures. The Designated List also includes certain categories of ethnological materials from Peru dating to the Colonial period (A.D. 1532–1821), limited to: (1) Objects directly related to the pre-Columbian past, whose preColumbian design and function are maintained with some Colonial characteristics and may include textiles, metal objects, and ceremonial wood, ceramic and stone vessels; (2) objects used for religious evangelism among indigenous peoples and including Colonial paintings and sculpture with distinct indigenous iconography; and (3) Colonial manuscripts and documents. The Designated List may also be found online at: https://eca.state.gov/culturalheritage-center/cultural-propertyprotection/bilateral-agreements/peru. The list is divided into seven categories of objects: I. Pre-Columbian Textiles II. Pre-Columbian Metals III. Pre-Columbian Ceramics IV. Pre-Columbian Lithics V. Pre-Columbian Perishable Remains VI. Pre-Columbian Human Remains VII. Ethnological Objects A. Objects Directly Related to the PreColumbian Past B. Objects Used for Religious Evangelism Among Indigenous Peoples C. Colonial Manuscripts and Documents. What follows immediately is a chart of chronological periods and cultural classifications currently widely used for identifying archaeological remains in Peru. All dates are approximate. Rowe 1440–1532 A.D ............................................................ 1100–1440 A.D ............................................................ 600–1100 A.D .............................................................. 200 B.C.–600 A.D ........................................................ 1000–200 B.C .............................................................. 1700–1000 B.C ............................................................ 2500–1800 B.C ............................................................ 4500–2500 B.C ............................................................ 6000–4500 B.C ............................................................ 12000–6000 B.C .......................................................... The following Designated List is representational and may be amended as appropriate. pmangrum on DSK3GDR082PROD with RULES I. Pre-Columbian Textiles Textiles representing these principal cultures and main classes of objects: ´ A. Chimu Pillow—Piece of cloth sewn into a bag shape and stuffed with cotton or vegetal fibers. Generally the cloth is made in tapestry technique. 60 cm. x 40 cm. Painted Cloth—Flat cloth of cotton on which designs are painted. Range between 20 cm. and 6.1 m. Headdress—Headdresses are usually made of feathers, especially white, green, and dark brown, which are attached to cloth and fitted to a cane or basketry frame. Feathers on the upper part are arranged to stand upright. Feather Cloth—decorated with bird feathers, especially panels and tunics. They vary in shape and size; generally they depict geometric motif and volutes. Vary from 20 cm.–3 m. in length, and may be up to 1.5 m. in width. ´ Panels—Chimu panels may be of two types: Tapestry weave or plain-weave cotton. Isolated anthropomorphic designs predominate and may be associated with zoomorphic motifs. VerDate Sep<11>2014 15:10 Jun 06, 2017 Jkt 241001 B. Chancay Loom—Looms are commonly found in Chancay culture, sometimes with pieces of the textile still on the loom. Often these pieces of cloth show varied techniques and are referred to as ‘‘samples.’’ 50 cm. x 20 cm. Loincloth—Triangular panels of cloth with tapestry woven borders. Dolls—Three dimensional human figures stuffed with vegetal fiber to which hair and other decorations are added. Sometimes they depict lone females; in other cases they are arranged in groups. Most important, the eyes are woven in tapestry technique; in fakes, they have embroidered features. Usually 20 cm. tall and 8 cm. wide. False Head—In Chancay culture, false heads are made on a cotton or vegetal fiber cushion covered with plain-weave cloth, decorated with shells, beads, metal, wood, or painting to depict facial PO 00000 Lumbreras Late Horizon ................................................................ Late Intermediate Period ............................................ Middle Horizon ............................................................ Early Intermediate Period ........................................... Early Horizon .............................................................. Initial Period ................................................................ Late Pre-ceramic ......................................................... Middle Pre-ceramic ..................................................... Early Pre-ceramic ....................................................... Early Pre-ceramic ....................................................... Vary from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2.0 m. x 1.8 m. Belts and Sashes—Generally made in tapestry technique, and predominantly of red, white, ocher, and black. As with ´ other Chimu textiles, they generally depict human figures with rayed headdresses. Up to 2.20 m. in length. Frm 00007 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 26341 Inca Empire. Regional states and kingdoms. Huari Empire. Regional Cultures. Middle and Late Formative. Early Formative. Late Archaic. Middle Archaic. Early Archaic. Hunter-Gatherers. features. They sometimes have real hair. Usually 30 cm. x 35 cm. Unku/Tunic—Varied sizes and styles. Some are in plain weave, others in gauze, still others are in tapestry technique or brocade. They are recognized by their iconography, which includes geometric motifs, birds, fish, plants, and human figures. Miniatures are tiny; regular size examples are about 50 cm. x 50 cm. Belt—Chancay belts are multicolored, with geometric motifs rendered in tapestry technique. Sometimes the ends are finished in faux-velour technique. 2 m. x 5 cm. Panels—Chancay panels may be made in tapestry technique or may be painted on plain weave cloth. In these latter cases, the panels may depict fish, parrots, monkeys, viszcachas, felines, foxes, and human figures. Vary in size from miniatures to 4 m. x 2 m. Standards—Chancay standards are supported on a frame of straight reeds covered with cotton cloth which is painted in anthropomorphic designs in ochers and black. Sometimes they have a handle. 20 cm. x 20 cm. Gauze—Pieces of cloth made in openwork gauze technique, with very fine cotton threads. May have E:\FR\FM\07JNR1.SGM 07JNR1 26342 Federal Register / Vol. 82, No. 108 / Wednesday, June 7, 2017 / Rules and Regulations embroidered designs in the same thread that depict birds or other flora and fauna. Usually 80 cm. x 80 cm.; some are smaller. pmangrum on DSK3GDR082PROD with RULES C. Nazca Three-Dimensional Cloth—Cloth made in three dimensions, using needles. Of many and bright colors, knitted in long strips. Each figure is approx. 5 cm. long x 2 cm. wide. Unku/Tunic—These include miniature and regular-sized tunics. They are generally of one color, mostly light brown. The neck edges, hem, and fringes have multicolored geometric designs. Fringes end in woven braids. Vary in size from miniatures up to approx. 1.5 m. x .8 m. Bags—There are bags of many sizes, from miniatures to large ones, generally with a narrow opening and a wide pouch. Some are decorated with fringe. Their iconography resembles the unku (tunic), stylized designs in yellow, red, and dark and light blue. Sash—Nazca sashes are made on special looms. Their ends are decorated with plied fringe. Tie-Dye (Painted) Cloth—Most common are those made in the tie-dye technique, in which the textile is knotted and tied before it is dyed, so that when it is untied, there are negative images of diamonds, squares, and concentric dots. Most common are orange, red, blue, green, and yellow colors. Vary from approx. 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2.0 m. x 1.8 m. Patchwork Cloth—Variant of the TieDye cloth, in which little panels are made and later sewn together so that the resulting textile includes rectangles of tie-dyed panels of different colors. The cloth may have a decorative fringe. Vary from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2.0 m. x 1.8 m. Wara/Loincloth—Generally made of a flat piece of cloth with colorful borders depicting stylized geometric motifs. They terminate in fringe. 50 cm. x 30 cm. Fans—The frame is of vegetal fiber provided with twisted cord into which feathers are inserted. Commonly two colors of feathers are attached in this way, such as orange and green, or yellow and blue. 30 cm. x 20 cm. D. Huari Panel—Characterized by a complex and abstract iconography. Made in tapestry technique with a range of colors, including browns, beiges, yellows, reds, oranges, and greens. Vary from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2.0 m. x 1.8 m. Unku/tunic—Large with an abstract and geometric iconography. Commonly the designs repeat in vertical bands. Generally these tunics have a cotton VerDate Sep<11>2014 15:10 Jun 06, 2017 Jkt 241001 warp and camelid fiber weft. Some are so finely woven that there are 100 threads per cm2. Vary in size from miniatures up to 1.5 m. x 80 cm. Caps—Most common are the so-called ‘‘four-corner hats’’ made in a fauxvelour technique that results in a velvety texture. On the base cloth, small tufts of brightly-colored wool are inserted. Vincha/headband or sashes—These garments are made in tapestry weave or faux-velour technique and depict geometric motifs. Bags—Bags have an opening which is somewhat narrower than the body, with designs depicting felines, camelids, human faces, and faces with animal attributes. E. Paracas Esclavina/Small shoulder poncho— Paracas esclavinas are unique for their decoration with brightly colored images in Paracas style such as birds, flowers, animals, and human figures. Vary in size from miniatures up to 60 cm. x 30 cm. Mantle—Paracas mantles can be divided into five types, based on their decoration. All are approximately 2.5 m. x 1.6 m. a. Mantles with a plain field and woven borders; b. Mantles with decorative (embroidered) borders and plain field; c. Mantles with decorative (embroidered) borders and a decorative stripe in the center field; d. Mantles with embroidered borders and center field embroidered in checkerboard-fashion; e. Mantles with embroidered borders and alternating diagonals of embroidered figures in the center field. Gauzes—Paracas gauzes are made of one color, such as lilac, yellow, red, or grey. They are generally rectangular and have a soft and delicate texture. Approx. 1 m. x 1 m. Panels—Paracas panels are generally of cloth and may have been used for utilitarian purposes. They are generally undecorated. Vary from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2 m. x 1.8 m. Skirts—Paracas skirts are of two types: Some are plain, made of cotton with decoration reserved for the ends; there are others that are elaborately embroidered with colorful images rendered in wool. These often form sets with mantles and other garments. Skirts are rectangular and very wide, with two fringed ties. 3 m. long and 70 cm. wide. Wara/Loincloth—Made of cotton, not as large as skirts, and may have embroidered edges. Slings—Paracas slings are decorated in Cavernas style, made of vegetal fiber, PO 00000 Frm 00008 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 and are of small size, generally 1.5 m. x 5 cm. Furs—There are numerous examples of animal skins reported from Paracas contexts, including the skins of the fox, vizcacha, guinea pig. Most are poorly preserved. F. Moche Bags—Moche bags are usually square, small, and have a short handle. They are made in tapestry technique with brightly-woven designs. Principal colors used are white, black, red, light blue, and ocher. Panels—Recognizable by their iconography, these tapestry-technique panels may show people on balsa-reed rafts surrounded by a retinue. They are rendered in a geometric fashion, and are outlined in black and shown in profile. Scenes of marine life and fauna predominate. Vary from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2 m. x 1.8 m. Ornamental canes—Small canes are ‘‘woven’’ together in a twill technique using colorful threads that depict anthropomorphic designs. Approx. 10 cm. x 10 cm. G. Lambayeque Panels—Lambayeque panels are small, made in tapestry technique, of cotton and wool. Vary from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2 m. x 1.8 m. H. Inca Sling—There are two types of Inca slings. Ceremonial ones are oversize and elaborately decorated with geometric motifs, with long fringes. The other type is smaller and utilitarian, almost always with decoration only on the pouch and far ends. The decoration is geometric and the slings have fringed ends. Unku/tunic—Inca tunics are wellmade and colorful, mostly in red, olive green, black, and yellow. Decorative elements may be arrayed checkerboard fashion and are found on the upper and lower part of the garment. Vary in size from miniatures up to approx. 1.5 m. x 80 cm. Bags—Recognized by their bright colors, they have an opening that is narrower than the body and a wide pouch with long fringe and handle. Vary in size from miniatures up to 30 cm. x 20 cm. Panels—Some are made in cotton using the double-cloth technique, based on light brown and beige. Lines of geometrically-rendered llamas predominate. Vary in size from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2 m. x 1.8 m. Mantles—Inca mantles are of standard dimensions, sometime more than a meter long, generally rectangular. They are multi-colored and made of cotton E:\FR\FM\07JNR1.SGM 07JNR1 Federal Register / Vol. 82, No. 108 / Wednesday, June 7, 2017 / Rules and Regulations warp and wool weft. Most common colors are dark red, olive green, white, and black. Generally 2.5 m. x 1.6 m. Kipu/quipu—Inca quipus (knotted string mnemonic devices) are made of cotton and wool cords, sometimes with the two fibers plied together. Rarely is their original color preserved, though sometime one sees light blues and browns. Some are wrapped with colorful threads on the ends of the cords. 80 cm. x 50 cm. II. Pre-Columbian Metal Objects A. Idols Anthropomorphic or zoomorphic figures, some of which are hollow and others which are solid. They may be of gold and silver, they may be gilded, or of copper, or bronze. Sizes vary from 2 cm.–20 cm. in height. B. Small Plaques Thin sheets of gold, silver, copper, or gilded copper, used to cover the body ´ and made in pieces. They have repousse or punched designs on the edge and middle of the sheet. Average .6 cm in height. C. Axes Almost always T-shaped and solid. There are also axes in a traditional axe head shape. May be of bronze or copper. pmangrum on DSK3GDR082PROD with RULES D. Mace Heads These come in a great variety of shapes, including star-shaped, flat, or of two or three levels. They may be made of copper or bronze. Most have a central hole through which a wooden handle was affixed. E. Musical Instruments Trumpets: Wind instrument with a tubular body and flaring end, fastened at the joint. May be of copper or bronze. Bells: Of varying shapes and materials (including gold, silver, copper, and silver-plated copper). Conos: Instrument shaped from a sheet of hammered metal, with or without a clapper. Can be of copper or silver. Up to .5 m. in height. Rattles: Musical instrument with a central hold to accommodate a handle. May be of copper or bronze. Vary from 6 cm.–25 cm. in height. Jingle Bells: Spherical bells with an opening on the lower part and a handle on the upper part so they can be suspended from a sash or other garment. They contain a small stone or a little ball of metal. The handles may be decorated. Jingle bells may decorate another object, such as rhythm sticks, and may be of gold, silver, or bronze. Used in all pre-Columbian cultures of Peru. VerDate Sep<11>2014 15:10 Jun 06, 2017 Jkt 241001 Chalchachas: Instruments shaped like ´ a bivalve with repousse decoration. Made of copper. Quenas (flutes): Tubular instruments, generally of silver, with perforations to vary the tone. F. Knives Knives vary depending on their provenance. They can have little or no decoration and can be of different metals or made of two metals. The best ´ known are the tumis from the Sican culture, which have a straight or trapezoidal handle and a half-moon blade. The solid handle may have carved or stamped designs. Generally made of gold, silver, or copper. In ceremonial examples, the blade and upper part may depict an anthropomorphic figure standing or seated, or simply a face or mask with an elaborate headdress, earspools, and inset semi-precious stones. Tumi handles can be triangular, rectangular, or trapezoidal, and blades can be ovaloid or shaped like a half-moon. G. Pins With a straight shaft and pointed end, pins can be flat or cylindrical in crosssection. Most are hammered, and some are hollow. They can be of gold, silver, copper, bronze, gold-plated silver or may be made of two metals. Some pins are zoomorphic; others have floral images, and still others depict fish. Some have a round head; others have a flat, circular head; still others have the shape of a half-moon. There are hollowheaded rattle pins; others have solid anthropomorphic images. Most are up to 50 cm. in length, with heads that are up to 10 cm. in diameter. The small pins are about 5 cm. in length. H. Vessels There are a variety of metal vessels; they may be made of gold, silver, gilded silver, gilded copper, silver-covered copper, and bronze. There are miniatures, as well as full-size vessels. Such vessels are known from all cultures. Forms include beakers, bowls, open plates, globular vessels, and stirrup-spout bottles. The exact form and surface decoration varies from culture to culture. Shapes include beakers, bowls, and plates. Average .5 m.