HEARTH Act Approval of Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians of California Regulations, 40717-40718 [2016-14796]

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Background To help us carry out our conservation responsibilities for affected species, and in consideration of section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), along with Executive Order 13576, ‘‘Delivering an Efficient, Effective, and Accountable Government,’’ and the President’s Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009—Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009), which call on all Federal agencies to promote openness and transparency in Government by disclosing information to the public, we invite public comment on these permit applications before final action is taken. III. Permit Applications Endangered Species Applicant: Fort Worth Zoo, Fort Worth, TX; PRT–93340B The applicant requests a permit to import one female and one male Sumatran orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. This notification covers activities to be conducted by the applicant over a 1-year period. Applicant: Saint Louis Zoo, St. Louis, MO; PRT–79205B The applicant requests a permit to export one male and one female North Sulawesi babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis) for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. This notification covers activities to be conducted by the applicant over a 1-year period. Applicant: Xochitl De La Rosa Reyna, College Station, TX; PRT–87845B The applicant requests a permit to import biological samples from wild olive Ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) for the purpose of scientific research. This notification covers activities to be conducted by the applicant over a 5-year period. Applicant: Kevin Petersen, Hyrum, UT; PRT–98525B The applicant requests a permit to import a sport-hunted trophy of one male bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus pygargus) culled from a captive herd maintained under the management program of the Republic of South Africa, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. Brenda Tapia, Program Analyst/Data Administrator, Branch of Permits, Division of Management Authority. [FR Doc. 2016–14741 Filed 6–21–16; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4333–15–P DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs [167A2100DD/AAKC001030/ A0A501010.999900] HEARTH Act Approval of Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians of California Regulations Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. AGENCY: On June 14, 2016, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) approved the Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission SUMMARY: VerDate Sep<11>2014 20:02 Jun 21, 2016 Jkt 238001 PO 00000 Frm 00065 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 40717 Indians of California (Tribe) leasing regulations under the Helping Expedite and Advance Responsible Tribal Homeownership Act of 2012 (HEARTH Act). With this approval, the Tribe is authorized to enter into business site leases without BIA approval. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Sharlene Round Face, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Division of Real Estate Services, MS–4642–MIB, 1849 C Street NW., Washington, DC 20240, at (202) 208– 3615. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Summary of the HEARTH Act The HEARTH Act makes a voluntary, alternative land leasing process available to Tribes, by amending the Indian Long-Term Leasing Act of 1955, 25 U.S.C. 415. The HEARTH Act authorizes tribes to negotiate and enter into agricultural and business leases of tribal trust lands with a primary term of 25 years, and up to two renewal terms of 25 years each, without the approval of the Secretary of the Interior (Secretary). The HEARTH Act also authorizes tribes to enter into leases for residential, recreational, religious, or educational purposes for a primary term of up to 75 years without the approval of the Secretary. Participating tribes develop tribal leasing regulations, including an environmental review process, and then must obtain the Secretary’s approval of those regulations prior to entering into leases. The HEARTH Act requires the Secretary to approve tribal regulations if the tribal regulations are consistent with the Department of the Interior’s (Department) leasing regulations at 25 CFR part 162 and provide for an environmental review process that meets requirements set forth in the HEARTH Act. This notice announces that the Secretary, through the Assistant Secretary—Indian Affairs, has approved the tribal regulations for the TwentyNine Palms Band of Mission Indians of California. II. Federal Preemption of State and Local Taxes The Department regulations governing the surface leasing of trust and restricted Indian lands specify that, subject to applicable Federal law, permanent improvements on leased land, leasehold or possessory interests, and activities under the lease are not subject to state and local taxation and may be subject to taxation by the Indian tribe with jurisdiction. See 25 CFR 162.017. As explained further in the preamble to the final regulations, the Federal Government has a strong interest in E:\FR\FM\22JNN1.SGM 22JNN1 mstockstill on DSK3G9T082PROD with NOTICES 40718 Federal Register / Vol. 81, No. 120 / Wednesday, June 22, 2016 / Notices promoting economic development, selfdetermination, and tribal sovereignty. 77 FR 72440, 72447–48 (December 5, 2012). The principles supporting the Federal preemption of state law in the field of Indian leasing and the taxation of lease-related interests and activities applies with equal force to leases entered into under tribal leasing regulations approved by the Federal Government pursuant to the HEARTH Act. Section 5 of the Indian Reorganization Act, 25 U.S.C. 465, preempts state and local taxation of permanent improvements on trust land. Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation v. Thurston County, 724 F.3d 1153, 1157 (9th Cir. 2013) (citing Mescalero Apache Tribe v. Jones, 411 U.S. 145 (1973)). Similarly, Section 465 preempts state taxation of rent payments by a lessee for leased trust lands, because ‘‘tax on the payment of rent is indistinguishable from an impermissible tax on the land.’’ See Seminole Tribe of Florida v. Stranburg, No. 14–14524, *13–*17, n.8 (11th Cir. 2015). In addition, as explained in the preamble to the revised leasing regulations at 25 CFR part 162, Federal courts have applied a balancing test to determine whether state and local taxation of nonIndians on the reservation is preempted. White Mountain Apache Tribe v. Bracker, 448 U.S. 136, 143 (1980). The Bracker balancing test, which is conducted against a backdrop of ‘‘traditional notions of Indian selfgovernment,’’ requires a particularized examination of the relevant Federal, state, and tribal interests. We hereby adopt the Bracker analysis from the preamble to the surface leasing regulations, 77 FR at 72447–48, as supplemented by the analysis below. The strong Federal and tribal interests against state and local taxation of improvements, leaseholds, and activities on land leased under the Department’s leasing regulations apply equally to improvements, leaseholds, and activities on land leased pursuant to tribal leasing regulations approved under the HEARTH Act. Congress’s overarching intent was to ‘‘allow Tribes to exercise greater control over their own land, support self-determination, and eliminate bureaucratic delays that stand in the way of homeownership and economic development in Tribal communities.’’ 158 Cong. Rec. H. 2682 (May 15, 2012). The HEARTH Act was intended to afford tribes ‘‘flexibility to adapt lease terms to suit [their] business and cultural needs’’ and to ‘‘enable [Tribes] to approve leases quickly and efficiently.’’ Id. at 5–6. VerDate Sep<11>2014 20:02 Jun 21, 2016 Jkt 238001 Assessment of state and local taxes would obstruct these express Federal policies supporting tribal economic development and self-determination, and also threaten substantial tribal interests in effective tribal government, economic self-sufficiency, and territorial autonomy. See Michigan v. Bay Mills Indian Community, 134 S. Ct. 2024, 2043 (2014) (Sotomayor, J., concurring) (determining that ‘‘[a] key goal of the Federal Government is to render tribes more self-sufficient, and better positioned to fund their own sovereign functions, rather than relying on Federal funding’’). The additional costs of State and local taxation have a chilling effect on potential lessees, as well as on a tribe that, as a result, might refrain from exercising its own sovereign right to impose a tribal tax to support its infrastructure needs. See id. at 2043–44 (finding that state and local taxes greatly discourage tribes from raising tax revenue from the same sources because the imposition of double taxation would impede Tribal economic growth). Similar to BIA’s surface leasing regulations, tribal regulations under the HEARTH Act pervasively cover all aspects of leasing. See 25 U.S.C. 415(h)(3)(B)(i) (requiring tribal regulations be consistent with BIA surface leasing regulations). Furthermore, the Federal Government remains involved in the tribal land leasing process by approving the tribal leasing regulations in the first instance and providing technical assistance, upon request by a tribe, for the development of an environmental review process. The Secretary also retains authority to take any necessary actions to remedy violations of a lease or of the tribal regulations, including terminating the lease or rescinding approval of the tribal regulations and reassuming lease approval responsibilities. Moreover, the Secretary continues to review, approve, and monitor individual Indian land leases and other types of leases not covered under the tribal regulations according to part 162 of the regulations. Accordingly, the Federal and tribal interests weigh heavily in favor of preemption of state and local taxes on lease-related activities and interests, regardless of whether the lease is governed by tribal leasing regulations at part 162. Improvements, activities, and leasehold or possessory interests may be subject to taxation by the Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians of California. PO 00000 Frm 00066 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 Dated: June 14, 2016. Lawrence S. Roberts, Acting Assistant Secretary—Indian Affairs. [FR Doc. 2016–14796 Filed 6–21–16; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4337–15–P DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs [167A2100DD/AAKC001030/ A0A501010.999900] HEARTH Act Approval of Oneida Nation of New York Regulations Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. AGENCY: On June 14, 2016, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) approved the Oneida Nation of New York (Tribe) leasing regulations under the HEARTH Act. With this approval, the Tribe is authorized to enter into residential leases without BIA approval. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Sharlene Round Face, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Division of Real Estate Services, MS–4642–MIB, 1849 C Street NW., Washington, DC 20240, telephone: (202) 208–3615. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: SUMMARY: I. Summary of the HEARTH Act The HEARTH (Helping Expedite and Advance Responsible Tribal Homeownership) Act of 2012 (Act) makes a voluntary, alternative land leasing process available to tribes, by amending the Indian Long-Term Leasing Act of 1955, 25 U.S.C. 415. The Act authorizes tribes to negotiate and enter into agricultural and business leases of tribal trust lands with a primary term of 25 years, and up to two renewal terms of 25 years each, without the approval of the Secretary of the Interior (the Secretary). The Act also authorizes tribes to enter into leases for residential, recreational, religious, or educational purposes for a primary term of up to 75 years without the approval of the Secretary. Participating tribes develop tribal leasing regulations, including an environmental review process, and then must obtain the Secretary’s approval of those regulations prior to entering into leases. The Act requires the Secretary to approve tribal regulations if the tribal regulations are consistent with the Department of the Interior’s (Department) leasing regulations at 25 CFR part 162 and provide for an environmental review process that meets requirements set forth in the Act. This notice announces that the Secretary, through the Assistant E:\FR\FM\22JNN1.SGM 22JNN1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 81, Number 120 (Wednesday, June 22, 2016)]
[Notices]
[Pages 40717-40718]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2016-14796]


