Special Conditions: Cessna Airplane Company Model 680A Airplane, Side-Facing Seats Equipped With Airbag Systems, 60275-60281 [2015-25277]

Download as PDF 60275 Rules and Regulations Federal Register Vol. 80, No. 193 Tuesday, October 6, 2015 This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains regulatory documents having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed to and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, which is published under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510. The Code of Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each week. RIN 3052–AD07 Farm Credit Administration. Notice of effective date. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration The Farm Credit Administration (FCA, we, Agency or our) amended our regulations to change the address for a field office as a result of a recent office relocation. In accordance with the law, the effective date of the rule is no earlier than 30 days from the date of publication in the Federal Register during which either or both Houses of Congress are in session. DATES: Effective Date: Under the authority of 12 U.S.C. 2252, the regulation amending 12 CFR part 600 published on July 14, 2015 (80 FR 40896) is effective October 6, 2015. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael T. Wilson, Policy Analyst, Office of Regulatory Policy, Farm Credit Administration, McLean, VA 22102– 5090, (703) 883–4124, TTY (703) 883– 4056, or Jane Virga, Senior Counsel, Office of General Counsel, Farm Credit Administration, McLean, VA 22102– 5090, (703) 883–4071, TTY (703) 883– 4056. The Farm Credit Administration amended our regulations to change the address for a field office as a result of a recent office relocation. In accordance with 12 U.S.C. 2252, the effective date of the final rule is no earlier than 30 days from the date of publication in the Federal Register during which either or both Houses of Congress are in session. Based on the records of the sessions of Congress, the effective date of the regulations is October 6, 2015. (12 U.S.C. 2252(a)(9) and (10)) SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Jkt 238001 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special conditions. AGENCY: SUMMARY: srobinson on DSK5SPTVN1PROD with RULES DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Special Conditions: Cessna Airplane Company Model 680A Airplane, SideFacing Seats Equipped With Airbag Systems Organization and Functions; Field Office Locations 16:54 Oct 05, 2015 BILLING CODE 6705–01–P [Docket No. FAA–2015–2271; Special Conditions No. 25–602–SC] 12 CFR Part 600 VerDate Sep<11>2014 [FR Doc. 2015–25294 Filed 10–5–15; 8:45 am] 14 CFR Part 25 FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ACTION: Dated: September 30, 2015. Dale L. Aultman, Secretary, Farm Credit Administration Board. These special conditions are issued for the Cessna Model 680A airplane. This airplane will have novel or unusual design features when compared to the state of technology envisioned in the airworthiness standards for transport-category airplanes. This design features sidefacing seats equipped with airbag systems. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. DATES: Effective November 5, 2015. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alan Sinclair, FAA, Airframe and Cabin Safety, ANM–115, Transport Airplane Directorate, Airplane Certification Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington 98057–3356; telephone 425–227–2195; facsimile 425–227–1320. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: SUMMARY: Background On January 25, 2012, Cessna Airplane Company applied for an amendment to Type Certificate no. T00012WI to include the new Model 680A airplane. The Cessna 680A airplane, which is a derivative of the Cessna Model 680 airplane currently approved under Type Certificate no. T00012WI, is a new, PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 high-performance, low-wing airplane derived from the Cessna Model 680 beginning with serial no. 680–0501. This airplane will have a maximum takeoff weight of 30,800 pounds with a wingspan of 72 feet, and will have two aft-mounted Pratt & Whitney PW306D1 turbofan engines. The cabin of the Model 680A airplane is designed to accommodate a crew of two, plus nine passengers in the baseline interior configuration, and will make use of a forward, right-handbelted, two-place, side-facing seat. An optional seven-passenger interior configuration is also offered, which has a single-place side-facing seat on the forward right-hand side of the airplane. Both the baseline multiple-place and optional single-place side-facing seats are to be occupied for taxi, takeoff, and landing, and will incorporate an integrated, inflatable-airbag occupantprotection system. Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of § 21.101, Cessna Airplane Company must show that the Model 680A airplane meets the applicable provisions of the regulations listed in Type Certificate no. T00012WI, or the applicable regulations in effect on the date of application for the change, except for earlier amendments as agreed upon by the FAA. The regulations listed in the type certificate are commonly referred to as the ‘‘original type certification basis.’’ The regulations listed in T00012WI are as follows: 14 CFR part 25, effective February 1, 1965, including Amendments 25–1 through 25–98, with special conditions, exemptions, and later amended sections. In addition, the certification basis includes other regulations, special conditions, and exemptions that are not relevant to these special conditions. Type Certificate no. T00012WI will be updated to include a complete description of the certification basis for this airplane model. If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for the Cessna Model 680A airplane because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed under the provisions of § 21.16. E:\FR\FM\06OCR1.SGM 06OCR1 60276 Federal Register / Vol. 80, No. 193 / Tuesday, October 6, 2015 / Rules and Regulations Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended later to include any other model that incorporates the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would also apply to the other model under § 21.101. In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special conditions, the Cessna Model 680A airplane must comply with the fuel-vent and exhaust-emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34, and the noisecertification requirements of 14 CFR part 36. The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in accordance with § 11.38, and they become part of the type-certification basis under § 21.101. srobinson on DSK5SPTVN1PROD with RULES Novel or Unusual Design Features The Cessna Model 680A airplane will incorporate the following novel or unusual design features: Inflatable airbags on multiple-place and singleplace side-facing seats of Cessna Model 680A airplanes to reduce the potential for both head and leg injury in the event of an accident. Discussion The FAA policy for side-facing seats at the time of application was provided in Policy Statement ANM–03–115–30. This policy statement describes the performance criteria and procedures to follow to certify single- and multipleplace side-facing seats. Also at the time of Cessna’s application, the FAA indicated that further research would be conducted to define criteria to establish a level of safety equivalent to that provided by the current regulations for forward- and aftfacing seats. Research later conducted by the FAA, as documented in report DOT/FAA/AR–09/41, resulted in new policy issued to identify new certification criteria based on the research findings. Policy Statement PS– ANM–25–03 was released on June 8, 2012 (and was subsequently revised and reissued as Policy Statement PS–ANM– 25–03–R1 on November 5, 2012). This new policy statement describes how to certify all side-facing seats to the new performance criteria through the issuance of special conditions. Along with the general seatperformance criteria, also included in the policy statement are the performance criteria for airbag systems used in shoulder-belt restraint systems. However, the policy statement does not specifically address airbag systems that are integrated into passenger-cabin VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:54 Oct 05, 2015 Jkt 238001 monuments. Although the application date for the Model 680A airplane preceded Policy Statement PS–ANM– 25–03, Cessna proposed using the guidance in Policy Statement PS–ANM– 25–03–R1 to develop new special conditions applicable to the Model 680A airplane’s side-facing seats. These special conditions allow installation of an airbag system for a two-place side-facing seat and a singleplace side-facing seat to protect the occupant from both head and leg-flail injury in Model 680A airplanes. Cessna’s proposed airbag system is designed to limit occupant forward excursion in the event of an accident. This will reduce the potential for head injury by reducing the head-injury criteria (HIC) measurement, and will also provide a means for limiting the lower-leg flail of the occupant. The inflatable-airbag system behaves similarly to an automotive inflatable airbag, but in this design, the airbag system is integrated into passengercabin monuments; the airbags inflate away from the seated occupants. While inflatable airbags are now standard in the automotive industry, the use of inflatable-airbag systems in commercial aviation is novel and unusual. Section 25.785 requires that occupants must be protected from head injury by either the elimination of any injurious object within the striking radius of the head, or by padding. Traditionally, this has required a seat setback of 35 inches from any bulkhead or other rigid interior feature or, where such spacing is not practical, the installation of specified types of padding. The relative effectiveness of these means of injury protection was not quantified in the original rule. Amendment 25–64 to § 25.562 established a standard that quantifies required head-injury protection. Section 25.562 specifies that each seat-type design, approved for crew or passenger occupancy during taxi, takeoff, and landing, must