–.3 m. in height. I. [Reserved] J. Masks May be made of gold, silver, gilded silver, copper, gilded copper, silvercovered copper, or may be made of two metals. They vary greatly in shape and design. The best known examples come from the following cultures: Moche, PO 00000 Frm 00009 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 26343 ´ ´ Sican, Chimu, Huari, Inca, Nazca, and Chincha. The northern coast examples often have insets of shell, precious or semi-precious stones, and may have plant resins to depict the eyes and teeth. Almost all examples that have not been cleaned have a surface coloring of red ´ cinnabar. Examples from Sican measure up to 49 cm. in width by 29 cm. in height. Miniature examples can measure 7 cm. x 5 cm. Miniature masks are also used as decorations on other objects. Copper examples generally show heavy oxidation. K. Crowns Thin or thick sheets of metal made to encircle the head. They may be of silver, gold, copper, gilded silver, silvercovered copper, or may be made of two metals. Some examples have a curved central part, and may be decorated with pieces of metal and real or artificial feathers that are attached with small clamps. Found in all cultures. L. Penachos (Stylized Metal Feathers) Stylized metal feathers used to decorate crowns. May be made of gold, silver, copper, or silver-covered copper. M. Tocados (Headdresses) Headdress ornaments which may be simple or complex. They may be made of one part, or may include many pieces. Found in all cultures. They may take the form of crowns, diadems, or small crowns. They may have two stylized feathers to decorate the crown and to hold it to the hair (especially the ´ Chimu examples). Paracas examples generally have rayed appendages, with pierced disks suspended from the ends of the rays. N. Turbans Long pieces of cloth that are wrapped around the head. Metal ornaments may be sewn on turbans. Found in all cultures; the metal decorations and the cloth vary from culture to culture. O. Spoons Utilitarian object of gold, silver, or copper. P. Lime Spatulas Miniature spatula: A straight handle has a slightly spoon-shaped end. The handle may have an anthropomorphic figure. Made of gold, silver, or copper. Q. Ear Spools Ear spools are generally made of a large cylinder which fits through the earlobe and an even larger disk or decorative sheet on one side. The disk ´ may be decorated with repousse, stamped, or engraved designs, or may E:\FR\FM\07JNR1.SGM 07JNR1 26344 Federal Register / Vol. 82, No. 108 / Wednesday, June 7, 2017 / Rules and Regulations have inset stone or shell. May be made of gold, silver, copper, or made of two metals. Ear spools are found in all cultures. The largest measure up to 15 cm. height; typical diameter: 5 cm.–14 cm. R. Nose Ornaments Of varied shapes, nose ornaments can be as simple as a straight tube or as ´ complex as a flat sheet with repousse design. In the upper part, there are two points to attach the ornament to the septum. They may be of gold, silver, or copper or may be made of two metals. S. Earrings Decoration to be suspended from the earlobes. T. Rings Simple bands with or without designs. Some are two bands united by filigree spirals. Some have inset stones. May be of silver, gold, copper, or alloys. U. Bracelets Bracelets are made of sheets of metal with a straight or slightly trapezoidal ´ shape, with stamped or repousse designs. Some are simple, narrow bands. Found in all cultures and with varied designs. May be of gold, silver, bronze, or alloys of copper. Generally 4 cm.–14 cm. in width. in grays and browns. The surface may also juxtapose polishing and matte finish in different design zones. Forms: Bottles, plates, and bowls. Size: 5 cm.–30 cm. Identifying: Characteristic traits of ´ Cupisnique and Chavın ceramics include: Globular body with a flat base and stirrup spout; thick neck with an ´ obvious and everted lip. Chavın style also includes long-necked bottles, bowls with flaring walls, and highly-polished relief-decorated surfaces. ´ Styles: Chavın influence is seen in Cupisnique, Chongoyape, Poemape, Tembladera, Patapo, and Chilete. Shapes: Tall bowls with annular ring bases predominate, along with vessels that depict anthropomorphic images. Size: Bowls are up to 20 cm. in diameter and 20 cm. in height. ´ B. Vicus Characteristics Color: Typically very colorful, with a range of slips including cream, black, red, violet, orange, gray, all in a range of tones. Slip: Background slip is generally cream or orange. Shapes: Cups, bowls, beakers, plates, double-spout-and-bridge bottles, anthropomorphic figures, and musical instruments. Decoration: Realistic drawings of fantastic creatures, including the ‘‘Flying God.’’ In late Nazca, bottles are broader and flatter and the designs are arrayed in broad bands. Typically have decorations of trophy heads, geometric motifs, and painted female faces. Size: 5 cm.–20 cm. Date: 900 B.C.–A.D. 500. Characteristics Decoration: Geometric designs in white on red, made using negative technique. There are also monochrome examples. Forms: Anthropomorphic, zoomorphic and plant-shaped vessels. Some have a double body linked by a tube or common opening. Size: 30 cm.–40 cm. tall. ´ C. Viru or Gallinazo Characteristics Made in one piece, with two identical ends and a flexed central handle. They are of varied shapes, including triangular, trapezoidal, and ovaloid. The middle of the handle may have a hole so the tweezers can be suspended from a cord. Decoration: Negative technique over orange background. Forms: Faced anthropomorphic and zoomorphic vessels, face bottles for daily use in dwellings, ‘‘cancheros’’ (type of pot without a neck and with a horn-shaped handle). Size: Up to 15 cm. high. Identifying: The surface is basically orange; the vessels have a truncated spout, an arched bridge (like a tube) as handle, and geometric symbols in negative technique (concentric circles, frets and wavy lines). When the vessels represent a face, the eyes are like ‘‘coffee beans,’’ applied on the surface and with a transverse cut. X. Feather Carrier D. Pucara V. Necklaces Necklaces are made of beads and/or small carved beads. May be of shell, bone, stone, gold, silver, copper, or bronze. The beads are of varied shapes. All beads have two lateral perforations to hold the cord. W. Tweezers Conical objects with a pointed, hollow end, into which feathers, llama skin, or monkey tails are inserted and held in place with tar. They may be made of gold, silver, or gilded or silverplated copper. pmangrum on DSK3GDR082PROD with RULES III. Pre-Columbian Ceramics ´ A. Chavın Date: 1200–200 B.C. Characteristics Decoration: A grey-black color. Incised, modeled, and high and lowrelief are combined to work out designs VerDate Sep<11>2014 15:10 Jun 06, 2017 Jkt 241001 Date: 300 B.C.–300 A.D. Characteristics Decoration: Slip-painted and incised. Modeled elements include stylized felines and camelids, along with an anthropomorphic image characteristically depicted with a staff in each hand. Vessels are typically decorated in yellows, black, and white on the red background of the vessel. Designs are characteristically outlined by incision. There may be modeled decoration, such as feline heads, attached to the vessels. PO 00000 Frm 00010 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E. Paracas Date: Developed around 200 B.C. Characteristics Vessels are typically incised, with post-fired resin painting on a black background. Size: 10 cm.–15 cm. high. F. Nazca Date: A.D. 100–600. G. Recuay Date: A.D. 100–700. Characteristics Slip: Both positive and negative slippainting is found, generally in colors of black, cream and red. Shapes: Sculptural, especially ceremonial jars known as ‘‘Paccha’’ which have an elaborate outlet to serve a liquid. Decoration: Usually show groups of religious or mythical personages. Size: 20 cm.—35 cm. in height. H. Pashash Date: A.D. 1–600. Characteristics Decoration: Positive decoration in black, red, and orange on a creamywhite background. Some show negative painting. Shapes: Anthropomorphic vessels, bottles in the form of snakes, bowls with annular base, and large vessels with lids. Size: The anthropomorphic vessels are up to 20 cm. in height, serpent bottles are around 25 cm. wide x 10 cm. tall, and lidded vessels are more than 30 cm. in height. E:\FR\FM\07JNR1.SGM 07JNR1 Federal Register / Vol. 82, No. 108 / Wednesday, June 7, 2017 / Rules and Regulations Motifs: The decorations are rendered in positive or negative painting in zones that depict profile-face images of zoomorphic figures, serpents, or worms, seen from above and with trapezoidal heads. I. Cajamarca Date: A.D. 500–900. Characteristics Decoration: Pre-fired slip painting with geometric designs, including stepped triangles, circles, lines, dots, and rows of volutes. They may include stylized birds, felines, camelids, batrachians, and serpents. Spiral figures may include a step-fret motif in the base of the bowls. Shapes: Pedestal base bowls, tripod bowls, bottles with annular ring base, goblets, spoons with modeled handles, bowls with carinated edges. J. Moche Date: A.D. 200–700. Forms: Stirrup-spout vessels, vessels in the shape of humans, animals, or plants. Colors: Generally red and white. Manufacture: Often mold-made. Size: 15 cm.–25 cm. in height. Decoration: Wide range of images showing scenes of real life or mythical scenes depicting gods, warriors, and other images. K. Tiahuanaco Date: A.D. 200–700. Decoration: Pre-fired slip painting on a highly polished surface. Background is generally a red-orange, with depictions of human, animal, and geometric images, generally outlined in black and white lines. Shapes: Plates, cups, jars, beakers, open-backed incense burners on a flat base. L. Lima Date: A.D. 200–700. N. Santa Date: Derived from Huari style, around A.D. 800. Decoration: Pre-fired slip painting with interlocking fish and snake designs, geometric motifs, including zigzags, lines, circles, and dots. Shapes: Breast-shaped bottles, cups, plates, bowls, and cook pots. Styles: Related to Playa Grande, Nievera, and Pachacamac styles. M. Huari Date: A.D. 500–1000. 15:10 Jun 06, 2017 Decoration: Slip painted with figures and designs in black and white on a red background. There are also face-neck jars. Shapes: Effigy vessels, face-neck jars, double-body vessels. Sizes: 12 cm.–20 cm. tall. Shapes: Jars have a globular body and face on the neck. The border may have black and white checkerboard. The body sometimes takes the shape of a stylized llama head. Common are white lines dotted with black. Double-body vessels generally have an anthropomorphic image on the front vessel, and a plain back vessel. Jkt 241001 Characteristics Treatment: Rubbed surface. Slip: White or cream with black or dark brown designs. Molds: Molds are commonly used, especially for the anthropomorphic figures called ‘‘cuchimilcos,’’ which represent naked male and female figures with short arms stretched to the sides. Size: 3 cm.–1 m. Date: Began to be developed in A.D. 1200. Characteristics Decoration: Polychrome painting in black and white on red. Designs: Geometric motifs combined with fish and birds. Shapes: Bottles with globular bodies and tall necks and with flaring rims. Cups and pots. Size: 5 cm.–30 cm. high. PO 00000 Frm 00011 Date: A.D. 900–1500. Characteristics Slip: Monochrome. Usually black or red. Shapes: Varied shapes. Commonly made in molds. They may represent fish, birds, animals, fruit, people, and architectural forms. One sees globular bodies with a stirrup spout and a small bird or monkey at the base of the neck. Size: Between 30 cm.–40 cm. in height. R. Lambayeque Date: A.D. 700–1100. Characteristics Color: Generally black; a few are cream with red decoration. Shapes: Double spout and bridge vessels on a pedestal base are common. At the base of the spout one sees modeled heads and the bridge also often has modeled heads. Size: 15 cm.–25 cm. in height. S. Inca Date: A.D. 1300–1500. Characteristics Decoration: Slip painted in black, red, white, yellow, and orange. Designs: Geometric designs (rhomboids and triangles) and stylized bees, butterflies, and animals. Sizes: 1 cm. to 1.5 m. in height. IV. Pre-Columbian Lithics A. Chipped Stone: Projectile Points ´ Paijan Type Points Date: A.D. 1000–1300. P. Ica-Chincha Characteristics pmangrum on DSK3GDR082PROD with RULES Colors: Orange, cream, violet, white, black, and red. Motifs: Anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, and plant shapes, both stylized and realistic. In Pachacamac style one finds vessels with a globular body and long, conical neck. In Atarco style, there is slip painting that retains Nazca motifs, especially in the full-body felines shown running. Slip: Background slip is commonly cream, red, or black. Styles: Related to Vinaque, Atarco, Pachacamac, Qosqopa, Robles Moqo, Conchopata, and Caquipampa styles. Size: Most are around 25 cm. tall. Robles Moqo urns may be up to 1 m. in height. O. Chancay Characteristics VerDate Sep<11>2014 ´ Q. Chimu Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics 26345 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 Size: 8 cm.–18 cm. Shape: Triangular or heart-shaped. Color: Generally reddish, orange, or yellow. Can be made of quartz. Leaf-Shaped Points Size: 2.5 cm.–15 cm. Shape: Leaf-shaped. Can be ovaloid or lanceolate. Color: Generally bright reds, yellows, ochers, quartz crystals, milky whites, greens and blacks. Paracas Type Points Size: .3 cm.–25 cm. Shape: Triangular and lanceolate. Show marks of pressure-flaking. Often they are broken. Color: Generally black. Chivateros-Type Blanks Size: .8 cm.–18 cm. Shape: Concave indentations on the surface from working. Color: Greens, reds, and yellows. E:\FR\FM\07JNR1.SGM 07JNR1 26346 Federal Register / Vol. 82, No. 108 / Wednesday, June 7, 2017 / Rules and Regulations B. Polished Stone Bowl—Vessels of dark colored-stone, sometimes streaked. They have a highly polished, very smooth surface. Some show external carved decoration. Diameters range from 12 cm–55 cm. Cups—Also vessels of dark-colored stone. Generally have flaring sides. Typical of the Late Horizon. They are highly polished and may have external carved designs or may be in the shape of heads. 18 cm.–28 cm. in height. Conopas—Small vessels in the form of camelids with a hollow opening on the back. They are black to greenishblack and highly polished. .8 cm.–16 cm. in length. Idols—Small anthropomorphic figurines, frequently found in Middle Horizon contexts. The almond-shaped eyes with tear-bands are characteristic of the style. Larger examples tend to be of lighter-colored stone while the smaller ones are of dark stones. 12 cm.– 28 cm. in height. Mace head—Varying shapes, most commonly are doughnut-shaped or starshaped heads, generally associated with Late Intermediate Period and Inca cultures. Commonly black, gray, or white, .8 cm.–20 cm. in diameter. Metal-working hammer—Elongated shapes, frequently with one flat surface; highly polished. Generally of darkcolored stone, 3 cm.–12 cm. C. Carved Material Tenon head—These heads have an anthropomorphic face, prominent lips, and enormous noses. Some, especially those carved of diorite, have snake-like traits. The carved surface is highly polished. Tablets—with high-relief design. The upper surface has a patina. They range from 20 cm. to more than 1 m. in length. V. Pre-Columbian Perishable Remains pmangrum on DSK3GDR082PROD with RULES A. Wood Keros (Beakers)—The most common form is a bell-shaped beaker with a flat base, though some have a pedestal like a goblet. Decoration varies with the period: Pre-Inca: Very rare, they have straight sides and incised or high-relief decoration. Some have inset shells. Inca: Generally they are incised with geometric designs on the entire exterior. Colonial Inca: Lacquer painted on the exterior to depict scenes of daily life, nature, and war. Staffs—Objects of ritual or ceremonial use made of a single piece of wood. They can be distinguished on the basis of two or three of the following traits: On the lower third, the staff may have a metal decoration. VerDate Sep<11>2014 15:10 Jun 06, 2017 Jkt 241001 The body itself is cylindrical and of variable length. The upper third may have decorations, including inset shell, stone, or metal. Some staffs function as rattles, and in these cases, the rattle is in the upper part. Carvings—Worked blocks of wood, such as wooden columns (orcones) to support the roofs of houses: Chincha, ´ Chimu, and Chancay cultures. Individuals may be depicted standing or seated on a pedestal. In the upper part there is a notch to support the beams, which generally has a face, sometimes painted, at the base of the notch. Their length varies, but they are generally at least a meter or more. Box—Small lidded boxes, carved of two pieces of wood. Generally the outer surface of box and lid are carved in ´ relief. Chimu-Inca cultures. They measure approximately 20 cm. x 10 cm. Mirror—Wooden supports for a reflective surface of polished anthracite or pyrite. In some cases the upper part of backs of mirrors are worked in relief or have inset of shell. Moche culture. Paddle and rudder—Large carvings made of a single piece of wood. Paddles have three parts: The blade and the handle (sometimes decorated), and an upper decorated part, which can have metal plaques or decorative painting. Rudders have two parts: The blade and a handle which may be carved in relief. Chincha culture. Paddles can be 2.30 m. in length and rudders are up to 1.4 m. Utensils—Bowls and spoons made of wood decorated with zoomorphic or anthropomorphic motifs. Musical instruments—Trumpets and whistles. Trumpets can be up to 1.2 m. long and are generally decorated on the upper third of the instrument. Whistles vary a great deal from the undecorated to those decorated with human forms. Moche, Huari, and Inca cultures. B. Bone Worked bone—Most interesting are ´ Chavın pieces with incised decorations. The bones are generally the long bones of mammals. They vary from 10 cm.