Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8, Dynamic Test Requirements for Single-Occupant, Oblique (Side-Facing) Seats With Airbag Devices, 58586-58589 [2015-24724]

Download as PDF 58586 Federal Register / Vol. 80, No. 189 / Wednesday, September 30, 2015 / Rules and Regulations by calling (202) 267–9677. Commenters must identify the docket or notice number of this rulemaking. All documents the FAA considered in developing this rule, including economic analyses and technical reports, may be accessed from the Internet through the Federal eRulemaking Portal referenced in item (1) above. 14 CFR Part 121 Air carriers, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Charter flights, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. List of Subjects PART 11—GENERAL RULEMAKING PROCEDURES 14 CFR Part 11 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The Amendment In consideration of the foregoing, the Federal Aviation Administration amends chapter I of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40101, 40103, 40105, 40109, 40113, 44110, 44502, 44701–44702, 44711, and 46102. 2. In § 11.201, in paragraph (b), revise the entry to Part 121 to read as follows: ■ § 11.201 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control numbers assigned under the Paperwork Reduction Act. * * * (b) * * * * * 1. The authority citation for part 11 continues to read as follows: ■ 14 CFR Part or section identified and described Current OMB control number * Part 121 ................. * * * * * * 2120–0008, 2120–0028, 2120–0535, 2120–0571, 2120–0600, 2120–0606, 2120–0614, 2120–0616, 2120–0631, 2120– 0651, 2120–0653, 2120–0691, 2120–0702, 2120–0739, 2120–0760 * * * PART 121—OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS 3. The authority citation for part 121 is revised to read as follows: ■ Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(f), 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40119, 41706, 42301 preceding note added by Pub. L. 112–95, sec. 412, 126 Stat. 89, 44101, 44701–44702, 44705, 44709– 44711, 44713, 44716–44717, 44722, 44729, 44732; 46105; Pub. L. 111–216, 124 Stat. 2348 (49 U.S.C. 44701 note); Pub. L. 112–95 126 Stat 62 (49 U.S.C. 44732 note). 4. In § 121.311, add paragraph (k) to read as follows: ■ § 121.311 Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. mstockstill on DSK4VPTVN1PROD with RULES * * * * * (k) Seat dimension disclosure. (1) Each air carrier that conducts operations under this part and that has a Web site must make available on its Web site the width of the narrowest and widest passenger seats in each class of service for each airplane make, model and series operated by that air carrier in passenger-carrying operations. (2) For purposes of paragraph (k)(1) of this section, the width of a passenger seat means the distance between the inside of the armrests for that seat. ■ 5. In § 121.583, revise paragraph (a) introductory text to read as follows: § 121.583 Carriage of persons without compliance with the passenger-carrying requirements of this part. (a) When authorized by the certificate holder, the following persons, but no VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:12 Sep 29, 2015 Jkt 235001 * * * * ACTION: Final special conditions; request others, may be carried aboard an for comments. airplane without complying with the passenger-carrying airplane SUMMARY: These special conditions are requirements in §§ 121.309(f), 121.310, issued for Boeing Model 747–8 121.391, 121.571, and 121.587; the airplanes. This airplane will have novel passenger-carrying operation or unusual design features associated requirements in part 117 and with oblique-angled, single-occupant §§ 121.157(c) and 121.291; the requirements pertaining to passengers in seats equipped with airbag systems. The §§ 121.285, 121.313(f), 121.317, 121.547, applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate and 121.573; and the information disclosure requirements in § 121.311(k): safety standards for these design features. These special conditions * * * * * contain the additional safety standards Issued in Washington, DC, under the the Administrator considers necessary authority provided by 49 U.S.C. 106(f), to establish a level of safety equivalent 44701(a), and 49 U.S.C. 42301 preceding note to that established by the existing added by Public Law 112–95, sec. 412, 126 airworthiness standards. Stat. 89, on September 18, 2015. DATES: The effective date of these Michael P. Huerta, special conditions is September 30, Administrator. 2015. We must receive your comments [FR Doc. 2015–24720 Filed 9–29–15; 8:45 am] by November 16, 2015. BILLING CODE 4910–13–P ADDRESSES: Send comments identified by docket number FAA–2015–0309 DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION using any of the following methods: Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/ and follow Federal Aviation Administration the online instructions for sending your comments electronically. 