successfully complete dynamic tests, or be shown to be compliant by rational analysis based on dynamic tests of a similar type of seat. In particular, the regulations require that persons must not suffer serious head injury under the conditions specified in the tests, and that protection must be provided, or the seat must be designed such that the head impact does not exceed a HIC of 1000 units. While the test conditions described for HIC are detailed and specific, it is the intent of the requirement that an adequate level of head-injury protection must be provided for passengers the event of an airplane accident. PO 00000 Frm 00002 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 Because §§ 25.562 and 25.785 and associated guidance do not adequately address seats with inflatable-airbag systems, the FAA recognizes that appropriate pass/fail criteria are required to fully address the safety concerns specific to occupants of these seats. Previously issued special conditions addressed airbag systems integral to the shoulder belt for some forward-facing seats. The special conditions for the Model 680A inflatable-airbag systems are based on the shoulder-belt airbag systems. Although the special conditions are applicable to the inflatable-airbag system as installed, compliance with the special conditions is not an installation approval. Therefore, while the special conditions relate to each such system installed, the overall installation approval is a separate finding, and must consider the combined effects of all such systems installed. Part 25 states the performance criteria for head-injury protection in objective terms. However, none of these criteria are adequate to address the specific issues raised concerning seats with inflatable-airbag systems. In addition to the requirements of part 25, special conditions are needed to address requirements particular to seats equipped with an integrated, inflatableairbag system. Part 25, appendix F, part I specifies the flammability requirements for interior materials and components. This rule does not reference inflatable-airbag systems because such devices did not exist at the time the flammability requirements were written. The existing requirements are based on material types as well as material applications, and have been specified in light of the state-of-the-art materials available to perform a given function. In the absence of such a specific reference, the default requirement, per the rule, would apply to the type of material used in constructing the inflatable restraint, which, in the case of the rule, would be a fabric. In writing special conditions, the FAA must also consider how the material is used within the cabin interior, and whether the default requirement is appropriate. Here, the specialized function of the inflatable-airbag system means that highly specialized materials are required. The standard normally applied to fabrics is a 12-second vertical ignition test. However, materials that meet this standard do not perform adequately as inflatable restraints; and materials used in the construction of inflatable-airbag systems do not perform well in this test. E:\FR\FM\06OCR1.SGM 06OCR1 srobinson on DSK5SPTVN1PROD with RULES Federal Register / Vol. 80, No. 193 / Tuesday, October 6, 2015 / Rules and Regulations Because the safety benefit of the inflatable-airbag system is very significant, the FAA has determined that the flammability standard appropriate for these devices should not prohibit suitable inflatable-airbag system materials; disqualifying these materials would effectively not allow the use of inflatable-airbag systems. The FAA therefore is required to establish a balance between the safety benefit of the inflatable-airbag system and its flammability performance. At this time, the 2.5-inches-per-minute horizontal burn test provides that necessary balance. As the technology in materials progresses, the FAA may change this standard in subsequent special conditions to account for improved materials. From the standpoint of a passengersafety system, the inflatable-airbag system is unique in that it is both an active and entirely autonomous device. While the automotive industry has good experience with inflatable airbags, the conditions of use and reliance on the inflatable-airbag system as the sole means of injury protection are quite different. In automobile installations, the airbag is a supplemental system and works in conjunction with an uppertorso restraint. In addition, the crash event is more definable and of typically shorter duration, which can simplify the activation logic. The airplane-operating environment is quite different from automobiles, and includes the potential for greater wear and tear, and unanticipated abuse conditions (due to galley loading, passenger baggage, etc.); airplanes also operate where exposure to high-intensity electromagnetic fields could affect the activation system. The inflatable-airbag system has two potential advantages over other means of head-impact protection. First, it can provide significantly greater protection than would be expected with energyabsorbing pads, and second, it can provide essentially equivalent protection for occupants of all stature. These are significant advantages from a safety standpoint because such devices will likely provide a level of safety that exceeds the minimum standards of the Federal aviation regulations. Conversely, inflatable-airbag systems are, in general, active systems and must be relied upon to activate properly when needed, as opposed to an energyabsorbing pad or upper torso restraint that is passive and always available. Therefore, the potential advantages must be balanced against this and other potential disadvantages in developing standards for this design feature. The FAA considers the installation of inflatable-airbag systems to have two VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:54 Oct 05, 2015 Jkt 238001 primary safety concerns: First, that they perform properly under foreseeable operating conditions, and second, that they do not perform in a manner or at such times as would constitute a hazard to the airplane or occupants. This latter point has the potential to be the more rigorous of the requirements, owing to the active nature of the system. The inflatable-airbag system will rely on electronic sensors for signaling, and a stored gas canister for inflation. The sensors and canister could be susceptible to inadvertent activation, causing a potentially unsafe deployment. The consequences of inadvertent deployment, as well as a failure to deploy in a timely manner, must be considered in establishing the reliability of the system. Cessna must substantiate that an inadvertent deployment in-flight either would not cause injuries to occupants, or that the probability of such a deployment meets the requirements of § 25.1309(b). The effect of an inadvertent deployment on a passenger or crewmember, who could be positioned close to an airbag, should also be considered. The person could be either standing or sitting. A minimum reliability level must be established for this case, depending upon the consequences, even if the effect on the airplane is negligible. The potential for an inadvertent deployment could increase as a result of conditions in service. The installation must take into account wear and tear so that the likelihood of an inadvertent deployment is not increased to an unacceptable level. In this context, an appropriate inspection interval and selftest capability are considered necessary. In addition, outside influences, such as lightning and high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF), may also contribute to or cause inadvertent deployment. Existing regulations regarding lightning, § 25.1316, and HIRF, § 25.1317, are applicable to the Model 680A airplane. The applicant must verify that electromagnetic interference (EMI) present, under foreseeable operating conditions, will not affect the function of the inflatable-airbag system or cause inadvertent deployment. Finally, the inflatable-airbag system installation must be protected from the effects of fire, so that an additional hazard is not created by, for example, a rupture of the pyrotechnic squib. To be an effective safety system, the inflatable-airbag system must function properly and must not introduce any additional hazards to occupants or the airplane as a result of its functioning. The inflatable-airbag system differs from traditional occupant-protection systems in several ways, requiring special PO 00000 Frm 00003 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 60277 conditions to ensure adequate performance. Because the inflatable-airbag system is a single-use device, it potentially could deploy under crash conditions that are not sufficiently severe as to require injury protection from the inflatableairbag system. Because an actual crash is frequently composed of a series of impacts before the airplane comes to rest, this could render the inflatableairbag system useless if a larger impact follows the initial impact. This situation does not exist with energy absorbing pads or upper-torso restraints, which tend to provide continuous protection regardless of severity or number of impacts in a crash event. Therefore, the inflatable-airbag system installation should provide protection, when it is required, and not expend its protection when it is not required. And while several large impact events may occur during the course of a crash, there are no requirements for the inflatable-airbag system to provide protection for multiple impacts. Each occupant’s restraint system provides protection for that occupant only. Likewise, the installation must address seats that are unoccupied. The applicant must show that the required protection is provided for each occupant regardless of the number of occupied seats, considering that unoccupied seats may have airbag systems that are active. The inflatable-airbag system should be effective for a wide range of occupants. The FAA has historically considered the range from the 5th percentile female to the 95th percentile male as the range of occupants that must be taken into account. In this case, the FAA is proposing consideration of a broader range of