Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Determination 29 for Significant New Alternatives Policy Program, 62863-62875 [2014-24989]

Download as PDF Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 203 / Tuesday, October 21, 2014 / Rules and Regulations Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. Agency amends 40 CFR part 52 as set forth below: * Subpart R—Kansas PART 52—APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS § 52.870 62863 Identification of plan. * * (e) * * * * * 2. In § 52.870(e) the table is amended by adding new entry (38) in numerical order at the end of the table to read as follows: ■ 1. The authority citation for part 52 continues to read as follows: ■ EPA-APPROVED KANSAS NONREGULATORY PROVISIONS Name of nonregulatory SIP provision Applicable geographic or nonattainment area State submittal date EPA approval date Explanation * * (38) Section 110(a)(2) Infrastructure Requirements for the 2008 O3 NAAQS. * Statewide .......... * 3/19/2013 * 10/21/2014 [Insert Federal Register citation]. * * This action addresses the following CAA elements: 110(a)(2)(A), (B), (C), (D)(i)(II) (prongs 3 and 4), (D)(ii), (E), (F), (G), (H), (J), (K), (L), and (M) except as noted. [FR Doc. 2014–24781 Filed 10–20–14; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6560–50–P ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 82 [EPA–HQ–OAR–2003–0118; FRL–9918–30– OAR] RIN 2060–AG12 Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Determination 29 for Significant New Alternatives Policy Program Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Determination of acceptability. AGENCY: This Determination of Acceptability expands the list of acceptable substitutes for ozonedepleting substances under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program. This action lists as acceptable additional substitutes for use in the refrigeration and air conditioning, foam blowing, and fire suppression and explosion protection sectors. DATES: This determination is effective on October 21, 2014. ADDRESSES: EPA has established a docket for this action under Docket ID No. EPA–HQ–OAR–2003–0118 (continuation of Air Docket A–91–42). All electronic documents in the docket are listed in the index at www.regulations.gov. Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, i.e., Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other asabaliauskas on DSK5VPTVN1PROD with RULES SUMMARY: VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:03 Oct 20, 2014 Jkt 235001 information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically at www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the EPA Air Docket (Nos. A–91–42 and EPA–HQ–OAR– 2003–0118), EPA/DC, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566–1744, and the telephone number for the Air Docket is (202) 566–1742. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Margaret Sheppard by telephone at (202) 343–9163, by facsimile at (202) 343–2338, by email at sheppard.margaret@epa.gov, or by mail at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Mail Code 6205T, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20460. Overnight or courier deliveries should be sent to the office location at 1201 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20004. For more information on the agency’s process for administering the SNAP program or criteria for evaluation of substitutes, refer to the original SNAP rulemaking published in the Federal Register on March 18, 1994 (59 FR 13044). Notices and rulemakings under the SNAP program, as well as other EPA publications on protection of stratospheric ozone, are available at EPA’s Ozone Depletion Web site at www.epa.gov/ozone/strathome.html including the SNAP portion at www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Listing of New Acceptable Substitutes A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning PO 00000 Frm 00067 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 B. Foam Blowing C. Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection II. Section 612 Program A. Statutory Requirements and Authority for the SNAP Program B. EPA’s Regulations Implementing Section 612 C. How the Regulations for the SNAP Program Work D. Additional Information About the SNAP Program Appendix A—Summary of Decisions for New Acceptable Substitutes I. Listing of New Acceptable Substitutes This action presents EPA’s most recent decision to list as acceptable several substitutes in the refrigeration and air conditioning, foam blowing, and fire suppression and explosion protection sectors. New substitutes include trans-1-chloro-3,3,3trifluoroprop-1-ene in non-mechanical heat transfer, and in flexible polyurethane foams; CO2 in refrigerated transport; R–450A in a variety of refrigeration and air conditioning enduses; methylal and hydrofluoroolefin (HFO)-1336mzz(Z) in a variety of foam blowing end-uses; and Powdered Aerosol D in the total flooding end-use. For copies of the full list of acceptable substitutes for ozone depleting substances (ODS) in all industrial sectors, visit EPA’s Ozone Layer Protection Web site at www.epa.gov/ ozone/snap/lists/index.html. The sections below discuss each substitute listing in detail. Appendix A contains tables summarizing today’s listing decisions for these new acceptable substitutes. The statements in the ‘‘Further Information’’ column in the tables provide additional information, but are not legally binding E:\FR\FM\21OCR1.SGM 21OCR1 62864 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 203 / Tuesday, October 21, 2014 / Rules and Regulations under section 612 of the Clean Air Act (CAA). In addition, the ‘‘Further Information’’ may not be a comprehensive list of other legal obligations you may need to meet when using the substitute. Although you are not required to follow recommendations in the ‘‘Further Information’’ column of the table to use a substitute consistent with section 612 of the CAA, some of these statements may refer to obligations that are enforceable or binding under federal or state programs other than the SNAP program. In many instances, the information simply refers to standard operating practices in existing industry and/or building-code standards. EPA strongly encourages you to apply the information in this column using these substitutes. Many of these recommendations, if adopted, would not require significant changes to existing operating practices. You can find submissions to EPA for the substitutes listed in this document, as well as other materials supporting the decisions in this action in docket EPA– HQ–OAR–2003–0118 at www.regulations.gov. asabaliauskas on DSK5VPTVN1PROD with RULES A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning 1. Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1ene (SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)) EPA’s decision: EPA finds trans-1chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene acceptable as a substitute for use in new equipment in non-mechanical heat transfer.1 Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1ene ((E)-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1ene, CAS Reg. No. 102687–65–0) is a chlorofluoroalkene marketed under the trade names SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) and SolsticeTM N12 Refrigerant for this enduse. You may find the redacted submission in Docket item EPA–HQ– OAR–2003–0118–0285 and under the name, ‘‘9/17/13 Letter to Rebecca von dem Hagen, EPA re: 1233zd(E)— Refrigeration Sector’’ in Docket EPA– HQ–OAR–2003–0118 at www.regulations.gov. EPA has performed an assessment to examine the health and environmental risks of this substitute. This assessment is available in docket EPA–HQ–OAR–2003–0118 under the name, ‘‘Risk Screen on Substitutes in Heat Transfer Substitute: Trans-1-Chloro-3,3,3,-trifluoroprop-1ene.’’ We have previously listed trans-1chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene as a 1 Acceptable substitutes for organic Rankine cycle have typically been included through listings in the non-mechanical heat transfer end-use. EPA may review organic Rankine cycle applications separately in the future. VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:03 Oct 20, 2014 Jkt 235001 refrigerant for use in new equipment in centrifugal chillers (August 10, 2012, 77 FR 47768). Environmental information: SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) has an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 0.00024 to 0.00034.2 3 Estimates of this compound’s potential to deplete the ozone layer indicate that even with worst-case estimates of emissions, which assume that this compound would substitute for all compounds it could replace, the impact on global atmospheric ozone abundance would be statistically insignificant.4 SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) has a 100-year integrated global warming potential (100-yr GWP) reported as 1 to 7 and an atmospheric lifetime of approximately 26 to 31 days or less.5 6 7 SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) is excluded from the definition of volatile organic compounds (VOC) under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of state implementation plans (SIPs) to attain and maintain the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The emissions of this refrigerant will be limited, given that it is subject to the venting prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of the CAA and EPA’s venting regulations codified at 40 CFR 82.154(a)(1). Flammability information: SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) is not flammable. Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this substitute include serious eye irritation, skin irritation, and frostbite. It may cause central nervous system effects such as drowsiness and dizziness. The substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a confined space. 2 Wang D., Olsen S., Wuebbles D. 2011. ‘‘Preliminary Report: Analyses of tCFP’s Potential Impact on Atmospheric Ozone.’’ Department of Atmospheric Sciences. University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. September 26, 2011. 3 Patten and Wuebbles, 2010. ‘‘Atmospheric Lifetimes and Ozone Depletion Potentials of trans1-chloro-3,3,3-trichloropropylene and trans-1,2dichloroethylene in a three-dimensional model.’’ Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10867–10874, 2010. 4 Wang et al., 2011. Op. cit. 5 Sulbaek Andersen, Nilsson, Neilsen, Johnson, Hurley and Wallington, ‘‘Atmospheric chemistry of trans-CF3CH=CHCl: Kinetics of the gas-phase reactions with Cl atoms, OH radicals, and O3’’, Jrnl of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 199 (2008) 92–97; and Wang D., Olsen S., Wuebbles D. Undated. ‘‘Three-Dimensional Model Evaluation of the Global Warming Potentials for tCFP.’’ Department of Atmospheric Sciences. University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. Draft report, undated. 6 Wang et al. 2011 and Sulbaek Andersen et al., 2008. Op cit. 7 Hodnebrog, ;., Etminan, M., Fuglestvedt, J.S., Marston, G., Myhre, G., Nielsen, C.J., Shine, K.P., Wallington, T.J.: Global Warming Potentials and Radiative Efficiencies of Halocarbons and Related Compounds: A Comprehensive Review, Reviews of Geophysics, 51, 300–378, doi:10.1002/rog.20013, 2013. PO 00000 Frm 00068 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) has established a Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL) of 800 ppm for trans-1chloro-3,3,3,-trifluoroprop-1-ene. EPA anticipates that SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) will be used in a manner consistent with the recommendations specified in the manufacturer’s material safety data sheet (MSDS). EPA anticipates that users will be able to meet the WEEL and address potential health risks by following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS and in any other safety precautions common to the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. Comparison to other substitutes in these end-uses: SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) has an ODP of 0.00024 to 0.00034 and estimates of its maximum potential impact on the ozone layer indicate a statistically insignificant impact, comparable to that of other substitutes in the same end-uses that are considered to be non-ozone-depleting.8 SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)’s ODP is well below those of ODS in these end-uses, such as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-113, HCFC– 141b, HCFC–22, and HCFC–123 (with ODPs ranging from 0.01 to 0.8 9). SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)’s GWP of 1 to 7 is lower than or comparable to those of other acceptable substitutes in the same end-uses, such as HFC–245fa, HFC– 134a and HFC–125 (with GWPs ranging from 1,030 to 3,500 10). Its GWP is also well below those of CFC–113, HCFC– 141b, HCFC–22, and HCFC–123 (with GWPs ranging from 77 to 4,750). Flammability risks are low, as discussed above. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with the AIHA WEEL standard, the American Society for Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 15 and other industry standards, recommendations in the MSDS, and other safety precautions common in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. The potential health effects of SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) are common to many refrigerants, including many of those already listed as acceptable under SNAP. EPA thus 8 Wang et al., 2011 and Patten and Wuebbles, 2010. Op cit. 9 Unless otherwise stated, all ODPs in this document are from EPA’s regulations at appendix A to subpart A of 40 CFR part 82. 10 Unless otherwise stated, all GWPs in this document are from: IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. This document is accessible at www.ipcc.ch/ publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/contents.html. E:\FR\FM\21OCR1.SGM 21OCR1 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 203 / Tuesday, October 21, 2014 / Rules and Regulations asabaliauskas on DSK5VPTVN1PROD with RULES finds trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop1-ene (SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)) acceptable in the end-uses listed above, because the overall environmental and human health risk posed by trans-1-chloro3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene is lower than or comparable to the risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end-uses. 2. Carbon Dioxide (R–744) EPA’s decision: EPA finds carbon dioxide (R–744) acceptable as a substitute for use in new equipment in refrigerated transport. Carbon dioxide is also known as CO2, CAS Reg. No. 124–38–9, or R–744 when used as a refrigerant. You may find the redacted submission in docket EPA–HQ–OAR– 2003–0118 at www.regulations.gov under the name, ‘‘SNAP Information Notice for CO2 in Refrigerated Transport received 7/19/13.’’ EPA has performed an assessment to examine the health and environmental risks of this substitute. This assessment is available in docket EPA–HQ–OAR–2003–0118 under the name, ‘‘Risk Screen on Substitutes in Refrigerated Transport Substitute: Carbon Dioxide (CO2).’’ We have previously listed CO2 as a refrigerant in a number of other refrigeration and air conditioning enduses (e.g., January 13, 1995, 60 FR 3318; September 30, 2009, 74 FR 50129; June 6, 2012, 77 FR 33315; August 10, 2012, 77 FR 47768). Environmental information: CO2 has an ODP of zero. The 100-yr GWP of CO2 is 1. EPA’s regulations codified at 40 CFR part 82, subpart F exempt CO2 refrigerant from the venting prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of the CAA (see 69 FR 11946; March 12, 2004). This section and EPA’s venting regulations prohibit the intentional venting or release of substitutes for class I or class II ODS during the repair, maintenance, service or disposal of refrigeration and air conditioning appliances, unless EPA expressly exempts a particular substitute refrigerant from the venting prohibition, as for CO2. CO2 is excluded from the definition of VOC under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs to attain and maintain the NAAQS. Flammability information: CO2 is not flammable. Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this substitute at lower concentrations include loss of concentration, headache and shortness of breath. The substitute may also irritate the skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At sufficiently high VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:03 Oct 20, 2014 Jkt 235001 concentrations, it may cause central nervous system depression. The substitute could cause asphyxiation, if air is displaced by vapors in a confined space. For additional information concerning potential health risks of CO2, see EPA’s final rule under the SNAP program for use of CO2 as a refrigerant in motor vehicle air conditioning systems (77 FR 33315; June 6, 2012) and EPA’s risk screen in docket EPA–HQ– OAR–2003–0118. To protect against these potential health risks, CO2 has an 8 hour/day, 40 hour/week permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5,000 ppm in the workplace required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). It also has a 15-minute recommended shortterm exposure limit (STEL) of 30,000 ppm established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). EPA recommends that users follow all requirements and recommendations specified in the MSDS, in ASHRAE standard 15, and other safety precautions common in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. We also recommend that users of CO2 adhere to NIOSH’s STEL and to ASHRAE 15, and we expect that users will meet OSHA’s PEL. EPA anticipates that users will be able to address potential health risks by complying with the PEL and by following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS, in ASHRAE 15, and other safety precautions common in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. Comparison to other substitutes in the same end-use: CO2 is not ozonedepleting, comparable to a number of other acceptable non-ozone-depleting substitutes for these end-uses, including R–404A, R–407C, R–410A, and HFC– 134a, and in contrast to the ODS CFC– 12, HCFC–22 and R–502 (with ODPs ranging from 0.04 to 1.0). CO2’s GWP of 1 is lower than or comparable to that of other non-ozone-depleting substitutes in the same refrigeration and air conditioning end-use for which we are finding it acceptable, such as R–404A, R–407C, R–410A and HFC–134a (with GWP’s ranging from 1,430 to 3,930). Furthermore, the GWP of CO2 is well below those of ODS used in this enduse, including CFC–12, HCFC–22 and R–502 (with GWPs ranging from 1,810 to 10,900). Flammability risks are low, as discussed above. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with the OSHA PEL, ASHRAE 15, and other industry standards, recommendations in the MSDS, and other safety precautions common in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. The potential health effects of CO2 are common to many refrigerants, including many of PO 00000 Frm 00069 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 62865 those already listed as acceptable under SNAP. EPA thus finds CO2 acceptable in the end-use listed above, because the overall environment and human health risk posed by CO2 is lower than or comparable to the risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end-use. 3. R–450A EPA’s decision: EPA finds R–450A acceptable as a substitute for use in: • Retail food refrigeration (new and retrofit equipment) • Refrigerated transport (new and retrofit equipment) • Vending machines (retrofit equipment only) • Commercial ice machines (new and retrofit equipment) • Water coolers (new and retrofit equipment) • Cold storage warehouses (new and retrofit equipment) • Industrial process refrigeration (new and retrofit equipment) • Reciprocating, screw and scroll chillers (new and retrofit equipment) • Centrifugal chillers (new and retrofit equipment) • Household refrigerators and freezers (new and retrofit equipment) • Industrial process air-conditioning (new and retrofit equipment) R–450A, marketed under the trade name Solstice® N–13, is a weighted blend of 42 percent HFC–134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811–97–2) and 58 percent HFO–1234ze(E), which is also known as trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118–24–9). You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA–HQ–OAR– 2003–0118 at www.regulations.gov under the name, ‘‘Solstice N–13 (R– 450A) SNAP Information Notice.’’ EPA has performed assessments to examine the health and environmental risks of this substitute. These assessments are available in docket EPA–HQ–OAR– 2003–0118 under the following names: • ‘‘Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Retail Food Refrigeration, Vending Machines, and Commercial Ice Machines Substitute: R–450A’’ • Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Household Refrigerators and Freezers and Water Coolers Substitute: R– 450A’’ • Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Chillers and Industrial Process Air Conditioning Substitute: R–450A’’ • Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Cold Storage Warehouses and Industrial Process Refrigeration Substitute: R–450A’’ E:\FR\FM\21OCR1.SGM 21OCR1 62866 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 203 / Tuesday, October 21, 2014 / Rules and Regulations asabaliauskas on DSK5VPTVN1PROD with RULES • Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Refrigerated Transport Substitute: R– 450A’’ Environmental information: R–450A has an ODP of zero. Its components, HFC–134a and HFO–1234ze(E), have GWPs of 1,430 and 1 to 6 11, respectively. If these values are weighted by mass percentage, then R– 450A has a GWP of about 601. The components of R–450A are both excluded from the definition of VOC under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs to attain and maintain the NAAQS. The emissions of this refrigerant blend will be limited given it is subject to the venting prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of the CAA and EPA’s venting regulations codified at 40 CFR 82.154(a)(1),12 which limit emissions of refrigerant substitutes. Flammability information: R–450A as formulated and in the worst-case fractionation formulation is not flammable. Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this substitute include drowsiness or dizziness. The substitute may also irritate the skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At sufficiently high concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular heartbeat. The substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a confined space. These potential health effects are common to many refrigerants. The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm as an 8-hour time-weighted averages (TWAs) for HFC–134a and HFO–1234ze(E), the components of R–450A. EPA anticipates that users will be able to meet either of the AIHA WEELs and address potential health risks by following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS, in ASHRAE 15, and other safety precautions common to the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. Comparison to other substitutes in these end-uses: R–450A has an ODP of zero, in contrast to the ODS HCFC–22, HCFC–142b, and HCFC–123 (with ODPs ranging from 0.01 to 0.6), and comparable to a number of other acceptable non-ozone-depleting substitutes in these end-uses, such as HFC–134a and R–404A. R–450A’s GWP of about 601 within the range of HCFC– 22, HCFC–142b, and HCFC–123 (with 11 Hodnebrog, ;., et al., 2013, op cit.; Atmospheric chemistry of trans-CF3CH=CHF: products and mechanisms of hydroxyl radical and chlorine atom initiated oxidation’’, M.S. Javadi, R. S<ndergaard, O.J. Nielsen, M.D., Hurley, and T.J. Wellington, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 8, 1069–1088, 2008 12 For more information, including definitions, see 40 CFR part 82, subpart F. VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:03 Oct 20, 2014 Jkt 235001 GWPs ranging from 77 to 2,310), and lower than that of other non-ozonedepleting substitutes in the same refrigeration and air conditioning enduses, such as HFC–134a and R–404A (with GWPs of 1,430 and 3,930). Flammability risks are low, as discussed above. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with the AIHA WEELs, ASHRAE 15 and other industry standards, recommendations in the MSDS, and other safety precautions common in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. The potential health effects of R–450A are common to many refrigerants, including many of those already listed as acceptable under SNAP. EPA thus finds R–450A acceptable in the end-uses listed above, because the overall environmental and human health risk posed by R–450A is lower than the risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end-uses. B. Foam Blowing 1. Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1ene (SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)) EPA’s decision: EPA finds trans-1chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene acceptable as a substitute for use as a blowing agent in flexible polyurethane foams. Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1ene ((E)-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1ene, CAS Reg. No. 102687–65–0) is a chlorofluoroalkene marketed under the trade name SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) for various foam blowing end-uses. You may find the redacted submission in docket EPA–HQ–OAR– 2003–0118 at www.regulations.gov under the name ‘‘TSCA/SNAP Addendum for trans-1-chloro-3,3,3trifluoroprop-1-ene in flexible foams.’’ EPA has performed an assessment to examine the health and environmental risks of this substitute. This assessment is available in docket EPA–HQ–OAR– 2003–0118 under the name ‘‘Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Flexible Polyurethane Foams Substitute: Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1ene’’. We have previously listed trans-1chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene as a foam blowing agent in a number of enduses (August 10, 2012, 77 FR 47768). Environmental information: The environmental information for this substitute is set forth in the ‘Environmental information’ section in listing A.1. Flammability information: SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) is not flammable. Toxicity and exposure data: The toxicity information for this substitute is PO 00000 Frm 00070 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 set forth in the ‘‘Toxicity and exposure data’’ section in listing A.1. The AIHA has established a WEEL of 800 ppm for trans-1-chloro-3,3,3,trifluoroprop-1-ene. EPA anticipates that SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) will be used in a manner consistent with the recommendations specified in the manufacturer’s MSDS. EPA anticipates that users will be able to meet the WEEL and address potential health risks by following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS and in any other safety precautions common to the foam blowing industry. Comparison to other substitutes in this end-use: SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) has an ODP of 0.00024 to 0.00034 and estimates of its maximum potential impact on the ozone layer indicate a statistically insignificant impact, comparable to that of other substitutes in the same end-uses that are considered to be non-ozone-depleting.13 SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)’s ODP is well below that of the ODS CFC–11 and HCFC–141b (with ODPs ranging from 0.11 to 1.0). SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)’s GWP of 1 to 7 is lower than or comparable to that of other acceptable substitutes in the same end use, such as HFC–134a, HFC–245fa and HFC–152a (with GWPs ranging from 124 to 1,430) and C3–C6 saturated light hydrocarbons 14 (with GWPs less than 10). Its GWP is also well below those of CFC–11 and HCFC–141b (with GWPs ranging from 725 to 4,750). Flammability risks are low, as discussed above. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with the AIHA WEEL, recommendations in the MSDS, and other safety precautions common in the foam blowing industry. The potential health effects of SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) are common to many foam blowing agents, including many of those already listed as acceptable under SNAP. EPA thus finds trans-1-chloro-3,3,3trifluorop-1-ene (SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)) acceptable in the end-use listed above, because the overall environmental and human health risk posed by trans-1chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene is lower than or comparable to the risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end-use. 2. Methylal (Dimethoxymethane) EPA’s decision: EPA finds methylal acceptable as a substitute for use as a blowing agent in: 13 Wang et al., 2011 and Patten and Wuebbles, 2010. Op cit. 14 That is, unsaturated hydrocarbons with 3 to 6 carbons, such as propane, butane, pentane, isopentane, and cyclopentane. E:\FR\FM\21OCR1.SGM 21OCR1 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 203 / Tuesday, October 21, 2014 / Rules and Regulations asabaliauskas on DSK5VPTVN1PROD with RULES • Rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock • Rigid polyurethane appliance • Rigid polyurethane commercial refrigeration and sandwich panels • Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other • Flexible polyurethane • Integral skin polyurethane Methylal is also called dimethoxymethane, CAS 109–87–5. It belongs to a class of chemicals referred to as acetals. You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA–HQ–OAR– 2003–0118 at www.regulations.gov under the name ‘‘SNAP Information Notice for methylal received 4/18/14.’’ EPA has performed an assessment to examine the health and environmental risks of this substitute. This assessment is available in docket EPA–HQ–OAR– 2003–0118 under the name ‘‘Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Rigid Polyurethane Appliance Foam; Commercial and Sandwich Panels; Rigid Polyurethane & Polyisocyanurate Laminate Boardstock; Rigid Polyurethane Slabstock; Flexible Polyurethane; Integral Skin Polyurethane Substitute: Methylal (Dimethoxymethane).’’ EPA’s review of this substitute is pending for spray foam. Environmental information: Methylal has an ODP of zero. The 100-yr GWP of methylal is less than three. Methylal is a VOC under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs to attain and maintain the NAAQS. Flammability information: Methylal is flammable. Under the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, it is classified as a Class II flammable liquid and under OSHA’s regulations at 29 CFR 1910.106, it is classified as a Class IB flammable liquid. Some specific blends of methylal with other blowing agents are flammable as formulated and should be handled with proper precautions, as specified by the manufacturer.15 EPA recommends that users follow all requirements and recommendations specified in the MSDS and other safety precautions for use of flammable blowing agents used in 15 59 FR at 13084. ‘‘The Agency has determined that because of the potential for formation and emission of decomposition products in rigid closed cell foams, notification and review under SNAP is required for blends of chemical alternatives in foam end-uses that encompass residential products where chronic consumer exposure could occur. These end-uses are: polyurethane rigid laminated boardstock, polystyrene extruded boardstock and billet foams, phenolic foams, and polyolefin foams.’’ VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:03 Oct 20, 2014 Jkt 235001 the foam blowing industry. Use of methylal will require safe handling and shipping as prescribed by OSHA and the Department of Transportation (for example, using personal protective equipment and following requirements for shipping hazardous materials at 49 CFR parts 170 through 173). Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this substitute include drowsiness or dizziness. The substitute may also irritate the skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At sufficiently high concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular heartbeat. The substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a confined space. EPA anticipates that methylal will be used consistent with the recommendations specified in the manufacturer’s MSDS. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has established a threshold limit value (TLV) of 1,000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for methylal. NIOSH has a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 1,000 ppm for methylal on a 10-hour time-weighted average. EPA anticipates that users will be able to meet workplace exposure limits (TLV and REL) and address potential health risks by following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS and in other safety precautions common to the foam blowing industry. Comparison to other substitutes in the same end uses: Methylal has an ODP of zero, comparable to a number of other acceptable non-ozone-depleting substitutes for these end uses, such as HFC–134a, HFC–245fa, HFC–152a, and C3–C6 saturated light hydrocarbons, and in contrast to the ODS CFC–11, HCFC–141b, HCFC–142b and HCFC–22 (with ODPs ranging from 0.04 to 1.0). Methylal’s GWP of less than three is lower than or comparable to that of other non-ozone-depleting substitutes in the same foam blowing end uses for which we are finding it acceptable, such as HFC–134a, HFC–245fa and HFC– 152a (with GWPs ranging from 124 to 1,430) and C3–C6 saturated light hydrocarbons (with GWPs less than 10). Furthermore, the GWP of methylal is lower than those of CFC–11, HCFC– 141b, HCFC–142b and HCFC–22 (with GWPs ranging from 725 to 4,750). Like other flammable substitutes in these end uses, such as HFC–365mfc or C3–C6 saturated light hydrocarbons, flammability risks can be addressed by following the MSDS and other procedures common in the foam blowing industry in the end uses listed. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with the ACGIH TLV and NIOSH REL, recommendations in the MSDS, and other safety precautions PO 00000 Frm 00071 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 62867 common in the foam blowing industry. The potential health effects of methylal are common to many foam blowing agents, including many of those already listed as acceptable under SNAP. The EPA thus finds methylal acceptable in the end uses listed above, because the overall environmental and human health risk posed by methylal is lower than or comparable to the risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end uses. 3. HFO–1336mzz(Z) (Formacel® 1100) EPA’s decision: EPA finds HFO– 1336mzz(Z) acceptable as a substitute for use as a blowing agent in: • Rigid polyurethane appliance foam • Rigid polyurethane commercial refrigeration and sandwich panels • Flexible polyurethane • Integral skin polyurethane • Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other • Rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock • Phenolic insulation board and bunstock HFO–1336mzz(Z) is a hydrofluoroolefin or unsaturated hydrofluorocarbon. It is also called (Z)1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobut-2-ene or cis1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobut-2-ene (CAS Reg. No. 692–49–9) and also goes by the trade names of FEA–1100 or Formacel® 1100. You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA–HQ–OAR– 2003–0118 at www.regulations.gov under the name, ‘‘SNAP Information Notice for FEA–1100 as a Foam Blowing Agent Received 8/3/11.’’ EPA has performed an assessment to examine the health and environmental risks of this substitute. This assessment is available in docket EPA–HQ–OAR–2003–0118 under the name ‘‘Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Rigid Polyurethane Appliance Foam; Rigid Polyurethane and Polyisocyanurate Laminated Boardstock; Rigid Polyurethane Commercial Refrigeration and Sandwich Panels; Rigid Polyurethane Slabstock and Other; Flexible Polyurethane; Integral Skin Polyurethane; and Phenolic Insulation Board and Bunstock: HFO–1336mzz(Z) (Formacel® 1100).’’ EPA’s review of this substitute is pending for spray foam. Environmental information: HFO– 1336mzz(Z) has an ODP of zero. It has a 100-yr GWP of about 9.16 HFO– 16 Atmospheric Chemistry of (Z)-CF CHÕCHCF : 3 3 OH Radical Reaction Rate Coefficient and Global Warming Potential; Munkhbayar Baasandorj, A.R. Ravishankara, and James B. Burkholder. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2011, 115 (38), pp. 10539–10549. E:\FR\FM\21OCR1.SGM 21OCR1 asabaliauskas on DSK5VPTVN1PROD with RULES 62868 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 203 / Tuesday, October 21, 2014 / Rules and Regulations 1336mzz(Z) is a VOC. The manufacturer has petitioned the EPA to exempt HFO– 1336mzz(Z) from the definition of VOC under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs to attain and maintain the NAAQS based on its claim that the chemical exhibits low photochemical reactivity. Flammability information: HFO– 1336mzz(Z) is not flammable. Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this substitute include skin or eye irritation or frostbite. At sufficiently high concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular heartbeat. The substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a confined space. These potential health effects are common to many foam blowing agents. The EPA anticipates that HFO–1336mzz(Z) will be used consistent with the recommendations specified in the MSDS. The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit (AEL) for the workplace of 500 ppm on an 8-hour TWA17. The EPA anticipates that users will be able to meet the manufacturer’s AEL and address potential health risks by following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS and other safety precautions common to the foam blowing industry. Comparison to other foam blowing agents: HFO–1336mzz(Z) has an ODP of zero, comparable to a number of other acceptable non-ozone-depleting substitutes for these end uses such as HFC–134a, HFC–245fa, HFC–152a, and C3–C6 saturated light hydrocarbons and in contrast to CFC–11, CFC–113, HCFC– 141b, and HCFC–22 (with ODPs ranging from 0.04 to 1.0). HFO–1336mzz(Z)’s GWP of about 9 is lower than or comparable to those of other acceptable substitutes in the same end uses for which we are finding it acceptable, such as HFC–134a, HFC–245fa, and HFC– 152a (with GWPs ranging from 124 to 1,430), C3–C6 saturated light hydrocarbons (with GWPs less than 10), and Solstice–1233zd(E) with a GWP of 1 to 7 (see listing B.1 above and 77 FR 47772). Further, the GWP of HFO– 1336mzz(Z) is less than those of CFC– 11, CFC–113, HCFC–141b, and HCFC– 22, with GWPs ranging from 725 to 4,750. Flammability risks are low, as discussed above. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with the manufacturer’s recommended AEL, 17 As of the time of signature of this document, the WEEL Committee of the Occupational Alliance for Risk Science had proposed, but not yet finalized, a WEEL of 500 ppm for HFO–1336mzz(Z). The proposed documentation may be viewed at www.tera.org/OARS/HFO-1336mzzZ%20public%20comments%209-18-14.pdf . VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:03 Oct 20, 2014 Jkt 235001 recommendations in the MSDS, and other safety precautions common in the foam blowing industry. The potential health effects of HFO–1336mzz(Z) are common to many foam blowing agents, including many of those already listed as acceptable under SNAP. EPA thus finds HFO–1336mzz(Z) acceptable in the end uses listed above, because the overall environmental and human health risk posed by HFO–1336mzz(Z) is lower than or comparable to the risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end uses. C. Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection 1. Powdered Aerosol D (Aero-K®, StatX ®) EPA’s decision: EPA finds Powdered Aerosol D acceptable as a substitute for total flooding uses. Powdered Aerosol D is a pyrotechnic particulate aerosol and explosion suppressant that also is marketed under the trade names of Aero-K® and Stat-X®. This fire suppressant is supplied to users as a solid housed in a doublewalled hermetically-sealed steel container. When the unit is triggered by heat (300 °C), the product is pyrotechnically activated to produce gases and aerosol particles from a mixture of chemicals. EPA previously listed Powdered Aerosol D as acceptable subject to use conditions (71 FR 56359; September 7, 2006). The use conditions require that Powdered Aerosol D be used only in areas that are not normally occupied, on the basis of information supporting its safe use in areas that are not normally occupied. Based on a review of additional information from the submitter to support the safe use of Powdered Aerosol D in normally occupied spaces, EPA now determines that Powdered Aerosol D is also acceptable for use in total flooding systems for normally occupied spaces. The listing will provide that Powdered Aerosol D is acceptable for total flooding uses, which would include both unoccupied and occupied spaces. In a subsequent rulemaking EPA will remove the previous listing as acceptable subject to use conditions. In the ‘‘Further Information’’ column of the tables summarizing today’s listing decisions and found at the end of this document, we also state that use of this agent should continue to be in accordance with the safety guidelines in the latest edition of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 2010 Standard for Aerosol Extinguishing Systems. You may find the redacted submission in Docket item EPA–HQ– PO 00000 Frm 00072 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 OAR–2003–0118 at www.regulations.gov under the name, ‘‘8/8/13 letter from Marc Gross, Fireaway to Rebecca von dem Hagen, EPA and SNAP Information Notice for Stat-X.’’ EPA has performed an assessment to examine the health and environmental risks of this substitute. This assessment is available in docket EPA–HQ–OAR–2003–0118 under the name, ‘‘Risk Screen on Substitutes for Total Flooding Systems in Normally Occupied Spaces—Substitute: Powdered Aerosol D (Stat-X®).’’ Environmental information: The active ingredients of Powdered Aerosol D are solids both before and after use; thus, their ODP and GWP are both zero. The gaseous post-activation products for Powdered Aerosol D also have zero ODP and GWPs of 25 or less. The solid active ingredients and particulate postactivation products do not participate in atmospheric photochemical reactions and are not VOCs. The gaseous postactivation products are excluded from the definition of VOC under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs to attain and maintain the NAAQS. None of the pre- or post-activation constituents of Powdered Aerosol D will exist in quantities approaching the respective reporting quantities under the Clean Water Act for priority or toxic pollutants. During post-activation cleanup procedures, clean-up residues should be disposed of in accordance with requirements appropriate for those materials, as outlined in the agent’s MSDS and local, state, and federal regulations. Flammability information: Powdered Aerosol D’s post-activation products are nonflammable. Toxicity and exposure data: Exposure to Powdered Aerosol D after activation may cause temporary, mild irritation of the mucous membrane. If eye or skin contact occurs, end users should flush eyes with water or wash skin with soap and water. Exposure to the postdischarge products is expected to be below the relevant workplace exposure limits for those compounds. Because it is housed in a hermetically sealed container, exposure should not occur unless the system is activated. Information on additional safety recommendations: The discharge of the aerosol results in a reduction of visibility in the protected space due to the uniform distribution of the particulate generated. Use according to the NFPA 2010 Standard will further reduce any safety risks due to reduced visibility. In addition, EPA recommends that cross-zone detection systems and E:\FR\FM\21OCR1.SGM 21OCR1 asabaliauskas on DSK5VPTVN1PROD with RULES Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 203 / Tuesday, October 21, 2014 / Rules and Regulations abort switches located near an exit from the protected space be employed. In the ‘‘Further Information’’ column of the tables summarizing today’s listing decisions, EPA recommends the following for establishments manufacturing Powdered Aerosol D and filling containers to be used in total flooding applications: —Workers should use appropriate safety and protective equipment (e.g., protective gloves, tightly sealed goggles, protective work clothing, and particulate-removing respirators using NIOSH type N95 or better filters) consistent with OSHA guidelines. —A local exhaust system should be installed and operated to provide adequate ventilation to reduce airborne exposure to Powdered Aerosol D constituents. —An eye wash fountain and quick drench facility should be close to the production area. —Training for safe handling procedures should be provided to all employees that would be likely to handle the containers of the agent or extinguishing units filled with the agent. —Workers responsible for cleanup should allow particulates to settle before reentering area and wear appropriate personal protective equipment. —All spills should be cleaned up immediately in accordance with good industrial hygiene practices. EPA expects that procedures identified in the MSDS for Powdered Aerosol D and good manufacturing practices will be adhered to, and that the appropriate safety and personal protective equipment (PPE) consistent with OSHA guidelines will be used during installation, servicing, postdischarge clean-up and disposal of total flooding systems using Powdered Aerosol D. The manufacturer should provide guidance upon installation of the system regarding the appropriate time after which workers may re-enter the area for disposal to allow the maximum settling of all particulates. Comparison to other substitutes in this end use: Powdered Aerosol D has zero ODP, both prior to and after activation. In comparison, Halon 1301 has an ODP of 12 and other acceptable substitutes used in this end use, such as HCFC Blend A, HFC–227ea, and HFC– 125 have ODPs of 0.048, zero and zero. The active ingredients of Powdered Aerosol D have a GWP of zero prior to activation and the gaseous postactivation products have a GWP of 25 or less. In comparison, Halon 1301 has a GWP of 7,140 and other acceptable VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:03 Oct 20, 2014 Jkt 235001 substitutes used in this end use, such as HCFC Blend A, HFC–227ea, and HFC– 125 have GWPs of about 1,550, 3,220, and 3,500, respectively. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with the NFPA 2010 standard, recommendations in the MSDS, and other safety precautions common in the fire suppression industry. The potential health effects of Powdered Aerosol D are common to many fire suppressants, including many of those already listed as acceptable under SNAP. EPA thus finds Powdered Aerosol D acceptable in the total flooding end-use because it does not pose a greater overall risk to human health and the environment than other acceptable substitutes in this enduse. II. Section 612 Program A. Statutory Requirements and Authority for the SNAP Program Section 612 of the CAA requires EPA to develop a program for evaluating alternatives to ozone-depleting substances. EPA refers to this program as the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program. The major provisions of section 612 are: 1. Rulemaking Section 612(c) requires EPA to promulgate rules making it unlawful to replace any class I substance (e.g., chlorofluorocarbon, halon, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and hydrobromofluorocarbon) or class II substance (e.g., hydrochlorofluorocarbon) with any substitute that the Administrator determines may present adverse effects to human health or the environment where the Administrator has identified an alternative that (1) reduces the overall risk to human health and the environment, and (2) is currently or potentially available. 2. Listing of Unacceptable/Acceptable Substitutes Section 612(c) requires EPA to publish a list of the substitutes unacceptable for specific uses and to publish a corresponding list of acceptable alternatives for specific uses. The list of ‘‘acceptable’’ substitutes is found at www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/lists and the lists of ‘‘unacceptable,’’ ‘‘acceptable subject to use conditions,’’ and ‘‘acceptable subject to narrowed use limits’’ substitutes are found in the appendices to 40 CFR part 82, subpart G. 3. Petition Process Section 612(d) grants the right to any person to petition EPA to add a substance to, or delete a substance from, PO 00000 Frm 00073 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 62869 the lists published in accordance with section 612(c). The agency has 90 days to grant or deny a petition. Where the agency grants the petition, the EPA must publish the revised lists within an additional six months. 4. 90-Day Notification Section 612(e) directs EPA to require any person who produces a chemical substitute for a class I substance to notify the agency not less than 90 days before new or existing chemicals are introduced into interstate commerce for significant new uses as substitutes for a class I substance. The producer must also provide the agency with the producer’s unpublished health and safety studies on such substitutes. 5. Outreach Section 612(b)(1) states that the Administrator shall seek to maximize the use of federal research facilities and resources to assist users of class I and II substances in identifying and developing alternatives to the use of such substances in key commercial applications. 6. Clearinghouse Section 612(b)(4) requires the agency to set up a public clearinghouse of alternative chemicals, product substitutes, and alternative manufacturing processes that are available for products and manufacturing processes which use class I and II substances. B. EPA’s Regulations Implementing Section 612 On March 18, 1994, EPA published the original rulemaking (59 FR 13044) which established the process for administering the SNAP program and issued EPA’s first lists identifying acceptable and unacceptable substitutes in the major industrial use sectors (subpart G of 40 CFR part 82). These sectors are the following: Refrigeration and air conditioning; foam blowing; solvents cleaning; fire suppression and explosion protection; sterilants; aerosols; adhesives, coatings and inks; and tobacco expansion. These sectors comprise the principal industrial sectors that historically consumed the largest volumes of ODS. Section 612 of the CAA requires EPA to list as acceptable those substitutes that do not present a significantly greater risk to human health and the environment as compared with other substitutes that are currently or potentially available. E:\FR\FM\21OCR1.SGM 21OCR1 62870 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 203 / Tuesday, October 21, 2014 / Rules and Regulations asabaliauskas on DSK5VPTVN1PROD with RULES C. How the Regulations for the SNAP Program Work Under the SNAP regulations, anyone who plans to market or produce a substitute to replace a class I substance or class II substance in one of the eight major industrial use sectors must provide the Agency with notice and the required health and safety information on the substitute at least 90 days before introducing it into interstate commerce for significant new use as an alternative. 40 CFR 82.176(a). While this requirement typically applies to chemical manufacturers as the person likely to be planning to introduce the substitute into interstate commerce,18 it may also apply to importers, formulators, equipment manufacturers, and end-users 19 when they are responsible for introducing a substitute into commerce. The 90-day SNAP review process begins once EPA receives the submission and determines that the submission includes complete and adequate data. 40 CFR 82.180(a). The CAA and the SNAP regulations, 40 CFR 82.174(a), prohibit use of a substitute earlier than 90 days after notice has been provided to the Agency. The agency has identified four possible decision categories for substitute submissions: acceptable; acceptable subject to use conditions; acceptable subject to narrowed use limits; and unacceptable.20 40 CFR 82.180(b). Use conditions and narrowed use limits are both considered ‘‘use restrictions’’ and are explained below. Substitutes that are deemed acceptable without use conditions may be used for all applications within the relevant enduses within the sector and without limits under SNAP on how they may be used. Substitutes that are acceptable subject to use restrictions may be used only in accordance with those restrictions. Substitutes that are found to be unacceptable may not be used after the date specified in the rulemaking 18 As defined at 40 CFR 82.104, ‘‘interstate commerce’’ means the distribution or transportation of any product between one state, territory, possession or the District of Columbia, and another state, territory, possession or the District of Columbia, or the sale, use or manufacture of any product in more than one state, territory, possession or District of Columbia. The entry points for which a product is introduced into interstate commerce are the release of a product from the facility in which the product was manufactured, the entry into a warehouse from which the domestic manufacturer releases the product for sale or distribution, and at the site of United States Customs clearance. 19 As defined at 40 CFR 82.172, ‘‘end-use’’ means processes or classes of specific applications within major industrial sectors where a substitute is used to replace an ODS. 20 The SNAP regulations also include ‘‘pending,’’ referring to submissions for which the EPA has not reached a determination, under this provision. VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:03 Oct 20, 2014 Jkt 235001 adding such substitute to the list of unacceptable substitutes.21 After reviewing a substitute, the agency may make a determination that a substitute is acceptable only if certain conditions in the way that the substitute is used are met to minimize risks to human health and the environment. EPA describes such substitutes as ‘‘acceptable subject to use conditions.’’ Entities that use these substitutes without meeting the associated use conditions are in violation of EPA’s SNAP regulations. 40 CFR 82.174(c). For some substitutes, the Agency may permit a narrowed range of use within an end-use or sector. For example, the Agency may limit the use of a substitute to certain end-uses or specific applications within an industry sector. The Agency requires a user of a narrowed use substitute to demonstrate that no other acceptable substitutes are available for their specific application. The EPA describes these substitutes as ‘‘acceptable subject to narrowed use limits.’’ A person using a substitute that is acceptable subject to narrowed use limits in applications and end-uses that are not consistent with the narrowed use limit is using the substitute in violation of section 612 of the CAA and EPA’s SNAP regulations. 40 CFR 82.174(c). The section 612 mandate for EPA to prohibit the use of a substitute that may present risk to human health or the environment where a lower risk alternative is available or potentially available 22 provides EPA with the authority to change the listing status of a particular substitute if such a change is justified by new information or changed circumstance. As described in this document and elsewhere, including the original SNAP rulemaking published in the Federal 21 As defined at 40 CFR 82.172, ‘‘use’’ means any use of a substitute for a Class I or Class II ozonedepleting compound, including but not limited to use in a manufacturing process or product, in consumption by the end-user, or in intermediate uses, such as formulation or packaging for other subsequent uses. This definition of use encompasses manufacturing process of products both for domestic use and for export. Substitutes manufactured within the United States exclusively for export are subject to SNAP requirements since the definition of use in the rule includes use in the manufacturing process, which occurs within the United States. 22 In addition to acceptable commercially available substitutes, the SNAP program may consider potentially available substitutes. The SNAP program’s definition of ‘‘potentially available ’’ is ‘‘any alternative for which adequate health, safety, and environmental data, as required for the SNAP notification process, exist to make a determination of acceptability, and which the agency reasonably believes to be technically feasible, even if not all testing has yet been completed and the alternative is not yet produced or sold.’’ (40 CFR 82.172) PO 00000 Frm 00074 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 Register at 59 FR 13044 on March 18, 1994, the SNAP program evaluates substitutes within a comparative risk framework. The SNAP program compares new substitutes both to the ozone-depleting substances being phased out under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and the CAA and to other available or potentially available alternatives for the same end uses. The environmental and health risk factors that the SNAP program considers include ozone depletion potential, flammability, toxicity, occupational and consumer health and safety, as well as contributions to global warming and other environmental factors. Environmental and human health exposures can vary significantly depending on the particular application of a substitute—and over time, information applicable to a substitute can change. This approach does not imply fundamental tradeoffs with respect to different types of risk, either to the environment or to human health. EPA recognizes that during the twodecade long history of the SNAP program, new alternatives and new information about alternatives have emerged. To the extent possible, EPA considers new information and improved understanding of the risk factors for the environment and human health in the context of the available or potentially available alternatives for a given use. The agency publishes its SNAP program decisions in the Federal Register. EPA uses notice-and-comment rulemaking to place any alternative on the list of prohibited substitutes, to list a substitute as acceptable only subject to use conditions or narrowed use limits, or to remove a substitute from either the list of prohibited or acceptable substitutes. In contrast, EPA publishes ‘‘notices of acceptability’’ or ‘‘determinations of acceptability,’’ to notify the public of substitutes that are deemed acceptable with no restrictions. As described in the preamble to the rule initially implementing the SNAP program (59 FR 13044; March 18, 1994), EPA does not believe that rulemaking procedures are necessary to list alternatives that are acceptable without restrictions because such listings neither impose any sanction nor prevent anyone from using a substitute. Many SNAP listings include ‘‘comments’’ or ‘‘further information’’ to provide additional information on substitutes. Since this additional information is not part of the regulatory decision, these statements are not binding for use of the substitute under E:\FR\FM\21OCR1.SGM 21OCR1 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 203 / Tuesday, October 21, 2014 / Rules and Regulations the SNAP program. However, regulatory requirements so listed are binding under other regulatory programs (e.g., worker protection regulations promulgated by OSHA). The ‘‘further information’’ classification does not necessarily include all other legal obligations pertaining to the use of the substitute. While the items listed are not legally binding under the SNAP program, EPA encourages users of substitutes to apply all statements in the ‘‘further information’’ column in their use of these substitutes. In many instances, the information simply refers to sound operating practices that have already been identified in existing industry and/ 62871 or building codes or standards. Thus many of the statements, if adopted, would not require the affected user to make significant changes in existing operating practices. 13044), codified at 40 CFR part 82, subpart G. A complete chronology of SNAP decisions and the appropriate citations are found at: www.epa.gov/ ozone/snap/chron.html. D. Additional Information about the SNAP Program For copies of the comprehensive SNAP lists of substitutes or additional information on SNAP, refer to the EPA’s Ozone Depletion Web site at: www.epa.gov/ozone/snap. For more information on the agency’s process for administering the SNAP program or criteria for evaluation of substitutes, refer to the SNAP final rulemaking published March 18, 1994 (59 FR List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 82 Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Dated: October 15, 2014. Sarah Dunham, Director, Office of Atmospheric Programs. Appendix A: Summary of Acceptable Decisions REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING End-use Decision Substitute Further information 1 R–450A (Solstice ® N–13) ..... Acceptable ........ R–450A has a 100-year global warming potential (GWP) of approximately 604. This substitute is a blend of HFC– 134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811–97–2), and HFO–1234ze(E), which is also known as trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118–24–9). This blend is nonflammable. The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) has established workplace environmental exposure limits (WEELs) of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFC–134a and HFO–1234ze(E). Reciprocating, screw and scroll chillers (retrofit and new). R–450A (Solstice ® N–13) ..... Acceptable ........ R–450A has a 100-year GWP of approximately 604. This substitute is a blend of HFC–134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811–97–2) and HFO–1234ze(E) which is also known as trans1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118–24– 9). This blend is nonflammable. The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFC–134a and HFO–1234ze(E). Industrial process refrigeration (retrofit and new). R–450A (Solstice ® N–13) ..... Acceptable ........ R–450A has a 100-year GWP of approximately 604. This substitute is a blend of HFC–134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811–97–2) and HFO–1234ze(E) which is also known as trans1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118–24– 9). This blend is nonflammable. The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFC–134a and HFO–1234ze(E). Industrial process air conditioning (retrofit and new). asabaliauskas on DSK5VPTVN1PROD with RULES Centrifugal chillers (retrofit and new). R–450A (Solstice ® N–13) ..... Acceptable ........ R–450A has a 100-year GWP of approximately 604. This substitute is a blend of HFC–134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811–97–2) and HFO–1234ze(E) which is also known as trans1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118–24– 9). This blend is nonflammable. The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFC–134a and HFO–1234ze(E). Cold storage warehouses (retrofit and new). R–450A (Solstice ® N–13) ..... Acceptable ........ R–450A has a 100-year GWP of approximately 604. This substitute is a blend of HFC–134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811–97–2) and HFO–1234ze(E) which is also known as trans1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118–24– 9). This blend is nonflammable. VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:03 Oct 20, 2014 Jkt 235001 PO 00000 Frm 00075 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\21OCR1.SGM 21OCR1 62872 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 203 / Tuesday, October 21, 2014 / Rules and Regulations REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING—Continued End-use Substitute Further information 1 Decision The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFC–134a and HFO–1234ze(E). Carbon dioxide (CO2 or R– 744). Refrigerated transport (retrofit and new). R–450A (Solstice ® Retail food refrigeration (retrofit and new). R–450A (Solstice Vending machines (retrofit only). Acceptable ........ The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established a required 8 hour/day, 40 hour/week permissible exposure limit (PEL) for CO2 of 5,000 ppm. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established a 15-minute recommended short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 30,000 ppm. CO2 is nonflammable. EPA recommends that users follow all requirements and recommendations specified in American Society for Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard 15. N–13) ..... Acceptable ........ R–450A has a 100-year GWP of approximately 604. This substitute is a blend of HFC–134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811–97–2) and HFO–1234ze(E) which is also known as trans1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118–24– 9). This blend is nonflammable. The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFC–134a and HFO–1234ze(E). ® N–13) ..... Acceptable ........ R–450A has a 100-year GWP of approximately 604. This substitute is a blend of HFC–134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811–97–2) and HFO–1234ze(E) which is also known as trans1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118–24– 9). This blend is nonflammable. The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFC–134a and HFO–1234ze(E). This decision applies to all types of equipment in this sector, including remote systems, condensing units, and stand-alone equipment. R–450A (Solstice ® N–13) ..... Acceptable ........ R–450A has a 100-year GWP of approximately 604. This substitute is a blend of HFC–134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811–97–2) and HFO–1234ze(E) which is also known as trans1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118–24– 9). This blend is nonflammable. The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFC–134a and HFO–1234ze(E). Commercial ice machines (retrofit and new). R–450A (Solstice ® N–13) ..... Acceptable ........ R–450A has a 100-year GWP of approximately 604. This substitute is a blend of HFC–134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811–97–2) and HFO–1234ze(E) which is also known as trans1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118–24– 9). This blend is nonflammable. The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFC–134a and HFO–1234ze(E). Water coolers (retrofit and new). asabaliauskas on DSK5VPTVN1PROD with RULES Refrigerated transport (new only). R–450A (Solstice ® N–13) ..... Acceptable ........ R–450A has a 100-year GWP of approximately 604. This substitute is a blend of HFC–134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811–97–2) and HFO–1234ze(E) which is also known as trans1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118–24– 9). This blend is nonflammable. The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFC–134a and HFO–1234ze(E). VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:03 Oct 20, 2014 Jkt 235001 PO 00000 Frm 00076 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\21OCR1.SGM 21OCR1 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 203 / Tuesday, October 21, 2014 / Rules and Regulations 62873 REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING—Continued End-use Decision Substitute ® Household refrigerators and freezers (retrofit and new). R–450A (Solstice Non-mechanical heat transfer (new only). Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3trifluoroprop-1-ene (SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)). 1 Observe N–13) ..... Further information 1 Acceptable ........ R–450A has a 100-year GWP of approximately 604. This substitute is a blend of HFC–134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811–97–2) and HFO–1234ze(E) which is also known as trans1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118–24– 9). This blend is nonflammable. The AIHA has established a WEELs of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFC–134a and HFO–1234ze(E). Acceptable ........ Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 102687–65–0) has an ODP of approximately 0.00024 to 0.00034. It has a 100-year GWP of 1 to 7. This compound is nonflammable. The AIHA has established a WEEL of 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene. recommendations in the manufacturer’s MSDS and guidance for all listed refrigerants. FOAM BLOWING AGENTS End-use Substitute Decision Further information1 Rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock. Methylal (dimethoxymethane) Acceptable ........ Methylal (CAS Reg. No. 109–87–5) has a 100-yr global warming potential (GWP) of less than three. This substitute is flammable and meets the definition of a flammable Class IB fluid under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA’s) regulations at 29 CFR 1910.106. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has established a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 1,000 ppm (8-hr time-weighted average (TWA)) for methylal (dimethoxymethane). HFO–1336mzz(Z) ((Z)1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobut-2ene, Formacel® 1100). Acceptable ........ HFO–1336mzz(Z) (CAS Reg. No. 692–49–9) has no ozone depletion potential (ODP) and a 100-year GWP of roughly 9. This compound is nonflammable. The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 500 ppm over an 8-hour TWA for HFO– 1336mzz(Z). Methylal (dimethoxymethane) Acceptable ........ Methylal (CAS Reg. No. 109–87–5) has a 100-yr GWP of less than three. This substitute is flammable and meets the definition of a flammable Class IB fluid under OSHA’s regulations at 29 CFR 1910.106. The ACGIH has established a TLV of 1,000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for methylal (dimethoxymethane). HFO–1336mzz(Z) ((Z)1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobut-2ene, Formacel® 1100). Acceptable ........ HFO–1336mzz(Z) (CAS Reg. No. 692–49–9) has no ozone depletion potential (ODP) and a 100-year GWP of roughly 9. This compound is nonflammable. The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 500 ppm over an 8-hour TWA for HFO– 1336mzz(Z). Methylal (dimethoxymethane) Acceptable ........ Methylal (CAS Reg. No. 109–87–5) has a 100-yr GWP of less than three. This substitute is flammable and meets the definition of a flammable Class IB fluid under OSHA’s regulations at 29 CFR 1910.106. The ACGIH has established a TLV of 1,000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for methylal (dimethoxymethane). HFO–1336mzz(Z) ((Z)1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobut-2ene, Formacel® 1100). Acceptable ........ HFO–1336mzz(Z) (CAS Reg. No. 692–49–9) has no ODP and a 100-year GWP of roughly 9. Rigid polyurethane appliance .. asabaliauskas on DSK5VPTVN1PROD with RULES Rigid polyurethane commercial refrigeration and sandwich panels. This compound is nonflammable. The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 500 ppm over an 8-hour TWA for HFO– 1336mzz(Z). VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:03 Oct 20, 2014 Jkt 235001 PO 00000 Frm 00077 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\21OCR1.SGM 21OCR1 62874 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 203 / Tuesday, October 21, 2014 / Rules and Regulations FOAM BLOWING AGENTS—Continued Substitute Decision Further information1 Methylal (dimethoxymethane) Acceptable ........ Methylal (CAS Reg. No. 109–87–5) has a 100-yr GWP of less than three. This substitute is flammable and meets the definition of a flammable Class IB fluid under OSHA’s regulations at 29 CFR 1910.106. The ACGIH has established a TLV of 1,000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for methylal (dimethoxymethane). HFO–1336mzz(Z) ((Z)1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobut-2ene, Formacel® 1100). Acceptable ........ HFO–1336mzz(Z) (CAS Reg. No. 692–49–9) has no ODP and a 100-year GWP of roughly 9. End-use Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other. This compound is nonflammable. The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 500 ppm over an 8-hour TWA for HFO– 1336mzz(Z). Flexible polyurethane .............. Acceptable ........ HFO–1336mzz(Z) (CAS Reg. No. 692–49–9) has no ODP and a 100-yr GWP of roughly 9. This compound is nonflammable. The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 500 ppm over an 8-hour TWA for HFO– 1336mzz(Z). Acceptable ........ Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 102687–65–0) has an ODP of approximately 0.00024 to 0.00034. It has a 100-year GWP of 1 to 7. This compound is nonflammable. The American Industrial Hygiene Association has established a workplace environmental exposure limit of 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1ene. Methylal (dimethoxymethane) Acceptable ........ Methylal (CAS Reg. No. 109–87–5) has a 100-yr GWP of less than three. This substitute is flammable and meets the definition of a flammable Class IB fluid under OSHA’s regulations at 29 CFR 1910.106. The ACGIH has established a TLV of 1,000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for methylal (dimethoxymethane). HFO–1336mzz(Z) ((Z)1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobut-2ene, Formacel® 1100). 1 Observe Methylal (CAS Reg. No. 109–87–5) has a 100-yr GWP of less than three. This compound is flammable and meets the definition of a flammable Class IB fluid under OSHA’s regulations at 29 CFR 1910.106. The ACGIH has established a TLV of 1,000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for methylal (dimethoxymethane). Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3trifluoroprop-1-ene (SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)). Phenolic insulation board and bunstock. Acceptable ........ HFO–1336mzz(Z) ((Z)1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobut-2ene, Formacel® 1100). Integral skin polyurethane ....... Methylal (dimethoxymethane) Acceptable ........ HFO–1336mzz(Z) (CAS Reg. No. 692–49–9) has no ODP and a 100-yr GWP of roughly 9. This compound is nonflammable. The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 500 ppm over an 8-hour TWA for HFO– 1336mzz(Z). HFO–1336mzz(Z) ((Z)1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobut-2ene, Formacel® 1100). Acceptable ........ HFO–1336mzz(Z) (CAS Reg. No. 692–49–9) has no ODP and a 100-year GWP of roughly 9. This compound is nonflammable. The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 500 ppm over an 8-hour TWA for HFO– 1336mzz(Z). recommendations in the manufacturer’s MSDS and manufacturer’s guidance for using all listed foam blowing agents. asabaliauskas on DSK5VPTVN1PROD with RULES FIRE SUPPRESSION AND EXPLOSION PROTECTION End-use Total flooding (occupied and unoccupied areas). VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:03 Oct 20, 2014 Substitute Decision Powdered Aerosol D (AeroK®, Stat-X®). Jkt 235001 PO 00000 Frm 00078 Further information Acceptable ........ Use of this agent should be in accordance with the safety guidelines in the latest edition of the National Fire Protection Association 2010 standard for Aerosol Extinguishing Systems. For establishments manufacturing the agent or filling, installing, or servicing containers or systems to be used in total flooding applications, EPA recommends the following: Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\21OCR1.SGM 21OCR1 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 203 / Tuesday, October 21, 2014 / Rules and Regulations 62875 FIRE SUPPRESSION AND EXPLOSION PROTECTION—Continued End-use Substitute Decision Further information —the appropriate safety and personal protective equipment (PPE) (e.g., protective gloves, tightly sealed goggles, protective work clothing, and particulate-removing respirators with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health type N95 or better filters) consistent with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines should be used during manufacture, installation, servicing, and disposal of total flooding systems using the agent; —adequate ventilation should be in place to reduce airborne exposure to constituents of agent; —an eye wash fountain and quick drench facility should be close to the production area; —training for safe handling procedures should be provided to all employees that would be likely to handle containers of the agent or extinguishing units filled with the agent; —workers responsible for clean up should allow for maximum settling of all particulates before reentering area and wear appropriate personal protective equipment; and —all spills should be cleaned up immediately in accordance with good industrial hygiene practices. As required by the manufacturer, units installed in normally occupied spaces will be equipped with features such as a system-isolate switch and cross-zone detection system to reduce risk of accidental activation of an agent generator while persons are present in the protected space. Also required by the manufacturer is warning of pending discharge and delay in release to ensure egress prior to activation of the agent to reduce the risk of exposure. See additional comments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 1. The EPA recommends that users consult Section VIII of the OSHA Technical Manual for information on selecting the appropriate types of personal protective equipment for all listed fire suppression agents. The EPA has no intention of duplicating or displacing OSHA coverage related to the use of personal protective equipment (e.g., respiratory protection), fire protection, hazard communication, worker training or any other occupational safety and health standard with respect to halon substitutes. 2. Use of all listed fire suppression agents should conform to relevant OSHA requirements, including 29 CFR part 1910, subpart L, sections 1910.160 and 1910.162. 3. Per OSHA requirements, protective gear (SCBA) should be available in the event personnel should reenter the area. 4. Discharge testing should be strictly limited to that which is essential to meet safety or performance requirements. 5. The agent should be recovered from the fire protection system in conjunction with testing or servicing, and recycled for later use or destroyed. [FR Doc. 2014–24989 Filed 10–20–14; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6560–50–P FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 [CG Docket No. 03–123; FCC 14–125] asabaliauskas on DSK5VPTVN1PROD with RULES Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and Speech Disabilities; Waiver of iTRS Mandatory Minimum Standards Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. AGENCY: In this document, the Commission eliminates certain waivers of the telecommunications relay service (TRS) requirements that are no longer necessary, given advances in SUMMARY: VerDate Sep<11>2014 16:03 Oct 20, 2014 Jkt 235001 communications technology. At the same time, it extends certain existing waivers of mandatory minimum standards for specific providers for which the provision of certain TRS features is technologically infeasible at this time. The Commission also eliminates certain TRS requirements that are either not applicable or technically not feasible, while ensuring that TRS consumers continue to have access to communications services that are functionally equivalent to voice telephone services. Lastly, the Commission eliminates an annual reporting requirement for TRS providers. These actions provide regulatory clarity and reduce administrative burdens on both TRS providers and the Commission and ensure that the TRS mandatory minimum standards are applicable and technologically appropriate for each type of TRS. PO 00000 Frm 00079 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 Effective December 22, 2014, except for terminations of waivers of §§ 64.604(a)(3)(vi)(B) and (C) of the Commission’s rules, which shall become effective on October 21, 2014. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Eliot Greenwald, Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau, Disability Rights Office, at (202) 418–2235 or email Eliot.Greenwald@fcc.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This is a summary of the Commission’s Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals with Hearing and Speech Disabilities; Waiver of iTRS Mandatory Minimum Standards Report and Order and Order, (Order), document FCC 14– 125, adopted on August 20, 2014, and released on August 22, 2014, in CG Docket No. 03–123. In document FCC 14–125, the Commission also seeks comment in an accompanying Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (FNPRM), which is summarized in a DATES: E:\FR\FM\21OCR1.SGM 21OCR1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 79, Number 203 (Tuesday, October 21, 2014)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 62863-62875]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2014-24989]


