Special Conditions: Associated Air Center, Boeing Model 747-8 Airplane; Installation of an Airbag System To Limit the Axial Rotation of the Upper Leg on Single-Place Side-Facing Seats, 51095-51097 [2016-18398]

Download as PDF Federal Register / Vol. 81, No. 149 / Wednesday, August 3, 2016 / Rules and Regulations workload. Airplane attitudes or crosswind conditions may cause certain symbols (e.g., the zero-pitch line or flight path vector) to reach field-of-view limits such that they cannot be positioned conformally with the image and external scene. In such cases, these symbols may be displayed but with an altered appearance, which makes the pilot aware that they are no longer displayed conformally (for example, ‘‘ghosting’’). f. A HUD system used to display EFVS images must, if previously certified, continue to meet all of the requirements of the original approval. 3. The safety and performance of the pilot tasks associated with the use of the pilot compartment view must not be degraded by the display of the EFVS image. Pilot tasks that must not be degraded by the EFVS image include: a. Detection, accurate identification, and maneuvering, as necessary, to avoid traffic, terrain, obstacles, and other hazards of flight. b. Accurate identification and utilization of visual references required for every task relevant to the phase of flight. 4. Use of EFVS for instrument approach operations must be in accordance with the provisions of § 91.175(l) and (m), and § 121.651, where applicable. Appropriate limitations must be stated in the operating limitations section of the airplane flight manual to prohibit the use of the EFVS for functions that have not been found to be acceptable. Issued in Renton, Washington, on July 27, 2016. Victor Wicklund, Acting Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2016–18445 Filed 8–2–16; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–13–P DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 rmajette on DSK2TPTVN1PROD with RULES [Docket No. FAA–2016–7851; Special Conditions No. 25–625–SC] Special Conditions: Associated Air Center, Boeing Model 747–8 Airplane; Installation of an Airbag System To Limit the Axial Rotation of the Upper Leg on Single-Place Side-Facing Seats Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special conditions; request for comments. AGENCY: VerDate Sep<11>2014 14:12 Aug 02, 2016 Jkt 238001 These special conditions are issued for the Boeing Model 747–8 airplane. This airplane, as modified by Associated Air Center, will have a novel or unusual design feature when compared to the state of technology envisioned in the airworthiness standards for transport-category airplanes. This design feature is an airbag system to limit axial rotation of the upper leg, due to leg flail, of occupants in single-place side-facing seats. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for these design features. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. DATES: This action is effective on Associated Air Center on August 3, 2016. We must receive your comments by September 19, 2016. ADDRESSES: Send comments identified by docket number FAA–2016–7851 using any of the following methods: • Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/and follow the online instructions for sending your comments electronically. • Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M–30, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Room W12–140, West Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC 20590–0001. • Hand Delivery or Courier: Take comments to Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. • Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202–493–2251. Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without change, to http://www.regulations.gov/, including any personal information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the docket Web site, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT’s complete Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477–19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo. dot.gov/. Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at http://www.regulations.gov/ at any time. Follow the online instructions for SUMMARY: PO 00000 Frm 00021 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 51095 accessing the docket or go to Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jayson Claar, FAA, Airframe and Cabin Safety Branch, ANM–115, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington 98057–3356; telephone 425–227–2194; facsimile 425–227–1320. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The substance of these special conditions has been subject to the public comment process with no comments received. The FAA therefore finds that good cause exists for making these special conditions effective upon publication in the Federal Register. Comments Invited We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. We will consider all comments we receive by the closing date for comments. We may change these special conditions based on the comments we receive. Background On February 15, 2014, Associated Air Center applied for a supplemental type certificate for inflatable airbag systems in the Boeing Model 747–8 airplane. This airplane, currently approved under type certificate no. A20WE, is a private, not-for-hire, not-for-common-carriage business jet with a head-of-state interior. This airplane has a maximum passenger seating capacity of 113. Twelve of the passenger-seating positions include single-place side-facing seats, each of which include an airbag system to protect against leg-flail injuries. Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 21.101, Associated Air Center must show that the Model 747–8 airplane, as changed, continues to meet the applicable provisions of the regulations listed in type certificate no. A20WE, or the applicable regulations in effect on the date of application for the change, except for earlier amendments as agreed upon by the FAA. If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain E:\FR\FM\03AUR1.SGM 03AUR1 51096 Federal Register / Vol. 81, No. 149 / Wednesday, August 3, 2016 / Rules and Regulations adequate or appropriate safety standards for the Model 747–8 airplane because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed under the provisions of § 21.16. Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which they are issued. Should the applicant apply for a supplemental type certificate to modify any other model included on the same type certificate to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would also apply to the other model under § 21.101. In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special conditions, the Boeing Model 747–8 airplane must comply with the fuel-vent and exhaust-emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the noisecertification requirements of 14 CFR part 36. The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in accordance with § 11.38, and they become part of the type certification basis under § 21.101. Novel or Unusual Design Features The Boeing Model 747–8 airplane, as modified by Associated Air Center, will incorporate the following novel or unusual design features: An airbag system to limit axial rotation of the upper leg, due to leg flail, of occupants in single-place side-facing seats. rmajette on DSK2TPTVN1PROD with RULES Discussion The Boeing Model 747–8 airplane has an interior configuration that includes single-place side-facing seats. These seats include an airbag system in the shoulder belt, per Special Conditions no. 25–606–SC; and an airbag system to limit the axial rotation of the upper leg (femur). Side-facing seats are considered a novel design for transport-category airplanes that include title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 25, Amendment 25–64, in their certification bases and were not anticipated when those airworthiness standards were issued. Therefore, the existing regulations do not provide adequate or appropriate safety standards for occupants of side-facing seats. The FAA issued Special Conditions no. 25–606– SC to address the certification of singleand multiple-place side facing seats for Boeing 747–8 airplanes. Those special conditions include condition 2(e), which requires the axial rotation of the upper-leg (femur) to be limited to 35 degrees in either direction from the nominal seat position. Associated Air Center has developed an airbag system that will be installed close to the floor VerDate Sep<11>2014 14:12 Aug 02, 2016 Jkt 238001 and that is designed to limit the axial rotation of the upper-leg. Serious leg injuries, such as femur fracture, can occur in aviation sidefacing seats, injuries that could threaten the occupant’s life directly or eliminate the occupant’s ability to evacuate the airplane. Limiting upper-leg axial rotation to a conservative limit of 35 degrees (approximately the 50percentile range of motion) should also limit the risk of serious leg injury. Research suggests that the angle of rotation can be determined by observing lower-leg flailing in typical high-speed video of the dynamic tests. Alternately, the anthropomorphic test dummy could be instrumented to directly measure upper-leg axial rotation. This requirement complies with the intent of the § 25.562(a) injury criteria in preventing serious leg injury. To comply with special condition 2(e) on some seat positions, Associated Air Center proposes to install leg-flail airbags. This airbag is not addressed in Special Conditions no. 25–606–SC. Therefore, the FAA must issue new special conditions to address this legflail airbag installation. These special conditions are similar to other special conditions previously issued for airbags. Special Conditions no. 25–606–SC for the airbag system in the shoulder belt are based on previous special conditions for airbag systems on forward-facing seat lap belts with some changes to address the specific issues of side-facing seats. These special conditions for the legflail airbag contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. Applicability As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the Boeing Model 747–8 airplane as modified by Associated Air Center. Should Associated Air Center apply at a later date for a supplemental type certificate to modify any other model included on type certificate no. A20WE to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would apply to that model as well. Conclusion This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features on one model series of airplanes. It is not a rule of general applicability and affects only the applicant who applied to the FAA for approval of these features on the airplane. The substance of these special conditions previously has been PO 00000 Frm 00022 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 subjected to the notice and comment period and has been derived without substantive change from those previously issued. It is unlikely that prior public comment would result in a significant change from the substance contained herein. Therefore, the FAA has determined that prior public notice and comment are unnecessary, and good cause exists for adopting these special conditions upon publication in the Federal Register. The FAA is requesting comments to allow interested persons to submit views that may not have been submitted in response to the prior opportunities for comment described above. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25 Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704. The Special Conditions Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of the type certification basis for Boeing Model 747–8 airplanes modified by Associated Air Center. In addition to the requirements of §§ 25.562 and 25.785, and Special Conditions no. 25–606–SC, the following special conditions are part of the type certification basis for Boeing 747–8 airplanes with leg-flail airbag systems installed on side-facing seats. 1. For seats with leg-flail airbag systems, these systems must deploy and provide protection under crash conditions where it is necessary to prevent serious injury. The means of protection must take into consideration a range of stature from a 2-year-old child to a 95th-percentile male. At some buttock popliteal length and effective seat-bottom depth, the lower legs will not be able to form a 90-degree angle with the upper leg; at this point, the lower-leg flail would not occur. The legflail airbag system must provide a consistent approach to prevention of leg flail throughout that range of occupants whose lower legs can form a 90-degree angle relative to the upper legs when seated upright in the seat. Items that need to be considered include, but are not limited to, the range of occupants’ popliteal height, the range of occupants’ buttock popliteal length, the design of the seat effective height above the floor, and the effective depth of the seat bottom cushion. 2. The leg-flail airbag system must not be susceptible to inadvertent E:\FR\FM\03AUR1.SGM 03AUR1 rmajette on DSK2TPTVN1PROD with RULES Federal Register / Vol. 81, No. 149 / Wednesday, August 3, 2016 / Rules and Regulations deployment as a result of wear and tear, or inertial loads resulting from in-flight or ground maneuvers (including gusts and hard landings), and other operating and environmental conditions (vibrations, moisture, etc.) likely to occur in service. 