Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model 650, Citation VII Airplane; As Modified by Universal Avionics Systems Corporation; Installed Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, 11319-11321 [2015-04366]

Download as PDF 11319 Rules and Regulations Federal Register Vol. 80, No. 41 Tuesday, March 3, 2015 This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains regulatory documents having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed to and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, which is published under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510. The Code of Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each week. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 [Docket No. FAA–2015–0441; Special Conditions No. 25–577–SC] Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model 650, Citation VII Airplane; As Modified by Universal Avionics Systems Corporation; Installed Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special conditions; request for comments. AGENCY: These special conditions are issued for the Cessna Aircraft Company, Model 650, Citation VII Airplane. This airplane as modified by Universal Avionics Systems Corporation will have a novel or unusual design feature when compared to the state of technology envisioned in the airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes. This design feature is for the installation of Universal Avionics InSightTM Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS), Engine Interface Units (EIU), UNS–1Fw Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) Flight Management System (FMS), and Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) Class A, which will use rechargeable lithium batteries and battery systems. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. DATES: This action is effective on Cessna Aircraft Company on March 3, 2015. We Rmajette on DSK2VPTVN1PROD with RULES SUMMARY: VerDate Sep<11>2014 15:05 Mar 02, 2015 Jkt 235001 must receive your comments by April 17, 2015. ADDRESSES: Send comments identified by docket number FAA–2015–0441 using any of the following methods: • Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/ and follow the online instructions for sending your comments electronically. • Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M–30, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Room W12–140, West Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC 20590–0001. • Hand Delivery or Courier: Take comments to Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. • Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202–493–2251. Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without change, to http://www.regulations.gov/, including any personal information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the docket Web site, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT’s complete Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477–19478), as well as at http:// DocketsInfo.dot.gov/. Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at http://www.regulations.gov/ at any time. Follow the online instructions for accessing the docket or go to Docket Operations in Room W12–140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nazih Khaouly, FAA, Airplane and Flightcrew Interface Branch, ANM–111, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington 98057–3356; telephone 425–227–2432; facsimile 425–227–1149. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA has determined that notice of, and opportunity for prior public comment PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 on, these special conditions is impracticable because these procedures would significantly delay issuance of the design approval and thus delivery of the affected aircraft. In addition, the substance of these special conditions has been subject to the public comment process in several prior instances with no substantive comments received. The FAA therefore finds that good cause exists for making these special conditions effective upon publication in the Federal Register. Comments Invited We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. We will consider all comments we receive by the closing date for comments. We may change these special conditions based on the comments we receive. Background On January 13, 2014, Universal Avionics Systems Corporation applied for a supplemental type certificate (STC) for the installation of Universal Avionics InSightTM EFIS, EIU, UNS– 1Fw WAAS FMS, and TAWS Class A, which will use rechargeable lithium batteries and battery systems. The Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII is a pressurized, two-crew, seven-passenger, low wing transport with two aft mounted turbo-fan engines. Rechargeable lithium batteries are a novel or unusual design feature in transport category airplanes. This type of battery has certain failure, operational, and maintenance characteristics that differ significantly from those of the nickel-cadmium and lead-acid rechargeable batteries currently approved for installation on transport category airplanes. Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of § 21.101, Universal Avionics Systems Corporation must show that the Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII, as changed, continues to meet the applicable provisions of the regulations listed in Type Certificate No. A9NM or the applicable regulations in effect on the date of application for the change except for earlier amendments as E:\FR\FM\03MRR1.SGM 03MRR1 11320 Federal Register / Vol. 80, No. 41 / Tuesday, March 3, 2015 / Rules and Regulations agreed upon by the FAA. The regulations listed in the type certificate are commonly referred to as the ‘‘original type-certification basis.’’ In addition, if the regulations listed do not provide adequate standards regarding the change, the applicant must comply with certain regulations in effect on the date of application for the change. If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for the Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII airplane because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed under the provisions of § 21.16. Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which they are issued. Should the applicant apply for a supplemental type certificate (STC) to modify any other model included on the same type certificate to incorporate the same or similar novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would also apply to the other model under § 21.101. In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special conditions, the Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII must comply with the fuel vent and exhaust emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the noise certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36. The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in accordance with § 11.38, and they become part of the type-certification basis under § 21.101. Rmajette on DSK2VPTVN1PROD with RULES Novel or Unusual Design Features The Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII will incorporate the following novel or unusual design feature: The installation of a Universal Avionics InSightTM EFIS, EIU, UNS–1Fw WAAS FMS, and TAWS Class A, which will use rechargeable lithium batteries and battery systems. Discussion The current regulations governing installation of batteries in large transport-category airplanes were derived from Civil Air Regulations (CAR) part 4b.625(d) as part of the recodification of CAR 4b that established 14 CFR part 25 in February 1965. The new battery requirements, § 25.1353(c)(1) through (c)(4), reworded the CAR requirements. Increased use of nickel-cadmium batteries in small airplanes resulted in increased incidents of battery fires and failures that led to additional rulemaking affecting large transport category airplanes as well as small VerDate Sep<11>2014 15:05 Mar 02, 2015 Jkt 235001 airplanes. On September 1, 1977 and March 1, 1978, the FAA issued § 25.1353(c)(5) and (c)(6), respectively, governing nickel-cadmium battery installations on large transport-category airplanes. The proposed use of rechargeable lithium batteries for equipment and systems prompted the FAA to review the adequacy of these existing regulations. Our review indicates that the existing regulations do not adequately address several failure, operational, and maintenance characteristics of rechargeable lithium batteries that could affect the safety and reliability of the Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII airplane lithium battery installations. At present, there is limited experience with the use of rechargeable lithium batteries and battery systems in applications involving commercial aviation. However, other users of this technology, ranging from wireless telephone manufacturers to the electricvehicle industry, have noted safety problems with rechargeable lithium batteries. These problems include overcharging, over-discharging, and flammability of cell components. 1. Overcharging In general, lithium batteries are significantly more susceptible to internal failures that can result in selfsustaining increases in temperature and pressure (i.e., thermal runaway) than their nickel-cadmium or lead-acid counterparts. This condition is especially true for overcharging, which causes heating and destabilization of the components of the cell, leading to the formation (by plating) of highly unstable metallic lithium. The metallic lithium can ignite, resulting in a self-sustaining fire or explosion. Finally, the severity of thermal runaway, due to overcharging, increases with increasing battery capacity due to the higher amount of electrolyte in large batteries. use liquid electrolytes that are flammable. The electrolyte can serve as a source of fuel for an external fire, if there is a breach of the battery container. These problems experienced by users of lithium batteries raise concern about the use of these batteries in commercial aviation. The intent of the special conditions are to establish appropriate airworthiness standards for lithium battery installations in the Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII airplane and to ensure, as required by §§ 25.1309 and 25.601, that these batteries are not hazardous or unreliable. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards. Applicability As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII airplane. Should Universal Avionics Systems Corporation apply at a later date for a supplemental type certificate to modify any other model included on Type Certificate No. A9NM to incorporate the same or similar novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would apply to that model as well. 2. Over-Discharging Discharge of some types of lithium battery cells beyond a certain voltage (typically 2.4 volts), can cause corrosion of the electrodes of the cell, resulting in loss of battery capacity that cannot be reversed by recharging. This loss of capacity may not be detected by the simple voltage measurements commonly available to flightcrews as a means of checking battery status—a problem shared with nickel-cadmium batteries. Conclusion This action affects only a certain novel or unusual design feature on one airplane model. It is not a rule of general applicability and affects only the applicant who applied to the FAA for approval of this feature on the airplane. The substance of these special conditions has been subjected to the notice and comment period in several prior instances and has been derived without substantive change from those previously issued. It is unlikely that prior public comment would result in a significant change from the substance contained herein. Therefore, because a delay would significantly affect the certification of the airplane, which is imminent, the FAA has determined that prior public notice and comment are unnecessary and impracticable, and good cause exists for adopting these special conditions upon publication in the Federal Register. The FAA is requesting comments to allow interested persons to submit views that may not have been submitted in response to the prior opportunities for comment described above. 3. Flammability of Cell Components Unlike nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries, some types of lithium batteries List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25 Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. PO 00000 Frm 00002 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\03MRR1.SGM 03MRR1 Federal Register / Vol. 80, No. 41 / Tuesday, March 3, 2015 / Rules and Regulations The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704. Rmajette on DSK2VPTVN1PROD with RULES The Special Conditions Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of the type certification basis for Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII airplanes modified by Universal Avionics Systems Corporation. Installed Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems. These special conditions require that (1) all characteristics of the rechargeable lithium batteries and battery installation that could affect safe operation of the Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII airplanes are addressed; and (2) appropriate instructions for continued airworthiness, which include maintenance requirements, are established to ensure the availability of electrical power, when needed, from the batteries. In lieu of the requirements of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 25.1353(b)(1) through (b)(4) at amendment 25–123, all rechargeable lithium batteries and battery systems on Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII airplanes, modified by Universal Avionics Systems Corporation, must be designed and installed as follows: 1. Safe cell temperatures and pressures must be maintained during any foreseeable charging or discharging condition and during any failure of the charging or battery monitoring system not shown to be extremely remote. The rechargeable lithium battery installation must preclude explosion in the event of those failures. 