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 82

[EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118; FRL-9918-30-OAR]
RIN 2060-AG12


Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Determination 29 for 
Significant New Alternatives Policy Program

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Determination of acceptability.

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SUMMARY: This Determination of Acceptability expands the list of 
acceptable substitutes for ozone-depleting substances under the U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Significant New Alternatives 
Policy (SNAP) program. This action lists as acceptable additional 
substitutes for use in the refrigeration and air conditioning, foam 
blowing, and fire suppression and explosion protection sectors.

DATES: This determination is effective on October 21, 2014.

ADDRESSES: EPA has established a docket for this action under Docket ID 
No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 (continuation of Air Docket A-91-42). All 
electronic documents in the docket are listed in the index at 
www.regulations.gov. Although listed in the index, some information is 
not publicly available, i.e., Confidential Business Information (CBI) 
or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. 
Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically 
at www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the EPA Air Docket (Nos. A-
91-42 and EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118), EPA/DC, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 
Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open 
from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal 
holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 
566-1744, and the telephone number for the Air Docket is (202) 566-
1742.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Margaret Sheppard by telephone at 
(202) 343-9163, by facsimile at (202) 343-2338, by email at 
sheppard.margaret@epa.gov, or by mail at U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Mail Code 6205T, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 
20460. Overnight or courier deliveries should be sent to the office 
location at 1201 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20004.
    For more information on the agency's process for administering the 
SNAP program or criteria for evaluation of substitutes, refer to the 
original SNAP rulemaking published in the Federal Register on March 18, 
1994 (59 FR 13044). Notices and rulemakings under the SNAP program, as 
well as other EPA publications on protection of stratospheric ozone, 
are available at EPA's Ozone Depletion Web site at www.epa.gov/ozone/strathome.html including the SNAP portion at www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

I. Listing of New Acceptable Substitutes
    A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
    B. Foam Blowing
    C. Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection
II. Section 612 Program
    A. Statutory Requirements and Authority for the SNAP Program
    B. EPA's Regulations Implementing Section 612
    C. How the Regulations for the SNAP Program Work
    D. Additional Information About the SNAP Program
Appendix A--Summary of Decisions for New Acceptable Substitutes

I. Listing of New Acceptable Substitutes

    This action presents EPA's most recent decision to list as 
acceptable several substitutes in the refrigeration and air 
conditioning, foam blowing, and fire suppression and explosion 
protection sectors. New substitutes include trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-
trifluoroprop-1-ene in non-mechanical heat transfer, and in flexible 
polyurethane foams; CO2 in refrigerated transport; R-450A in 
a variety of refrigeration and air conditioning end-uses; methylal and 
hydrofluoroolefin (HFO)-1336mzz(Z) in a variety of foam blowing end-
uses; and Powdered Aerosol D in the total flooding end-use. For copies 
of the full list of acceptable substitutes for ozone depleting 
substances (ODS) in all industrial sectors, visit EPA's Ozone Layer 
Protection Web site at www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/lists/index.html.
    The sections below discuss each substitute listing in detail. 
Appendix A contains tables summarizing today's listing decisions for 
these new acceptable substitutes. The statements in the ``Further 
Information'' column in the tables provide additional information, but 
are not legally binding

[[Page 62864]]

under section 612 of the Clean Air Act (CAA). In addition, the 
``Further Information'' may not be a comprehensive list of other legal 
obligations you may need to meet when using the substitute. Although 
you are not required to follow recommendations in the ``Further 
Information'' column of the table to use a substitute consistent with 
section 612 of the CAA, some of these statements may refer to 
obligations that are enforceable or binding under federal or state 
programs other than the SNAP program. In many instances, the 
information simply refers to standard operating practices in existing 
industry and/or building-code standards. EPA strongly encourages you to 
apply the information in this column using these substitutes. Many of 
these recommendations, if adopted, would not require significant 
changes to existing operating practices.
    You can find submissions to EPA for the substitutes listed in this 
document, as well as other materials supporting the decisions in this 
action in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 at www.regulations.gov.