3. Deployment of the leg-flail airbag system must not introduce injury mechanisms to the seated occupant, or result in injuries that could impede rapid egress. 4. Inadvertent deployment of the legflail airbag system, during the most critical part of the flight, must either meet the requirement of § 25.1309(b), or not cause a hazard to the airplane or its occupants. This also includes preventing inadvertent airbag deployment from a static discharge. 5. The leg-flail airbag system must not impede rapid egress of occupants from the airplane 10 seconds after airbag deployment. 6. The leg-flail airbag system must be protected from lightning and highintensity radiated fields (HIRF). The threats to the airplane specified in existing regulations regarding lightning (§ 25.1316) and HIRF (§ 25.1317) are incorporated by reference for the purpose of measuring lightning and HIRF protection. 7. The leg-flail airbag system must function properly after loss of normal airplane electrical power, and after a transverse separation of the fuselage at the most critical location. A separation at the location of the leg-flail airbag system does not have to be considered. 8. The leg-flail airbag system must not release hazardous quantities of gas, sharp injurious metal fragments, or particulate matter into the cabin. 9. The leg-flail airbag system installation must be protected from the effects of fire such that no hazard to occupants will result. 10. A means must be available to verify the integrity of the leg-flail airbag system’s activation system prior to each flight, or the leg-flail airbag system’s activation system must reliably operate between inspection intervals. The FAA considers that the loss of the leg-flail airbag system’s deployment function alone (i.e., independent of the conditional event that requires the legflail airbag system’s deployment) is a major-failure condition. 11. The airbag inflatable material may not have an average burn rate of greater than 2.5 inches per minute when tested using the horizontal flammability test defined in part 25, appendix F, part I, paragraph (b)(5). 12. The leg-flail airbag system, once deployed, must not adversely affect the emergency-lighting system (i.e., block VerDate Sep<11>2014 14:12 Aug 02, 2016 Jkt 238001 floor-proximity lights to the extent that the lights no longer meet their intended function). Issued in Renton, Washington, on July 26, 2016. Victor Wicklund, Acting Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2016–18398 Filed 8–2–16; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–13–P DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA–2016–3983; Directorate Identifier 2015–NM–009–AD; Amendment 39–18582; AD 2016–14–01] RIN 2120–AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; correction. AGENCY: The FAA is correcting an airworthiness directive (AD) that published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to certain Airbus Model A330–200 Freighter series airplanes; Model A330–200 and A330–300 series airplanes; Model A340–200 and A340– 300 series airplanes; Model A340–500 series airplanes; and Model A340–600 series airplanes. Table 1 to paragraph (j) of the regulatory text contains typographical errors regarding certain part numbers (P/Ns). This document corrects those errors. In all other respects, the original document remains the same. DATES: This final rule is effective August 16, 2016. The Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in this AD as of August 16, 2016 (81 FR 44983, July 12, 2016). ADDRESSES: For Airbus service information identified in this final rule, contact Airbus SAS, Airworthiness Office—EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France; telephone +33 5 61 93 36 96; fax +33 5 61 93 45 80; email airworthiness.A330A340@airbus.com; Internet http:// www.airbus.com. For Hamilton Sundstrand service information identified in this final rule, contact Hamilton Sundstrand, Technical Publications, Mail Stop 302–9, 4747 Harrison Avenue, P.O. Box 7002, Rockford, IL 61125–7002; telephone 860–654–3575; fax 860–998–4564; email SUMMARY: PO 00000 Frm 00023 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 51097 tech.solutions@hs.utc.com; Internet http://www.hamiltonsundstrand.com. You may view this referenced service information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA. For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call 425–227–1221. It is also available on the Internet at http:// www.regulations.gov by searching for and locating Docket No. FAA–2016– 3983. Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the Internet at http:// www.regulations.gov; or in person at the Docket Management Facility between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this AD, the regulatory evaluation, any comments received, and other information. The address for the Docket Office (phone: 800–647–5527) is Docket Management Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M–30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12–140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Vladimir Ulyanov, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM–116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA 98057–3356; telephone 425–227–1138; fax 425–227–1149. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Airworthiness Directive 2016–14–01, Amendment 39–18582 (81 FR 44983, July 12, 2016) (‘‘AD 2016–14–01’’), currently requires identification of the manufacturer, part number, and serial number of the ram air turbine (RAT), and re-identification and modification of the RAT if necessary, for certain Airbus Model A330–200 Freighter series airplanes; Model A330–200 and A330– 300 series airplanes; Model A340–200 and A340–300 series airplanes; Model A340–500 series airplanes; and Model A340–600 series airplanes. Need for the Correction As published, table 1 to paragraph (j) of the regulatory text contains typographical errors in two part numbers. Table 1 to paragraph (j) of the AD incorrectly refers to RAT P/Ns 1720934C and 1720934D. Those part numbers should have been 1702934C and 1702934D. Related Service Information Under 1 CFR Part 51 Airbus has issued the following service information, which describes procedures for identifying the supplier, part number, and serial number of the E:\FR\FM\03AUR1.SGM 03AUR1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 81, Number 149 (Wednesday, August 3, 2016)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 51095-51097]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2016-18398]