14 CFR Part 25 Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M–30, U.S. Department of [Docket No. FAA–2015–0309; Special Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Conditions No. 25–594–SC] Avenue SE., Room W12–140, West Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747– Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC, 20590–0001. 8, Dynamic Test Requirements for Hand Delivery or Courier: Take Single-Occupant, Oblique (Sidecomments to Docket Operations in Facing) Seats With Airbag Devices Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey AGENCY: Federal Aviation Avenue SE., Washington, DC, between 9 Administration (FAA), DOT. PO 00000 Frm 00014 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\30SER1.SGM 30SER1 Federal Register / Vol. 80, No. 189 / Wednesday, September 30, 2015 / Rules and Regulations a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202–493–2251. Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without change, to http://www.regulations.gov/, including any personal information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the docket Web site, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT’s complete Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477–19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo. dot.gov/. Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at http://www.regulations.gov/ at any time. Follow the online instructions for accessing the docket or go to Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Shelden, Airframe and Cabin Safety, ANM–115, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington 98057–3356; telephone 425–227–2785; facsimile 425–227–1149. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA has determined that notice of, and opportunity for, prior public comment on these special conditions are impracticable because these procedures would significantly delay issuance of the design approval and thus delivery of the affected airplane. In addition, the substance of these special conditions has been subject to the public-comment process in several prior instances with no substantive comments received. The FAA therefore finds that good cause exists for making these special conditions effective upon issuance. mstockstill on DSK4VPTVN1PROD with RULES Comments Invited We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. We will consider all comments we receive by the closing date for comments. We may change these special VerDate Sep<11>2014 18:05 Sep 29, 2015 Jkt 235001 conditions based on the comments we receive. Background On February 3, 2014, the Boeing Company applied for an amendment to Type Certificate no. A20WE to allow installation of single-occupant, obliqueangled (side-facing) seats with airbag devices in Boeing Model 747–8 airplanes. Boeing requested special conditions to allow installation of oblique businessclass passenger seats in the Boeing Model 747–8 airplane. The seating configuration Boeing proposes in Certification Plan no. 15090, ‘‘Installation of Business Class Zodiac Seats and Furniture for 747–8 TRX RC076,’’ consists of Zodiac Cirrus III model side-facing, pod-style, businessclass seats (with surrounding shells and front-row furniture) installed at an angle of up to 30 degrees to the airplane longitudinal centerline. These seats will include inflatable restraint (airbag) systems for occupant restraint and injury protection. The Model 747–8 airplane, a derivative of the Model 747–400 airplane, is a bi-level, wide-body airplane powered by four wing-mounted General Electric GEnx-2B engines. The airplane will have a maximum seating capacity of 605 passengers and two crew members, and a maximum takeoff weight of 987,000 pounds. Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 21.101, Boeing must show that the Model 747– 8 airplane meets the applicable provisions of the regulations listed in Type Certificate no. A20WE, or the applicable regulations in effect on the date of application for the change, except for earlier amendments as agreed upon by the FAA. The regulations listed in the type certificate are commonly referred to as the ‘‘original type certification basis.’’ The regulations listed in Type Certificate no. A20WE are as follows: 14 CFR part 25, Amendments 25–1 through 25–120, with exceptions permitted by § 21.101. In addition, the certification basis includes certain special conditions, exemptions, or later amended sections of the applicable part that are not relevant to these special conditions. If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for Boeing Model 747–8 airplanes because of a novel or unusual design PO 00000 Frm 00015 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 58587 feature, special conditions are prescribed under § 21.16. Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended later to include any other model that incorporates the same novel or unusual design feature, or should any other model already included on the same type certificate be modified to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would also apply to the other model under § 21.101. In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special conditions, the Boeing Model 747–8 airplane must comply with the fuel-vent and exhaust-emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34, and the noisecertification requirements of 14 CFR part 36. The FAA issues special conditions as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in accordance with § 11.38, and they become part of the type certification basis under § 21.101. Novel or Unusual Design Features The business-class seating configuration Boeing proposes is novel or unusual due to the seat installation at 30 degrees to the airplane centerline, the airbag-system installation, and the seat/occupant interface with the surrounding furniture that introduces occupant alignment and loading concerns. The proposed business-class seating configuration also is beyond the limits of current acceptable equivalentlevel-of-safety findings. Ongoing research is progressing to establish acceptable limits. Until those limits become available, the FAA proposes a set of interim limits based on the current literature available, current National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) regulations, and preliminary test data from the research program. The existing regulations do not provide adequate or appropriate safety standards for occupants of obliqueangled seats with airbag systems. To provide a level of safety that is equivalent to that afforded occupants of forward- and aft-facing seats, additional airworthiness standards, in the form of special conditions, are necessary. These special conditions supplement part 25 and, more specifically, supplement §§ 25.562 and 25.785. The requirements contained in these special conditions consist of both test conditions and injury pass/fail criteria. E:\FR\FM\30SER1.SGM 30SER1 58588 Federal Register / Vol. 80, No. 189 / Wednesday, September 30, 2015 / Rules and Regulations mstockstill on DSK4VPTVN1PROD with RULES Discussion Amendment 25–15 to part 25, dated October 24, 1967, introduced the subject of side-facing seats, and a requirement that each occupant in a side-facing seat must be protected from head injury by a safety belt and a cushioned rest that will support the arms, shoulders, head, and spine. Subsequently, Amendment 25–20, dated April 23, 1969, clarified the definition of side-facing seats to require that each occupant of a seat, positioned at more than an 18-degree angle to the vertical plane of the airplane longitudinal centerline, must be protected from head injury by a safety belt and an energy-absorbing rest that will support the arms, shoulders, head, and spine; or by a safety belt and shoulder harness that will prevent the head from contacting any injurious object. The FAA concluded that an 18degree angle would provide an adequate level of safety based on tests that were performed at that time, and thus adopted that standard. Part 25 was amended June 16, 1988, by Amendment 25–64, to revise the emergency-landing conditions that must be considered in the design of the airplane. Amendment 25–64 revised the static-load conditions in 14 CFR 25.561, and added the new § 25.562 that requires dynamic testing for all seats approved for occupancy during takeoff and landing. The intent of Amendment 25–64 is to provide an improved level of safety for occupants on transportcategory airplanes. Because most seating is forward-facing on transport-category airplanes, the pass/fail criteria developed in Amendment 25–64 focused primarily on these seats. As a result, the FAA issued Policy Memorandums ANM–03–115–30 and PS–ANM–100–2000–00123 to provide the additional guidance necessary to demonstrate the level of safety required by the regulations for side-facing seats. To reflect current research findings, the FAA developed a methodology to address all fully side-facing seats (i.e., seats positioned in the airplane with the occupant facing 90 degrees to the vertical plane of the airplane centerline), and has documented those requirements in a set of new special conditions. The FAA issued Policy Statement PS–ANM–25–03–R1 to define revised injury criteria associated with neck and leg injuries. The proposed Model 747–8, a Transaero Airlines business-class seat installation, is novel such that the current Model 747–8 airplane certification basis does not adequately address protection of the occupant’s VerDate Sep<11>2014 18:03 Sep 29, 2015 Jkt 235001 neck and spine for seat configurations that are positioned at an angle greater than 18 degrees from the airplane centerline. Therefore, The Boeing