2. Design of the rechargeable lithium batteries must preclude the occurrence of self-sustaining, uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure. 3. No explosive or toxic gases emitted by any rechargeable lithium battery in normal operation, or as the result of any failure of the battery charging system, monitoring system, or battery installation which is not shown to be extremely remote, may accumulate in hazardous quantities within the airplane. 4. Installations of rechargeable lithium batteries must meet the requirements of § 25.863(a) through (d). 5. No corrosive fluids or gases that may escape from any rechargeable lithium battery may damage surrounding structure or any adjacent systems, equipment, or electrical wiring of the airplane in such a way as to cause VerDate Sep<11>2014 15:05 Mar 02, 2015 Jkt 235001 a major or more severe failure condition, in accordance with § 25.1309(b) and applicable regulatory guidance. 6. Each rechargeable lithium battery installation must have provisions to prevent any hazardous effect on structure or essential systems caused by the maximum amount of heat the battery can generate during a short circuit of the battery or of its individual cells. 7. Rechargeable lithium battery installations must have a system to control the charging rate of the battery automatically, so as to prevent battery overheating or overcharging, and: a. A battery temperature sensing and over-temperature warning system with a means for automatically disconnecting the battery from its charging source in the event of an over-temperature condition, or, b. A battery failure sensing and warning system with a means for automatically disconnecting the battery from its charging source in the event of battery failure. 8. Any rechargeable lithium battery installation, the function of which is required for safe operation of the airplane, must incorporate a monitoring and warning feature that will provide an indication to the appropriate flight crewmembers whenever the state-ofcharge of the batteries has fallen below levels considered acceptable for dispatch of the airplane. 9. The instructions for continued airworthiness required by § 25.1529 must contain maintenance requirements to assure that the battery is sufficiently charged at appropriate intervals specified by the battery manufacturer and the equipment manufacturer that contain the rechargeable lithium battery or rechargeable lithium battery system. This is required to ensure that lithium rechargeable batteries and lithium rechargeable battery systems will not degrade below specified ampere-hour levels sufficient to power the airplane systems for intended applications. The instructions for continued airworthiness must also contain procedures for the maintenance of batteries in spares storage to prevent the replacement of batteries with batteries that have experienced degraded charge retention ability or other damage due to prolonged storage at a low state of charge. Replacement batteries must be of the same manufacturer and part number as approved by the FAA. Precautions should be included in the instructions for continued airworthiness maintenance instructions to prevent mishandling of the rechargeable lithium battery and rechargeable lithium battery systems, which could result in short- PO 00000 Frm 00003 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 11321 circuit or other unintentional impact damage caused by dropping or other destructive means that could result in personal injury or property damage. Note 1: The term ‘‘sufficiently charged’’ means that the battery will retain enough of a charge, expressed in ampere-hours, to ensure that the battery cells will not be damaged. A battery cell may be damaged by lowering the charge below a point where the battery experiences a reduction in the ability to charge and retain a full charge. This reduction would be greater than the reduction that may result from normal operational degradation. Note 2: These special conditions are not intended to replace § 25.1353(b) in the certification basis of Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII airplanes. These special conditions apply only to rechargeable lithium batteries, lithium battery systems, and their installations. The requirements of § 25.1353(b) remain in effect for batteries and battery installations on Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII airplanes that do not use lithium batteries. Issued in Renton, Washington, on February 23, 2015. Michael Kaszycki, Acting Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2015–04366 Filed 3–2–15; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–13–P ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA–R06–OAR–2014–0871; FRL–9923–80– Region 6] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans: Texas; Approval of Substitution for Transportation Control Measures Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule; notice of administrative change. AGENCY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is making an administrative change to update the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) to reflect a change made to the Texas State Implementation Plan (SIP) on November 3, 2014, as a result of EPA’s concurrence on a substitute transportation control measure (TCM) for the Dallas/Ft. Worth (DFW) portion of the Texas SIP. On November 24, 2014, the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), submitted a revision to the Texas SIP SUMMARY: E:\FR\FM\03MRR1.SGM 03MRR1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 80, Number 41 (Tuesday, March 3, 2015)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 11319-11321]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2015-04366]