occupants, i.e., a twoyear-old child to a 95th percentile male, plus pregnant females. This is due to the nature of the inflatable-airbag system installation and its close proximity to the occupant. In a similar vein, these persons could assume the brace position for those accidents where an impact is anticipated. Test data indicate that occupants in the brace position do not require supplemental protection, and so it would not be necessary to show that the inflatable-airbag system will enhance the brace position. However, the inflatable-airbag system must not introduce a hazard in the case of deploying into the seated, braced occupant. Another area of concern is the use of seats so equipped, by children, whether lap-held, in approved child-safety seats, or occupying the seat directly. Similarly, if the seat is occupied by a pregnant woman, the installation should address such use, either by E:\FR\FM\06OCR1.SGM 06OCR1 60278 Federal Register / Vol. 80, No. 193 / Tuesday, October 6, 2015 / Rules and Regulations srobinson on DSK5SPTVN1PROD with RULES demonstrating that it will function properly, or by adding appropriate limitation on persons allowed to occupy the seat. Given that the airbag system will be electrically powered, the possibility exists that the system could fail due to a separation in the fuselage. And because this system is intended as a means of crash/post-crash protection, failure to deploy due to fuselage separation is not acceptable. As with emergency lighting, the system should function properly if such a separation occurs at any point in the fuselage. As required by § 25.1353(a), operation of the existing airplane electrical equipment should not adversely impact the function of the inflatable-airbag system under all foreseeable conditions. The inflatable-airbag system is likely to have a large volume displacement, and, likewise, the inflated airbag could potentially impede egress of passengers. Because the airbag deflates to absorb energy, it is likely that an inflatableairbag system would be deflated at the time that persons would be trying to leave their seats. Nonetheless, the FAA considers it appropriate to specify a time interval after which the inflatableairbag system may not impede rapid egress. Ten seconds is indicated as a reasonable time because this corresponds to the maximum time allowed for an exit to be openable (reference: § 25.809). The FAA position is provided in Policy Statement PS–ANM–25–03–R1 ‘‘Technical Criteria for Approving Side Facing Seats.’’ This policy statement refers to airbag systems in the shoulder belts, while Cessna’s design configuration has airbag systems integrated into the side-facing seats. The FAA genericized these special conditions to be applicable to the Cessna design configuration. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. Discussion of Comments Notice of proposed special conditions no. 25–15–06–SC for the Cessna Model 680A airplane was published in the Federal Register on August 18, 2015 (80 FR 49938). No comments were received, and the special conditions are adopted as proposed. Applicability As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the Cessna Model 680A airplane. Should Cessna apply at a later date for a change to the VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:54 Oct 05, 2015 Jkt 238001 type certificate to include another model incorporating the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would apply to that model as well. Conclusion This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features on one model of airplane. It is not a rule of general applicability. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25 Airplane, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704. The Special Conditions Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of the type certification basis for Cessna Model 680A airplanes. In addition to the requirements of §§ 25.562 and 25.785, the following special conditions 1 and 2 are part of the type certification basis of the Model 680A airplane with side-facing seat installations. For seat places equipped with airbag systems, additional special conditions 3 through 16 are part of the type certification basis. 1. Additional requirements applicable to tests or rational analysis conducted to show compliance with §§ 25.562 and 25.785 for side-facing seats: 1.1. The longitudinal tests conducted in accordance with § 25.562(b)(2), to show compliance with the seat-strength requirements of § 25.562(c)(7) and (8) and these special conditions, must have an ES–2re anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD) (49 CFR part 572, subpart U) or equivalent, or a Hybrid-II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as specified in § 25.562) or equivalent, occupying each seat position, and including all items contactable by the occupant (e.g., armrest, interior wall, or furnishing) if those items are necessary to restrain the occupant. If included, the floor representation and contactable items must be located such that their relative position, with respect to the center of the nearest seat place, is the same at the start of the test as before floor misalignment is applied. For example, if floor misalignment rotates the centerline of the seat place nearest the contactable item 8 degrees clockwise about the airplane x-axis, then the item and floor representations also must be rotated by 8 degrees clockwise to maintain the same relative position to the seat place, PO 00000 Frm 00004 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 as shown in Figure 1 of these special conditions. Each ATD’s relative position to the seat, after application of floor misalignment, must be the same as before misalignment is applied. To ensure proper loading of the seat by the occupants, the ATD pelvis must remain supported by the seat pan, and the restraint system must remain on the pelvis and shoulder of the ATD until rebound begins. No injury-criteria evaluation is necessary for tests conducted only to assess seat-strength requirements. 1.2. The longitudinal tests conducted in accordance with § 25.562(b)(2), to show compliance with the injury assessments required by § 25.562(c) and these special conditions, may be conducted separately from the tests to show structural integrity. In this case, structural-assessment tests must be conducted as specified in paragraph 1.1 of these special conditions, and the injury-assessment test must be conducted without yaw or floor misalignment. Injury assessments may be accomplished by testing with ES–2re ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart U) or equivalent at all places. Alternatively, these assessments may be accomplished by multiple tests that use an ES–2re at the seat place being evaluated, and a Hybrid-II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as specified in § 25.562) or equivalent used in all seat places forward of the one being assessed, to evaluate occupant interaction. In this case, seat places aft of the one being assessed may be unoccupied. If a seat installation includes adjacent items that are contactable by the occupant, the injury potential of that contact must be assessed. To make this assessment, tests may be conducted that include the actual item, located and attached in a representative fashion. Alternatively, the injury potential may be assessed by a combination of tests with items having the same geometry as the actual item, but having stiffness characteristics that would create the worst case for injury (injuries due to both contact with the item and lack of support from the item). 1.3. If a seat is installed aft of structure (e.g., an interior wall or furnishing) that does not have a homogeneous surface contactable by the occupant, additional analysis and/or tests may be required to demonstrate that the injury criteria are met for the area upon which an occupant could contact. For example, different yaw angles could result in different injury considerations, and may require additional analysis or separate tests to evaluate. E:\FR\FM\06OCR1.SGM 06OCR1 1.4. To accommodate a range of occupant heights (5th percentile female to 95th percentile male), the surface of items contactable by the occupant must be homogenous 7.3 inches (185 mm) above and 7.9 inches (200 mm) below the point (center of area) that is contacted by the 50th percentile malesized ATD’s head during the longitudinal tests, conducted in accordance with paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 of these special conditions. Otherwise, additional HIC assessment tests may be necessary. Any surface (inflatable or otherwise) that provides VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:54 Oct 05, 2015 Jkt 238001 support for the occupant of any seat place must provide that support in a consistent manner regardless of occupant stature. For example, if an inflatable shoulder belt is used to mitigate injury risk, then it must be demonstrated by inspection to bear against the range of occupants in a similar manner before and after inflation. Likewise, the means of limiting lower-leg flail must be demonstrated by inspection to provide protection for the range of occupants in a similar manner. PO 00000 Frm 00005 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 60279 1.5. For longitudinal tests conducted in accordance with 14 CFR 25.562(b)(2) and these special conditions, the ATDs must be positioned, clothed, and have lateral instrumentation configured as follows: 1.5.1. ATD positioning: Lower the ATD vertically into the seat (see Figure 2 of these special conditions) while simultaneously: 1.5.1.1. Aligning the midsagittal plane (a vertical plane through the midline of the body; dividing the body into right and left halves) with approximately the middle of the seat place. E:\FR\FM\06OCR1.SGM 06OCR1 ER06OC15.002</GPH> srobinson on DSK5SPTVN1PROD with RULES Federal Register / Vol. 80, No. 193 / Tuesday, October 6, 2015 / Rules and Regulations Federal Register / Vol. 80, No. 193 / Tuesday, October 6, 2015 / Rules and Regulations 1.5.1.2. Applying a horizontal x-axis direction (in the ATD coordinate system) force of about 20 lb (89 N) to the torso, at approximately the intersection of the midsagittal plane and the bottom rib of the ES–2re or lower sternum of the Hybrid-II at the midsagittal plane, to compress the seat-back cushion. 