A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

1. Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene (SolsticeTM 
1233zd(E))
    EPA's decision: EPA finds trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene 
acceptable as a substitute for use in new equipment in non-mechanical 
heat transfer.\1\
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    \1\ Acceptable substitutes for organic Rankine cycle have 
typically been included through listings in the non-mechanical heat 
transfer end-use. EPA may review organic Rankine cycle applications 
separately in the future.
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    Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene ((E)-1-chloro-3,3,3-
trifluoroprop-1-ene, CAS Reg. No. 102687-65-0) is a chlorofluoroalkene 
marketed under the trade names SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) and 
SolsticeTM N12 Refrigerant for this end-use.
    You may find the redacted submission in Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-
2003-0118-0285 and under the name, ``9/17/13 Letter to Rebecca von dem 
Hagen, EPA re: 1233zd(E)--Refrigeration Sector'' in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-
2003-0118 at www.regulations.gov. EPA has performed an assessment to 
examine the health and environmental risks of this substitute. This 
assessment is available in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 under the name, 
``Risk Screen on Substitutes in Heat Transfer Substitute: Trans-1-
Chloro-3,3,3,-trifluoroprop-1-ene.''
    We have previously listed trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene 
as a refrigerant for use in new equipment in centrifugal chillers 
(August 10, 2012, 77 FR 47768).
    Environmental information: SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) has an 
ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 0.00024 to 0.00034.2 3 
Estimates of this compound's potential to deplete the ozone layer 
indicate that even with worst-case estimates of emissions, which assume 
that this compound would substitute for all compounds it could replace, 
the impact on global atmospheric ozone abundance would be statistically 
insignificant.\4\ SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) has a 100-year 
integrated global warming potential (100-yr GWP) reported as 1 to 7 and 
an atmospheric lifetime of approximately 26 to 31 days or 
less.5 6 7 SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) is excluded from 
the definition of volatile organic compounds (VOC) under CAA 
regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of state 
implementation plans (SIPs) to attain and maintain the National Ambient 
Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The emissions of this refrigerant will 
be limited, given that it is subject to the venting prohibition under 
section 608(c)(2) of the CAA and EPA's venting regulations codified at 
40 CFR 82.154(a)(1).
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    \2\ Wang D., Olsen S., Wuebbles D. 2011. ``Preliminary Report: 
Analyses of tCFP's Potential Impact on Atmospheric Ozone.'' 
Department of Atmospheric Sciences. University of Illinois, Urbana, 
IL. September 26, 2011.
    \3\ Patten and Wuebbles, 2010. ``Atmospheric Lifetimes and Ozone 
Depletion Potentials of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trichloropropylene and 
trans-1,2-dichloroethylene in a three-dimensional model.'' Atmos. 
Chem. Phys., 10, 10867-10874, 2010.
    \4\ Wang et al., 2011. Op. cit.
    \5\ Sulbaek Andersen, Nilsson, Neilsen, Johnson, Hurley and 
Wallington, ``Atmospheric chemistry of trans-CF3CH=CHCl: Kinetics of 
the gas-phase reactions with Cl atoms, OH radicals, and 
O3'', Jrnl of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: 
Chemistry 199 (2008) 92-97; and Wang D., Olsen S., Wuebbles D. 
Undated. ``Three-Dimensional Model Evaluation of the Global Warming 
Potentials for tCFP.'' Department of Atmospheric Sciences. 
University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. Draft report, undated.
    \6\ Wang et al. 2011 and Sulbaek Andersen et al., 2008. Op cit.
    \7\ Hodnebrog, [Oslash]., Etminan, M., Fuglestvedt, J.S., 
Marston, G., Myhre, G., Nielsen, C.J., Shine, K.P., Wallington, 
T.J.: Global Warming Potentials and Radiative Efficiencies of 
Halocarbons and Related Compounds: A Comprehensive Review, Reviews 
of Geophysics, 51, 300-378, doi:10.1002/rog.20013, 2013.
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    Flammability information: SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) is not 
flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute include serious eye irritation, skin irritation, and 
frostbite. It may cause central nervous system effects such as 
drowsiness and dizziness. The substitute could cause asphyxiation if 
air is displaced by vapors in a confined space.
    The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) has established 
a Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL) of 800 ppm for trans-1-
chloro-3,3,3,-trifluoroprop-1-ene. EPA anticipates that 
SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) will be used in a manner consistent 
with the recommendations specified in the manufacturer's material 
safety data sheet (MSDS). EPA anticipates that users will be able to 
meet the WEEL and address potential health risks by following 
requirements and recommendations in the MSDS and in any other safety 
precautions common to the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other substitutes in these end-uses: 
SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) has an ODP of 0.00024 to 0.00034 and 
estimates of its maximum potential impact on the ozone layer indicate a 
statistically insignificant impact, comparable to that of other 
substitutes in the same end-uses that are considered to be non-ozone-
depleting.\8\ SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)'s ODP is well below those 
of ODS in these end-uses, such as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-113, HCFC-
141b, HCFC-22, and HCFC-123 (with ODPs ranging from 0.01 to 0.8 \9\). 
SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)'s GWP of 1 to 7 is lower than or 
comparable to those of other acceptable substitutes in the same end-
uses, such as HFC-245fa, HFC-134a and HFC-125 (with GWPs ranging from 
1,030 to 3,500 \10\). Its GWP is also well below those of CFC-113, 
HCFC-141b, HCFC-22, and HCFC-123 (with GWPs ranging from 77 to 4,750). 
Flammability risks are low, as discussed above. Toxicity risks can be 
minimized by use consistent with the AIHA WEEL standard, the American 
Society for Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers 
(ASHRAE) Standard 15 and other industry standards, recommendations in 
the MSDS, and other safety precautions common in the refrigeration and 
air conditioning industry. The potential health effects of 
SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) are common to many refrigerants, 
including many of those already listed as acceptable under SNAP. EPA 
thus

[[Page 62865]]

finds trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene (SolsticeTM 
1233zd(E)) acceptable in the end-uses listed above, because the overall 
environmental and human health risk posed by trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-
trifluoroprop-1-ene is lower than or comparable to the risks posed by 
other substitutes found acceptable in the same end-uses.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \8\ Wang et al., 2011 and Patten and Wuebbles, 2010. Op cit.
    \9\ Unless otherwise stated, all ODPs in this document are from 
EPA's regulations at appendix A to subpart A of 40 CFR part 82.
    \10\ Unless otherwise stated, all GWPs in this document are 
from: IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. 
Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of 
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, 
M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. 
Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United 
Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. This document is accessible at 
www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/contents.html.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Carbon Dioxide (R-744)
    EPA's decision: EPA finds carbon dioxide (R-744) acceptable as a 
substitute for use in new equipment in refrigerated transport.
    Carbon dioxide is also known as CO2, CAS Reg. No. 124-
38-9, or R-744 when used as a refrigerant.
    You may find the redacted submission in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
at www.regulations.gov under the name, ``SNAP Information Notice for 
CO2 in Refrigerated Transport received 7/19/13.'' EPA has 
performed an assessment to examine the health and environmental risks 
of this substitute. This assessment is available in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-
2003-0118 under the name, ``Risk Screen on Substitutes in Refrigerated 
Transport Substitute: Carbon Dioxide (CO2).''
    We have previously listed CO2 as a refrigerant in a 
number of other refrigeration and air conditioning end-uses (e.g., 
January 13, 1995, 60 FR 3318; September 30, 2009, 74 FR 50129; June 6, 
2012, 77 FR 33315; August 10, 2012, 77 FR 47768).
    Environmental information: CO2 has an ODP of zero. The 
100-yr GWP of CO2 is 1.
    EPA's regulations codified at 40 CFR part 82, subpart F exempt 
CO2 refrigerant from the venting prohibition under section 
608(c)(2) of the CAA (see 69 FR 11946; March 12, 2004). This section 
and EPA's venting regulations prohibit the intentional venting or 
release of substitutes for class I or class II ODS during the repair, 
maintenance, service or disposal of refrigeration and air conditioning 
appliances, unless EPA expressly exempts a particular substitute 
refrigerant from the venting prohibition, as for CO2.
    CO2 is excluded from the definition of VOC under CAA 
regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs 
to attain and maintain the NAAQS.
    Flammability information: CO2 is not flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute at lower concentrations include loss of concentration, 
headache and shortness of breath. The substitute may also irritate the 
skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At sufficiently high concentrations, 
it may cause central nervous system depression. The substitute could 
cause asphyxiation, if air is displaced by vapors in a confined space. 
For additional information concerning potential health risks of 
CO2, see EPA's final rule under the SNAP program for use of 
CO2 as a refrigerant in motor vehicle air conditioning 
systems (77 FR 33315; June 6, 2012) and EPA's risk screen in docket 
EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118.
    To protect against these potential health risks, CO2 has 
an 8 hour/day, 40 hour/week permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5,000 
ppm in the workplace required by the Occupational Safety and Health 
Administration (OSHA). It also has a 15-minute recommended short-term 
exposure limit (STEL) of 30,000 ppm established by the National 
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). EPA recommends 
that users follow all requirements and recommendations specified in the 
MSDS, in ASHRAE standard 15, and other safety precautions common in the 
refrigeration and air conditioning industry. We also recommend that 
users of CO2 adhere to NIOSH's STEL and to ASHRAE 15, and we 
expect that users will meet OSHA's PEL. EPA anticipates that users will 
be able to address potential health risks by complying with the PEL and 
by following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS, in ASHRAE 
15, and other safety precautions common in the refrigeration and air 
conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other substitutes in the same end-use: CO2 
is not ozone-depleting, comparable to a number of other acceptable non-
ozone-depleting substitutes for these end-uses, including R-404A, R-
407C, R-410A, and HFC-134a, and in contrast to the ODS CFC-12, HCFC-22 
and R-502 (with ODPs ranging from 0.04 to 1.0). CO2's GWP of 
1 is lower than or comparable to that of other non-ozone-depleting 
substitutes in the same refrigeration and air conditioning end-use for 
which we are finding it acceptable, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A and 
HFC-134a (with GWP's ranging from 1,430 to 3,930). Furthermore, the GWP 
of CO2 is well below those of ODS used in this end-use, 
including CFC-12, HCFC-22 and R-502 (with GWPs ranging from 1,810 to 
10,900). Flammability risks are low, as discussed above. Toxicity risks 
can be minimized by use consistent with the OSHA PEL, ASHRAE 15, and 
other industry standards, recommendations in the MSDS, and other safety 
precautions common in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. 
The potential health effects of CO2 are common to many 
refrigerants, including many of those already listed as acceptable 
under SNAP. EPA thus finds CO2 acceptable in the end-use 
listed above, because the overall environment and human health risk 
posed by CO2 is lower than or comparable to the risks posed 
by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end-use.
3. R-450A
    EPA's decision: EPA finds R-450A acceptable as a substitute for use 
in:

 Retail food refrigeration (new and retrofit equipment)
 Refrigerated transport (new and retrofit equipment)
 Vending machines (retrofit equipment only)
 Commercial ice machines (new and retrofit equipment)
 Water coolers (new and retrofit equipment)
 Cold storage warehouses (new and retrofit equipment)
 Industrial process refrigeration (new and retrofit equipment)
 Reciprocating, screw and scroll chillers (new and retrofit 
equipment)
 Centrifugal chillers (new and retrofit equipment)
 Household refrigerators and freezers (new and retrofit 
equipment)
 Industrial process air-conditioning (new and retrofit 
equipment)

    R-450A, marketed under the trade name Solstice[supreg] N-13, is a 
weighted blend of 42 percent HFC-134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2 
tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811-97-2) and 58 percent HFO-1234ze(E), 
which is also known as trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. 
No. 29118-24-9).
    You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
at www.regulations.gov under the name, ``Solstice N-13 (R-450A) SNAP 
Information Notice.'' EPA has performed assessments to examine the 
health and environmental risks of this substitute. These assessments 
are available in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 under the following names:

 ``Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Retail Food 
Refrigeration, Vending Machines, and Commercial Ice Machines 
Substitute: R-450A''
 Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Household Refrigerators 
and Freezers and Water Coolers Substitute: R-450A''
 Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Chillers and Industrial 
Process Air Conditioning Substitute: R-450A''
 Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Cold Storage Warehouses 
and Industrial Process Refrigeration Substitute: R-450A''

[[Page 62866]]

 Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Refrigerated Transport 
Substitute: R-450A''

    Environmental information: R-450A has an ODP of zero. Its 
components, HFC-134a and HFO-1234ze(E), have GWPs of 1,430 and 1 to 6 
\11\, respectively. If these values are weighted by mass percentage, 
then R-450A has a GWP of about 601. The components of R-450A are both 
excluded from the definition of VOC under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 
51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs to attain and maintain 
the NAAQS. The emissions of this refrigerant blend will be limited 
given it is subject to the venting prohibition under section 608(c)(2) 
of the CAA and EPA's venting regulations codified at 40 CFR 
82.154(a)(1),\12\ which limit emissions of refrigerant substitutes.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \11\ Hodnebrog, [Oslash]., et al., 2013, op cit.; Atmospheric 
chemistry of trans-CF3CH=CHF: products and mechanisms of hydroxyl 
radical and chlorine atom initiated oxidation'', M.S. Javadi, R. 
S[oslash]ndergaard, O.J. Nielsen, M.D., Hurley, and T.J. Wellington, 
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 8, 1069-1088, 2008
    \12\ For more information, including definitions, see 40 CFR 
part 82, subpart F.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Flammability information: R-450A as formulated and in the worst-
case fractionation formulation is not flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute include drowsiness or dizziness. The substitute may also 
irritate the skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At sufficiently high 
concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular heartbeat. The 
substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a 
confined space. These potential health effects are common to many 
refrigerants.
    The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm as an 8-
hour time-weighted averages (TWAs) for HFC-134a and HFO-1234ze(E), the 
components of R-450A. EPA anticipates that users will be able to meet 
either of the AIHA WEELs and address potential health risks by 
following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS, in ASHRAE 15, 
and other safety precautions common to the refrigeration and air 
conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other substitutes in these end-uses: R-450A has an 
ODP of zero, in contrast to the ODS HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, and HCFC-123 
(with ODPs ranging from 0.01 to 0.6), and comparable to a number of 
other acceptable non-ozone-depleting substitutes in these end-uses, 
such as HFC-134a and R-404A. R-450A's GWP of about 601 within the range 
of HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, and HCFC-123 (with GWPs ranging from 77 to 
2,310), and lower than that of other non-ozone-depleting substitutes in 
the same refrigeration and air conditioning end-uses, such as HFC-134a 
and R-404A (with GWPs of 1,430 and 3,930). Flammability risks are low, 
as discussed above. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent 
with the AIHA WEELs, ASHRAE 15 and other industry standards, 
recommendations in the MSDS, and other safety precautions common in the 
refrigeration and air conditioning industry. The potential health 
effects of R-450A are common to many refrigerants, including many of 
those already listed as acceptable under SNAP. EPA thus finds R-450A 
acceptable in the end-uses listed above, because the overall 
environmental and human health risk posed by R-450A is lower than the 
risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end-uses.