========================================================================
Rules and Regulations
                                                Federal Register
________________________________________________________________________

This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains regulatory documents 
having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed 
to and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, which is published 
under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510.

The Code of Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. 
Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each 
week.

========================================================================


Federal Register / Vol. 80, No. 41 / Tuesday, March 3, 2015 / Rules 
and Regulations

[[Page 11319]]



DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Part 25

[Docket No. FAA-2015-0441; Special Conditions No. 25-577-SC]


Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model 650, Citation 
VII Airplane; As Modified by Universal Avionics Systems Corporation; 
Installed Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION: Final special conditions; request for comments.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Cessna Aircraft 
Company, Model 650, Citation VII Airplane. This airplane as modified by 
Universal Avionics Systems Corporation will have a novel or unusual 
design feature when compared to the state of technology envisioned in 
the airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes. This 
design feature is for the installation of Universal Avionics 
InSightTM Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS), Engine 
Interface Units (EIU), UNS-1Fw Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) 
Flight Management System (FMS), and Terrain Awareness and Warning 
System (TAWS) Class A, which will use rechargeable lithium batteries 
and battery systems. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not 
contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design 
feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety 
standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a 
level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing 
airworthiness standards.

DATES: This action is effective on Cessna Aircraft Company on March 3, 
2015. We must receive your comments by April 17, 2015.

ADDRESSES: Send comments identified by docket number FAA-2015-0441 
using any of the following methods:
     Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/ and follow the online instructions for sending 
your comments electronically.
     Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M-30, U.S. 
Department of Transportation (DOT), 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Room 
W12-140, West Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC 20590-0001.
     Hand Delivery or Courier: Take comments to Docket 
Operations in Room W12-140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 
New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., 
Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.
     Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202-493-2251.
    Privacy: The FAA will post all comments it receives, without 
change, to http://www.regulations.gov/, including any personal 
information the commenter provides. Using the search function of the 
docket Web site, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all 
comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the 
individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an 
association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT's complete Privacy Act 
Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 
2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/.
    Docket: Background documents or comments received may be read at 
http://www.regulations.gov/ at any time. Follow the online instructions 
for accessing the docket or go to Docket Operations in Room W12-140 of 
the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., 
Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, 
except Federal holidays.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nazih Khaouly, FAA, Airplane and 
Flightcrew Interface Branch, ANM-111, Transport Airplane Directorate, 
Aircraft Certification Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, 
Washington 98057-3356; telephone 425-227-2432; facsimile 425-227-1149.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA has determined that notice of, and 
opportunity for prior public comment on, these special conditions is 
impracticable because these procedures would significantly delay 
issuance of the design approval and thus delivery of the affected 
aircraft. In addition, the substance of these special conditions has 
been subject to the public comment process in several prior instances 
with no substantive comments received. The FAA therefore finds that 
good cause exists for making these special conditions effective upon 
publication in the Federal Register.