1.5.1.3. Keeping the upper legs nearly horizontal by supporting them just behind the knees. 1.5.2. After all lifting devices have been removed from the ATD: 1.5.2.1. Rock it slightly to settle it into the seat. 1.5.2.2. Separate the knees by about 4 inches (100 mm). 1.5.2.3. Set the ES–2re’s head at approximately the midpoint of the available range of z-axis rotation (to align the head and torso midsagittal planes). 1.5.2.4. Position the ES–2re’s arms at the joint’s mechanical detent that puts them at approximately a 40-degree angle with respect to the torso. Position the Hybrid-II ATD hands on top of its upper legs. 1.5.2.5. Position the feet such that the centerlines of the lower legs are approximately parallel to a lateral VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:54 Oct 05, 2015 Jkt 238001 vertical plane (in the airplane coordinate system). 1.5.3. ATD clothing: Clothe each ATD in form-fitting, mid-calf-length (minimum) pants and shoes (size 11E), all clothing weighing about 2.5 lb (1.1 Kg) total. The color of the clothing should be in contrast to the color of the restraint system. The ES–2re jacket is sufficient for torso clothing, although a form-fitting shirt may be used in addition if desired. 1.5.4. ES–2re ATD lateral instrumentation: The rib-module linear slides are directional, i.e., deflection occurs in either a positive or negative ATD y-axis direction. The modules must be installed such that the moving end of the rib module is toward the front of the airplane. The three abdominal-force sensors must be installed such that they are on the side of the ATD toward the front of the airplane. 1.6. The combined horizontal/vertical test, required by § 25.562(b)(1) and these special conditions, must be conducted with a Hybrid II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as specified in § 25.562), or equivalent, occupying each seat position. PO 00000 Frm 00006 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 1.7. The design and installation of seatbelt buckles must prevent unbuckling due to applied inertial forces or impact of the hands/arms of the occupant during an emergency landing. 1.8. Inflatable-airbag systems must be active during all dynamic tests conducted to show compliance with § 25.562. 2. Additional performance measures applicable to tests and rational analysis conducted to show compliance with §§ 25.562 and 25.785 for side-facing seats: 2.1. Body-to-body contact: Contact between the head, pelvis, torso, or shoulder area of one ATD with the adjacent-seated ATD’s head, pelvis, torso, or shoulder area is not allowed. Contact during rebound is allowed. 2.2. Thoracic: The deflection of any of the ES–2re ATD upper, middle, and lower ribs must not exceed 1.73 inches (44 mm). Data must be processed as defined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 571.214. 2.3. Abdominal: The sum of the measured ES–2re ATD front, middle, and rear abdominal forces must not exceed 562 lbs (2,500 N). Data must be E:\FR\FM\06OCR1.SGM 06OCR1 ER06OC15.003</GPH> srobinson on DSK5SPTVN1PROD with RULES 60280 srobinson on DSK5SPTVN1PROD with RULES Federal Register / Vol. 80, No. 193 / Tuesday, October 6, 2015 / Rules and Regulations processed as defined in FMVSS 571.214. 2.4. Pelvic: The pubic symphysis force measured by the ES–2re ATD must not exceed 1,350 lbs (6,000 N). Data must be processed as defined in FMVSS 571.214. 2.5. Leg: Axial rotation of the upper leg (femur) must be limited to 35 degrees in either direction from the nominal seated position. 2.6. Neck: As measured by the ES–2re ATD and filtered at CFC 600 as defined in SAE J211: 2.6.1. The upper-neck tension force at the occipital condyle (O.C.) location must be less than 405 lb (1,800 N). 2.6.2. The upper-neck compression force at the O.C. location must be less than 405 lb (1,800 N). 2.6.3. The upper-neck bending torque about the ATD x-axis at the O.C. location must be less than 1,018 in.-lb (115 N–m). 2.6.4. The upper-neck resultant shear force at the O.C. location must be less than 186 lb (825 N). 2.7. Occupant (ES–2re ATD) retention: The pelvic restraint must remain on the ES–2re ATD’s pelvis during the impact and rebound phases of the test. The upper-torso restraint straps (if present) must remain on the ATD’s shoulder during the impact. 2.8. Occupant (ES–2re ATD) support: 2.8.1. Pelvis excursion: The loadbearing portion of the bottom of the ATD pelvis must not translate beyond the edges of its seat’s bottom seatcushion supporting structure. 2.8.2. Upper-torso support: The lateral flexion of the ATD torso must not exceed 40 degrees from the normal upright position during the impact. 3. For seats with an airbag system, show that the airbag system will deploy and provide protection under crash conditions where it is necessary to prevent serious injury. The means of protection must take into consideration a range of stature from a 2-year-old child to 95th percentile male. The airbag system must provide a consistent approach to energy absorption throughout that range of occupants. When the seat systems include airbag systems, the systems must be included in each of the certification tests as they would be installed in the airplane. In addition, the following situations must be considered: 3.1. The seat occupant is holding an infant. 3.2. The seat occupant is a pregnant woman. 4. The airbag systems must provide adequate protection for each occupant regardless of the number of occupants of the seat assembly, considering that VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:54 Oct 05, 2015 Jkt 238001 unoccupied seats may have an active airbag system. 5. The design must prevent the airbag systems from being either incorrectly buckled or incorrectly installed, such that the airbag systems would not properly deploy. Alternatively, it must be shown that such deployment is not hazardous to the occupant and will provide the required injury protection. 6. It must be shown that the airbag system is not susceptible to inadvertent deployment as a result of wear and tear, or inertial loads resulting from in-flight or ground maneuvers (including gusts and hard landings), and other operating and environment conditions (vibrations, moisture, etc.) likely to occur in service. 7. Deployment of the airbag system must not introduce injury mechanisms to the seated occupant, nor result in injuries that could impede rapid egress. This assessment should include an occupant whose restraint is loosely fastened. 8. It must be shown that inadvertent deployment of the airbag system, during the most critical part of the flight, will either meet the requirement of § 25.1309(b) or not cause a hazard to the airplane or its occupants. 9. It must be shown that the airbag system will not impede rapid egress of occupants 10 seconds after airbag deployment. 10. The airbag systems must be protected from lightning and highintensity radiated fields (HIRF). The threats to the airplane specified in existing regulations regarding lighting, § 25.1316, and HIRF, § 25.1317 apply to these special conditions for the purpose of measuring lightning and HIRF protection. 11. The airbag system must function properly after loss of normal airplane electrical power, and after a transverse separation of the fuselage at the most critical location. A separation at the location of the airbag systems does not have to be considered. 12. It must be shown that the airbag system will not release hazardous quantities of gas or particulate matter into the cabin. 13. The airbag system installations must be protected from the effects of fire such that no hazard to occupants will result. 14. A means must be available for a crew member to verify the integrity of the airbag system’s activation system prior to each flight, or it must be demonstrated to reliably operate between inspection intervals. The FAA considers that the loss of the airbagsystem deployment function alone (i.e., independent of the conditional event that requires the airbag-system PO 00000 Frm 00007 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 60281 deployment) is a major-failure condition. 15. The inflatable material may not have an average burn rate of greater than 2.5 inches/minute when tested using the horizontal flammability test defined in 14 CFR part 25, appendix F, part I, paragraph (b)(5). 16. The airbag system, once deployed, must not adversely affect the emergency lighting system (e.g., block floor proximity lights to the extent that the lights no longer meet their intended function). Issued in Renton, Washington, September 25, 2015. Michael Kaszycki, Acting Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2015–25277 Filed 10–5–15; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–13–P DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA–2014–1046; Directorate Identifier 2014–NM–021–AD; Amendment 39–18286; AD 2015–20–07] RIN 2120–AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. AGENCY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Bombardier, Inc. Model CL–600–2C10 (Regional Jet Series 700, 701, & 702), CL–600–2D15 (Regional Jet Series 705), and CL–600–2D24 (Regional Jet Series 900) airplanes. This AD was prompted by a determination that no instructions for continued airworthiness exist for the nose landing gear (NLG) alternate extension actuator of the NLG alternate release system. This AD requires revising the maintenance or inspection program, as applicable, to incorporate a new airworthiness limitation task for the NLG alternate extension actuator. We are issuing this AD to prevent failure of the NLG alternate release system and, if the normal NLG extension system also fails, failure of the NLG to extend, and consequent damage to the airplane and injury to occupants. DATES: This AD becomes effective November 10, 2015. The Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference of a certain publication listed in this AD as of November 10, 2015. SUMMARY: E:\FR\FM\06OCR1.SGM 06OCR1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 80, Number 193 (Tuesday, October 6, 2015)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 60275-60281]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2015-25277]