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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Part 25

[Docket No. FAA-2016-7851; Special Conditions No. 25-625-SC]


Special Conditions: Associated Air Center, Boeing Model 747-8 
Airplane; Installation of an Airbag System To Limit the Axial Rotation 
of the Upper Leg on Single-Place Side-Facing Seats

AGENCY:  Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION:  Final special conditions; request for comments.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY:  These special conditions are issued for the Boeing Model 747-
8 airplane. This airplane, as modified by Associated Air Center, will 
have a novel or unusual design feature when compared to the state of 
technology envisioned in the airworthiness standards for transport-
category airplanes. This design feature is an airbag system to limit 
axial rotation of the upper leg, due to leg flail, of occupants in 
single-place side-facing seats. The applicable airworthiness 
regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for 
these design features. These special conditions contain the additional 
safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to 
establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the 
existing airworthiness standards.

DATES:  This action is effective on Associated Air Center on August 3, 
2016. We must receive your comments by September 19, 2016.

ADDRESSES: Send comments identified by docket number FAA-2016-7851 
using any of the following methods:
     Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/and follow the online instructions for sending your 
comments electronically.
     Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M-30, U.S. 
Department of Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Room 
W12-140, West Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC 20590-0001.
     Hand Delivery or Courier: Take comments to Docket 
Operations in Room W12-140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 
New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., 
Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.
     Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202-493-2251.
    Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without 
change, to http://www.regulations.gov/, including any personal 
information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the 
docket Web site, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all 
comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the 
individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an 
association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT's complete Privacy Act 
Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 
2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/.
    Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at 
http://www.regulations.gov/ at any time. Follow the online instructions 
for accessing the docket or go to Docket Operations in Room W12-140 of 
the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., 
Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, 
except Federal holidays.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jayson Claar, FAA, Airframe and Cabin 
Safety Branch, ANM-115, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft 
Certification Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington 98057-
3356; telephone 425-227-2194; facsimile 425-227-1320.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The substance of these special conditions 
has been subject to the public comment process with no comments 
received. The FAA therefore finds that good cause exists for making 
these special conditions effective upon publication in the Federal 
Register.

Comments Invited

    We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by 
sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments 
reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the 
reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data.
    We will consider all comments we receive by the closing date for 
comments. We may change these special conditions based on the comments 
we receive.