Comments Invited

    We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by 
sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments 
reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the 
reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data.
    We will consider all comments we receive by the closing date for 
comments. We may change these special conditions based on the comments 
we receive.

Background

    On January 13, 2014, Universal Avionics Systems Corporation applied 
for a supplemental type certificate (STC) for the installation of 
Universal Avionics InSightTM EFIS, EIU, UNS-1Fw WAAS FMS, 
and TAWS Class A, which will use rechargeable lithium batteries and 
battery systems. The Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII is a pressurized, 
two-crew, seven-passenger, low wing transport with two aft mounted 
turbo-fan engines.
    Rechargeable lithium batteries are a novel or unusual design 
feature in transport category airplanes. This type of battery has 
certain failure, operational, and maintenance characteristics that 
differ significantly from those of the nickel-cadmium and lead-acid 
rechargeable batteries currently approved for installation on transport 
category airplanes.

Type Certification Basis

    Under the provisions of Sec.  21.101, Universal Avionics Systems 
Corporation must show that the Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII, as 
changed, continues to meet the applicable provisions of the regulations 
listed in Type Certificate No. A9NM or the applicable regulations in 
effect on the date of application for the change except for earlier 
amendments as

[[Page 11320]]

agreed upon by the FAA. The regulations listed in the type certificate 
are commonly referred to as the ``original type-certification basis.''
    In addition, if the regulations listed do not provide adequate 
standards regarding the change, the applicant must comply with certain 
regulations in effect on the date of application for the change.
    If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness 
regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or 
appropriate safety standards for the Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII 
airplane because of a novel or unusual design feature, special 
conditions are prescribed under the provisions of Sec.  21.16.
    Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which 
they are issued. Should the applicant apply for a supplemental type 
certificate (STC) to modify any other model included on the same type 
certificate to incorporate the same or similar novel or unusual design 
feature, these special conditions would also apply to the other model 
under Sec.  21.101.
    In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special 
conditions, the Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII must comply with the 
fuel vent and exhaust emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the 
noise certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36.
    The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in 
accordance with Sec.  11.38, and they become part of the type-
certification basis under Sec.  21.101.

Novel or Unusual Design Features

    The Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII will incorporate the following 
novel or unusual design feature: The installation of a Universal 
Avionics InSightTM EFIS, EIU, UNS-1Fw WAAS FMS, and TAWS 
Class A, which will use rechargeable lithium batteries and battery 
systems.

Discussion

    The current regulations governing installation of batteries in 
large transport-category airplanes were derived from Civil Air 
Regulations (CAR) part 4b.625(d) as part of the re-codification of CAR 
4b that established 14 CFR part 25 in February 1965. The new battery 
requirements, Sec.  25.1353(c)(1) through (c)(4), reworded the CAR 
requirements.
    Increased use of nickel-cadmium batteries in small airplanes 
resulted in increased incidents of battery fires and failures that led 
to additional rulemaking affecting large transport category airplanes 
as well as small airplanes. On September 1, 1977 and March 1, 1978, the 
FAA issued Sec.  25.1353(c)(5) and (c)(6), respectively, governing 
nickel-cadmium battery installations on large transport-category 
airplanes.
    The proposed use of rechargeable lithium batteries for equipment 
and systems prompted the FAA to review the adequacy of these existing 
regulations. Our review indicates that the existing regulations do not 
adequately address several failure, operational, and maintenance 
characteristics of rechargeable lithium batteries that could affect the 
safety and reliability of the Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII airplane 
lithium battery installations.
    At present, there is limited experience with the use of 
rechargeable lithium batteries and battery systems in applications 
involving commercial aviation. However, other users of this technology, 
ranging from wireless telephone manufacturers to the electric-vehicle 
industry, have noted safety problems with rechargeable lithium 
batteries. These problems include overcharging, over-discharging, and 
flammability of cell components.