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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Bureau of Indian Affairs

[167A2100DD/AAKC001030/A0A501010.999900]


HEARTH Act Approval of Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians 
of California Regulations

AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior.

ACTION: Notice.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: On June 14, 2016, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) approved 
the Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians of California (Tribe) 
leasing regulations under the Helping Expedite and Advance Responsible 
Tribal Homeownership Act of 2012 (HEARTH Act). With this approval, the 
Tribe is authorized to enter into business site leases without BIA 
approval.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Sharlene Round Face, Bureau of 
Indian Affairs, Division of Real Estate Services, MS-4642-MIB, 1849 C 
Street NW., Washington, DC 20240, at (202) 208-3615.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

I. Summary of the HEARTH Act

    The HEARTH Act makes a voluntary, alternative land leasing process 
available to Tribes, by amending the Indian Long-Term Leasing Act of 
1955, 25 U.S.C. 415. The HEARTH Act authorizes tribes to negotiate and 
enter into agricultural and business leases of tribal trust lands with 
a primary term of 25 years, and up to two renewal terms of 25 years 
each, without the approval of the Secretary of the Interior 
(Secretary). The HEARTH Act also authorizes tribes to enter into leases 
for residential, recreational, religious, or educational purposes for a 
primary term of up to 75 years without the approval of the Secretary. 
Participating tribes develop tribal leasing regulations, including an 
environmental review process, and then must obtain the Secretary's 
approval of those regulations prior to entering into leases. The HEARTH 
Act requires the Secretary to approve tribal regulations if the tribal 
regulations are consistent with the Department of the Interior's 
(Department) leasing regulations at 25 CFR part 162 and provide for an 
environmental review process that meets requirements set forth in the 
HEARTH Act. This notice announces that the Secretary, through the 
Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs, has approved the tribal 
regulations for the Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians of 
California.

II. Federal Preemption of State and Local Taxes

    The Department regulations governing the surface leasing of trust 
and restricted Indian lands specify that, subject to applicable Federal 
law, permanent improvements on leased land, leasehold or possessory 
interests, and activities under the lease are not subject to state and 
local taxation and may be subject to taxation by the Indian tribe with 
jurisdiction. See 25 CFR 162.017. As explained further in the preamble 
to the final regulations, the Federal Government has a strong interest 
in