–25 cm. in length. Balance weights—Flat rectangles of bone about 10 cm. in length. Chincha culture. Musical instruments—Quenas (flutes) and antaras (panpipes) in various shapes. Paracas, Chincha, and Ancon cultures. C. Gourds Vessels—Bowls, pots, and holders for lime (for coca chewing). Most interesting are those which are carved or pyroengraved. Produced from the Preceramic onward. PO 00000 Frm 00012 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 Musical instruments—Ocarinas, small flutes, and whistles. Inca examples may have incised decoration, or decoration with cords and feathers. D. Cane Musical instruments—Flutes (especially in Chancay culture), panpipes, and whistles. Flutes are often pyroengraved. Panpipes can have one or two tiers of pipes, which may be lashed together with colored thread. Nazca culture. E. Straw Weaving baskets—Basketry over a cane armature, in the shape of a lidded box. Sometimes the basketry is made of several colors of fiber to work out geometric designs. Some still hold their original contents: Needles, spindle whorls, spindles, balls of thread, loose thread, etc. Chancay culture. F. Shell Musical instruments—Marine shells (Strombus galeatus, Malea ringens, etc.), some, especially those from the Formative Period, with incised decoration. Jewelry—Small beads and charms worked of shell, chiefly Spondylus princeps, used mainly in necklaces and ´ pectorals. Moche, Chimu, and Inca cultures. VI. Pre-Columbian Human Remains The human remains included in this listing demonstrate modifications of the remains due to ritualistic practices or other intentional treatment of the deceased. A. Mummies Peruvian mummies were formed by natural mummification due to the conditions of burial; they have generally not been eviscerated. Usually found in flexed position, with extremities tied together, resulting in a fetal position. In many cases the cords used to tie the body in this position are preserved. B. Deformed Skulls Many ancient Peruvian cultures practiced cranial deformation. Such skulls are easily recognized by their unnatural shapes. C. Skulls Displaying Trepanation Trepanation is an operation performed on a skull; the resulting cuts, easily visible on a bare skull, take various forms. Cuts may be less easily distinguished if skin and hair are present: Principal Techniques a. Straight cuts: These cuts are pointed at the ends and wider in the E:\FR\FM\07JNR1.SGM 07JNR1 Federal Register / Vol. 82, No. 108 / Wednesday, June 7, 2017 / Rules and Regulations center. Openings made this way have a polygonal shape. b. Cylindrical-conical openings: The openings form a discontinuous line. The resulting opening has a serrated edge. c. Circular: Generally made by a file. The resulting hole is round or elliptical, with beveled or straight edges. This is the most common form of trepanation. D. Pre-Columbian Trophy Heads Trophy heads can be identified by the hole made in the forehead to accommodate a carrying cord. When the skin is intact, the eyes and the mouth are held shut with cactus thorns. Finally, the occiput is missing since that is how the brain was removed when the trophy head was prepared. E. Shrunken Trophy Heads From the Amazon These heads have had the bones removed and then have been cured to shrink them. They are recognizable because they conserve all the traits of the original skin, including hair and hair follicles. The mouth is sewn shut and generally there are carrying cords attached. There may be an obvious seam to repair the cuts made when the skin was removed from the skull. Finally, the skin is thick (up to 2.5 mm.) and has a dark color. Trophy heads vary between 9.5 cm. and 15.5 cm. in height. F. Tattoos Tattooing in pre-Columbian Peru was practiced mainly on the wrists. Most common are geometric designs, including bands of triangles and rhomboids of a bluish color. pmangrum on DSK3GDR082PROD with RULES G. False Shrunken Heads False shrunken heads can be recognized because they are made of the skin of a mammal, with some of the fur left where the human hair would be. The skin is first smoked, then pressed into a mold to give it a face-like shape. The eyes, nose, mouth and ears are simple bumps without real holes. Further, the skin is very thin and yellowish in color. Often the ‘‘heads’’ have eyebrows and moustaches formed by leaving some of the animal hair, but these features are grotesque because they appear to grow upside down. VII. Ethnological Objects A. Objects directly related to the preColumbian past, whose pre-Columbian design and function are maintained with some Colonial modifications or additions in technique and/or iconography. Colonial Indigenous Textiles Predominant materials: Cotton and wool. VerDate Sep<11>2014 15:10 Jun 06, 2017 Jkt 241001 Description: These textiles are characterized by the cut of the cloth, with the four borders or selvages finished on the same loom. Clothes are untailored and made from smaller pieces of convenient sizes which were then sewn together. Colonial indigenous textiles of the period are differentiated from pre-Columbian textiles primarily by their decoration: Western motifs such as lions, heraldic emblems, and Spanish personages are incorporated into the designs; sometimes fibers distinct from cotton or wool (threads of silver, gold, and silk) are woven into the cloth; and the colors tend to be more vivid because the fabrics were made more recently. Another important characteristic of the clothing is the presence of tocapus or horizontal bands of small squares with anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, phytomorphic and geometric ideographs and designs. Characteristic textiles include: Panels: Rectangular or square pieces of various sizes. Anacus: Untailored woman’s dress consisting of two or three long horizontal pieces of cloth sewn together that was wound around the body and held in place with ‘‘tupus’’ (pins). Unku/Tunic: Man’s shirt with an opening for the head. Sometimes has sleeves. Lliclla/Shoulder Mantle: Rectangular piece of cloth that women put over their shoulders and held in place by a tupu; standard size: 40″ x 45″. Generally has a tripartite design based on contrasting panels that alternate bands with decoration and bands with solid colors. Chumpi/Belt: A woven belt, generally using tapestry technique. Tupus Material: Silver, gilded silver, copper, bronze. May have inlays of precious or semi-precious stones. Description: Tupus were used to hold in place llicllas and ancus. They are pins with a round or elliptical head, ´ with piercing, repousse, and incised decorations. The difference between pre-Columbian and ethnological tupus can be seen in the introduction of Western designs, for example bi-frontal eagles and heraldic motifs. Keros Material: Wood. Description: The most common form is a beaker like cup with truncated base. After the Conquest, keros started to be decorated with pictorial scenes. The most frequently used techniques include incision, inlaying pigments in wood, and painting. Ideography includes geometric designs, figures under a rainbow (an Inca symbol), PO 00000 Frm 00013 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 26347 ceremonial rituals, scenes of war, and agricultural scenes. Sometimes are in the form of human or zoomorphic heads. Cochas or Cocchas Material: Ceramic. Description: Ceremonial vessels with two or more concentric interior compartments which are linked. Often decorated with volutes representing reptiles. Aribalos Material: Ceramic. Description: The post-Conquest aribalos have a flat base, often using a glaze for finishing, and the decoration includes Inca and Hispanic motifs. Pacchas Material: Stone, ceramic. Description: One of the characteristics of pacchas is that they have a drain which is used to sprinkle an offering on the ground. They have pictorial or sculpted relief decorations symbolizing the benefits hoped for from the ritual. B. Objects that were used for religious evangelism among indigenous peoples. In Colonial paintings and sculptures Western religious themes were reinterpreted by indigenous and mestizo artists who added their own images and other characteristics to create a distinct iconography. Specific types of objects used for religious evangelism during the Colonial period include the following: Sculpture Types of statues include: A three-dimensional sculpted image: In the Peruvian Colonial period these were made of maguey (a soft wood) and occasionally of cedar or walnut. Images made of a dough composed of sawdust, glue and plaster: After they are sculpted, figures are dressed with cloth dipped in plaster. Images to be dressed: These are wooden frames resembling mannequins, with only the head and arms sculpted in wood (cedar or maguey). The images are dressed with embroidered clothes and jewelry. Frequently other elements were added, such as teeth and false eyelashes, wigs of real hair, eyes of colored glass, and palates made of glass. Paintings Catholic priests provided indigenous and mestizo artists with canvases and reproductions of Western works of art, which the artists then ‘‘interpreted’’ with their own images and other indigenous characteristics. These may include symbolically associating Christian religious figures with E:\FR\FM\07JNR1.SGM 07JNR1 26348 Federal Register / Vol. 82, No. 108 / Wednesday, June 7, 2017 / Rules and Regulations indigenous divinities, or rendering the figures with Andean facial characteristics or in traditional Andean costume. In addition, each church, convent, monastery, and town venerated an effigy of its patron or tutelar saint, some of them native to Peru. pmangrum on DSK3GDR082PROD with RULES Retables Retables (retablos) are architectonic structures made of stone, wood, or other material that are placed behind the altar and include attached paintings, sculptures or other religious objects. Liturgical Objects Objects Used for Mass Ritual: Chalices, cibaries, candelabras, vials for christening or consecrated oil, reliquaries, vessels for wine and water, incense burners, patens, monstrances, pelicans and crucifixes. Made out of silver, gold or gilded silver, often inlaid with pearls or precious stones. Techniques: Casting, engraving, ´ piercing, repousse, filigree. Fixtures for sculpted images: Areoles, crowns, scepters, halo, halos in the form of rays, and books carried by religious scholars and founders of religious orders. Ecclesiastical vestments: Some ecclesiastical vestments were commissioned by indigenous individuals or communities for the celebrations of their patron saint and thus are part of the religious legacy of a particular town. In such cases, the vestment has the name of the donor and of the town or church as well as the date. Votive Offerings: These are representations of miracles or favors received from a particular saint. They can be made of different materials, usually metal or wood, and come in a variety of forms according to the type of favor received, usually representing parts of the human body in reference to the organ healed or agricultural products in recognition of a good harvest or increase in a herd. C. Colonial Manuscripts and Documents Predominant materials: Paper, parchment, vellum Description: Original handwritten texts or printed texts of limited circulation dating to the Colonial period (AD 1532–1821). These include but are not limited to notary documents (wills, bill of sales, contracts), ecclesiastical materials, and documents of the city councils, Governorate of New Castile, the Governorate of New Toledo, the Vice Royalty of Peru, the Real Audiencia and Chancery of Lima, or the Council of the Indies. These can include books, single folios, or collections of VerDate Sep<11>2014 15:10 Jun 06, 2017 Jkt 241001 related documents bound with string. Documents may contain a seal or ink stamp denoting a public or ecclesiastical institution. Because many of these documents are of institutional or official nature, they may have multiple signatures, denoting scribes, witnesses, and other authorities. Documents are generally written in Spanish, but may be composed in an indigenous language such as Quechua or Aymara. The restrictions on the importation of these archaeological and ethnological materials from Peru are to continue in effect through June 9, 2022. Importation of such material continues to be restricted unless the conditions set forth in 19 U.S.C. 2606 and 19 CFR 12.104c are met. Inapplicability of Notice and Delayed Effective Date Sections 12.104 through 12.104i also issued under 19 U.S.C. 2612; * * * § 12.104g * * [Amended] 2. In § 12.104g(a), the table of the list of agreements imposing import restrictions on described articles of cultural property of State Parties is amended in the entry for Peru by removing the words ‘‘T.D. 97–50 extended by CBP Dec. 12–11’’ and adding in their place ‘‘CBP Dec. 17–03’’ in the column headed ‘‘Decision No.’’. ■ Kevin K. McAleenan, Acting Commissioner, U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Approved: June 2, 2017. Timothy E. Skud, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. [FR Doc. 2017–11841 Filed 6–6–17; 8:45 am] This amendment involves a foreign affairs function of the United States and is, therefore, being made without notice or public procedure (5 U.S.C. 553(a)(1)). For the same reasons, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3), a delayed effective date is not required. BILLING CODE 9111–14–P Regulatory Flexibility Act 21 CFR Part 814 Because no notice of proposed rulemaking is required, the provisions of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) do not apply. [Docket No. FDA–2017–N–0011] Executive Order 12866 Because this rule involves a foreign affairs function of the United States, it is not subject to Executive Order 12866. Signing Authority This regulation is being issued in accordance with 19 CFR 0.1(a)(1). List of Subjects Cultural property, Customs duties and inspection, Imports, Prohibited merchandise. Amendment to CBP Regulations For the reasons set forth above, part 12 of title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations (19 CFR part 12), is amended as set forth below: PART 12—SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE 1. The general authority citation for part 12 and the specific authority citation for § 12.104g continue to read as follows: ■ Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301; 19 U.S.C. 66, 1202 (General Note 3(i), Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS)), 1624. * PO 00000 * * Frm 00014 * Fmt 4700 * Sfmt 4700 DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Humanitarian Use Devices; 21st Century Cures Act; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule; technical amendment. ACTION: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending regulations to reflect changes recently enacted into law by the 21st Century Cures Act. Specifically, certain requirements related to humanitarian device exemptions (HDEs) and institutional review boards (IRBs) for devices have changed. This action is being taken to align the regulations with the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) as amended. DATES: This rule is effective June 7, 2017. SUMMARY: Ian Ostermiller, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66, Rm. 5515, Silver Spring, MD 20993–0002, 301 796–5678. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 13, 2016, the 21st Century Cures Act (Pub. L. 114–255) was signed into law, amending certain provisions of the FD&C Act. FDA is updating regulations to reflect some of those FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: E:\FR\FM\07JNR1.SGM 07JNR1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 82, Number 108 (Wednesday, June 7, 2017)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 26340-26348]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2017-11841]