1. Overcharging

    In general, lithium batteries are significantly more susceptible to 
internal failures that can result in self-sustaining increases in 
temperature and pressure (i.e., thermal runaway) than their nickel-
cadmium or lead-acid counterparts. This condition is especially true 
for overcharging, which causes heating and destabilization of the 
components of the cell, leading to the formation (by plating) of highly 
unstable metallic lithium. The metallic lithium can ignite, resulting 
in a self-sustaining fire or explosion. Finally, the severity of 
thermal runaway, due to overcharging, increases with increasing battery 
capacity due to the higher amount of electrolyte in large batteries.

2. Over-Discharging

    Discharge of some types of lithium battery cells beyond a certain 
voltage (typically 2.4 volts), can cause corrosion of the electrodes of 
the cell, resulting in loss of battery capacity that cannot be reversed 
by recharging. This loss of capacity may not be detected by the simple 
voltage measurements commonly available to flightcrews as a means of 
checking battery status--a problem shared with nickel-cadmium 
batteries.

3. Flammability of Cell Components

    Unlike nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries, some types of 
lithium batteries use liquid electrolytes that are flammable. The 
electrolyte can serve as a source of fuel for an external fire, if 
there is a breach of the battery container.
    These problems experienced by users of lithium batteries raise 
concern about the use of these batteries in commercial aviation. The 
intent of the special conditions are to establish appropriate 
airworthiness standards for lithium battery installations in the 
Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII airplane and to ensure, as required by 
Sec. Sec.  25.1309 and 25.601, that these batteries are not hazardous 
or unreliable.
    These special conditions contain the additional safety standards 
that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of 
safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness 
standards.

Applicability

    As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the 
Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII airplane. Should Universal Avionics 
Systems Corporation apply at a later date for a supplemental type 
certificate to modify any other model included on Type Certificate No. 
A9NM to incorporate the same or similar novel or unusual design 
feature, these special conditions would apply to that model as well.

Conclusion

    This action affects only a certain novel or unusual design feature 
on one airplane model. It is not a rule of general applicability and 
affects only the applicant who applied to the FAA for approval of this 
feature on the airplane.
    The substance of these special conditions has been subjected to the 
notice and comment period in several prior instances and has been 
derived without substantive change from those previously issued. It is 
unlikely that prior public comment would result in a significant change 
from the substance contained herein. Therefore, because a delay would 
significantly affect the certification of the airplane, which is 
imminent, the FAA has determined that prior public notice and comment 
are unnecessary and impracticable, and good cause exists for adopting 
these special conditions upon publication in the Federal Register. The 
FAA is requesting comments to allow interested persons to submit views 
that may not have been submitted in response to the prior opportunities 
for comment described above.

List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25

    Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements.


[[Page 11321]]


    The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704.

The Special Conditions

    Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the 
Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of 
the type certification basis for Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII 
airplanes modified by Universal Avionics Systems Corporation.

Installed Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems.