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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Part 25

[Docket No. FAA-2015-2271; Special Conditions No. 25-602-SC]


Special Conditions: Cessna Airplane Company Model 680A Airplane, 
Side-Facing Seats Equipped With Airbag Systems

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION: Final special conditions.

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SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Cessna Model 680A 
airplane. This airplane will have novel or unusual design features when 
compared to the state of technology envisioned in the airworthiness 
standards for transport-category airplanes. This design features side-
facing seats equipped with airbag systems. The applicable airworthiness 
regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for 
this design feature. These special conditions contain the additional 
safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to 
establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the 
existing airworthiness standards.

DATES: Effective November 5, 2015.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alan Sinclair, FAA, Airframe and Cabin 
Safety, ANM-115, Transport Airplane Directorate, Airplane Certification 
Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington 98057-3356; telephone 
425-227-2195; facsimile 425-227-1320.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 

Background

    On January 25, 2012, Cessna Airplane Company applied for an 
amendment to Type Certificate no. T00012WI to include the new Model 
680A airplane. The Cessna 680A airplane, which is a derivative of the 
Cessna Model 680 airplane currently approved under Type Certificate no. 
T00012WI, is a new, high-performance, low-wing airplane derived from 
the Cessna Model 680 beginning with serial no. 680-0501. This airplane 
will have a maximum takeoff weight of 30,800 pounds with a wingspan of 
72 feet, and will have two aft-mounted Pratt & Whitney PW306D1 turbofan 
engines.
    The cabin of the Model 680A airplane is designed to accommodate a 
crew of two, plus nine passengers in the baseline interior 
configuration, and will make use of a forward, right-hand-belted, two-
place, side-facing seat. An optional seven-passenger interior 
configuration is also offered, which has a single-place side-facing 
seat on the forward right-hand side of the airplane. Both the baseline 
multiple-place and optional single-place side-facing seats are to be 
occupied for taxi, takeoff, and landing, and will incorporate an 
integrated, inflatable-airbag occupant-protection system.

Type Certification Basis

    Under the provisions of Sec.  21.101, Cessna Airplane Company must 
show that the Model 680A airplane meets the applicable provisions of 
the regulations listed in Type Certificate no. T00012WI, or the 
applicable regulations in effect on the date of application for the 
change, except for earlier amendments as agreed upon by the FAA.
    The regulations listed in the type certificate are commonly 
referred to as the ``original type certification basis.'' The 
regulations listed in T00012WI are as follows:
    14 CFR part 25, effective February 1, 1965, including Amendments 
25-1 through 25-98, with special conditions, exemptions, and later 
amended sections.
    In addition, the certification basis includes other regulations, 
special conditions, and exemptions that are not relevant to these 
special conditions. Type Certificate no. T00012WI will be updated to 
include a complete description of the certification basis for this 
airplane model.
    If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness 
regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or 
appropriate safety standards for the Cessna Model 680A airplane because 
of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed 
under the provisions of Sec.  21.16.

[[Page 60276]]

    Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which 
they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended 
later to include any other model that incorporates the same novel or 
unusual design feature, these special conditions would also apply to 
the other model under Sec.  21.101.
    In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special 
conditions, the Cessna Model 680A airplane must comply with the fuel-
vent and exhaust-emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34, and the 
noise-certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36.
    The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in 
accordance with Sec.  11.38, and they become part of the type-
certification basis under Sec.  21.101.

Novel or Unusual Design Features

    The Cessna Model 680A airplane will incorporate the following novel 
or unusual design features: Inflatable airbags on multiple-place and 
single-place side-facing seats of Cessna Model 680A airplanes to reduce 
the potential for both head and leg injury in the event of an accident.

Discussion

    The FAA policy for side-facing seats at the time of application was 
provided in Policy Statement ANM-03-115-30. This policy statement 
describes the performance criteria and procedures to follow to certify 
single- and multiple-place side-facing seats.
    Also at the time of Cessna's application, the FAA indicated that 
further research would be conducted to define criteria to establish a 
level of safety equivalent to that provided by the current regulations 
for forward- and aft-facing seats. Research later conducted by the FAA, 
as documented in report DOT/FAA/AR-09/41, resulted in new policy issued 
to identify new certification criteria based on the research findings. 
Policy Statement PS-ANM-25-03 was released on June 8, 2012 (and was 
subsequently revised and reissued as Policy Statement PS-ANM-25-03-R1 
on November 5, 2012). This new policy statement describes how to 
certify all side-facing seats to the new performance criteria through 
the issuance of special conditions.
    Along with the general seat-performance criteria, also included in 
the policy statement are the performance criteria for airbag systems 
used in shoulder-belt restraint systems. However, the policy statement 
does not specifically address airbag systems that are integrated into 
passenger-cabin monuments. Although the application date for the Model 
680A airplane preceded Policy Statement PS-ANM-25-03, Cessna proposed 
using the guidance in Policy Statement PS-ANM-25-03-R1 to develop new 
special conditions applicable to the Model 680A airplane's side-facing 
seats.
    These special conditions allow installation of an airbag system for 
a two-place side-facing seat and a single-place side-facing seat to 
protect the occupant from both head and leg-flail injury in Model 680A 
airplanes. Cessna's proposed airbag system is designed to limit 
occupant forward excursion in the event of an accident. This will 
reduce the potential for head injury by reducing the head-injury 
criteria (HIC) measurement, and will also provide a means for limiting 
the lower-leg flail of the occupant. The inflatable-airbag system 
behaves similarly to an automotive inflatable airbag, but in this 
design, the airbag system is integrated into passenger-cabin monuments; 
the airbags inflate away from the seated occupants. While inflatable 
airbags are now standard in the automotive industry, the use of 
inflatable-airbag systems in commercial aviation is novel and unusual.
    Section 25.785 requires that occupants must be protected from head 
injury by either the elimination of any injurious object within the 
striking radius of the head, or by padding. Traditionally, this has 
required a seat setback of 35 inches from any bulkhead or other rigid 
interior feature or, where such spacing is not practical, the 
installation of specified types of padding. The relative effectiveness 
of these means of injury protection was not quantified in the original 
rule. Amendment 25-64 to Sec.  25.562 established a standard that 
quantifies required head-injury protection.
    Section 25.562 specifies that each seat-type design, approved for 
crew or passenger occupancy during taxi, takeoff, and landing, must 
successfully complete dynamic tests, or be shown to be compliant by 
rational analysis based on dynamic tests of a similar type of seat. In 
particular, the regulations require that persons must not suffer 
serious head injury under the conditions specified in the tests, and 
that protection must be provided, or the seat must be designed such 
that the head impact does not exceed a HIC of 1000 units. While the 
test conditions described for HIC are detailed and specific, it is the 
intent of the requirement that an adequate level of head-injury 
protection must be provided for passengers the event of an airplane 
accident.
    Because Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 25.785 and associated guidance do not 
adequately address seats with inflatable-airbag systems, the FAA 
recognizes that appropriate pass/fail criteria are required to fully 
address the safety concerns specific to occupants of these seats. 
Previously issued special conditions addressed airbag systems integral 
to the shoulder belt for some forward-facing seats. The special 
conditions for the Model 680A inflatable-airbag systems are based on 
the shoulder-belt airbag systems.
    Although the special conditions are applicable to the inflatable-
airbag system as installed, compliance with the special conditions is 
not an installation approval. Therefore, while the special conditions 
relate to each such system installed, the overall installation approval 
is a separate finding, and must consider the combined effects of all 
such systems installed.
    Part 25 states the performance criteria for head-injury protection 
in objective terms. However, none of these criteria are adequate to 
address the specific issues raised concerning seats with inflatable-
airbag systems. In addition to the requirements of part 25, special 
conditions are needed to address requirements particular to seats 
equipped with an integrated, inflatable-airbag system.
    Part 25, appendix F, part I specifies the flammability requirements 
for interior materials and components. This rule does not reference 
inflatable-airbag systems because such devices did not exist at the 
time the flammability requirements were written. The existing 
requirements are based on material types as well as material 
applications, and have been specified in light of the state-of-the-art 
materials available to perform a given function. In the absence of such 
a specific reference, the default requirement, per the rule, would 
apply to the type of material used in constructing the inflatable 
restraint, which, in the case of the rule, would be a fabric.
    In writing special conditions, the FAA must also consider how the 
material is used within the cabin interior, and whether the default 
requirement is appropriate. Here, the specialized function of the 
inflatable-airbag system means that highly specialized materials are 
required. The standard normally applied to fabrics is a 12-second 
vertical ignition test. However, materials that meet this standard do 
not perform adequately as inflatable restraints; and materials used in 
the construction of inflatable-airbag systems do not perform well in 
this test.