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DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY

U.S. Customs and Border Protection

DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY

19 CFR Part 12

[CBP Dec. 17-03]
RIN 1515-AE29


Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and 
Ethnological Materials From Peru

AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland 
Security; Department of the Treasury.

ACTION: Final rule.

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SUMMARY: This final rule amends the U.S. Customs and Border Protection 
(CBP) regulations to reflect the extension of import restrictions on 
certain archaeological and ethnological materials from Peru. The 
restrictions, which were originally imposed by Treasury Decision (T.D.) 
97-50 and last extended by CBP Dec. 12-11, are due to expire on June 9, 
2017, unless extended. The Acting Assistant Secretary for Educational 
and Cultural Affairs, United States Department of State, has determined 
that conditions continue to warrant the imposition of import 
restrictions. The Designated List of archaeological and ethnological 
materials described in T.D. 97-50 is revised in this document to 
reflect the addition of Colonial period documents and manuscripts. 
Accordingly, the restrictions will remain in effect for an additional 5 
years, and the CBP regulations are being amended to indicate this 
fourth extension. These restrictions are being extended pursuant to 
determinations of the United States Department of State made under the 
terms of the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act, which 
implements the 1970 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization (UNESCO) Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and 
Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of 
Cultural Property.

DATES: Effective Date: June 9, 2017.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For legal aspects, Lisa L. Burley, 
Chief, Cargo Security, Carriers and Restricted Merchandise Branch, 
Regulations and Rulings, Office of Trade, (202) 325-0215, 
lisa.burley@cbp.dhs.gov. For operational aspects, William R. Scopa, 
Branch Chief, Partner Government Agency Branch, Trade Policy and 
Programs, Office of Trade, (202) 863-6554, william.r.scopa@cbp.dhs.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

    Pursuant to the provisions of the Convention on Cultural Property 
Implementation Act (Pub. L. 97-446, 19 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.), which 
implements the 1970 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization (UNESCO) Convention, in U.S. law, the United States 
entered into a bilateral agreement with the Republic of Peru on June 9, 
1997, concerning the imposition of import restrictions on 
archaeological material from the Pre-Hispanic cultures and certain 
ethnological material from the Colonial period of Peru (``the 
Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and the Republic 
of Peru''). On June 11, 1997, the former United States Customs Service 
published T.D. 97-50 in the Federal Register (62 FR 31713), which 
amended 19 CFR 12.104g(a) to reflect the imposition of these 
restrictions, and included a list designating the types of 
archaeological and ethnological materials covered by the restrictions. 
These restrictions continued the protection of archaeological materials 
from the Sip[aacute]n Archaeological Region forming part of the remains 
of the Moche culture that were first subject to emergency import 
restriction on May 7, 1990 (T.D. 90-37).
    Import restrictions listed in 19 CFR 12.104g(a) are ``effective for 
no more than five years beginning on the date on which the agreement 
enters into force with respect to the United States. This period may be 
extended for additional periods no more than five years if it is 
determined that the factors which justified the initial agreement still 
pertain and no cause for suspension of the agreement exists'' (19 CFR 
12.104g(a)).
    On June 6, 2002, the former United States Customs Service published 
T.D. 02-30 in the Federal Register (67 FR 38877), which amended 19 CFR 
12.104g(a) to reflect the extension of these import restrictions for an 
additional period of five years until June 9, 2007.
    On June 6, 2007, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), 
published CBP Dec. 07-27 in the Federal Register (72 FR 31176), which 
amended 19 CFR 12.104g(a) to reflect the extension of these import 
restrictions for an additional period of five years until June 9, 2012.
    On June 7, 2012, CBP published CBP Dec. 12-11 in the Federal 
Register (77 FR 33624), which amended 19 CFR 12.104g(a) to reflect the 
extension of these import restrictions for an additional period of five 
years until June 9, 2017.
    On January 11, 2017, after reviewing the findings and 
recommendations of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee, the Acting 
Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs, United States 
Department of State, concluding that the cultural heritage of Peru 
continues to be in jeopardy from pillage of archaeological and certain 
ethnological materials, made the necessary statutory determinations and 
decided to extend the import restrictions for an additional five-year 
period. Diplomatic notes have been exchanged reflecting the extension 
of those restrictions for an additional five-year period and amendment 
of their coverage to include Colonial manuscripts and documents. CBP is 
amending 19 CFR 12.104g(a) accordingly.