B. Foam Blowing

1. Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene (SolsticeTM 
1233zd(E))
    EPA's decision: EPA finds trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene 
acceptable as a substitute for use as a blowing agent in flexible 
polyurethane foams.
    Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene ((E)-1-chloro-3,3,3-
trifluoroprop-1-ene, CAS Reg. No. 102687-65-0) is a chlorofluoroalkene 
marketed under the trade name SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) for 
various foam blowing end-uses.
    You may find the redacted submission in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
at www.regulations.gov under the name ``TSCA/SNAP Addendum for trans-1-
chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene in flexible foams.'' EPA has performed 
an assessment to examine the health and environmental risks of this 
substitute. This assessment is available in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
under the name ``Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Flexible 
Polyurethane Foams Substitute: Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-
ene''.
    We have previously listed trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene 
as a foam blowing agent in a number of end-uses (August 10, 2012, 77 FR 
47768).
    Environmental information: The environmental information for this 
substitute is set forth in the `Environmental information' section in 
listing A.1.
    Flammability information: SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) is not 
flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: The toxicity information for this 
substitute is set forth in the ``Toxicity and exposure data'' section 
in listing A.1.
    The AIHA has established a WEEL of 800 ppm for trans-1-chloro-
3,3,3,-trifluoroprop-1-ene. EPA anticipates that SolsticeTM 
1233zd(E) will be used in a manner consistent with the recommendations 
specified in the manufacturer's MSDS. EPA anticipates that users will 
be able to meet the WEEL and address potential health risks by 
following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS and in any other 
safety precautions common to the foam blowing industry.
    Comparison to other substitutes in this end-use: 
SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) has an ODP of 0.00024 to 0.00034 and 
estimates of its maximum potential impact on the ozone layer indicate a 
statistically insignificant impact, comparable to that of other 
substitutes in the same end-uses that are considered to be non-ozone-
depleting.\13\ SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)'s ODP is well below that 
of the ODS CFC-11 and HCFC-141b (with ODPs ranging from 0.11 to 1.0). 
SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)'s GWP of 1 to 7 is lower than or 
comparable to that of other acceptable substitutes in the same end use, 
such as HFC-134a, HFC-245fa and HFC-152a (with GWPs ranging from 124 to 
1,430) and C3-C6 saturated light hydrocarbons \14\ (with GWPs less than 
10). Its GWP is also well below those of CFC-11 and HCFC-141b (with 
GWPs ranging from 725 to 4,750). Flammability risks are low, as 
discussed above. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with 
the AIHA WEEL, recommendations in the MSDS, and other safety 
precautions common in the foam blowing industry. The potential health 
effects of SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) are common to many foam 
blowing agents, including many of those already listed as acceptable 
under SNAP. EPA thus finds trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluorop-1-ene 
(SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)) acceptable in the end-use listed 
above, because the overall environmental and human health risk posed by 
trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene is lower than or comparable to 
the risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end-
use.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \13\ Wang et al., 2011 and Patten and Wuebbles, 2010. Op cit.
    \14\ That is, unsaturated hydrocarbons with 3 to 6 carbons, such 
as propane, butane, pentane, isopentane, and cyclopentane.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Methylal (Dimethoxymethane)
    EPA's decision: EPA finds methylal acceptable as a substitute for 
use as a blowing agent in:


[[Page 62867]]


 Rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock
 Rigid polyurethane appliance
 Rigid polyurethane commercial refrigeration and sandwich 
panels
 Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other
 Flexible polyurethane
 Integral skin polyurethane

    Methylal is also called dimethoxymethane, CAS 109-87-5. It belongs 
to a class of chemicals referred to as acetals.
    You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
at www.regulations.gov under the name ``SNAP Information Notice for 
methylal received 4/18/14.'' EPA has performed an assessment to examine 
the health and environmental risks of this substitute. This assessment 
is available in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 under the name ``Risk 
Screen on Substitutes for Use in Rigid Polyurethane Appliance Foam; 
Commercial and Sandwich Panels; Rigid Polyurethane & Polyisocyanurate 
Laminate Boardstock; Rigid Polyurethane Slabstock; Flexible 
Polyurethane; Integral Skin Polyurethane Substitute: Methylal 
(Dimethoxymethane).'' EPA's review of this substitute is pending for 
spray foam.
    Environmental information: Methylal has an ODP of zero. The 100-yr 
GWP of methylal is less than three. Methylal is a VOC under CAA 
regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs 
to attain and maintain the NAAQS.
    Flammability information: Methylal is flammable. Under the Globally 
Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, it is 
classified as a Class II flammable liquid and under OSHA's regulations 
at 29 CFR 1910.106, it is classified as a Class IB flammable liquid. 
Some specific blends of methylal with other blowing agents are 
flammable as formulated and should be handled with proper precautions, 
as specified by the manufacturer.\15\ EPA recommends that users follow 
all requirements and recommendations specified in the MSDS and other 
safety precautions for use of flammable blowing agents used in the foam 
blowing industry. Use of methylal will require safe handling and 
shipping as prescribed by OSHA and the Department of Transportation 
(for example, using personal protective equipment and following 
requirements for shipping hazardous materials at 49 CFR parts 170 
through 173).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \15\ 59 FR at 13084. ``The Agency has determined that because of 
the potential for formation and emission of decomposition products 
in rigid closed cell foams, notification and review under SNAP is 
required for blends of chemical alternatives in foam end-uses that 
encompass residential products where chronic consumer exposure could 
occur. These end-uses are: polyurethane rigid laminated boardstock, 
polystyrene extruded boardstock and billet foams, phenolic foams, 
and polyolefin foams.''
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute include drowsiness or dizziness. The substitute may also 
irritate the skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At sufficiently high 
concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular heartbeat. The 
substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a 
confined space.
    EPA anticipates that methylal will be used consistent with the 
recommendations specified in the manufacturer's MSDS. The American 
Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has 
established a threshold limit value (TLV) of 1,000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for 
methylal. NIOSH has a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 1,000 ppm for 
methylal on a 10-hour time-weighted average. EPA anticipates that users 
will be able to meet workplace exposure limits (TLV and REL) and 
address potential health risks by following requirements and 
recommendations in the MSDS and in other safety precautions common to 
the foam blowing industry.
    Comparison to other substitutes in the same end uses: Methylal has 
an ODP of zero, comparable to a number of other acceptable non-ozone-
depleting substitutes for these end uses, such as HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, 
HFC-152a, and C3-C6 saturated light hydrocarbons, and in contrast to 
the ODS CFC-11, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b and HCFC-22 (with ODPs ranging 
from 0.04 to 1.0). Methylal's GWP of less than three is lower than or 
comparable to that of other non-ozone-depleting substitutes in the same 
foam blowing end uses for which we are finding it acceptable, such as 
HFC-134a, HFC-245fa and HFC-152a (with GWPs ranging from 124 to 1,430) 
and C3-C6 saturated light hydrocarbons (with GWPs less than 10). 
Furthermore, the GWP of methylal is lower than those of CFC-11, HCFC-
141b, HCFC-142b and HCFC-22 (with GWPs ranging from 725 to 4,750). Like 
other flammable substitutes in these end uses, such as HFC-365mfc or 
C3-C6 saturated light hydrocarbons, flammability risks can be addressed 
by following the MSDS and other procedures common in the foam blowing 
industry in the end uses listed. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use 
consistent with the ACGIH TLV and NIOSH REL, recommendations in the 
MSDS, and other safety precautions common in the foam blowing industry. 
The potential health effects of methylal are common to many foam 
blowing agents, including many of those already listed as acceptable 
under SNAP. The EPA thus finds methylal acceptable in the end uses 
listed above, because the overall environmental and human health risk 
posed by methylal is lower than or comparable to the risks posed by 
other substitutes found acceptable in the same end uses.
3. HFO-1336mzz(Z) (Formacel[supreg] 1100)
    EPA's decision: EPA finds HFO-1336mzz(Z) acceptable as a substitute 
for use as a blowing agent in:

 Rigid polyurethane appliance foam
 Rigid polyurethane commercial refrigeration and sandwich 
panels
 Flexible polyurethane
 Integral skin polyurethane
 Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other
 Rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock
 Phenolic insulation board and bunstock

    HFO-1336mzz(Z) is a hydrofluoroolefin or unsaturated 
hydrofluorocarbon. It is also called (Z)-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobut-2-
ene or cis-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobut-2-ene (CAS Reg. No. 692-49-9) and 
also goes by the trade names of FEA-1100 or Formacel[supreg] 1100.
    You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
at www.regulations.gov under the name, ``SNAP Information Notice for 
FEA-1100 as a Foam Blowing Agent Received 8/3/11.'' EPA has performed 
an assessment to examine the health and environmental risks of this 
substitute. This assessment is available in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
under the name ``Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Rigid 
Polyurethane Appliance Foam; Rigid Polyurethane and Polyisocyanurate 
Laminated Boardstock; Rigid Polyurethane Commercial Refrigeration and 
Sandwich Panels; Rigid Polyurethane Slabstock and Other; Flexible 
Polyurethane; Integral Skin Polyurethane; and Phenolic Insulation Board 
and Bunstock: HFO-1336mzz(Z) (Formacel[supreg] 1100).'' EPA's review of 
this substitute is pending for spray foam.
    Environmental information: HFO-1336mzz(Z) has an ODP of zero. It 
has a 100-yr GWP of about 9.\16\ HFO-

[[Page 62868]]

1336mzz(Z) is a VOC. The manufacturer has petitioned the EPA to exempt 
HFO-1336mzz(Z) from the definition of VOC under CAA regulations (see 40 
CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs to attain and 
maintain the NAAQS based on its claim that the chemical exhibits low 
photochemical reactivity.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \16\ Atmospheric Chemistry of (Z)-
CF3CH[boxH]CHCF3: OH Radical Reaction Rate 
Coefficient and Global Warming Potential; Munkhbayar Baasandorj, 
A.R. Ravishankara, and James B. Burkholder. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2011, 
115 (38), pp. 10539-10549.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Flammability information: HFO-1336mzz(Z) is not flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute include skin or eye irritation or frostbite. At sufficiently 
high concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular heartbeat. The 
substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a 
confined space. These potential health effects are common to many foam 
blowing agents. The EPA anticipates that HFO-1336mzz(Z) will be used 
consistent with the recommendations specified in the MSDS. The 
manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit (AEL) for the 
workplace of 500 ppm on an 8-hour TWA\17\. The EPA anticipates that 
users will be able to meet the manufacturer's AEL and address potential 
health risks by following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS 
and other safety precautions common to the foam blowing industry.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \17\ As of the time of signature of this document, the WEEL 
Committee of the Occupational Alliance for Risk Science had 
proposed, but not yet finalized, a WEEL of 500 ppm for HFO-
1336mzz(Z). The proposed documentation may be viewed at 
www.tera.org/OARS/HFO-1336mzz-Z%20public%20comments%209-18-14.pdf .
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Comparison to other foam blowing agents: HFO-1336mzz(Z) has an ODP 
of zero, comparable to a number of other acceptable non-ozone-depleting 
substitutes for these end uses such as HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-152a, 
and C3-C6 saturated light hydrocarbons and in contrast to CFC-11, CFC-
113, HCFC-141b, and HCFC-22 (with ODPs ranging from 0.04 to 1.0). HFO-
1336mzz(Z)'s GWP of about 9 is lower than or comparable to those of 
other acceptable substitutes in the same end uses for which we are 
finding it acceptable, such as HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and HFC-152a (with 
GWPs ranging from 124 to 1,430), C3-C6 saturated light hydrocarbons 
(with GWPs less than 10), and Solstice-1233zd(E) with a GWP of 1 to 7 
(see listing B.1 above and 77 FR 47772). Further, the GWP of HFO-
1336mzz(Z) is less than those of CFC-11, CFC-113, HCFC-141b, and HCFC-
22, with GWPs ranging from 725 to 4,750. Flammability risks are low, as 
discussed above. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with 
the manufacturer's recommended AEL, recommendations in the MSDS, and 
other safety precautions common in the foam blowing industry. The 
potential health effects of HFO-1336mzz(Z) are common to many foam 
blowing agents, including many of those already listed as acceptable 
under SNAP. EPA thus finds HFO-1336mzz(Z) acceptable in the end uses 
listed above, because the overall environmental and human health risk 
posed by HFO-1336mzz(Z) is lower than or comparable to the risks posed 
by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end uses.

C. Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection

1. Powdered Aerosol D (Aero-K[supreg], Stat-X[supreg])
    EPA's decision: EPA finds Powdered Aerosol D acceptable as a 
substitute for total flooding uses.

    Powdered Aerosol D is a pyrotechnic particulate aerosol and 
explosion suppressant that also is marketed under the trade names of 
Aero-K[supreg] and Stat-X[supreg]. This fire suppressant is supplied to 
users as a solid housed in a double-walled hermetically-sealed steel 
container. When the unit is triggered by heat (300 [deg]C), the product 
is pyrotechnically activated to produce gases and aerosol particles 
from a mixture of chemicals. EPA previously listed Powdered Aerosol D 
as acceptable subject to use conditions (71 FR 56359; September 7, 
2006). The use conditions require that Powdered Aerosol D be used only 
in areas that are not normally occupied, on the basis of information 
supporting its safe use in areas that are not normally occupied. Based 
on a review of additional information from the submitter to support the 
safe use of Powdered Aerosol D in normally occupied spaces, EPA now 
determines that Powdered Aerosol D is also acceptable for use in total 
flooding systems for normally occupied spaces. The listing will provide 
that Powdered Aerosol D is acceptable for total flooding uses, which 
would include both unoccupied and occupied spaces. In a subsequent 
rulemaking EPA will remove the previous listing as acceptable subject 
to use conditions. In the ``Further Information'' column of the tables 
summarizing today's listing decisions and found at the end of this 
document, we also state that use of this agent should continue to be in 
accordance with the safety guidelines in the latest edition of the 
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 2010 Standard for Aerosol 
Extinguishing Systems.
    You may find the redacted submission in Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-
2003-0118 at www.regulations.gov under the name, ``8/8/13 letter from 
Marc Gross, Fireaway to Rebecca von dem Hagen, EPA and SNAP Information 
Notice for Stat-X.'' EPA has performed an assessment to examine the 
health and environmental risks of this substitute. This assessment is 
available in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 under the name, ``Risk Screen 
on Substitutes for Total Flooding Systems in Normally Occupied Spaces--
Substitute: Powdered Aerosol D (Stat-X[supreg]).''
    Environmental information: The active ingredients of Powdered 
Aerosol D are solids both before and after use; thus, their ODP and GWP 
are both zero. The gaseous post-activation products for Powdered 
Aerosol D also have zero ODP and GWPs of 25 or less. The solid active 
ingredients and particulate post-activation products do not participate 
in atmospheric photochemical reactions and are not VOCs. The gaseous 
post-activation products are excluded from the definition of VOC under 
CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of 
SIPs to attain and maintain the NAAQS.
    None of the pre- or post-activation constituents of Powdered 
Aerosol D will exist in quantities approaching the respective reporting 
quantities under the Clean Water Act for priority or toxic pollutants. 
During post-activation clean-up procedures, clean-up residues should be 
disposed of in accordance with requirements appropriate for those 
materials, as outlined in the agent's MSDS and local, state, and 
federal regulations.
    Flammability information: Powdered Aerosol D's post-activation 
products are nonflammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Exposure to Powdered Aerosol D after 
activation may cause temporary, mild irritation of the mucous membrane. 
If eye or skin contact occurs, end users should flush eyes with water 
or wash skin with soap and water. Exposure to the post-discharge 
products is expected to be below the relevant workplace exposure limits 
for those compounds. Because it is housed in a hermetically sealed 
container, exposure should not occur unless the system is activated.
    Information on additional safety recommendations: The discharge of 
the aerosol results in a reduction of visibility in the protected space 
due to the uniform distribution of the particulate generated. Use 
according to the NFPA 2010 Standard will further reduce any safety 
risks due to reduced visibility. In addition, EPA recommends that 
cross-zone detection systems and

[[Page 62869]]

abort switches located near an exit from the protected space be 
employed.
    In the ``Further Information'' column of the tables summarizing 
today's listing decisions, EPA recommends the following for 
establishments manufacturing Powdered Aerosol D and filling containers 
to be used in total flooding applications:

--Workers should use appropriate safety and protective equipment (e.g., 
protective gloves, tightly sealed goggles, protective work clothing, 
and particulate-removing respirators using NIOSH type N95 or better 
filters) consistent with OSHA guidelines.
--A local exhaust system should be installed and operated to provide 
adequate ventilation to reduce airborne exposure to Powdered Aerosol D 
constituents.
--An eye wash fountain and quick drench facility should be close to the 
production area.
--Training for safe handling procedures should be provided to all 
employees that would be likely to handle the containers of the agent or 
extinguishing units filled with the agent.
--Workers responsible for cleanup should allow particulates to settle 
before reentering area and wear appropriate personal protective 
equipment.
--All spills should be cleaned up immediately in accordance with good 
industrial hygiene practices.

    EPA expects that procedures identified in the MSDS for Powdered 
Aerosol D and good manufacturing practices will be adhered to, and that 
the appropriate safety and personal protective equipment (PPE) 
consistent with OSHA guidelines will be used during installation, 
servicing, post-discharge clean-up and disposal of total flooding 
systems using Powdered Aerosol D. The manufacturer should provide 
guidance upon installation of the system regarding the appropriate time 
after which workers may re-enter the area for disposal to allow the 
maximum settling of all particulates.
    Comparison to other substitutes in this end use: Powdered Aerosol D 
has zero ODP, both prior to and after activation. In comparison, Halon 
1301 has an ODP of 12 and other acceptable substitutes used in this end 
use, such as HCFC Blend A, HFC-227ea, and HFC-125 have ODPs of 0.048, 
zero and zero. The active ingredients of Powdered Aerosol D have a GWP 
of zero prior to activation and the gaseous post-activation products 
have a GWP of 25 or less. In comparison, Halon 1301 has a GWP of 7,140 
and other acceptable substitutes used in this end use, such as HCFC 
Blend A, HFC-227ea, and HFC-125 have GWPs of about 1,550, 3,220, and 
3,500, respectively. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent 
with the NFPA 2010 standard, recommendations in the MSDS, and other 
safety precautions common in the fire suppression industry. The 
potential health effects of Powdered Aerosol D are common to many fire 
suppressants, including many of those already listed as acceptable 
under SNAP. EPA thus finds Powdered Aerosol D acceptable in the total 
flooding end-use because it does not pose a greater overall risk to 
human health and the environment than other acceptable substitutes in 
this end-use.