Background

    On February 15, 2014, Associated Air Center applied for a 
supplemental type certificate for inflatable airbag systems in the 
Boeing Model 747-8 airplane. This airplane, currently approved under 
type certificate no. A20WE, is a private, not-for-hire, not-for-common-
carriage business jet with a head-of-state interior. This airplane has 
a maximum passenger seating capacity of 113. Twelve of the passenger-
seating positions include single-place side-facing seats, each of which 
include an airbag system to protect against leg-flail injuries.

Type Certification Basis

    Under the provisions of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 
CFR) 21.101, Associated Air Center must show that the Model 747-8 
airplane, as changed, continues to meet the applicable provisions of 
the regulations listed in type certificate no. A20WE, or the applicable 
regulations in effect on the date of application for the change, except 
for earlier amendments as agreed upon by the FAA.
    If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness 
regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain

[[Page 51096]]

adequate or appropriate safety standards for the Model 747-8 airplane 
because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are 
prescribed under the provisions of Sec.  21.16.
    Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which 
they are issued. Should the applicant apply for a supplemental type 
certificate to modify any other model included on the same type 
certificate to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, 
these special conditions would also apply to the other model under 
Sec.  21.101.
    In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special 
conditions, the Boeing Model 747-8 airplane must comply with the fuel-
vent and exhaust-emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the noise-
certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36.
    The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in 
accordance with Sec.  11.38, and they become part of the type 
certification basis under Sec.  21.101.

Novel or Unusual Design Features

    The Boeing Model 747-8 airplane, as modified by Associated Air 
Center, will incorporate the following novel or unusual design 
features: An airbag system to limit axial rotation of the upper leg, 
due to leg flail, of occupants in single-place side-facing seats.

Discussion

    The Boeing Model 747-8 airplane has an interior configuration that 
includes single-place side-facing seats. These seats include an airbag 
system in the shoulder belt, per Special Conditions no. 25-606-SC; and 
an airbag system to limit the axial rotation of the upper leg (femur).
    Side-facing seats are considered a novel design for transport-
category airplanes that include title 14, Code of Federal Regulations 
(14 CFR) part 25, Amendment 25-64, in their certification bases and 
were not anticipated when those airworthiness standards were issued. 
Therefore, the existing regulations do not provide adequate or 
appropriate safety standards for occupants of side-facing seats. The 
FAA issued Special Conditions no. 25-606-SC to address the 
certification of single- and multiple-place side facing seats for 
Boeing 747-8 airplanes. Those special conditions include condition 
2(e), which requires the axial rotation of the upper-leg (femur) to be 
limited to 35 degrees in either direction from the nominal seat 
position. Associated Air Center has developed an airbag system that 
will be installed close to the floor and that is designed to limit the 
axial rotation of the upper-leg.
    Serious leg injuries, such as femur fracture, can occur in aviation 
side-facing seats, injuries that could threaten the occupant's life 
directly or eliminate the occupant's ability to evacuate the airplane. 
Limiting upper-leg axial rotation to a conservative limit of 35 degrees 
(approximately the 50-percentile range of motion) should also limit the 
risk of serious leg injury. Research suggests that the angle of 
rotation can be determined by observing lower-leg flailing in typical 
high-speed video of the dynamic tests. Alternately, the anthropomorphic 
test dummy could be instrumented to directly measure upper-leg axial 
rotation. This requirement complies with the intent of the Sec.  
25.562(a) injury criteria in preventing serious leg injury.
    To comply with special condition 2(e) on some seat positions, 
Associated Air Center proposes to install leg-flail airbags. This 
airbag is not addressed in Special Conditions no. 25-606-SC. Therefore, 
the FAA must issue new special conditions to address this leg-flail 
airbag installation. These special conditions are similar to other 
special conditions previously issued for airbags.
    Special Conditions no. 25-606-SC for the airbag system in the 
shoulder belt are based on previous special conditions for airbag 
systems on forward-facing seat lap belts with some changes to address 
the specific issues of side-facing seats.
    These special conditions for the leg-flail airbag contain the 
additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary 
to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the 
existing airworthiness standards.

Applicability

    As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the 
Boeing Model 747-8 airplane as modified by Associated Air Center. 
Should Associated Air Center apply at a later date for a supplemental 
type certificate to modify any other model included on type certificate 
no. A20WE to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, 
these special conditions would apply to that model as well.