[[Page 26341]]

Amended Designated List

    The Designated List of Archaeological and Ethnological Materials 
from Peru is amended to include Colonial period documents and 
manuscripts. For the reader's convenience, the Designated List from 
T.D. 97-50 is reproduced below with the additional category of Colonial 
manuscripts and documents. Note that the Designated List also subsumes 
those categories of Moche objects from the Sip[aacute]n Archaeological 
Region of Peru for which import restrictions have been in place since 
1990 (see T.D. 90-37).
    The Designated List includes archaeological materials known to 
originate in Peru, ranging in date from approximately 12,000 B.C. to 
A.D. 1532, and including, but not limited to, objects comprised of 
textiles, metals, ceramics, lithics, perishable remains, and human 
remains that represent cultures that include, but are not limited to, 
the Chav[iacute]n, Paracas, Vic[uacute]s, Moche, Vir[uacute], Lima, 
Nazca, Recuay, Tiahuanaco, Huari, Chim[uacute], Chancay, Cuzco, and 
Inca cultures. The Designated List also includes certain categories of 
ethnological materials from Peru dating to the Colonial period (A.D. 
1532-1821), limited to: (1) Objects directly related to the pre-
Columbian past, whose pre-Columbian design and function are maintained 
with some Colonial characteristics and may include textiles, metal 
objects, and ceremonial wood, ceramic and stone vessels; (2) objects 
used for religious evangelism among indigenous peoples and including 
Colonial paintings and sculpture with distinct indigenous iconography; 
and (3) Colonial manuscripts and documents. The Designated List may 
also be found online at: https://eca.state.gov/cultural-heritage-center/cultural-property-protection/bilateral-agreements/peru.
    The list is divided into seven categories of objects:

I. Pre-Columbian Textiles
II. Pre-Columbian Metals
III. Pre-Columbian Ceramics
IV. Pre-Columbian Lithics
V. Pre-Columbian Perishable Remains
VI. Pre-Columbian Human Remains
VII. Ethnological Objects
    A. Objects Directly Related to the Pre-Columbian Past
    B. Objects Used for Religious Evangelism Among Indigenous 
Peoples
    C. Colonial Manuscripts and Documents.

    What follows immediately is a chart of chronological periods and 
cultural classifications currently widely used for identifying 
archaeological remains in Peru. All dates are approximate.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Rowe                                Lumbreras
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1440-1532 A.D.......................  Late Horizon............  Inca Empire.
1100-1440 A.D.......................  Late Intermediate Period  Regional states and kingdoms.
600-1100 A.D........................  Middle Horizon..........  Huari Empire.
200 B.C.-600 A.D....................  Early Intermediate        Regional Cultures.
                                       Period.
1000-200 B.C........................  Early Horizon...........  Middle and Late Formative.
1700-1000 B.C.......................  Initial Period..........  Early Formative.
2500-1800 B.C.......................  Late Pre-ceramic........  Late Archaic.
4500-2500 B.C.......................  Middle Pre-ceramic......  Middle Archaic.
6000-4500 B.C.......................  Early Pre-ceramic.......  Early Archaic.
12000-6000 B.C......................  Early Pre-ceramic.......  Hunter-Gatherers.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The following Designated List is representational and may be 
amended as appropriate.

I. Pre-Columbian Textiles

    Textiles representing these principal cultures and main classes of 
objects:

A. Chim[uacute]

    Pillow--Piece of cloth sewn into a bag shape and stuffed with 
cotton or vegetal fibers. Generally the cloth is made in tapestry 
technique. 60 cm. x 40 cm.
    Painted Cloth--Flat cloth of cotton on which designs are painted. 
Range between 20 cm. and 6.1 m.
    Headdress--Headdresses are usually made of feathers, especially 
white, green, and dark brown, which are attached to cloth and fitted to 
a cane or basketry frame. Feathers on the upper part are arranged to 
stand upright.
    Feather Cloth--decorated with bird feathers, especially panels and 
tunics. They vary in shape and size; generally they depict geometric 
motif and volutes. Vary from 20 cm.-3 m. in length, and may be up to 
1.5 m. in width.
    Panels--Chim[uacute] panels may be of two types: Tapestry weave or 
plain-weave cotton. Isolated anthropomorphic designs predominate and 
may be associated with zoomorphic motifs. Vary from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 
2.0 m. x 1.8 m.
    Belts and Sashes--Generally made in tapestry technique, and 
predominantly of red, white, ocher, and black. As with other 
Chim[uacute] textiles, they generally depict human figures with rayed 
headdresses. Up to 2.20 m. in length.

B. Chancay

    Loom--Looms are commonly found in Chancay culture, sometimes with 
pieces of the textile still on the loom. Often these pieces of cloth 
show varied techniques and are referred to as ``samples.'' 50 cm. x 20 
cm.
    Loincloth--Triangular panels of cloth with tapestry woven borders.
    Dolls--Three dimensional human figures stuffed with vegetal fiber 
to which hair and other decorations are added. Sometimes they depict 
lone females; in other cases they are arranged in groups. Most 
important, the eyes are woven in tapestry technique; in fakes, they 
have embroidered features. Usually 20 cm. tall and 8 cm. wide.
    False Head--In Chancay culture, false heads are made on a cotton or 
vegetal fiber cushion covered with plain-weave cloth, decorated with 
shells, beads, metal, wood, or painting to depict facial features. They 
sometimes have real hair. Usually 30 cm. x 35 cm.
    Unku/Tunic--Varied sizes and styles. Some are in plain weave, 
others in gauze, still others are in tapestry technique or brocade. 
They are recognized by their iconography, which includes geometric 
motifs, birds, fish, plants, and human figures. Miniatures are tiny; 
regular size examples are about 50 cm. x 50 cm.
    Belt--Chancay belts are multicolored, with geometric motifs 
rendered in tapestry technique. Sometimes the ends are finished in 
faux-velour technique. 2 m. x 5 cm.
    Panels--Chancay panels may be made in tapestry technique or may be 
painted on plain weave cloth. In these latter cases, the panels may 
depict fish, parrots, monkeys, viszcachas, felines, foxes, and human 
figures. Vary in size from miniatures to 4 m. x 2 m.
    Standards--Chancay standards are supported on a frame of straight 
reeds covered with cotton cloth which is painted in anthropomorphic 
designs in ochers and black. Sometimes they have a handle. 20 cm. x 20 
cm.
    Gauze--Pieces of cloth made in openwork gauze technique, with very 
fine cotton threads. May have

[[Page 26342]]

embroidered designs in the same thread that depict birds or other flora 
and fauna. Usually 80 cm. x 80 cm.; some are smaller.

C. Nazca

    Three-Dimensional Cloth--Cloth made in three dimensions, using 
needles. Of many and bright colors, knitted in long strips. Each figure 
is approx. 5 cm. long x 2 cm. wide.
    Unku/Tunic--These include miniature and regular-sized tunics. They 
are generally of one color, mostly light brown. The neck edges, hem, 
and fringes have multicolored geometric designs. Fringes end in woven 
braids. Vary in size from miniatures up to approx. 1.5 m. x .8 m.
    Bags--There are bags of many sizes, from miniatures to large ones, 
generally with a narrow opening and a wide pouch. Some are decorated 
with fringe. Their iconography resembles the unku (tunic), stylized 
designs in yellow, red, and dark and light blue.
    Sash--Nazca sashes are made on special looms. Their ends are 
decorated with plied fringe.
    Tie-Dye (Painted) Cloth--Most common are those made in the tie-dye 
technique, in which the textile is knotted and tied before it is dyed, 
so that when it is untied, there are negative images of diamonds, 
squares, and concentric dots. Most common are orange, red, blue, green, 
and yellow colors. Vary from approx. 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2.0 m. x 1.8 m.
    Patchwork Cloth--Variant of the Tie-Dye cloth, in which little 
panels are made and later sewn together so that the resulting textile 
includes rectangles of tie-dyed panels of different colors. The cloth 
may have a decorative fringe. Vary from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2.0 m. x 1.8 
m.
    Wara/Loincloth--Generally made of a flat piece of cloth with 
colorful borders depicting stylized geometric motifs. They terminate in 
fringe. 50 cm. x 30 cm.
    Fans--The frame is of vegetal fiber provided with twisted cord into 
which feathers are inserted. Commonly two colors of feathers are 
attached in this way, such as orange and green, or yellow and blue. 30 
cm. x 20 cm.

D. Huari

    Panel--Characterized by a complex and abstract iconography. Made in 
tapestry technique with a range of colors, including browns, beiges, 
yellows, reds, oranges, and greens. Vary from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2.0 m. 
x 1.8 m.
    Unku/tunic--Large with an abstract and geometric iconography. 
Commonly the designs repeat in vertical bands. Generally these tunics 
have a cotton warp and camelid fiber weft. Some are so finely woven 
that there are 100 threads per cm\2\. Vary in size from miniatures up 
to 1.5 m. x 80 cm.
    Caps--Most common are the so-called ``four-corner hats'' made in a 
faux-velour technique that results in a velvety texture. On the base 
cloth, small tufts of brightly-colored wool are inserted.
    Vincha/headband or sashes--These garments are made in tapestry 
weave or faux-velour technique and depict geometric motifs.
    Bags--Bags have an opening which is somewhat narrower than the 
body, with designs depicting felines, camelids, human faces, and faces 
with animal attributes.

E. Paracas

    Esclavina/Small shoulder poncho--Paracas esclavinas are unique for 
their decoration with brightly colored images in Paracas style such as 
birds, flowers, animals, and human figures. Vary in size from 
miniatures up to 60 cm. x 30 cm.
    Mantle--Paracas mantles can be divided into five types, based on 
their decoration. All are approximately 2.5 m. x 1.6 m.
    a. Mantles with a plain field and woven borders;
    b. Mantles with decorative (embroidered) borders and plain field;
    c. Mantles with decorative (embroidered) borders and a decorative 
stripe in the center field;
    d. Mantles with embroidered borders and center field embroidered in 
checkerboard-fashion;
    e. Mantles with embroidered borders and alternating diagonals of 
embroidered figures in the center field.
    Gauzes--Paracas gauzes are made of one color, such as lilac, 
yellow, red, or grey. They are generally rectangular and have a soft 
and delicate texture. Approx. 1 m. x 1 m.
    Panels--Paracas panels are generally of cloth and may have been 
used for utilitarian purposes. They are generally undecorated. Vary 
from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2 m. x 1.8 m.
    Skirts--Paracas skirts are of two types: Some are plain, made of 
cotton with decoration reserved for the ends; there are others that are 
elaborately embroidered with colorful images rendered in wool. These 
often form sets with mantles and other garments. Skirts are rectangular 
and very wide, with two fringed ties. 3 m. long and 70 cm. wide.
    Wara/Loincloth--Made of cotton, not as large as skirts, and may 
have embroidered edges.
    Slings--Paracas slings are decorated in Cavernas style, made of 
vegetal fiber, and are of small size, generally 1.5 m. x 5 cm.
    Furs--There are numerous examples of animal skins reported from 
Paracas contexts, including the skins of the fox, vizcacha, guinea pig. 
Most are poorly preserved.