Company’s proposed configuration will require new special conditions. These special conditions will provide head injury criteria, neck injury criteria, spine injury criteria, and body-to-wall contact criteria. They contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. Applicability These special conditions are applicable to the Boeing Model 747–8 airplanes configured with the businessclass seating defined in Boeing Certification Plan. Should Boeing apply at a later date for a change to the type certificates to include another model incorporating the same novel or unusual design feature, or should any other model already included on the same type certificate be modified to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would apply to the other model as well. Conclusion This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features on one model airplane. It is not a rule of general applicability. The substance of these special conditions has been subjected to the notice and comment period in several prior instances and has been derived without substantive change from those previously issued. It is unlikely that prior public comment would result in a significant change from the substance contained herein. Therefore, because a delay would significantly affect the certification of the airplane, which is imminent, the FAA has determined that prior public notice and comment are unnecessary and impracticable, and good cause exists for adopting these special conditions upon publication in the Federal Register. The FAA is requesting comments to allow interested persons to submit views that may not have been submitted in response to the prior opportunities for comment described above. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25 Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704. PO 00000 Frm 00016 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 The Special Conditions Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of the type certification basis for the Boeing Model 747–8 airplane. Side-Facing Seats Special Conditions In addition to the requirements of § 25.562: 1. Head Injury Criteria. Compliance with § 25.562(c)(5) is required, except that, if the anthropomorphic test device (ATD) has no apparent contact with the seat/ structure but has contact with an airbag, a head-injury criterion (HIC) unlimited score in excess of 1000 is acceptable, provided the HIC15 score (calculated in accordance with 49 CFR 571.208) for that contact is less than 700. 2. Body-to-Wall/Furnishing Contact. If a seat is installed aft of structure (e.g., an interior wall or furnishing) that does not provide a homogenous contact surface for the expected range of occupants and yaw angles, then additional analysis and/or test(s) may be required to demonstrate that the injury criteria are met for the area that an occupant could contact. For example, if different yaw angles could result in different airbag performance, then additional analysis or separate test(s) may be necessary to evaluate performance. 3. Neck Injury Criteria. The seating system must protect the occupant from experiencing serious neck injury. The assessment of neck injury must be conducted with the airbag device activated, unless there is reason to also consider that the neckinjury potential would be higher for impacts below the airbag-device deployment threshold. a. The Nij (calculated in accordance with 49 CFR 571.208) must be below 1.0, where Nij =Fz/Fzc + My/Myc, and Nij critical values are: i. Fzc = 1530 lb for tension ii. Fzc = 1385 lb for compression iii. Myc = 229 lb-ft in flexion iv. Myc = 100 lb-ft in extension b. In addition, peak Fz must be below 937 lb in tension and 899 lb in compression. c. Rotation of the head about its vertical axis, relative to the torso, is limited to 105 degrees in either direction from forward-facing. d. The neck must not impact any surface that would produce concentrated loading on the neck. 4. Spine and Torso Injury Criteria a. The shoulders must remain aligned with the hips throughout the impact E:\FR\FM\30SER1.SGM 30SER1 Federal Register / Vol. 80, No. 189 / Wednesday, September 30, 2015 / Rules and Regulations sequence, or support for the upper torso must be provided to prevent forward or lateral flailing beyond 45 degrees from the vertical during significant spinal loading. Alternatively, the lumbar spine tension (Fz) cannot exceed 1200 lb. b. Significant concentrated loading on the occupant’s spine, in the area between the pelvis and shoulders during impact, including rebound, is not acceptable. During this type of contact, the interval for any rearward (X-direction) acceleration exceeding 20g must be less than 3 milliseconds as measured by the thoracic instrumentation specified in 49 CFR part 572, subpart E, filtered in accordance with SAE International (SAE) J211–1. c. Occupant must not interact with the armrest or other seat components in any manner significantly different than would be expected for a forward-facing seat installation. 