[[Page 60277]]

    Because the safety benefit of the inflatable-airbag system is very 
significant, the FAA has determined that the flammability standard 
appropriate for these devices should not prohibit suitable inflatable-
airbag system materials; disqualifying these materials would 
effectively not allow the use of inflatable-airbag systems. The FAA 
therefore is required to establish a balance between the safety benefit 
of the inflatable-airbag system and its flammability performance. At 
this time, the 2.5-inches-per-minute horizontal burn test provides that 
necessary balance. As the technology in materials progresses, the FAA 
may change this standard in subsequent special conditions to account 
for improved materials.
    From the standpoint of a passenger-safety system, the inflatable-
airbag system is unique in that it is both an active and entirely 
autonomous device. While the automotive industry has good experience 
with inflatable airbags, the conditions of use and reliance on the 
inflatable-airbag system as the sole means of injury protection are 
quite different. In automobile installations, the airbag is a 
supplemental system and works in conjunction with an upper-torso 
restraint. In addition, the crash event is more definable and of 
typically shorter duration, which can simplify the activation logic. 
The airplane-operating environment is quite different from automobiles, 
and includes the potential for greater wear and tear, and unanticipated 
abuse conditions (due to galley loading, passenger baggage, etc.); 
airplanes also operate where exposure to high-intensity electromagnetic 
fields could affect the activation system.
    The inflatable-airbag system has two potential advantages over 
other means of head-impact protection. First, it can provide 
significantly greater protection than would be expected with energy-
absorbing pads, and second, it can provide essentially equivalent 
protection for occupants of all stature. These are significant 
advantages from a safety standpoint because such devices will likely 
provide a level of safety that exceeds the minimum standards of the 
Federal aviation regulations. Conversely, inflatable-airbag systems 
are, in general, active systems and must be relied upon to activate 
properly when needed, as opposed to an energy-absorbing pad or upper 
torso restraint that is passive and always available. Therefore, the 
potential advantages must be balanced against this and other potential 
disadvantages in developing standards for this design feature.
    The FAA considers the installation of inflatable-airbag systems to 
have two primary safety concerns: First, that they perform properly 
under foreseeable operating conditions, and second, that they do not 
perform in a manner or at such times as would constitute a hazard to 
the airplane or occupants. This latter point has the potential to be 
the more rigorous of the requirements, owing to the active nature of 
the system.
    The inflatable-airbag system will rely on electronic sensors for 
signaling, and a stored gas canister for inflation. The sensors and 
canister could be susceptible to inadvertent activation, causing a 
potentially unsafe deployment. The consequences of inadvertent 
deployment, as well as a failure to deploy in a timely manner, must be 
considered in establishing the reliability of the system. Cessna must 
substantiate that an inadvertent deployment in-flight either would not 
cause injuries to occupants, or that the probability of such a 
deployment meets the requirements of Sec.  25.1309(b). The effect of an 
inadvertent deployment on a passenger or crewmember, who could be 
positioned close to an airbag, should also be considered. The person 
could be either standing or sitting. A minimum reliability level must 
be established for this case, depending upon the consequences, even if 
the effect on the airplane is negligible.
    The potential for an inadvertent deployment could increase as a 
result of conditions in service. The installation must take into 
account wear and tear so that the likelihood of an inadvertent 
deployment is not increased to an unacceptable level. In this context, 
an appropriate inspection interval and self-test capability are 
considered necessary. In addition, outside influences, such as 
lightning and high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF), may also 
contribute to or cause inadvertent deployment. Existing regulations 
regarding lightning, Sec.  25.1316, and HIRF, Sec.  25.1317, are 
applicable to the Model 680A airplane.
    The applicant must verify that electromagnetic interference (EMI) 
present, under foreseeable operating conditions, will not affect the 
function of the inflatable-airbag system or cause inadvertent 
deployment. Finally, the inflatable-airbag system installation must be 
protected from the effects of fire, so that an additional hazard is not 
created by, for example, a rupture of the pyrotechnic squib.
    To be an effective safety system, the inflatable-airbag system must 
function properly and must not introduce any additional hazards to 
occupants or the airplane as a result of its functioning. The 
inflatable-airbag system differs from traditional occupant-protection 
systems in several ways, requiring special conditions to ensure 
adequate performance.
    Because the inflatable-airbag system is a single-use device, it 
potentially could deploy under crash conditions that are not 
sufficiently severe as to require injury protection from the 
inflatable-airbag system. Because an actual crash is frequently 
composed of a series of impacts before the airplane comes to rest, this 
could render the inflatable-airbag system useless if a larger impact 
follows the initial impact. This situation does not exist with energy 
absorbing pads or upper-torso restraints, which tend to provide 
continuous protection regardless of severity or number of impacts in a 
crash event. Therefore, the inflatable-airbag system installation 
should provide protection, when it is required, and not expend its 
protection when it is not required. And while several large impact 
events may occur during the course of a crash, there are no 
requirements for the inflatable-airbag system to provide protection for 
multiple impacts.
    Each occupant's restraint system provides protection for that 
occupant only. Likewise, the installation must address seats that are 
unoccupied. The applicant must show that the required protection is 
provided for each occupant regardless of the number of occupied seats, 
considering that unoccupied seats may have airbag systems that are 
active.
    The inflatable-airbag system should be effective for a wide range 
of occupants. The FAA has historically considered the range from the 
5th percentile female to the 95th percentile male as the range of 
occupants that must be taken into account. In this case, the FAA is 
proposing consideration of a broader range of occupants, i.e., a two-
year-old child to a 95th percentile male, plus pregnant females. This 
is due to the nature of the inflatable-airbag system installation and 
its close proximity to the occupant. In a similar vein, these persons 
could assume the brace position for those accidents where an impact is 
anticipated. Test data indicate that occupants in the brace position do 
not require supplemental protection, and so it would not be necessary 
to show that the inflatable-airbag system will enhance the brace 
position. However, the inflatable-airbag system must not introduce a 
hazard in the case of deploying into the seated, braced occupant.
    Another area of concern is the use of seats so equipped, by 
children, whether lap-held, in approved child-safety seats, or 
occupying the seat directly. Similarly, if the seat is occupied by a 
pregnant woman, the installation should address such use, either by