II. Section 612 Program

A. Statutory Requirements and Authority for the SNAP Program

    Section 612 of the CAA requires EPA to develop a program for 
evaluating alternatives to ozone-depleting substances. EPA refers to 
this program as the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program. 
The major provisions of section 612 are:
1. Rulemaking
    Section 612(c) requires EPA to promulgate rules making it unlawful 
to replace any class I substance (e.g., chlorofluorocarbon, halon, 
carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and hydrobromofluorocarbon) or 
class II substance (e.g., hydrochlorofluorocarbon) with any substitute 
that the Administrator determines may present adverse effects to human 
health or the environment where the Administrator has identified an 
alternative that (1) reduces the overall risk to human health and the 
environment, and (2) is currently or potentially available.
2. Listing of Unacceptable/Acceptable Substitutes
    Section 612(c) requires EPA to publish a list of the substitutes 
unacceptable for specific uses and to publish a corresponding list of 
acceptable alternatives for specific uses. The list of ``acceptable'' 
substitutes is found at www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/lists and the lists of 
``unacceptable,'' ``acceptable subject to use conditions,'' and 
``acceptable subject to narrowed use limits'' substitutes are found in 
the appendices to 40 CFR part 82, subpart G.
3. Petition Process
    Section 612(d) grants the right to any person to petition EPA to 
add a substance to, or delete a substance from, the lists published in 
accordance with section 612(c). The agency has 90 days to grant or deny 
a petition. Where the agency grants the petition, the EPA must publish 
the revised lists within an additional six months.
4. 90-Day Notification
    Section 612(e) directs EPA to require any person who produces a 
chemical substitute for a class I substance to notify the agency not 
less than 90 days before new or existing chemicals are introduced into 
interstate commerce for significant new uses as substitutes for a class 
I substance. The producer must also provide the agency with the 
producer's unpublished health and safety studies on such substitutes.
5. Outreach
    Section 612(b)(1) states that the Administrator shall seek to 
maximize the use of federal research facilities and resources to assist 
users of class I and II substances in identifying and developing 
alternatives to the use of such substances in key commercial 
applications.
6. Clearinghouse
    Section 612(b)(4) requires the agency to set up a public 
clearinghouse of alternative chemicals, product substitutes, and 
alternative manufacturing processes that are available for products and 
manufacturing processes which use class I and II substances.

B. EPA's Regulations Implementing Section 612

    On March 18, 1994, EPA published the original rulemaking (59 FR 
13044) which established the process for administering the SNAP program 
and issued EPA's first lists identifying acceptable and unacceptable 
substitutes in the major industrial use sectors (subpart G of 40 CFR 
part 82). These sectors are the following: Refrigeration and air 
conditioning; foam blowing; solvents cleaning; fire suppression and 
explosion protection; sterilants; aerosols; adhesives, coatings and 
inks; and tobacco expansion. These sectors comprise the principal 
industrial sectors that historically consumed the largest volumes of 
ODS.
    Section 612 of the CAA requires EPA to list as acceptable those 
substitutes that do not present a significantly greater risk to human 
health and the environment as compared with other substitutes that are 
currently or potentially available.

[[Page 62870]]

C. How the Regulations for the SNAP Program Work

    Under the SNAP regulations, anyone who plans to market or produce a 
substitute to replace a class I substance or class II substance in one 
of the eight major industrial use sectors must provide the Agency with 
notice and the required health and safety information on the substitute 
at least 90 days before introducing it into interstate commerce for 
significant new use as an alternative. 40 CFR 82.176(a). While this 
requirement typically applies to chemical manufacturers as the person 
likely to be planning to introduce the substitute into interstate 
commerce,\18\ it may also apply to importers, formulators, equipment 
manufacturers, and end-users \19\ when they are responsible for 
introducing a substitute into commerce. The 90-day SNAP review process 
begins once EPA receives the submission and determines that the 
submission includes complete and adequate data. 40 CFR 82.180(a). The 
CAA and the SNAP regulations, 40 CFR 82.174(a), prohibit use of a 
substitute earlier than 90 days after notice has been provided to the 
Agency.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \18\ As defined at 40 CFR 82.104, ``interstate commerce'' means 
the distribution or transportation of any product between one state, 
territory, possession or the District of Columbia, and another 
state, territory, possession or the District of Columbia, or the 
sale, use or manufacture of any product in more than one state, 
territory, possession or District of Columbia. The entry points for 
which a product is introduced into interstate commerce are the 
release of a product from the facility in which the product was 
manufactured, the entry into a warehouse from which the domestic 
manufacturer releases the product for sale or distribution, and at 
the site of United States Customs clearance.
    \19\ As defined at 40 CFR 82.172, ``end-use'' means processes or 
classes of specific applications within major industrial sectors 
where a substitute is used to replace an ODS.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The agency has identified four possible decision categories for 
substitute submissions: acceptable; acceptable subject to use 
conditions; acceptable subject to narrowed use limits; and 
unacceptable.\20\ 40 CFR 82.180(b). Use conditions and narrowed use 
limits are both considered ``use restrictions'' and are explained 
below. Substitutes that are deemed acceptable without use conditions 
may be used for all applications within the relevant end-uses within 
the sector and without limits under SNAP on how they may be used. 
Substitutes that are acceptable subject to use restrictions may be used 
only in accordance with those restrictions. Substitutes that are found 
to be unacceptable may not be used after the date specified in the 
rulemaking adding such substitute to the list of unacceptable 
substitutes.\21\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \20\ The SNAP regulations also include ``pending,'' referring to 
submissions for which the EPA has not reached a determination, under 
this provision.
    \21\ As defined at 40 CFR 82.172, ``use'' means any use of a 
substitute for a Class I or Class II ozone-depleting compound, 
including but not limited to use in a manufacturing process or 
product, in consumption by the end-user, or in intermediate uses, 
such as formulation or packaging for other subsequent uses. This 
definition of use encompasses manufacturing process of products both 
for domestic use and for export. Substitutes manufactured within the 
United States exclusively for export are subject to SNAP 
requirements since the definition of use in the rule includes use in 
the manufacturing process, which occurs within the United States.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    After reviewing a substitute, the agency may make a determination 
that a substitute is acceptable only if certain conditions in the way 
that the substitute is used are met to minimize risks to human health 
and the environment. EPA describes such substitutes as ``acceptable 
subject to use conditions.'' Entities that use these substitutes 
without meeting the associated use conditions are in violation of EPA's 
SNAP regulations. 40 CFR 82.174(c).
    For some substitutes, the Agency may permit a narrowed range of use 
within an end-use or sector. For example, the Agency may limit the use 
of a substitute to certain end-uses or specific applications within an 
industry sector. The Agency requires a user of a narrowed use 
substitute to demonstrate that no other acceptable substitutes are 
available for their specific application. The EPA describes these 
substitutes as ``acceptable subject to narrowed use limits.'' A person 
using a substitute that is acceptable subject to narrowed use limits in 
applications and end-uses that are not consistent with the narrowed use 
limit is using the substitute in violation of section 612 of the CAA 
and EPA's SNAP regulations. 40 CFR 82.174(c).
    The section 612 mandate for EPA to prohibit the use of a substitute 
that may present risk to human health or the environment where a lower 
risk alternative is available or potentially available \22\ provides 
EPA with the authority to change the listing status of a particular 
substitute if such a change is justified by new information or changed 
circumstance.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \22\ In addition to acceptable commercially available 
substitutes, the SNAP program may consider potentially available 
substitutes. The SNAP program's definition of ``potentially 
available '' is ``any alternative for which adequate health, safety, 
and environmental data, as required for the SNAP notification 
process, exist to make a determination of acceptability, and which 
the agency reasonably believes to be technically feasible, even if 
not all testing has yet been completed and the alternative is not 
yet produced or sold.'' (40 CFR 82.172)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    As described in this document and elsewhere, including the original 
SNAP rulemaking published in the Federal Register at 59 FR 13044 on 
March 18, 1994, the SNAP program evaluates substitutes within a 
comparative risk framework. The SNAP program compares new substitutes 
both to the ozone-depleting substances being phased out under the 
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and the 
CAA and to other available or potentially available alternatives for 
the same end uses. The environmental and health risk factors that the 
SNAP program considers include ozone depletion potential, flammability, 
toxicity, occupational and consumer health and safety, as well as 
contributions to global warming and other environmental factors. 
Environmental and human health exposures can vary significantly 
depending on the particular application of a substitute--and over time, 
information applicable to a substitute can change. This approach does 
not imply fundamental tradeoffs with respect to different types of 
risk, either to the environment or to human health. EPA recognizes that 
during the two-decade long history of the SNAP program, new 
alternatives and new information about alternatives have emerged. To 
the extent possible, EPA considers new information and improved 
understanding of the risk factors for the environment and human health 
in the context of the available or potentially available alternatives 
for a given use.
    The agency publishes its SNAP program decisions in the Federal 
Register. EPA uses notice-and-comment rulemaking to place any 
alternative on the list of prohibited substitutes, to list a substitute 
as acceptable only subject to use conditions or narrowed use limits, or 
to remove a substitute from either the list of prohibited or acceptable 
substitutes.
    In contrast, EPA publishes ``notices of acceptability'' or 
``determinations of acceptability,'' to notify the public of 
substitutes that are deemed acceptable with no restrictions. As 
described in the preamble to the rule initially implementing the SNAP 
program (59 FR 13044; March 18, 1994), EPA does not believe that 
rulemaking procedures are necessary to list alternatives that are 
acceptable without restrictions because such listings neither impose 
any sanction nor prevent anyone from using a substitute.
    Many SNAP listings include ``comments'' or ``further information'' 
to provide additional information on substitutes. Since this additional 
information is not part of the regulatory decision, these statements 
are not binding for use of the substitute under

[[Page 62871]]

the SNAP program. However, regulatory requirements so listed are 
binding under other regulatory programs (e.g., worker protection 
regulations promulgated by OSHA). The ``further information'' 
classification does not necessarily include all other legal obligations 
pertaining to the use of the substitute. While the items listed are not 
legally binding under the SNAP program, EPA encourages users of 
substitutes to apply all statements in the ``further information'' 
column in their use of these substitutes. In many instances, the 
information simply refers to sound operating practices that have 
already been identified in existing industry and/or building codes or 
standards. Thus many of the statements, if adopted, would not require 
the affected user to make significant changes in existing operating 
practices.

D. Additional Information about the SNAP Program

    For copies of the comprehensive SNAP lists of substitutes or 
additional information on SNAP, refer to the EPA's Ozone Depletion Web 
site at: www.epa.gov/ozone/snap. For more information on the agency's 
process for administering the SNAP program or criteria for evaluation 
of substitutes, refer to the SNAP final rulemaking published March 18, 
1994 (59 FR 13044), codified at 40 CFR part 82, subpart G. A complete 
chronology of SNAP decisions and the appropriate citations are found 
at: www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/chron.html.

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 82

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, 
Air pollution control, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    Dated: October 15, 2014.
Sarah Dunham,
Director, Office of Atmospheric Programs.

Appendix A: Summary of Acceptable Decisions

                                       Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              End-use                     Substitute                Decision            Further information \1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Centrifugal chillers (retrofit and  R-450A (Solstice       Acceptable................  R-450A has a 100-year
 new).                               [supreg] N-13).                                    global warming potential
                                                                                        (GWP) of approximately
                                                                                        604. This substitute is
                                                                                        a blend of HFC-134a,
                                                                                        which is also known as
                                                                                        1,1,1,2-
                                                                                        tetrafluoroethane (CAS
                                                                                        Reg. No. 811-97-2), and
                                                                                        HFO-1234ze(E), which is
                                                                                        also known as trans-
                                                                                        1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-
                                                                                        1-ene (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                                        29118-24-9).
                                                                                       This blend is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The American Industrial
                                                                                        Hygiene Association
                                                                                        (AIHA) has established
                                                                                        workplace environmental
                                                                                        exposure limits (WEELs)
                                                                                        of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm
                                                                                        (8-hr TWA) for HFC-134a
                                                                                        and HFO-1234ze(E).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Reciprocating, screw and scroll     R-450A (Solstice       Acceptable................  R-450A has a 100-year GWP
 chillers (retrofit and new).        [supreg] N-13).                                    of approximately 604.
                                                                                        This substitute is a
                                                                                        blend of HFC-134a, which
                                                                                        is also known as 1,1,1,2-
                                                                                        tetrafluoroethane (CAS
                                                                                        Reg. No. 811-97-2) and
                                                                                        HFO-1234ze(E) which is
                                                                                        also known as trans-
                                                                                        1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-
                                                                                        1-ene (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                                        29118-24-9).
                                                                                       This blend is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The AIHA has established
                                                                                        WEELs of 1,000 ppm and
                                                                                        800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                                                                        HFC-134a and HFO-
                                                                                        1234ze(E).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Industrial process refrigeration    R-450A (Solstice       Acceptable................  R-450A has a 100-year GWP
 (retrofit and new).                 [supreg] N-13).                                    of approximately 604.
                                                                                        This substitute is a
                                                                                        blend of HFC-134a, which
                                                                                        is also known as 1,1,1,2-
                                                                                        tetrafluoroethane (CAS
                                                                                        Reg. No. 811-97-2) and
                                                                                        HFO-1234ze(E) which is
                                                                                        also known as trans-
                                                                                        1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-
                                                                                        1-ene (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                                        29118-24-9).
                                                                                       This blend is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The AIHA has established
                                                                                        WEELs of 1,000 ppm and
                                                                                        800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                                                                        HFC-134a and HFO-
                                                                                        1234ze(E).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Industrial process air              R-450A (Solstice       Acceptable................  R-450A has a 100-year GWP
 conditioning (retrofit and new).    [supreg] N-13).                                    of approximately 604.
                                                                                        This substitute is a
                                                                                        blend of HFC-134a, which
                                                                                        is also known as 1,1,1,2-
                                                                                        tetrafluoroethane (CAS
                                                                                        Reg. No. 811-97-2) and
                                                                                        HFO-1234ze(E) which is
                                                                                        also known as trans-
                                                                                        1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-
                                                                                        1-ene (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                                        29118-24-9).
                                                                                       This blend is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The AIHA has established
                                                                                        WEELs of 1,000 ppm and
                                                                                        800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                                                                        HFC-134a and HFO-
                                                                                        1234ze(E).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cold storage warehouses (retrofit   R-450A (Solstice       Acceptable................  R-450A has a 100-year GWP
 and new).                           [supreg] N-13).                                    of approximately 604.
                                                                                        This substitute is a
                                                                                        blend of HFC-134a, which
                                                                                        is also known as 1,1,1,2-
                                                                                        tetrafluoroethane (CAS
                                                                                        Reg. No. 811-97-2) and
                                                                                        HFO-1234ze(E) which is
                                                                                        also known as trans-
                                                                                        1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-
                                                                                        1-ene (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                                        29118-24-9).
                                                                                       This blend is
                                                                                        nonflammable.