5. Longitudinal test(s), conducted to measure the injury criteria above, must be performed with the FAA Hybrid III ATD, as described in SAE 1999–01– 1609. The test(s) must be conducted with an undeformed floor, at the mostcritical yaw case(s) for injury, and with all lateral structural supports (armrests/ walls) installed. Note: Boeing must demonstrate that the installation of seats via plinths or pallets meets all applicable requirements. Compliance with the guidance contained in FAA Policy Memorandum PS–ANM–100– 2000–00123, dated February 2, 2000, titled ‘‘Guidance for Demonstrating Compliance with Seat Dynamic Testing for Plinths and Pallets,’’ is acceptable to the FAA. Inflatable Airbag Systems Special Conditions If inflatable airbag systems are installed on single-place side-facing seats, the airbag systems must meet Special Conditions no. 25–589–SC. Issued in Renton, Washington, on September 1, 2015. Jeffrey E. Duven, Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2015–24724 Filed 9–29–15; 8:45 am] mstockstill on DSK4VPTVN1PROD with RULES BILLING CODE 4910–13–P VerDate Sep<11>2014 17:12 Sep 29, 2015 Jkt 235001 DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 [Docket No. FAA–2015–2884; Special Conditions No. 25–595–SC] Special Conditions: Embraer Model EMB–545 Airplanes; Seats With Inflatable Lap Belts Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special conditions; request for comments. AGENCY: These special conditions are issued for Embraer Model EMB–545 airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or unusual design feature associated with seats with inflatable lap belts. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. DATES: The effective date of these special conditions is September 30, 2015. We must receive your comments by November 16, 2015. ADDRESSES: Send comments identified by docket number FAA–2015–2884 using any of the following methods: • Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/and follow the online instructions for sending your comments electronically. • Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M–30, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Room W12–140, West Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC, 20590–0001. • Hand Delivery or Courier: Take comments to Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. • Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202–493–2251. Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without change, to http://www.regulations.gov/, including any personal information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the docket Web site, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT’s SUMMARY: PO 00000 Frm 00017 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 58589 complete Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477–19478), as well as at http:// DocketsInfo.dot.gov/. Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at http://www.regulations.gov/ at any time. Follow the online instructions for accessing the docket or go to Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jayson Claar, FAA, Airframe and Cabin Safety Branch, ANM–115, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington, 98057–3356; telephone (425) 227–2194, facsimile (425) 227–1232. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA has determined that notice of, and opportunity for, prior public comment on these special conditions are impracticable because these procedures would significantly delay issuance of the design approval and thus delivery of the affected airplane. In addition, the substance of these special conditions has been subject to the public-comment process in several prior instances with no substantive comments received. The FAA therefore finds that good cause exists for making these special conditions effective upon issuance. Comments Invited We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. We will consider all comments we receive by the closing date for comments. We may change these special conditions based on the comments we receive. Background On October 14, 2010, Embraer S.A. applied for an amendment to Type Certificate No. TC00062IB to include the new Embraer Model EMB–545 airplane. These special conditions allow installation of inflatable lap belts for head-injury protection on certain seats in Embraer Model EMB–545 airplanes. The Embraer Model EMB–545 airplane is a derivative of the Model EMB–550 airplane currently approved under Type Certificate No. TC00062IB. E:\FR\FM\30SER1.SGM 30SER1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 80, Number 189 (Wednesday, September 30, 2015)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 58586-58589]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2015-24724]