[[Page 60278]]

demonstrating that it will function properly, or by adding appropriate 
limitation on persons allowed to occupy the seat.
    Given that the airbag system will be electrically powered, the 
possibility exists that the system could fail due to a separation in 
the fuselage. And because this system is intended as a means of crash/
post-crash protection, failure to deploy due to fuselage separation is 
not acceptable. As with emergency lighting, the system should function 
properly if such a separation occurs at any point in the fuselage. As 
required by Sec.  25.1353(a), operation of the existing airplane 
electrical equipment should not adversely impact the function of the 
inflatable-airbag system under all foreseeable conditions.
    The inflatable-airbag system is likely to have a large volume 
displacement, and, likewise, the inflated airbag could potentially 
impede egress of passengers. Because the airbag deflates to absorb 
energy, it is likely that an inflatable-airbag system would be deflated 
at the time that persons would be trying to leave their seats. 
Nonetheless, the FAA considers it appropriate to specify a time 
interval after which the inflatable-airbag system may not impede rapid 
egress. Ten seconds is indicated as a reasonable time because this 
corresponds to the maximum time allowed for an exit to be openable 
(reference: Sec.  25.809).
    The FAA position is provided in Policy Statement PS-ANM-25-03-R1 
``Technical Criteria for Approving Side Facing Seats.'' This policy 
statement refers to airbag systems in the shoulder belts, while 
Cessna's design configuration has airbag systems integrated into the 
side-facing seats. The FAA genericized these special conditions to be 
applicable to the Cessna design configuration.
    These special conditions contain the additional safety standards 
that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of 
safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness 
standards.

Discussion of Comments

    Notice of proposed special conditions no. 25-15-06-SC for the 
Cessna Model 680A airplane was published in the Federal Register on 
August 18, 2015 (80 FR 49938). No comments were received, and the 
special conditions are adopted as proposed.

Applicability

    As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the 
Cessna Model 680A airplane. Should Cessna apply at a later date for a 
change to the type certificate to include another model incorporating 
the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions 
would apply to that model as well.

Conclusion

    This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features 
on one model of airplane. It is not a rule of general applicability.

List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25

    Airplane, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements.

    The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704.

The Special Conditions

    Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the 
Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of 
the type certification basis for Cessna Model 680A airplanes.
    In addition to the requirements of Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 25.785, 
the following special conditions 1 and 2 are part of the type 
certification basis of the Model 680A airplane with side-facing seat 
installations. For seat places equipped with airbag systems, additional 
special conditions 3 through 16 are part of the type certification 
basis.
    1. Additional requirements applicable to tests or rational analysis 
conducted to show compliance with Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 25.785 for 
side-facing seats:
    1.1. The longitudinal tests conducted in accordance with Sec.  
25.562(b)(2), to show compliance with the seat-strength requirements of 
Sec.  25.562(c)(7) and (8) and these special conditions, must have an 
ES-2re anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD) (49 CFR part 572, subpart U) or 
equivalent, or a Hybrid-II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as 
specified in Sec.  25.562) or equivalent, occupying each seat position, 
and including all items contactable by the occupant (e.g., armrest, 
interior wall, or furnishing) if those items are necessary to restrain 
the occupant. If included, the floor representation and contactable 
items must be located such that their relative position, with respect 
to the center of the nearest seat place, is the same at the start of 
the test as before floor misalignment is applied. For example, if floor 
misalignment rotates the centerline of the seat place nearest the 
contactable item 8 degrees clockwise about the airplane x-axis, then 
the item and floor representations also must be rotated by 8 degrees 
clockwise to maintain the same relative position to the seat place, as 
shown in Figure 1 of these special conditions. Each ATD's relative 
position to the seat, after application of floor misalignment, must be 
the same as before misalignment is applied. To ensure proper loading of 
the seat by the occupants, the ATD pelvis must remain supported by the 
seat pan, and the restraint system must remain on the pelvis and 
shoulder of the ATD until rebound begins. No injury-criteria evaluation 
is necessary for tests conducted only to assess seat-strength 
requirements.
    1.2. The longitudinal tests conducted in accordance with Sec.  
25.562(b)(2), to show compliance with the injury assessments required 
by Sec.  25.562(c) and these special conditions, may be conducted 
separately from the tests to show structural integrity. In this case, 
structural-assessment tests must be conducted as specified in paragraph 
1.1 of these special conditions, and the injury-assessment test must be 
conducted without yaw or floor misalignment. Injury assessments may be 
accomplished by testing with ES-2re ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart U) or 
equivalent at all places. Alternatively, these assessments may be 
accomplished by multiple tests that use an ES-2re at the seat place 
being evaluated, and a Hybrid-II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as 
specified in Sec.  25.562) or equivalent used in all seat places 
forward of the one being assessed, to evaluate occupant interaction. In 
this case, seat places aft of the one being assessed may be unoccupied. 
If a seat installation includes adjacent items that are contactable by 
the occupant, the injury potential of that contact must be assessed. To 
make this assessment, tests may be conducted that include the actual 
item, located and attached in a representative fashion. Alternatively, 
the injury potential may be assessed by a combination of tests with 
items having the same geometry as the actual item, but having stiffness 
characteristics that would create the worst case for injury (injuries 
due to both contact with the item and lack of support from the item).
    1.3. If a seat is installed aft of structure (e.g., an interior 
wall or furnishing) that does not have a homogeneous surface 
contactable by the occupant, additional analysis and/or tests may be 
required to demonstrate that the injury criteria are met for the area 
upon which an occupant could contact. For example, different yaw angles 
could result in different injury considerations, and may require 
additional analysis or separate tests to evaluate.

[[Page 60279]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR06OC15.002

    1.4. To accommodate a range of occupant heights (5th percentile 
female to 95th percentile male), the surface of items contactable by 
the occupant must be homogenous 7.3 inches (185 mm) above and 7.9 
inches (200 mm) below the point (center of area) that is contacted by 
the 50th percentile male-sized ATD's head during the longitudinal 
tests, conducted in accordance with paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 of 
these special conditions. Otherwise, additional HIC assessment tests 
may be necessary. Any surface (inflatable or otherwise) that provides 
support for the occupant of any seat place must provide that support in 
a consistent manner regardless of occupant stature. For example, if an 
inflatable shoulder belt is used to mitigate injury risk, then it must 
be demonstrated by inspection to bear against the range of occupants in 
a similar manner before and after inflation. Likewise, the means of 
limiting lower-leg flail must be demonstrated by inspection to provide 
protection for the range of occupants in a similar manner.
    1.5. For longitudinal tests conducted in accordance with 14 CFR 
25.562(b)(2) and these special conditions, the ATDs must be positioned, 
clothed, and have lateral instrumentation configured as follows:
    1.5.1. ATD positioning: Lower the ATD vertically into the seat (see 
Figure 2 of these special conditions) while simultaneously:
    1.5.1.1. Aligning the midsagittal plane (a vertical plane through 
the midline of the body; dividing the body into right and left halves) 
with approximately the middle of the seat place.