    These special conditions require that (1) all characteristics of 
the rechargeable lithium batteries and battery installation that could 
affect safe operation of the Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII airplanes 
are addressed; and (2) appropriate instructions for continued 
airworthiness, which include maintenance requirements, are established 
to ensure the availability of electrical power, when needed, from the 
batteries.
    In lieu of the requirements of Title 14, Code of Federal 
Regulations (14 CFR) 25.1353(b)(1) through (b)(4) at amendment 25-123, 
all rechargeable lithium batteries and battery systems on Cessna, Model 
650, Citation VII airplanes, modified by Universal Avionics Systems 
Corporation, must be designed and installed as follows:
    1. Safe cell temperatures and pressures must be maintained during 
any foreseeable charging or discharging condition and during any 
failure of the charging or battery monitoring system not shown to be 
extremely remote. The rechargeable lithium battery installation must 
preclude explosion in the event of those failures.
    2. Design of the rechargeable lithium batteries must preclude the 
occurrence of self-sustaining, uncontrolled increases in temperature or 
pressure.
    3. No explosive or toxic gases emitted by any rechargeable lithium 
battery in normal operation, or as the result of any failure of the 
battery charging system, monitoring system, or battery installation 
which is not shown to be extremely remote, may accumulate in hazardous 
quantities within the airplane.
    4. Installations of rechargeable lithium batteries must meet the 
requirements of Sec.  25.863(a) through (d).
    5. No corrosive fluids or gases that may escape from any 
rechargeable lithium battery may damage surrounding structure or any 
adjacent systems, equipment, or electrical wiring of the airplane in 
such a way as to cause a major or more severe failure condition, in 
accordance with Sec.  25.1309(b) and applicable regulatory guidance.
    6. Each rechargeable lithium battery installation must have 
provisions to prevent any hazardous effect on structure or essential 
systems caused by the maximum amount of heat the battery can generate 
during a short circuit of the battery or of its individual cells.
    7. Rechargeable lithium battery installations must have a system to 
control the charging rate of the battery automatically, so as to 
prevent battery overheating or overcharging, and:
    a. A battery temperature sensing and over-temperature warning 
system with a means for automatically disconnecting the battery from 
its charging source in the event of an over-temperature condition, or,
    b. A battery failure sensing and warning system with a means for 
automatically disconnecting the battery from its charging source in the 
event of battery failure.
    8. Any rechargeable lithium battery installation, the function of 
which is required for safe operation of the airplane, must incorporate 
a monitoring and warning feature that will provide an indication to the 
appropriate flight crewmembers whenever the state-of-charge of the 
batteries has fallen below levels considered acceptable for dispatch of 
the airplane.
    9. The instructions for continued airworthiness required by Sec.  
25.1529 must contain maintenance requirements to assure that the 
battery is sufficiently charged at appropriate intervals specified by 
the battery manufacturer and the equipment manufacturer that contain 
the rechargeable lithium battery or rechargeable lithium battery 
system. This is required to ensure that lithium rechargeable batteries 
and lithium rechargeable battery systems will not degrade below 
specified ampere-hour levels sufficient to power the airplane systems 
for intended applications. The instructions for continued airworthiness 
must also contain procedures for the maintenance of batteries in spares 
storage to prevent the replacement of batteries with batteries that 
have experienced degraded charge retention ability or other damage due 
to prolonged storage at a low state of charge. Replacement batteries 
must be of the same manufacturer and part number as approved by the 
FAA. Precautions should be included in the instructions for continued 
airworthiness maintenance instructions to prevent mishandling of the 
rechargeable lithium battery and rechargeable lithium battery systems, 
which could result in short-circuit or other unintentional impact 
damage caused by dropping or other destructive means that could result 
in personal injury or property damage.
    Note 1: The term ``sufficiently charged'' means that the battery 
will retain enough of a charge, expressed in ampere-hours, to ensure 
that the battery cells will not be damaged. A battery cell may be 
damaged by lowering the charge below a point where the battery 
experiences a reduction in the ability to charge and retain a full 
charge. This reduction would be greater than the reduction that may 
result from normal operational degradation.
    Note 2: These special conditions are not intended to replace Sec.  
25.1353(b) in the certification basis of Cessna, Model 650, Citation 
VII airplanes. These special conditions apply only to rechargeable 
lithium batteries, lithium battery systems, and their installations. 
The requirements of Sec.  25.1353(b) remain in effect for batteries and 
battery installations on Cessna, Model 650, Citation VII airplanes that 
do not use lithium batteries.

    Issued in Renton, Washington, on February 23, 2015.
Michael Kaszycki,
Acting Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification 
Service.
[FR Doc. 2015-04366 Filed 3-2-15; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4910-13-P