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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Part 25

[Docket No. FAA-2015-0309; Special Conditions No. 25-594-SC]


Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8, Dynamic Test Requirements 
for Single-Occupant, Oblique (Side-Facing) Seats With Airbag Devices

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION: Final special conditions; request for comments.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for Boeing Model 747-8 
airplanes. This airplane will have novel or unusual design features 
associated with oblique-angled, single-occupant seats equipped with 
airbag systems. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain 
adequate or appropriate safety standards for these design features. 
These special conditions contain the additional safety standards the 
Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety 
equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards.

DATES: The effective date of these special conditions is September 30, 
2015. We must receive your comments by November 16, 2015.

ADDRESSES: Send comments identified by docket number FAA-2015-0309 
using any of the following methods:
    Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/ and 
follow the online instructions for sending your comments 
electronically.
    Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M-30, U.S. Department of 
Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Room W12-140, West 
Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC, 20590-0001.
    Hand Delivery or Courier: Take comments to Docket Operations in 
Room W12-140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey 
Avenue SE., Washington, DC, between 9

[[Page 58587]]

a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.
    Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202-493-2251.
    Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without 
change, to http://www.regulations.gov/, including any personal 
information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the 
docket Web site, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all 
comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the 
individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an 
association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT's complete Privacy Act 
Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 
2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/.
    Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at 
http://www.regulations.gov/ at any time. Follow the online instructions 
for accessing the docket or go to Docket Operations in Room W12-140 of 
the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., 
Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, 
except Federal holidays.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Shelden, Airframe and Cabin 
Safety, ANM-115, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification 
Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington 98057-3356; telephone 
425-227-2785; facsimile 425-227-1149.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA has determined that notice of, and 
opportunity for, prior public comment on these special conditions are 
impracticable because these procedures would significantly delay 
issuance of the design approval and thus delivery of the affected 
airplane.
    In addition, the substance of these special conditions has been 
subject to the public-comment process in several prior instances with 
no substantive comments received. The FAA therefore finds that good 
cause exists for making these special conditions effective upon 
issuance.

Comments Invited

    We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by 
sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments 
reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the 
reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data.
    We will consider all comments we receive by the closing date for 
comments. We may change these special conditions based on the comments 
we receive.

Background

    On February 3, 2014, the Boeing Company applied for an amendment to 
Type Certificate no. A20WE to allow installation of single-occupant, 
oblique-angled (side-facing) seats with airbag devices in Boeing Model 
747-8 airplanes.
    Boeing requested special conditions to allow installation of 
oblique business-class passenger seats in the Boeing Model 747-8 
airplane. The seating configuration Boeing proposes in Certification 
Plan no. 15090, ``Installation of Business Class Zodiac Seats and 
Furniture for 747-8 TRX RC076,'' consists of Zodiac Cirrus III model 
side-facing, pod-style, business-class seats (with surrounding shells 
and front-row furniture) installed at an angle of up to 30 degrees to 
the airplane longitudinal centerline. These seats will include 
inflatable restraint (airbag) systems for occupant restraint and injury 
protection.
    The Model 747-8 airplane, a derivative of the Model 747-400 
airplane, is a bi-level, wide-body airplane powered by four wing-
mounted General Electric GEnx-2B engines. The airplane will have a 
maximum seating capacity of 605 passengers and two crew members, and a 
maximum takeoff weight of 987,000 pounds.

Type Certification Basis

    Under the provisions of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 
CFR) 21.101, Boeing must show that the Model 747-8 airplane meets the 
applicable provisions of the regulations listed in Type Certificate no. 
A20WE, or the applicable regulations in effect on the date of 
application for the change, except for earlier amendments as agreed 
upon by the FAA. The regulations listed in the type certificate are 
commonly referred to as the ``original type certification basis.'' The 
regulations listed in Type Certificate no. A20WE are as follows:
    14 CFR part 25, Amendments 25-1 through 25-120, with exceptions 
permitted by Sec.  21.101. In addition, the certification basis 
includes certain special conditions, exemptions, or later amended 
sections of the applicable part that are not relevant to these special 
conditions.
    If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness 
regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or 
appropriate safety standards for Boeing Model 747-8 airplanes because 
of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed 
under Sec.  21.16.
    Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which 
they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended 
later to include any other model that incorporates the same novel or 
unusual design feature, or should any other model already included on 
the same type certificate be modified to incorporate the same novel or 
unusual design feature, these special conditions would also apply to 
the other model under Sec.  21.101.
    In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special 
conditions, the Boeing Model 747-8 airplane must comply with the fuel-
vent and exhaust-emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34, and the 
noise-certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36.
    The FAA issues special conditions as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in 
accordance with Sec.  11.38, and they become part of the type 
certification basis under Sec.  21.101.

Novel or Unusual Design Features

    The business-class seating configuration Boeing proposes is novel 
or unusual due to the seat installation at 30 degrees to the airplane 
centerline, the airbag-system installation, and the seat/occupant 
interface with the surrounding furniture that introduces occupant 
alignment and loading concerns. The proposed business-class seating 
configuration also is beyond the limits of current acceptable 
equivalent-level-of-safety findings.
    Ongoing research is progressing to establish acceptable limits. 
Until those limits become available, the FAA proposes a set of interim 
limits based on the current literature available, current National 
Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) regulations, and 
preliminary test data from the research program.
    The existing regulations do not provide adequate or appropriate 
safety standards for occupants of oblique-angled seats with airbag 
systems. To provide a level of safety that is equivalent to that 
afforded occupants of forward- and aft-facing seats, additional 
airworthiness standards, in the form of special conditions, are 
necessary. These special conditions supplement part 25 and, more 
specifically, supplement Sec. Sec.  25.562 and 25.785. The requirements 
contained in these special conditions consist of both test conditions 
and injury pass/fail criteria.