[[Page 60280]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR06OC15.003

    1.5.1.2. Applying a horizontal x-axis direction (in the ATD 
coordinate system) force of about 20 lb (89 N) to the torso, at 
approximately the intersection of the midsagittal plane and the bottom 
rib of the ES-2re or lower sternum of the Hybrid-II at the midsagittal 
plane, to compress the seat-back cushion.
    1.5.1.3. Keeping the upper legs nearly horizontal by supporting 
them just behind the knees.
    1.5.2. After all lifting devices have been removed from the ATD:
    1.5.2.1. Rock it slightly to settle it into the seat.
    1.5.2.2. Separate the knees by about 4 inches (100 mm).
    1.5.2.3. Set the ES-2re's head at approximately the midpoint of the 
available range of z-axis rotation (to align the head and torso 
midsagittal planes).
    1.5.2.4. Position the ES-2re's arms at the joint's mechanical 
detent that puts them at approximately a 40-degree angle with respect 
to the torso. Position the Hybrid-II ATD hands on top of its upper 
legs.
    1.5.2.5. Position the feet such that the centerlines of the lower 
legs are approximately parallel to a lateral vertical plane (in the 
airplane coordinate system).
    1.5.3. ATD clothing: Clothe each ATD in form-fitting, mid-calf-
length (minimum) pants and shoes (size 11E), all clothing weighing 
about 2.5 lb (1.1 Kg) total. The color of the clothing should be in 
contrast to the color of the restraint system. The ES-2re jacket is 
sufficient for torso clothing, although a form-fitting shirt may be 
used in addition if desired.
    1.5.4. ES-2re ATD lateral instrumentation: The rib-module linear 
slides are directional, i.e., deflection occurs in either a positive or 
negative ATD y-axis direction. The modules must be installed such that 
the moving end of the rib module is toward the front of the airplane. 
The three abdominal-force sensors must be installed such that they are 
on the side of the ATD toward the front of the airplane.
    1.6. The combined horizontal/vertical test, required by Sec.  
25.562(b)(1) and these special conditions, must be conducted with a 
Hybrid II ATD (49 CFR part 572, subpart B, as specified in Sec.  
25.562), or equivalent, occupying each seat position.
    1.7. The design and installation of seatbelt buckles must prevent 
unbuckling due to applied inertial forces or impact of the hands/arms 
of the occupant during an emergency landing.
    1.8. Inflatable-airbag systems must be active during all dynamic 
tests conducted to show compliance with Sec.  25.562.
    2. Additional performance measures applicable to tests and rational 
analysis conducted to show compliance with Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 25.785 
for side-facing seats:
    2.1. Body-to-body contact: Contact between the head, pelvis, torso, 
or shoulder area of one ATD with the adjacent-seated ATD's head, 
pelvis, torso, or shoulder area is not allowed. Contact during rebound 
is allowed.
    2.2. Thoracic: The deflection of any of the ES-2re ATD upper, 
middle, and lower ribs must not exceed 1.73 inches (44 mm). Data must 
be processed as defined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards 
(FMVSS) 571.214.
    2.3. Abdominal: The sum of the measured ES-2re ATD front, middle, 
and rear abdominal forces must not exceed 562 lbs (2,500 N). Data must 
be

[[Page 60281]]

processed as defined in FMVSS 571.214.
    2.4. Pelvic: The pubic symphysis force measured by the ES-2re ATD 
must not exceed 1,350 lbs (6,000 N). Data must be processed as defined 
in FMVSS 571.214.
    2.5. Leg: Axial rotation of the upper leg (femur) must be limited 
to 35 degrees in either direction from the nominal seated position.
    2.6. Neck: As measured by the ES-2re ATD and filtered at CFC 600 as 
defined in SAE J211:
    2.6.1. The upper-neck tension force at the occipital condyle (O.C.) 
location must be less than 405 lb (1,800 N).
    2.6.2. The upper-neck compression force at the O.C. location must 
be less than 405 lb (1,800 N).
    2.6.3. The upper-neck bending torque about the ATD x-axis at the 
O.C. location must be less than 1,018 in.-lb (115 N-m).
    2.6.4. The upper-neck resultant shear force at the O.C. location 
must be less than 186 lb (825 N).
    2.7. Occupant (ES-2re ATD) retention: The pelvic restraint must 
remain on the ES-2re ATD's pelvis during the impact and rebound phases 
of the test. The upper-torso restraint straps (if present) must remain 
on the ATD's shoulder during the impact.
    2.8. Occupant (ES-2re ATD) support:
    2.8.1. Pelvis excursion: The load-bearing portion of the bottom of 
the ATD pelvis must not translate beyond the edges of its seat's bottom 
seat-cushion supporting structure.
    2.8.2. Upper-torso support: The lateral flexion of the ATD torso 
must not exceed 40 degrees from the normal upright position during the 
impact.
    3. For seats with an airbag system, show that the airbag system 
will deploy and provide protection under crash conditions where it is 
necessary to prevent serious injury. The means of protection must take 
into consideration a range of stature from a 2-year-old child to 95th 
percentile male. The airbag system must provide a consistent approach 
to energy absorption throughout that range of occupants. When the seat 
systems include airbag systems, the systems must be included in each of 
the certification tests as they would be installed in the airplane. In 
addition, the following situations must be considered:
    3.1. The seat occupant is holding an infant.
    3.2. The seat occupant is a pregnant woman.
    4. The airbag systems must provide adequate protection for each 
occupant regardless of the number of occupants of the seat assembly, 
considering that unoccupied seats may have an active airbag system.
    5. The design must prevent the airbag systems from being either 
incorrectly buckled or incorrectly installed, such that the airbag 
systems would not properly deploy. Alternatively, it must be shown that 
such deployment is not hazardous to the occupant and will provide the 
required injury protection.
    6. It must be shown that the airbag system is not susceptible to 
inadvertent deployment as a result of wear and tear, or inertial loads 
resulting from in-flight or ground maneuvers (including gusts and hard 
landings), and other operating and environment conditions (vibrations, 
moisture, etc.) likely to occur in service.
    7. Deployment of the airbag system must not introduce injury 
mechanisms to the seated occupant, nor result in injuries that could 
impede rapid egress. This assessment should include an occupant whose 
restraint is loosely fastened.
    8. It must be shown that inadvertent deployment of the airbag 
system, during the most critical part of the flight, will either meet 
the requirement of Sec.  25.1309(b) or not cause a hazard to the 
airplane or its occupants.
    9. It must be shown that the airbag system will not impede rapid 
egress of occupants 10 seconds after airbag deployment.
    10. The airbag systems must be protected from lightning and high-
intensity radiated fields (HIRF). The threats to the airplane specified 
in existing regulations regarding lighting, Sec.  25.1316, and HIRF, 
Sec.  25.1317 apply to these special conditions for the purpose of 
measuring lightning and HIRF protection.
    11. The airbag system must function properly after loss of normal 
airplane electrical power, and after a transverse separation of the 
fuselage at the most critical location. A separation at the location of 
the airbag systems does not have to be considered.
    12. It must be shown that the airbag system will not release 
hazardous quantities of gas or particulate matter into the cabin.
    13. The airbag system installations must be protected from the 
effects of fire such that no hazard to occupants will result.
    14. A means must be available for a crew member to verify the 
integrity of the airbag system's activation system prior to each 
flight, or it must be demonstrated to reliably operate between 
inspection intervals. The FAA considers that the loss of the airbag-
system deployment function alone (i.e., independent of the conditional 
event that requires the airbag-system deployment) is a major-failure 
condition.
    15. The inflatable material may not have an average burn rate of 
greater than 2.5 inches/minute when tested using the horizontal 
flammability test defined in 14 CFR part 25, appendix F, part I, 
paragraph (b)(5).
    16. The airbag system, once deployed, must not adversely affect the 
emergency lighting system (e.g., block floor proximity lights to the 
extent that the lights no longer meet their intended function).

    Issued in Renton, Washington, September 25, 2015.
Michael Kaszycki,
Acting Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification 
Service.
[FR Doc. 2015-25277 Filed 10-5-15; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 4910-13-P