[[Page 40718]]

promoting economic development, self-determination, and tribal 
sovereignty. 77 FR 72440, 72447-48 (December 5, 2012). The principles 
supporting the Federal preemption of state law in the field of Indian 
leasing and the taxation of lease-related interests and activities 
applies with equal force to leases entered into under tribal leasing 
regulations approved by the Federal Government pursuant to the HEARTH 
Act.
    Section 5 of the Indian Reorganization Act, 25 U.S.C. 465, preempts 
state and local taxation of permanent improvements on trust land. 
Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation v. Thurston County, 724 
F.3d 1153, 1157 (9th Cir. 2013) (citing Mescalero Apache Tribe v. 
Jones, 411 U.S. 145 (1973)). Similarly, Section 465 preempts state 
taxation of rent payments by a lessee for leased trust lands, because 
``tax on the payment of rent is indistinguishable from an impermissible 
tax on the land.'' See Seminole Tribe of Florida v. Stranburg, No. 14-
14524, *13-*17, n.8 (11th Cir. 2015). In addition, as explained in the 
preamble to the revised leasing regulations at 25 CFR part 162, Federal 
courts have applied a balancing test to determine whether state and 
local taxation of non-Indians on the reservation is preempted. White 
Mountain Apache Tribe v. Bracker, 448 U.S. 136, 143 (1980). The Bracker 
balancing test, which is conducted against a backdrop of ``traditional 
notions of Indian self-government,'' requires a particularized 
examination of the relevant Federal, state, and tribal interests. We 
hereby adopt the Bracker analysis from the preamble to the surface 
leasing regulations, 77 FR at 72447-48, as supplemented by the analysis 
below.
    The strong Federal and tribal interests against state and local 
taxation of improvements, leaseholds, and activities on land leased 
under the Department's leasing regulations apply equally to 
improvements, leaseholds, and activities on land leased pursuant to 
tribal leasing regulations approved under the HEARTH Act. Congress's 
overarching intent was to ``allow Tribes to exercise greater control 
over their own land, support self-determination, and eliminate 
bureaucratic delays that stand in the way of homeownership and economic 
development in Tribal communities.'' 158 Cong. Rec. H. 2682 (May 15, 
2012). The HEARTH Act was intended to afford tribes ``flexibility to 
adapt lease terms to suit [their] business and cultural needs'' and to 
``enable [Tribes] to approve leases quickly and efficiently.'' Id. at 
5-6.
    Assessment of state and local taxes would obstruct these express 
Federal policies supporting tribal economic development and self-
determination, and also threaten substantial tribal interests in 
effective tribal government, economic self-sufficiency, and territorial 
autonomy. See Michigan v. Bay Mills Indian Community, 134 S. Ct. 2024, 
2043 (2014) (Sotomayor, J., concurring) (determining that ``[a] key 
goal of the Federal Government is to render tribes more self-
sufficient, and better positioned to fund their own sovereign 
functions, rather than relying on Federal funding''). The additional 
costs of State and local taxation have a chilling effect on potential 
lessees, as well as on a tribe that, as a result, might refrain from 
exercising its own sovereign right to impose a tribal tax to support 
its infrastructure needs. See id. at 2043-44 (finding that state and 
local taxes greatly discourage tribes from raising tax revenue from the 
same sources because the imposition of double taxation would impede 
Tribal economic growth).
    Similar to BIA's surface leasing regulations, tribal regulations 
under the HEARTH Act pervasively cover all aspects of leasing. See 25 
U.S.C. 415(h)(3)(B)(i) (requiring tribal regulations be consistent with 
BIA surface leasing regulations). Furthermore, the Federal Government 
remains involved in the tribal land leasing process by approving the 
tribal leasing regulations in the first instance and providing 
technical assistance, upon request by a tribe, for the development of 
an environmental review process. The Secretary also retains authority 
to take any necessary actions to remedy violations of a lease or of the 
tribal regulations, including terminating the lease or rescinding 
approval of the tribal regulations and reassuming lease approval 
responsibilities. Moreover, the Secretary continues to review, approve, 
and monitor individual Indian land leases and other types of leases not 
covered under the tribal regulations according to part 162 of the 
regulations.
    Accordingly, the Federal and tribal interests weigh heavily in 
favor of preemption of state and local taxes on lease-related 
activities and interests, regardless of whether the lease is governed 
by tribal leasing regulations at part 162. Improvements, activities, 
and leasehold or possessory interests may be subject to taxation by the 
Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians of California.

    Dated: June 14, 2016.
Lawrence S. Roberts,
Acting Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs.
[FR Doc. 2016-14796 Filed 6-21-16; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 4337-15-P