[[Page 58588]]

Discussion

    Amendment 25-15 to part 25, dated October 24, 1967, introduced the 
subject of side-facing seats, and a requirement that each occupant in a 
side-facing seat must be protected from head injury by a safety belt 
and a cushioned rest that will support the arms, shoulders, head, and 
spine.
    Subsequently, Amendment 25-20, dated April 23, 1969, clarified the 
definition of side-facing seats to require that each occupant of a 
seat, positioned at more than an 18-degree angle to the vertical plane 
of the airplane longitudinal centerline, must be protected from head 
injury by a safety belt and an energy-absorbing rest that will support 
the arms, shoulders, head, and spine; or by a safety belt and shoulder 
harness that will prevent the head from contacting any injurious 
object. The FAA concluded that an 18-degree angle would provide an 
adequate level of safety based on tests that were performed at that 
time, and thus adopted that standard.
    Part 25 was amended June 16, 1988, by Amendment 25-64, to revise 
the emergency-landing conditions that must be considered in the design 
of the airplane. Amendment 25-64 revised the static-load conditions in 
14 CFR 25.561, and added the new Sec.  25.562 that requires dynamic 
testing for all seats approved for occupancy during takeoff and 
landing. The intent of Amendment 25-64 is to provide an improved level 
of safety for occupants on transport-category airplanes. Because most 
seating is forward-facing on transport-category airplanes, the pass/
fail criteria developed in Amendment 25-64 focused primarily on these 
seats. As a result, the FAA issued Policy Memorandums ANM-03-115-30 and 
PS-ANM-100-2000-00123 to provide the additional guidance necessary to 
demonstrate the level of safety required by the regulations for side-
facing seats.
    To reflect current research findings, the FAA developed a 
methodology to address all fully side-facing seats (i.e., seats 
positioned in the airplane with the occupant facing 90 degrees to the 
vertical plane of the airplane centerline), and has documented those 
requirements in a set of new special conditions. The FAA issued Policy 
Statement PS-ANM-25-03-R1 to define revised injury criteria associated 
with neck and leg injuries.
    The proposed Model 747-8, a Transaero Airlines business-class seat 
installation, is novel such that the current Model 747-8 airplane 
certification basis does not adequately address protection of the 
occupant's neck and spine for seat configurations that are positioned 
at an angle greater than 18 degrees from the airplane centerline. 
Therefore, The Boeing Company's proposed configuration will require new 
special conditions.
    These special conditions will provide head injury criteria, neck 
injury criteria, spine injury criteria, and body-to-wall contact 
criteria. They contain the additional safety standards that the 
Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety 
equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards.

Applicability

    These special conditions are applicable to the Boeing Model 747-8 
airplanes configured with the business-class seating defined in Boeing 
Certification Plan. Should Boeing apply at a later date for a change to 
the type certificates to include another model incorporating the same 
novel or unusual design feature, or should any other model already 
included on the same type certificate be modified to incorporate the 
same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would 
apply to the other model as well.

Conclusion

    This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features 
on one model airplane. It is not a rule of general applicability.
    The substance of these special conditions has been subjected to the 
notice and comment period in several prior instances and has been 
derived without substantive change from those previously issued. It is 
unlikely that prior public comment would result in a significant change 
from the substance contained herein. Therefore, because a delay would 
significantly affect the certification of the airplane, which is 
imminent, the FAA has determined that prior public notice and comment 
are unnecessary and impracticable, and good cause exists for adopting 
these special conditions upon publication in the Federal Register. The 
FAA is requesting comments to allow interested persons to submit views 
that may not have been submitted in response to the prior opportunities 
for comment described above.