F. Moche

    Bags--Moche bags are usually square, small, and have a short 
handle. They are made in tapestry technique with brightly-woven 
designs. Principal colors used are white, black, red, light blue, and 
ocher.
    Panels--Recognizable by their iconography, these tapestry-technique 
panels may show people on balsa-reed rafts surrounded by a retinue. 
They are rendered in a geometric fashion, and are outlined in black and 
shown in profile. Scenes of marine life and fauna predominate. Vary 
from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2 m. x 1.8 m.
    Ornamental canes--Small canes are ``woven'' together in a twill 
technique using colorful threads that depict anthropomorphic designs. 
Approx. 10 cm. x 10 cm.

G. Lambayeque

    Panels--Lambayeque panels are small, made in tapestry technique, of 
cotton and wool. Vary from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2 m. x 1.8 m.

H. Inca

    Sling--There are two types of Inca slings. Ceremonial ones are 
oversize and elaborately decorated with geometric motifs, with long 
fringes. The other type is smaller and utilitarian, almost always with 
decoration only on the pouch and far ends. The decoration is geometric 
and the slings have fringed ends.
    Unku/tunic--Inca tunics are well-made and colorful, mostly in red, 
olive green, black, and yellow. Decorative elements may be arrayed 
checkerboard fashion and are found on the upper and lower part of the 
garment. Vary in size from miniatures up to approx. 1.5 m. x 80 cm.
    Bags--Recognized by their bright colors, they have an opening that 
is narrower than the body and a wide pouch with long fringe and handle. 
Vary in size from miniatures up to 30 cm. x 20 cm.
    Panels--Some are made in cotton using the double-cloth technique, 
based on light brown and beige. Lines of geometrically-rendered llamas 
predominate. Vary in size from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2 m. x 1.8 m.
    Mantles--Inca mantles are of standard dimensions, sometime more 
than a meter long, generally rectangular. They are multi-colored and 
made of cotton

[[Page 26343]]

warp and wool weft. Most common colors are dark red, olive green, 
white, and black. Generally 2.5 m. x 1.6 m.
    Kipu/quipu--Inca quipus (knotted string mnemonic devices) are made 
of cotton and wool cords, sometimes with the two fibers plied together. 
Rarely is their original color preserved, though sometime one sees 
light blues and browns. Some are wrapped with colorful threads on the 
ends of the cords. 80 cm. x 50 cm.

II. Pre-Columbian Metal Objects

A. Idols

    Anthropomorphic or zoomorphic figures, some of which are hollow and 
others which are solid. They may be of gold and silver, they may be 
gilded, or of copper, or bronze. Sizes vary from 2 cm.-20 cm. in 
height.

B. Small Plaques

    Thin sheets of gold, silver, copper, or gilded copper, used to 
cover the body and made in pieces. They have repouss[eacute] or punched 
designs on the edge and middle of the sheet. Average .6 cm in height.

C. Axes

    Almost always T-shaped and solid. There are also axes in a 
traditional axe head shape. May be of bronze or copper.

D. Mace Heads

    These come in a great variety of shapes, including star-shaped, 
flat, or of two or three levels. They may be made of copper or bronze. 
Most have a central hole through which a wooden handle was affixed.

E. Musical Instruments

    Trumpets: Wind instrument with a tubular body and flaring end, 
fastened at the joint. May be of copper or bronze.
    Bells: Of varying shapes and materials (including gold, silver, 
copper, and silver-plated copper).
    Conos: Instrument shaped from a sheet of hammered metal, with or 
without a clapper. Can be of copper or silver. Up to .5 m. in height.
    Rattles: Musical instrument with a central hold to accommodate a 
handle. May be of copper or bronze. Vary from 6 cm.-25 cm. in height.
    Jingle Bells: Spherical bells with an opening on the lower part and 
a handle on the upper part so they can be suspended from a sash or 
other garment. They contain a small stone or a little ball of metal. 
The handles may be decorated. Jingle bells may decorate another object, 
such as rhythm sticks, and may be of gold, silver, or bronze. Used in 
all pre-Columbian cultures of Peru.
    Chalchachas: Instruments shaped like a bivalve with repouss[eacute] 
decoration. Made of copper.
    Quenas (flutes): Tubular instruments, generally of silver, with 
perforations to vary the tone.

F. Knives

    Knives vary depending on their provenance. They can have little or 
no decoration and can be of different metals or made of two metals. The 
best known are the tumis from the Sic[aacute]n culture, which have a 
straight or trapezoidal handle and a half-moon blade. The solid handle 
may have carved or stamped designs. Generally made of gold, silver, or 
copper. In ceremonial examples, the blade and upper part may depict an 
anthropomorphic figure standing or seated, or simply a face or mask 
with an elaborate headdress, earspools, and inset semi-precious stones. 
Tumi handles can be triangular, rectangular, or trapezoidal, and blades 
can be ovaloid or shaped like a half-moon.

G. Pins

    With a straight shaft and pointed end, pins can be flat or 
cylindrical in cross-section. Most are hammered, and some are hollow. 
They can be of gold, silver, copper, bronze, gold-plated silver or may 
be made of two metals. Some pins are zoomorphic; others have floral 
images, and still others depict fish. Some have a round head; others 
have a flat, circular head; still others have the shape of a half-moon. 
There are hollow-headed rattle pins; others have solid anthropomorphic 
images. Most are up to 50 cm. in length, with heads that are up to 10 
cm. in diameter. The small pins are about 5 cm. in length.

H. Vessels

    There are a variety of metal vessels; they may be made of gold, 
silver, gilded silver, gilded copper, silver-covered copper, and 
bronze. There are miniatures, as well as full-size vessels. Such 
vessels are known from all cultures. Forms include beakers, bowls, open 
plates, globular vessels, and stirrup-spout bottles. The exact form and 
surface decoration varies from culture to culture. Shapes include 
beakers, bowls, and plates. Average .5 m.-.3 m. in height.

I. [Reserved]

J. Masks

    May be made of gold, silver, gilded silver, copper, gilded copper, 
silver-covered copper, or may be made of two metals. They vary greatly 
in shape and design. The best known examples come from the following 
cultures: Moche, Sic[aacute]n, Chim[uacute], Huari, Inca, Nazca, and 
Chincha. The northern coast examples often have insets of shell, 
precious or semi-precious stones, and may have plant resins to depict 
the eyes and teeth. Almost all examples that have not been cleaned have 
a surface coloring of red cinnabar. Examples from Sic[aacute]n measure 
up to 49 cm. in width by 29 cm. in height. Miniature examples can 
measure 7 cm. x 5 cm. Miniature masks are also used as decorations on 
other objects. Copper examples generally show heavy oxidation.

K. Crowns

    Thin or thick sheets of metal made to encircle the head. They may 
be of silver, gold, copper, gilded silver, silver-covered copper, or 
may be made of two metals. Some examples have a curved central part, 
and may be decorated with pieces of metal and real or artificial 
feathers that are attached with small clamps. Found in all cultures.

L. Penachos (Stylized Metal Feathers)

    Stylized metal feathers used to decorate crowns. May be made of 
gold, silver, copper, or silver-covered copper.

M. Tocados (Headdresses)

    Headdress ornaments which may be simple or complex. They may be 
made of one part, or may include many pieces. Found in all cultures. 
They may take the form of crowns, diadems, or small crowns. They may 
have two stylized feathers to decorate the crown and to hold it to the 
hair (especially the Chim[uacute] examples). Paracas examples generally 
have rayed appendages, with pierced disks suspended from the ends of 
the rays.

N. Turbans

    Long pieces of cloth that are wrapped around the head. Metal 
ornaments may be sewn on turbans. Found in all cultures; the metal 
decorations and the cloth vary from culture to culture.

O. Spoons

    Utilitarian object of gold, silver, or copper.

P. Lime Spatulas

    Miniature spatula: A straight handle has a slightly spoon-shaped 
end. The handle may have an anthropomorphic figure. Made of gold, 
silver, or copper.

Q. Ear Spools

    Ear spools are generally made of a large cylinder which fits 
through the earlobe and an even larger disk or decorative sheet on one 
side. The disk may be decorated with repouss[eacute], stamped, or 
engraved designs, or may

[[Page 26344]]

have inset stone or shell. May be made of gold, silver, copper, or made 
of two metals. Ear spools are found in all cultures. The largest 
measure up to 15 cm. height; typical diameter: 5 cm.-14 cm.

R. Nose Ornaments

    Of varied shapes, nose ornaments can be as simple as a straight 
tube or as complex as a flat sheet with repouss[eacute] design. In the 
upper part, there are two points to attach the ornament to the septum. 
They may be of gold, silver, or copper or may be made of two metals.

S. Earrings

    Decoration to be suspended from the earlobes.

T. Rings

    Simple bands with or without designs. Some are two bands united by 
filigree spirals. Some have inset stones. May be of silver, gold, 
copper, or alloys.

U. Bracelets

    Bracelets are made of sheets of metal with a straight or slightly 
trapezoidal shape, with stamped or repouss[eacute] designs. Some are 
simple, narrow bands. Found in all cultures and with varied designs. 
May be of gold, silver, bronze, or alloys of copper. Generally 4 cm.-14 
cm. in width.

V. Necklaces

    Necklaces are made of beads and/or small carved beads. May be of 
shell, bone, stone, gold, silver, copper, or bronze. The beads are of 
varied shapes. All beads have two lateral perforations to hold the 
cord.

W. Tweezers

    Made in one piece, with two identical ends and a flexed central 
handle. They are of varied shapes, including triangular, trapezoidal, 
and ovaloid. The middle of the handle may have a hole so the tweezers 
can be suspended from a cord.

X. Feather Carrier

    Conical objects with a pointed, hollow end, into which feathers, 
llama skin, or monkey tails are inserted and held in place with tar. 
They may be made of gold, silver, or gilded or silver-plated copper.

III. Pre-Columbian Ceramics

A. Chav[iacute]n

    Date: 1200-200 B.C.
Characteristics
    Decoration: A grey-black color. Incised, modeled, and high and low-
relief are combined to work out designs in grays and browns. The 
surface may also juxtapose polishing and matte finish in different 
design zones.
    Forms: Bottles, plates, and bowls.
    Size: 5 cm.-30 cm.
    Identifying: Characteristic traits of Cupisnique and Chav[iacute]n 
ceramics include: Globular body with a flat base and stirrup spout; 
thick neck with an obvious and everted lip. Chav[iacute]n style also 
includes long-necked bottles, bowls with flaring walls, and highly-
polished relief-decorated surfaces.
    Styles: Chav[iacute]n influence is seen in Cupisnique, Chongoyape, 
Poemape, Tembladera, Patapo, and Chilete.

B. Vic[uacute]s

    Date: 900 B.C.-A.D. 500.
Characteristics
    Decoration: Geometric designs in white on red, made using negative 
technique. There are also monochrome examples.
    Forms: Anthropomorphic, zoomorphic and plant-shaped vessels. Some 
have a double body linked by a tube or common opening.
    Size: 30 cm.-40 cm. tall.

C. Vir[uacute] or Gallinazo

Characteristics
    Decoration: Negative technique over orange background.
    Forms: Faced anthropomorphic and zoomorphic vessels, face bottles 
for daily use in dwellings, ``cancheros'' (type of pot without a neck 
and with a horn-shaped handle).
    Size: Up to 15 cm. high.
    Identifying: The surface is basically orange; the vessels have a 
truncated spout, an arched bridge (like a tube) as handle, and 
geometric symbols in negative technique (concentric circles, frets and 
wavy lines). When the vessels represent a face, the eyes are like 
``coffee beans,'' applied on the surface and with a transverse cut.