Conclusion

    This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features 
on one model series of airplanes. It is not a rule of general 
applicability and affects only the applicant who applied to the FAA for 
approval of these features on the airplane.
    The substance of these special conditions previously has been 
subjected to the notice and comment period and has been derived without 
substantive change from those previously issued. It is unlikely that 
prior public comment would result in a significant change from the 
substance contained herein. Therefore, the FAA has determined that 
prior public notice and comment are unnecessary, and good cause exists 
for adopting these special conditions upon publication in the Federal 
Register. The FAA is requesting comments to allow interested persons to 
submit views that may not have been submitted in response to the prior 
opportunities for comment described above.

List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25

    Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements.

    The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704.

The Special Conditions

    Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the 
Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of 
the type certification basis for Boeing Model 747-8 airplanes modified 
by Associated Air Center.
    In addition to the requirements of Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 25.785, 
and Special Conditions no. 25-606-SC, the following special conditions 
are part of the type certification basis for Boeing 747-8 airplanes 
with leg-flail airbag systems installed on side-facing seats.
    1. For seats with leg-flail airbag systems, these systems must 
deploy and provide protection under crash conditions where it is 
necessary to prevent serious injury. The means of protection must take 
into consideration a range of stature from a 2-year-old child to a 
95th-percentile male. At some buttock popliteal length and effective 
seat-bottom depth, the lower legs will not be able to form a 90-degree 
angle with the upper leg; at this point, the lower-leg flail would not 
occur. The leg-flail airbag system must provide a consistent approach 
to prevention of leg flail throughout that range of occupants whose 
lower legs can form a 90-degree angle relative to the upper legs when 
seated upright in the seat. Items that need to be considered include, 
but are not limited to, the range of occupants' popliteal height, the 
range of occupants' buttock popliteal length, the design of the seat 
effective height above the floor, and the effective depth of the seat 
bottom cushion.
    2. The leg-flail airbag system must not be susceptible to 
inadvertent

[[Page 51097]]

deployment as a result of wear and tear, or inertial loads resulting 
from in-flight or ground maneuvers (including gusts and hard landings), 
and other operating and environmental conditions (vibrations, moisture, 
etc.) likely to occur in service.
    3. Deployment of the leg-flail airbag system must not introduce 
injury mechanisms to the seated occupant, or result in injuries that 
could impede rapid egress.
    4. Inadvertent deployment of the leg-flail airbag system, during 
the most critical part of the flight, must either meet the requirement 
of Sec.  25.1309(b), or not cause a hazard to the airplane or its 
occupants. This also includes preventing inadvertent airbag deployment 
from a static discharge.
    5. The leg-flail airbag system must not impede rapid egress of 
occupants from the airplane 10 seconds after airbag deployment.
    6. The leg-flail airbag system must be protected from lightning and 
high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF). The threats to the airplane 
specified in existing regulations regarding lightning (Sec.  25.1316) 
and HIRF (Sec.  25.1317) are incorporated by reference for the purpose 
of measuring lightning and HIRF protection.
    7. The leg-flail airbag system must function properly after loss of 
normal airplane electrical power, and after a transverse separation of 
the fuselage at the most critical location. A separation at the 
location of the leg-flail airbag system does not have to be considered.
    8. The leg-flail airbag system must not release hazardous 
quantities of gas, sharp injurious metal fragments, or particulate 
matter into the cabin.
    9. The leg-flail airbag system installation must be protected from 
the effects of fire such that no hazard to occupants will result.
    10. A means must be available to verify the integrity of the leg-
flail airbag system's activation system prior to each flight, or the 
leg-flail airbag system's activation system must reliably operate 
between inspection intervals. The FAA considers that the loss of the 
leg-flail airbag system's deployment function alone (i.e., independent 
of the conditional event that requires the leg-flail airbag system's 
deployment) is a major-failure condition.
    11. The airbag inflatable material may not have an average burn 
rate of greater than 2.5 inches per minute when tested using the 
horizontal flammability test defined in part 25, appendix F, part I, 
paragraph (b)(5).
    12. The leg-flail airbag system, once deployed, must not adversely 
affect the emergency-lighting system (i.e., block floor-proximity 
lights to the extent that the lights no longer meet their intended 
function).

    Issued in Renton, Washington, on July 26, 2016.
Victor Wicklund,
Acting Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification 
Service.
[FR Doc. 2016-18398 Filed 8-2-16; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 4910-13-P