List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25

    Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements.

    The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704.

The Special Conditions

    Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the 
Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of 
the type certification basis for the Boeing Model 747-8 airplane.

Side-Facing Seats Special Conditions

    In addition to the requirements of Sec.  25.562:
    1. Head Injury Criteria.
    Compliance with Sec.  25.562(c)(5) is required, except that, if the 
anthropomorphic test device (ATD) has no apparent contact with the 
seat/structure but has contact with an airbag, a head-injury criterion 
(HIC) unlimited score in excess of 1000 is acceptable, provided the 
HIC15 score (calculated in accordance with 49 CFR 571.208) for that 
contact is less than 700.
    2. Body-to-Wall/Furnishing Contact.
    If a seat is installed aft of structure (e.g., an interior wall or 
furnishing) that does not provide a homogenous contact surface for the 
expected range of occupants and yaw angles, then additional analysis 
and/or test(s) may be required to demonstrate that the injury criteria 
are met for the area that an occupant could contact. For example, if 
different yaw angles could result in different airbag performance, then 
additional analysis or separate test(s) may be necessary to evaluate 
performance.
    3. Neck Injury Criteria.
    The seating system must protect the occupant from experiencing 
serious neck injury. The assessment of neck injury must be conducted 
with the airbag device activated, unless there is reason to also 
consider that the neck-injury potential would be higher for impacts 
below the airbag-device deployment threshold.
    a. The Nij (calculated in accordance with 49 CFR 
571.208) must be below 1.0, where Nij =Fz/
Fzc + My/Myc, and Nij 
critical values are:

i. Fzc = 1530 lb for tension
ii. Fzc = 1385 lb for compression
iii. Myc = 229 lb-ft in flexion
iv. Myc = 100 lb-ft in extension

    b. In addition, peak Fz must be below 937 lb in tension 
and 899 lb in compression.
    c. Rotation of the head about its vertical axis, relative to the 
torso, is limited to 105 degrees in either direction from forward-
facing.
    d. The neck must not impact any surface that would produce 
concentrated loading on the neck.
    4. Spine and Torso Injury Criteria
    a. The shoulders must remain aligned with the hips throughout the 
impact

[[Page 58589]]

sequence, or support for the upper torso must be provided to prevent 
forward or lateral flailing beyond 45 degrees from the vertical during 
significant spinal loading. Alternatively, the lumbar spine tension 
(Fz) cannot exceed 1200 lb.
    b. Significant concentrated loading on the occupant's spine, in the 
area between the pelvis and shoulders during impact, including rebound, 
is not acceptable. During this type of contact, the interval for any 
rearward (X-direction) acceleration exceeding 20g must be less than 3 
milliseconds as measured by the thoracic instrumentation specified in 
49 CFR part 572, subpart E, filtered in accordance with SAE 
International (SAE) J211-1.
    c. Occupant must not interact with the armrest or other seat 
components in any manner significantly different than would be expected 
for a forward-facing seat installation.
    5. Longitudinal test(s), conducted to measure the injury criteria 
above, must be performed with the FAA Hybrid III ATD, as described in 
SAE 1999-01-1609. The test(s) must be conducted with an undeformed 
floor, at the most-critical yaw case(s) for injury, and with all 
lateral structural supports (armrests/walls) installed.

    Note: Boeing must demonstrate that the installation of seats via 
plinths or pallets meets all applicable requirements. Compliance 
with the guidance contained in FAA Policy Memorandum PS-ANM-100-
2000-00123, dated February 2, 2000, titled ``Guidance for 
Demonstrating Compliance with Seat Dynamic Testing for Plinths and 
Pallets,'' is acceptable to the FAA.

Inflatable Airbag Systems Special Conditions

    If inflatable airbag systems are installed on single-place side-
facing seats, the airbag systems must meet Special Conditions no. 25-
589-SC.

    Issued in Renton, Washington, on September 1, 2015.
Jeffrey E. Duven,
Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification 
Service.
[FR Doc. 2015-24724 Filed 9-29-15; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 4910-13-P