D. Pucara

    Date: 300 B.C.-300 A.D.
Characteristics
    Decoration: Slip-painted and incised. Modeled elements include 
stylized felines and camelids, along with an anthropomorphic image 
characteristically depicted with a staff in each hand. Vessels are 
typically decorated in yellows, black, and white on the red background 
of the vessel. Designs are characteristically outlined by incision. 
There may be modeled decoration, such as feline heads, attached to the 
vessels.
    Shapes: Tall bowls with annular ring bases predominate, along with 
vessels that depict anthropomorphic images.
    Size: Bowls are up to 20 cm. in diameter and 20 cm. in height.

E. Paracas

    Date: Developed around 200 B.C.
Characteristics
    Vessels are typically incised, with post-fired resin painting on a 
black background.
    Size: 10 cm.-15 cm. high.

F. Nazca

    Date: A.D. 100-600.
Characteristics
    Color: Typically very colorful, with a range of slips including 
cream, black, red, violet, orange, gray, all in a range of tones.
    Slip: Background slip is generally cream or orange.
    Shapes: Cups, bowls, beakers, plates, double-spout-and-bridge 
bottles, anthropomorphic figures, and musical instruments.
    Decoration: Realistic drawings of fantastic creatures, including 
the ``Flying God.'' In late Nazca, bottles are broader and flatter and 
the designs are arrayed in broad bands. Typically have decorations of 
trophy heads, geometric motifs, and painted female faces.
    Size: 5 cm.-20 cm.

G. Recuay

    Date: A.D. 100-700.
Characteristics
    Slip: Both positive and negative slip-painting is found, generally 
in colors of black, cream and red.
    Shapes: Sculptural, especially ceremonial jars known as ``Paccha'' 
which have an elaborate outlet to serve a liquid.
    Decoration: Usually show groups of religious or mythical 
personages.
    Size: 20 cm.--35 cm. in height.

H. Pashash

    Date: A.D. 1-600.
Characteristics
    Decoration: Positive decoration in black, red, and orange on a 
creamy-white background. Some show negative painting.
    Shapes: Anthropomorphic vessels, bottles in the form of snakes, 
bowls with annular base, and large vessels with lids.
    Size: The anthropomorphic vessels are up to 20 cm. in height, 
serpent bottles are around 25 cm. wide x 10 cm. tall, and lidded 
vessels are more than 30 cm. in height.

[[Page 26345]]

    Motifs: The decorations are rendered in positive or negative 
painting in zones that depict profile-face images of zoomorphic 
figures, serpents, or worms, seen from above and with trapezoidal 
heads.

I. Cajamarca

    Date: A.D. 500-900.
Characteristics
    Decoration: Pre-fired slip painting with geometric designs, 
including stepped triangles, circles, lines, dots, and rows of volutes. 
They may include stylized birds, felines, camelids, batrachians, and 
serpents. Spiral figures may include a step-fret motif in the base of 
the bowls.
    Shapes: Pedestal base bowls, tripod bowls, bottles with annular 
ring base, goblets, spoons with modeled handles, bowls with carinated 
edges.

J. Moche

    Date: A.D. 200-700.
Characteristics
    Forms: Stirrup-spout vessels, vessels in the shape of humans, 
animals, or plants.
    Colors: Generally red and white.
    Manufacture: Often mold-made.
    Size: 15 cm.-25 cm. in height.
    Decoration: Wide range of images showing scenes of real life or 
mythical scenes depicting gods, warriors, and other images.

K. Tiahuanaco

    Date: A.D. 200-700.
Characteristics
    Decoration: Pre-fired slip painting on a highly polished surface. 
Background is generally a red-orange, with depictions of human, animal, 
and geometric images, generally outlined in black and white lines.
    Shapes: Plates, cups, jars, beakers, open-backed incense burners on 
a flat base.

L. Lima

    Date: A.D. 200-700.
Characteristics
    Decoration: Pre-fired slip painting with interlocking fish and 
snake designs, geometric motifs, including zig-zags, lines, circles, 
and dots.
    Shapes: Breast-shaped bottles, cups, plates, bowls, and cook pots.
    Styles: Related to Playa Grande, Nievera, and Pachacamac styles.

M. Huari

    Date: A.D. 500-1000.
Characteristics
    Colors: Orange, cream, violet, white, black, and red.
    Motifs: Anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, and plant shapes, both 
stylized and realistic. In Pachacamac style one finds vessels with a 
globular body and long, conical neck. In Atarco style, there is slip 
painting that retains Nazca motifs, especially in the full-body felines 
shown running.
    Slip: Background slip is commonly cream, red, or black.
    Styles: Related to Vinaque, Atarco, Pachacamac, Qosqopa, Robles 
Moqo, Conchopata, and Caquipampa styles.
    Size: Most are around 25 cm. tall. Robles Moqo urns may be up to 1 
m. in height.

N. Santa

    Date: Derived from Huari style, around A.D. 800.
Characteristics
    Decoration: Slip painted with figures and designs in black and 
white on a red background. There are also face-neck jars.
    Shapes: Effigy vessels, face-neck jars, double-body vessels.
    Sizes: 12 cm.-20 cm. tall.
    Shapes: Jars have a globular body and face on the neck. The border 
may have black and white checkerboard. The body sometimes takes the 
shape of a stylized llama head. Common are white lines dotted with 
black. Double-body vessels generally have an anthropomorphic image on 
the front vessel, and a plain back vessel.

O. Chancay

    Date: A.D. 1000-1300.
Characteristics
    Treatment: Rubbed surface.
    Slip: White or cream with black or dark brown designs.
    Molds: Molds are commonly used, especially for the anthropomorphic 
figures called ``cuchimilcos,'' which represent naked male and female 
figures with short arms stretched to the sides.
    Size: 3 cm.-1 m.

P. Ica-Chincha

    Date: Began to be developed in A.D. 1200.
Characteristics
    Decoration: Polychrome painting in black and white on red.
    Designs: Geometric motifs combined with fish and birds.
    Shapes: Bottles with globular bodies and tall necks and with 
flaring rims. Cups and pots.
    Size: 5 cm.-30 cm. high.

Q. Chim[uacute]

    Date: A.D. 900-1500.
Characteristics
    Slip: Monochrome. Usually black or red.
    Shapes: Varied shapes. Commonly made in molds. They may represent 
fish, birds, animals, fruit, people, and architectural forms. One sees 
globular bodies with a stirrup spout and a small bird or monkey at the 
base of the neck.
    Size: Between 30 cm.-40 cm. in height.

R. Lambayeque

    Date: A.D. 700-1100.
Characteristics
    Color: Generally black; a few are cream with red decoration.
    Shapes: Double spout and bridge vessels on a pedestal base are 
common. At the base of the spout one sees modeled heads and the bridge 
also often has modeled heads.
    Size: 15 cm.-25 cm. in height.

S. Inca

    Date: A.D. 1300-1500.
Characteristics
    Decoration: Slip painted in black, red, white, yellow, and orange.
    Designs: Geometric designs (rhomboids and triangles) and stylized 
bees, butterflies, and animals.
    Sizes: 1 cm. to 1.5 m. in height.

IV. Pre-Columbian Lithics

A. Chipped Stone: Projectile Points

Paij[aacute]n Type Points
    Size: 8 cm.-18 cm.
    Shape: Triangular or heart-shaped.
    Color: Generally reddish, orange, or yellow. Can be made of quartz.
Leaf-Shaped Points
    Size: 2.5 cm.-15 cm.
    Shape: Leaf-shaped. Can be ovaloid or lanceolate.
    Color: Generally bright reds, yellows, ochers, quartz crystals, 
milky whites, greens and blacks.
Paracas Type Points
    Size: .3 cm.-25 cm.
    Shape: Triangular and lanceolate. Show marks of pressure-flaking. 
Often they are broken.
    Color: Generally black.
Chivateros-Type Blanks
    Size: .8 cm.-18 cm.
    Shape: Concave indentations on the surface from working.
    Color: Greens, reds, and yellows.

[[Page 26346]]

B. Polished Stone

    Bowl--Vessels of dark colored-stone, sometimes streaked. They have 
a highly polished, very smooth surface. Some show external carved 
decoration. Diameters range from 12 cm-55 cm.
    Cups--Also vessels of dark-colored stone. Generally have flaring 
sides. Typical of the Late Horizon. They are highly polished and may 
have external carved designs or may be in the shape of heads. 18 cm.-28 
cm. in height.
    Conopas--Small vessels in the form of camelids with a hollow 
opening on the back. They are black to greenish-black and highly 
polished. .8 cm.-16 cm. in length.
    Idols--Small anthropomorphic figurines, frequently found in Middle 
Horizon contexts. The almond-shaped eyes with tear-bands are 
characteristic of the style. Larger examples tend to be of lighter-
colored stone while the smaller ones are of dark stones. 12 cm.-28 cm. 
in height.
    Mace head--Varying shapes, most commonly are doughnut-shaped or 
star-shaped heads, generally associated with Late Intermediate Period 
and Inca cultures. Commonly black, gray, or white, .8 cm.-20 cm. in 
diameter.
    Metal-working hammer--Elongated shapes, frequently with one flat 
surface; highly polished. Generally of dark-colored stone, 3 cm.-12 cm.

C. Carved Material

    Tenon head--These heads have an anthropomorphic face, prominent 
lips, and enormous noses. Some, especially those carved of diorite, 
have snake-like traits. The carved surface is highly polished.
    Tablets--with high-relief design. The upper surface has a patina. 
They range from 20 cm. to more than 1 m. in length.

V. Pre-Columbian Perishable Remains

A. Wood

    Keros (Beakers)--The most common form is a bell-shaped beaker with 
a flat base, though some have a pedestal like a goblet. Decoration 
varies with the period:
    Pre-Inca: Very rare, they have straight sides and incised or high-
relief decoration. Some have inset shells.
    Inca: Generally they are incised with geometric designs on the 
entire exterior.
    Colonial Inca: Lacquer painted on the exterior to depict scenes of 
daily life, nature, and war.
    Staffs--Objects of ritual or ceremonial use made of a single piece 
of wood. They can be distinguished on the basis of two or three of the 
following traits:
    On the lower third, the staff may have a metal decoration.
    The body itself is cylindrical and of variable length.
    The upper third may have decorations, including inset shell, stone, 
or metal. Some staffs function as rattles, and in these cases, the 
rattle is in the upper part.
    Carvings--Worked blocks of wood, such as wooden columns (orcones) 
to support the roofs of houses: Chincha, Chim[uacute], and Chancay 
cultures. Individuals may be depicted standing or seated on a pedestal. 
In the upper part there is a notch to support the beams, which 
generally has a face, sometimes painted, at the base of the notch. 
Their length varies, but they are generally at least a meter or more.
    Box--Small lidded boxes, carved of two pieces of wood. Generally 
the outer surface of box and lid are carved in relief. Chim[uacute]-
Inca cultures. They measure approximately 20 cm. x 10 cm.
    Mirror--Wooden supports for a reflective surface of polished 
anthracite or pyrite. In some cases the upper part of backs of mirrors 
are worked in relief or have inset of shell. Moche culture.
    Paddle and rudder--Large carvings made of a single piece of wood. 
Paddles have three parts: The blade and the handle (sometimes 
decorated), and an upper decorated part, which can have metal plaques 
or decorative painting. Rudders have two parts: The blade and a handle 
which may be carved in relief. Chincha culture. Paddles can be 2.30 m. 
in length and rudders are up to 1.4 m.
    Utensils--Bowls and spoons made of wood decorated with zoomorphic 
or anthropomorphic motifs.
    Musical instruments--Trumpets and whistles. Trumpets can be up to 
1.2 m. long and are generally decorated on the upper third of the 
instrument. Whistles vary a great deal from the undecorated to those 
decorated with human forms. Moche, Huari, and Inca cultures.

B. Bone

    Worked bone--Most interesting are Chav[iacute]n pieces with incised 
decorations. The bones are generally the long bones of mammals. They 
vary from 10 cm.-25 cm. in length.
    Balance weights--Flat rectangles of bone about 10 cm. in length. 
Chincha culture.
    Musical instruments--Quenas (flutes) and antaras (panpipes) in 
various shapes. Paracas, Chincha, and Ancon cultures.

C. Gourds

    Vessels--Bowls, pots, and holders for lime (for coca chewing). Most 
interesting are those which are carved or pyroengraved. Produced from 
the Preceramic onward.
    Musical instruments--Ocarinas, small flutes, and whistles. Inca 
examples may have incised decoration, or decoration with cords and 
feathers.

D. Cane

    Musical instruments--Flutes (especially in Chancay culture), 
panpipes, and whistles. Flutes are often pyroengraved. Panpipes can 
have one or two tiers of pipes, which may be lashed together with 
colored thread. Nazca culture.

E. Straw

    Weaving baskets--Basketry over a cane armature, in the shape of a 
lidded box. Sometimes the basketry is made of several colors of fiber 
to work out geometric designs. Some still hold their original contents: 
Needles, spindle whorls, spindles, balls of thread, loose thread, etc. 
Chancay culture.

F. Shell

    Musical instruments--Marine shells (Strombus galeatus, Malea 
ringens, etc.), some, especially those from the Formative Period, with 
incised decoration.
    Jewelry--Small beads and charms worked of shell, chiefly Spondylus 
princeps, used mainly in necklaces and pectorals. Moche, Chim[uacute], 
and Inca cultures.

VI. Pre-Columbian Human Remains

    The human remains included in this listing demonstrate 
modifications of the remains due to ritualistic practices or other 
intentional treatment of the deceased.

A. Mummies

    Peruvian mummies were formed by natural mummification due to the 
conditions of burial; they have generally not been eviscerated. Usually 
found in flexed position, with extremities tied together, resulting in 
a fetal position. In many cases the cords used to tie the body in this 
position are preserved.

B. Deformed Skulls

    Many ancient Peruvian cultures practiced cranial deformation. Such 
skulls are easily recognized by their unnatural shapes.

C. Skulls Displaying Trepanation

    Trepanation is an operation performed on a skull; the resulting 
cuts, easily visible on a bare skull, take various forms. Cuts may be 
less easily distinguished if skin and hair are present:
Principal Techniques
    a. Straight cuts: These cuts are pointed at the ends and wider in 
the

[[Page 26347]]

center. Openings made this way have a polygonal shape.
    b. Cylindrical-conical openings: The openings form a discontinuous 
line. The resulting opening has a serrated edge.
    c. Circular: Generally made by a file. The resulting hole is round 
or elliptical, with beveled or straight edges. This is the most common 
form of trepanation.

D. Pre-Columbian Trophy Heads

    Trophy heads can be identified by the hole made in the forehead to 
accommodate a carrying cord. When the skin is intact, the eyes and the 
mouth are held shut with cactus thorns. Finally, the occiput is missing 
since that is how the brain was removed when the trophy head was 
prepared.

E. Shrunken Trophy Heads From the Amazon

    These heads have had the bones removed and then have been cured to 
shrink them. They are recognizable because they conserve all the traits 
of the original skin, including hair and hair follicles. The mouth is 
sewn shut and generally there are carrying cords attached. There may be 
an obvious seam to repair the cuts made when the skin was removed from 
the skull. Finally, the skin is thick (up to 2.5 mm.) and has a dark 
color. Trophy heads vary between 9.5 cm. and 15.5 cm. in height.

F. Tattoos

    Tattooing in pre-Columbian Peru was practiced mainly on the wrists. 
Most common are geometric designs, including bands of triangles and 
rhomboids of a bluish color.

G. False Shrunken Heads

    False shrunken heads can be recognized because they are made of the 
skin of a mammal, with some of the fur left where the human hair would 
be. The skin is first smoked, then pressed into a mold to give it a 
face-like shape. The eyes, nose, mouth and ears are simple bumps 
without real holes. Further, the skin is very thin and yellowish in 
color. Often the ``heads'' have eyebrows and moustaches formed by 
leaving some of the animal hair, but these features are grotesque 
because they appear to grow upside down.

VII. Ethnological Objects

    A. Objects directly related to the pre-Columbian past, whose pre-
Columbian design and function are maintained with some Colonial 
modifications or additions in technique and/or iconography.

Colonial Indigenous Textiles

    Predominant materials: Cotton and wool.
    Description: These textiles are characterized by the cut of the 
cloth, with the four borders or selvages finished on the same loom. 
Clothes are untailored and made from smaller pieces of convenient sizes 
which were then sewn together. Colonial indigenous textiles of the 
period are differentiated from pre-Columbian textiles primarily by 
their decoration: Western motifs such as lions, heraldic emblems, and 
Spanish personages are incorporated into the designs; sometimes fibers 
distinct from cotton or wool (threads of silver, gold, and silk) are 
woven into the cloth; and the colors tend to be more vivid because the 
fabrics were made more recently. Another important characteristic of 
the clothing is the presence of tocapus or horizontal bands of small 
squares with anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, phytomorphic and geometric 
ideographs and designs. Characteristic textiles include:
    Panels: Rectangular or square pieces of various sizes.
    Anacus: Untailored woman's dress consisting of two or three long 
horizontal pieces of cloth sewn together that was wound around the body 
and held in place with ``tupus'' (pins).
    Unku/Tunic: Man's shirt with an opening for the head. Sometimes has 
sleeves.
    Lliclla/Shoulder Mantle: Rectangular piece of cloth that women put 
over their shoulders and held in place by a tupu; standard size: 40'' x 
45''. Generally has a tripartite design based on contrasting panels 
that alternate bands with decoration and bands with solid colors.
    Chumpi/Belt: A woven belt, generally using tapestry technique.

Tupus

    Material: Silver, gilded silver, copper, bronze. May have inlays of 
precious or semi-precious stones.
    Description: Tupus were used to hold in place llicllas and ancus. 
They are pins with a round or elliptical head, with piercing, 
repouss[eacute], and incised decorations. The difference between pre-
Columbian and ethnological tupus can be seen in the introduction of 
Western designs, for example bi-frontal eagles and heraldic motifs.

Keros

    Material: Wood.
    Description: The most common form is a beaker like cup with 
truncated base. After the Conquest, keros started to be decorated with 
pictorial scenes. The most frequently used techniques include incision, 
inlaying pigments in wood, and painting. Ideography includes geometric 
designs, figures under a rainbow (an Inca symbol), ceremonial rituals, 
scenes of war, and agricultural scenes. Sometimes are in the form of 
human or zoomorphic heads.

Cochas or Cocchas

    Material: Ceramic.
    Description: Ceremonial vessels with two or more concentric 
interior compartments which are linked. Often decorated with volutes 
representing reptiles.

Aribalos

    Material: Ceramic.
    Description: The post-Conquest aribalos have a flat base, often 
using a glaze for finishing, and the decoration includes Inca and 
Hispanic motifs.

Pacchas

    Material: Stone, ceramic.
    Description: One of the characteristics of pacchas is that they 
have a drain which is used to sprinkle an offering on the ground. They 
have pictorial or sculpted relief decorations symbolizing the benefits 
hoped for from the ritual.
    B. Objects that were used for religious evangelism among indigenous 
peoples.
    In Colonial paintings and sculptures Western religious themes were 
reinterpreted by indigenous and mestizo artists who added their own 
images and other characteristics to create a distinct iconography.
    Specific types of objects used for religious evangelism during the 
Colonial period include the following:

Sculpture

    Types of statues include:
    A three-dimensional sculpted image: In the Peruvian Colonial period 
these were made of maguey (a soft wood) and occasionally of cedar or 
walnut.
    Images made of a dough composed of sawdust, glue and plaster: After 
they are sculpted, figures are dressed with cloth dipped in plaster.
    Images to be dressed: These are wooden frames resembling 
mannequins, with only the head and arms sculpted in wood (cedar or 
maguey). The images are dressed with embroidered clothes and jewelry. 
Frequently other elements were added, such as teeth and false 
eyelashes, wigs of real hair, eyes of colored glass, and palates made 
of glass.

Paintings

    Catholic priests provided indigenous and mestizo artists with 
canvases and reproductions of Western works of art, which the artists 
then ``interpreted'' with their own images and other indigenous 
characteristics. These may include symbolically associating Christian 
religious figures with

[[Page 26348]]

indigenous divinities, or rendering the figures with Andean facial 
characteristics or in traditional Andean costume. In addition, each 
church, convent, monastery, and town venerated an effigy of its patron 
or tutelar saint, some of them native to Peru.

Retables

    Retables (retablos) are architectonic structures made of stone, 
wood, or other material that are placed behind the altar and include 
attached paintings, sculptures or other religious objects.

Liturgical Objects

    Objects Used for Mass Ritual: Chalices, cibaries, candelabras, 
vials for christening or consecrated oil, reliquaries, vessels for wine 
and water, incense burners, patens, monstrances, pelicans and 
crucifixes. Made out of silver, gold or gilded silver, often inlaid 
with pearls or precious stones. Techniques: Casting, engraving, 
piercing, repouss[eacute], filigree.
    Fixtures for sculpted images: Areoles, crowns, scepters, halo, 
halos in the form of rays, and books carried by religious scholars and 
founders of religious orders.
    Ecclesiastical vestments: Some ecclesiastical vestments were 
commissioned by indigenous individuals or communities for the 
celebrations of their patron saint and thus are part of the religious 
legacy of a particular town. In such cases, the vestment has the name 
of the donor and of the town or church as well as the date.
    Votive Offerings: These are representations of miracles or favors 
received from a particular saint. They can be made of different 
materials, usually metal or wood, and come in a variety of forms 
according to the type of favor received, usually representing parts of 
the human body in reference to the organ healed or agricultural 
products in recognition of a good harvest or increase in a herd.
    C. Colonial Manuscripts and Documents
    Predominant materials: Paper, parchment, vellum
    Description: Original handwritten texts or printed texts of limited 
circulation dating to the Colonial period (AD 1532-1821). These include 
but are not limited to notary documents (wills, bill of sales, 
contracts), ecclesiastical materials, and documents of the city 
councils, Governorate of New Castile, the Governorate of New Toledo, 
the Vice Royalty of Peru, the Real Audiencia and Chancery of Lima, or 
the Council of the Indies. These can include books, single folios, or 
collections of related documents bound with string. Documents may 
contain a seal or ink stamp denoting a public or ecclesiastical 
institution. Because many of these documents are of institutional or 
official nature, they may have multiple signatures, denoting scribes, 
witnesses, and other authorities. Documents are generally written in 
Spanish, but may be composed in an indigenous language such as Quechua 
or Aymara.
    The restrictions on the importation of these archaeological and 
ethnological materials from Peru are to continue in effect through June 
9, 2022. Importation of such material continues to be restricted unless 
the conditions set forth in 19 U.S.C. 2606 and 19 CFR 12.104c are met.

Inapplicability of Notice and Delayed Effective Date

    This amendment involves a foreign affairs function of the United 
States and is, therefore, being made without notice or public procedure 
(5 U.S.C. 553(a)(1)). For the same reasons, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 
553(d)(3), a delayed effective date is not required.

Regulatory Flexibility Act

    Because no notice of proposed rulemaking is required, the 
provisions of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) do 
not apply.

Executive Order 12866

    Because this rule involves a foreign affairs function of the United 
States, it is not subject to Executive Order 12866.

Signing Authority

    This regulation is being issued in accordance with 19 CFR 
0.1(a)(1).

List of Subjects

    Cultural property, Customs duties and inspection, Imports, 
Prohibited merchandise.

Amendment to CBP Regulations

    For the reasons set forth above, part 12 of title 19 of the Code of 
Federal Regulations (19 CFR part 12), is amended as set forth below:

PART 12--SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE

0
1. The general authority citation for part 12 and the specific 
authority citation for Sec.  12.104g continue to read as follows:

    Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301; 19 U.S.C. 66, 1202 (General Note 3(i), 
Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS)), 1624.
* * * * *
    Sections 12.104 through 12.104i also issued under 19 U.S.C. 
2612;
* * * * *


Sec.  12.104g  [Amended]

0
2. In Sec.  12.104g(a), the table of the list of agreements imposing 
import restrictions on described articles of cultural property of State 
Parties is amended in the entry for Peru by removing the words ``T.D. 
97-50 extended by CBP Dec. 12-11'' and adding in their place ``CBP Dec. 
17-03'' in the column headed ``Decision No.''.

Kevin K. McAleenan,
Acting Commissioner, U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
    Approved: June 2, 2017.
Timothy E. Skud,
Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.
[FR Doc. 2017-11841 Filed 6-6-17; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 9111-14-P