[[Page 62872]]

 
                                                                                       The AIHA has established
                                                                                        WEELs of 1,000 ppm and
                                                                                        800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                                                                        HFC-134a and HFO-
                                                                                        1234ze(E).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Refrigerated transport (new only).  Carbon dioxide (CO2    Acceptable................  The Occupational Safety
                                     or R-744).                                         and Health
                                                                                        Administration (OSHA)
                                                                                        has established a
                                                                                        required 8 hour/day, 40
                                                                                        hour/week permissible
                                                                                        exposure limit (PEL) for
                                                                                        CO2 of 5,000 ppm. The
                                                                                        National Institute for
                                                                                        Occupational Safety and
                                                                                        Health (NIOSH) has
                                                                                        established a 15-minute
                                                                                        recommended short-term
                                                                                        exposure limit (STEL) of
                                                                                        30,000 ppm.
                                                                                       CO2 is nonflammable.
                                                                                       EPA recommends that users
                                                                                        follow all requirements
                                                                                        and recommendations
                                                                                        specified in American
                                                                                        Society for Heating,
                                                                                        Refrigerating and Air-
                                                                                        Conditioning Engineers
                                                                                        (ASHRAE) standard 15.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Refrigerated transport (retrofit    R-450A (Solstice       Acceptable................  R-450A has a 100-year GWP
 and new).                           [supreg] N-13).                                    of approximately 604.
                                                                                        This substitute is a
                                                                                        blend of HFC-134a, which
                                                                                        is also known as 1,1,1,2-
                                                                                        tetrafluoroethane (CAS
                                                                                        Reg. No. 811-97-2) and
                                                                                        HFO-1234ze(E) which is
                                                                                        also known as trans-
                                                                                        1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-
                                                                                        1-ene (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                                        29118-24-9).
                                                                                       This blend is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The AIHA has established
                                                                                        WEELs of 1,000 ppm and
                                                                                        800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                                                                        HFC-134a and HFO-
                                                                                        1234ze(E).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Retail food refrigeration           R-450A (Solstice       Acceptable................  R-450A has a 100-year GWP
 (retrofit and new).                 [supreg] N-13).                                    of approximately 604.
                                                                                        This substitute is a
                                                                                        blend of HFC-134a, which
                                                                                        is also known as 1,1,1,2-
                                                                                        tetrafluoroethane (CAS
                                                                                        Reg. No. 811-97-2) and
                                                                                        HFO-1234ze(E) which is
                                                                                        also known as trans-
                                                                                        1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-
                                                                                        1-ene (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                                        29118-24-9).
                                                                                       This blend is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The AIHA has established
                                                                                        WEELs of 1,000 ppm and
                                                                                        800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                                                                        HFC-134a and HFO-
                                                                                        1234ze(E).
                                                                                       This decision applies to
                                                                                        all types of equipment
                                                                                        in this sector,
                                                                                        including remote
                                                                                        systems, condensing
                                                                                        units, and stand-alone
                                                                                        equipment.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Vending machines (retrofit only)..  R-450A (Solstice       Acceptable................  R-450A has a 100-year GWP
                                     [supreg] N-13).                                    of approximately 604.
                                                                                        This substitute is a
                                                                                        blend of HFC-134a, which
                                                                                        is also known as 1,1,1,2-
                                                                                        tetrafluoroethane (CAS
                                                                                        Reg. No. 811-97-2) and
                                                                                        HFO-1234ze(E) which is
                                                                                        also known as trans-
                                                                                        1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-
                                                                                        1-ene (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                                        29118-24-9).
                                                                                       This blend is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The AIHA has established
                                                                                        WEELs of 1,000 ppm and
                                                                                        800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                                                                        HFC-134a and HFO-
                                                                                        1234ze(E).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commercial ice machines (retrofit   R-450A (Solstice       Acceptable................  R-450A has a 100-year GWP
 and new).                           [supreg] N-13).                                    of approximately 604.
                                                                                        This substitute is a
                                                                                        blend of HFC-134a, which
                                                                                        is also known as 1,1,1,2-
                                                                                        tetrafluoroethane (CAS
                                                                                        Reg. No. 811-97-2) and
                                                                                        HFO-1234ze(E) which is
                                                                                        also known as trans-
                                                                                        1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-
                                                                                        1-ene (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                                        29118-24-9).
                                                                                       This blend is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The AIHA has established
                                                                                        WEELs of 1,000 ppm and
                                                                                        800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                                                                        HFC-134a and HFO-
                                                                                        1234ze(E).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Water coolers (retrofit and new)..  R-450A (Solstice       Acceptable................  R-450A has a 100-year GWP
                                     [supreg] N-13).                                    of approximately 604.
                                                                                        This substitute is a
                                                                                        blend of HFC-134a, which
                                                                                        is also known as 1,1,1,2-
                                                                                        tetrafluoroethane (CAS
                                                                                        Reg. No. 811-97-2) and
                                                                                        HFO-1234ze(E) which is
                                                                                        also known as trans-
                                                                                        1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-
                                                                                        1-ene (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                                        29118-24-9).
                                                                                       This blend is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The AIHA has established
                                                                                        WEELs of 1,000 ppm and
                                                                                        800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                                                                        HFC-134a and HFO-
                                                                                        1234ze(E).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 62873]]

 
Household refrigerators and         R-450A (Solstice       Acceptable................  R-450A has a 100-year GWP
 freezers (retrofit and new).        [supreg] N-13).                                    of approximately 604.
                                                                                        This substitute is a
                                                                                        blend of HFC-134a, which
                                                                                        is also known as 1,1,1,2-
                                                                                        tetrafluoroethane (CAS
                                                                                        Reg. No. 811-97-2) and
                                                                                        HFO-1234ze(E) which is
                                                                                        also known as trans-
                                                                                        1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-
                                                                                        1-ene (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                                        29118-24-9).
                                                                                       This blend is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The AIHA has established
                                                                                        a WEELs of 1,000 ppm and
                                                                                        800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                                                                        HFC-134a and HFO-
                                                                                        1234ze(E).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Non-mechanical heat transfer (new   Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-  Acceptable................  Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-
 only).                              trifluoroprop-1-ene                                trifluoroprop-1-ene (CAS
                                     (SolsticeTM                                        Reg. No. 102687-65-0)
                                     1233zd(E)).                                        has an ODP of
                                                                                        approximately 0.00024 to
                                                                                        0.00034. It has a 100-
                                                                                        year GWP of 1 to 7.
                                                                                       This compound is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The AIHA has established
                                                                                        a WEEL of 800 ppm (8-hr
                                                                                        TWA) for trans-1-chloro-
                                                                                        3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-
                                                                                        ene.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Observe recommendations in the manufacturer's MSDS and guidance for all listed refrigerants.


                                               Foam Blowing Agents
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              End-use                     Substitute                Decision             Further information\1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rigid polyurethane and              Methylal               Acceptable................  Methylal (CAS Reg. No.
 polyisocyanurate laminated          (dimethoxymethane).                                109-87-5) has a 100-yr
 boardstock.                                                                            global warming potential
                                                                                        (GWP) of less than
                                                                                        three. This substitute
                                                                                        is flammable and meets
                                                                                        the definition of a
                                                                                        flammable Class IB fluid
                                                                                        under the Occupational
                                                                                        Safety and Health
                                                                                        Administration's
                                                                                        (OSHA's) regulations at
                                                                                        29 CFR 1910.106.
                                                                                       The American Conference
                                                                                        of Governmental
                                                                                        Industrial Hygienists
                                                                                        (ACGIH) has established
                                                                                        a Threshold Limit Value
                                                                                        (TLV) of 1,000 ppm (8-hr
                                                                                        time-weighted average
                                                                                        (TWA)) for methylal
                                                                                        (dimethoxymethane).
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    HFO-1336mzz(Z) ((Z)-   Acceptable................  HFO-1336mzz(Z) (CAS Reg.
                                     1,1,1,4,4,4-                                       No. 692-49-9) has no
                                     hexafluorobut-2-ene,                               ozone depletion
                                     Formacel[supreg]                                   potential (ODP) and a
                                     1100).                                             100-year GWP of roughly
                                                                                        9.
                                                                                       This compound is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The manufacturer
                                                                                        recommends an acceptable
                                                                                        exposure limit of 500
                                                                                        ppm over an 8-hour TWA
                                                                                        for HFO-1336mzz(Z).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rigid polyurethane appliance......  Methylal               Acceptable................  Methylal (CAS Reg. No.
                                     (dimethoxymethane).                                109-87-5) has a 100-yr
                                                                                        GWP of less than three.
                                                                                        This substitute is
                                                                                        flammable and meets the
                                                                                        definition of a
                                                                                        flammable Class IB fluid
                                                                                        under OSHA's regulations
                                                                                        at 29 CFR 1910.106.
                                                                                       The ACGIH has established
                                                                                        a TLV of 1,000 ppm (8-hr
                                                                                        TWA) for methylal
                                                                                        (dimethoxymethane).
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    HFO-1336mzz(Z) ((Z)-   Acceptable................  HFO-1336mzz(Z) (CAS Reg.
                                     1,1,1,4,4,4-                                       No. 692-49-9) has no
                                     hexafluorobut-2-ene,                               ozone depletion
                                     Formacel[supreg]                                   potential (ODP) and a
                                     1100).                                             100-year GWP of roughly
                                                                                        9.
                                                                                       This compound is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The manufacturer
                                                                                        recommends an acceptable
                                                                                        exposure limit of 500
                                                                                        ppm over an 8-hour TWA
                                                                                        for HFO-1336mzz(Z).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rigid polyurethane commercial       Methylal               Acceptable................  Methylal (CAS Reg. No.
 refrigeration and sandwich panels.  (dimethoxymethane).                                109-87-5) has a 100-yr
                                                                                        GWP of less than three.
                                                                                        This substitute is
                                                                                        flammable and meets the
                                                                                        definition of a
                                                                                        flammable Class IB fluid
                                                                                        under OSHA's regulations
                                                                                        at 29 CFR 1910.106.
                                                                                       The ACGIH has established
                                                                                        a TLV of 1,000 ppm (8-hr
                                                                                        TWA) for methylal
                                                                                        (dimethoxymethane).
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    HFO-1336mzz(Z) ((Z)-   Acceptable................  HFO-1336mzz(Z) (CAS Reg.
                                     1,1,1,4,4,4-                                       No. 692-49-9) has no ODP
                                     hexafluorobut-2-ene,                               and a 100-year GWP of
                                     Formacel[supreg]                                   roughly 9.
                                     1100).
                                                                                       This compound is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The manufacturer
                                                                                        recommends an acceptable
                                                                                        exposure limit of 500
                                                                                        ppm over an 8-hour TWA
                                                                                        for HFO-1336mzz(Z).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 62874]]

 
Rigid polyurethane slabstock and    Methylal               Acceptable................  Methylal (CAS Reg. No.
 other.                              (dimethoxymethane).                                109-87-5) has a 100-yr
                                                                                        GWP of less than three.
                                                                                        This substitute is
                                                                                        flammable and meets the
                                                                                        definition of a
                                                                                        flammable Class IB fluid
                                                                                        under OSHA's regulations
                                                                                        at 29 CFR 1910.106.
                                                                                       The ACGIH has established
                                                                                        a TLV of 1,000 ppm (8-hr
                                                                                        TWA) for methylal
                                                                                        (dimethoxymethane).
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    HFO-1336mzz(Z) ((Z)-   Acceptable................  HFO-1336mzz(Z) (CAS Reg.
                                     1,1,1,4,4,4-                                       No. 692-49-9) has no ODP
                                     hexafluorobut-2-ene,                               and a 100-year GWP of
                                     Formacel[supreg]                                   roughly 9.
                                     1100).
                                                                                       This compound is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The manufacturer
                                                                                        recommends an acceptable
                                                                                        exposure limit of 500
                                                                                        ppm over an 8-hour TWA
                                                                                        for HFO-1336mzz(Z).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Flexible polyurethane.............  Methylal               Acceptable................  Methylal (CAS Reg. No.
                                     (dimethoxymethane).                                109-87-5) has a 100-yr
                                                                                        GWP of less than three.
                                                                                        This compound is
                                                                                        flammable and meets the
                                                                                        definition of a
                                                                                        flammable Class IB fluid
                                                                                        under OSHA's regulations
                                                                                        at 29 CFR 1910.106.
                                                                                       The ACGIH has established
                                                                                        a TLV of 1,000 ppm (8-hr
                                                                                        TWA) for methylal
                                                                                        (dimethoxymethane).
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    HFO-1336mzz(Z) ((Z)-   Acceptable................  HFO-1336mzz(Z) (CAS Reg.
                                     1,1,1,4,4,4-                                       No. 692-49-9) has no ODP
                                     hexafluorobut-2-ene,                               and a 100-yr GWP of
                                     Formacel[supreg]                                   roughly 9.
                                     1100).                                            This compound is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The manufacturer
                                                                                        recommends an acceptable
                                                                                        exposure limit of 500
                                                                                        ppm over an 8-hour TWA
                                                                                        for HFO-1336mzz(Z).
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-  Acceptable................  Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-
                                     trifluoroprop-1-ene                                trifluoroprop-1-ene (CAS
                                     (SolsticeTM                                        Reg. No. 102687-65-0)
                                     1233zd(E)).                                        has an ODP of
                                                                                        approximately 0.00024 to
                                                                                        0.00034. It has a 100-
                                                                                        year GWP of 1 to 7.
                                                                                       This compound is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The American Industrial
                                                                                        Hygiene Association has
                                                                                        established a workplace
                                                                                        environmental exposure
                                                                                        limit of 800 ppm (8-hr
                                                                                        TWA) for trans-1-chloro-
                                                                                        3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-
                                                                                        ene.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Integral skin polyurethane........  Methylal               Acceptable................  Methylal (CAS Reg. No.
                                     (dimethoxymethane).                                109-87-5) has a 100-yr
                                                                                        GWP of less than three.
                                                                                        This substitute is
                                                                                        flammable and meets the
                                                                                        definition of a
                                                                                        flammable Class IB fluid
                                                                                        under OSHA's regulations
                                                                                        at 29 CFR 1910.106.
                                                                                       The ACGIH has established
                                                                                        a TLV of 1,000 ppm (8-hr
                                                                                        TWA) for methylal
                                                                                        (dimethoxymethane).
                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    HFO-1336mzz(Z) ((Z)-   Acceptable................  HFO-1336mzz(Z) (CAS Reg.
                                     1,1,1,4,4,4-                                       No. 692-49-9) has no ODP
                                     hexafluorobut-2-ene,                               and a 100-yr GWP of
                                     Formacel[supreg]                                   roughly 9.
                                     1100).                                            This compound is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The manufacturer
                                                                                        recommends an acceptable
                                                                                        exposure limit of 500
                                                                                        ppm over an 8-hour TWA
                                                                                        for HFO-1336mzz(Z).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Phenolic insulation board and       HFO-1336mzz(Z) ((Z)-   Acceptable................  HFO-1336mzz(Z) (CAS Reg.
 bunstock.                           1,1,1,4,4,4-                                       No. 692-49-9) has no ODP
                                     hexafluorobut-2-ene,                               and a 100-year GWP of
                                     Formacel[supreg]                                   roughly 9.
                                     1100).                                            This compound is
                                                                                        nonflammable.
                                                                                       The manufacturer
                                                                                        recommends an acceptable
                                                                                        exposure limit of 500
                                                                                        ppm over an 8-hour TWA
                                                                                        for HFO-1336mzz(Z).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Observe recommendations in the manufacturer's MSDS and manufacturer's guidance for using all listed foam
  blowing agents.


                                    Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              End-use                     Substitute                Decision              Further information
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total flooding (occupied and        Powdered Aerosol D     Acceptable................  Use of this agent should
 unoccupied areas).                  (Aero-K[supreg],                                   be in accordance with
                                     Stat-X[supreg]).                                   the safety guidelines in
                                                                                        the latest edition of
                                                                                        the National Fire
                                                                                        Protection Association
                                                                                        2010 standard for
                                                                                        Aerosol Extinguishing
                                                                                        Systems.
                                                                                       For establishments
                                                                                        manufacturing the agent
                                                                                        or filling, installing,
                                                                                        or servicing containers
                                                                                        or systems to be used in
                                                                                        total flooding
                                                                                        applications, EPA
                                                                                        recommends the
                                                                                        following:

[[Page 62875]]

 
                                                                                          --the appropriate
                                                                                           safety and personal
                                                                                           protective equipment
                                                                                           (PPE) (e.g.,
                                                                                           protective gloves,
                                                                                           tightly sealed
                                                                                           goggles, protective
                                                                                           work clothing, and
                                                                                           particulate-removing
                                                                                           respirators with
                                                                                           National Institute
                                                                                           for Occupational
                                                                                           Safety and Health
                                                                                           type N95 or better
                                                                                           filters) consistent
                                                                                           with Occupational
                                                                                           Safety and Health
                                                                                           Administration (OSHA)
                                                                                           guidelines should be
                                                                                           used during
                                                                                           manufacture,
                                                                                           installation,
                                                                                           servicing, and
                                                                                           disposal of total
                                                                                           flooding systems
                                                                                           using the agent;
                                                                                          --adequate ventilation
                                                                                           should be in place to
                                                                                           reduce airborne
                                                                                           exposure to
                                                                                           constituents of
                                                                                           agent;
                                                                                          --an eye wash fountain
                                                                                           and quick drench
                                                                                           facility should be
                                                                                           close to the
                                                                                           production area;
                                                                                          --training for safe
                                                                                           handling procedures
                                                                                           should be provided to
                                                                                           all employees that
                                                                                           would be likely to
                                                                                           handle containers of
                                                                                           the agent or
                                                                                           extinguishing units
                                                                                           filled with the
                                                                                           agent;
                                                                                          --workers responsible
                                                                                           for clean up should
                                                                                           allow for maximum
                                                                                           settling of all
                                                                                           particulates before
                                                                                           reentering area and
                                                                                           wear appropriate
                                                                                           personal protective
                                                                                           equipment; and
                                                                                          --all spills should be
                                                                                           cleaned up
                                                                                           immediately in
                                                                                           accordance with good
                                                                                           industrial hygiene
                                                                                           practices.
                                                                                       As required by the
                                                                                        manufacturer, units
                                                                                        installed in normally
                                                                                        occupied spaces will be
                                                                                        equipped with features
                                                                                        such as a system-isolate
                                                                                        switch and cross-zone
                                                                                        detection system to
                                                                                        reduce risk of
                                                                                        accidental activation of
                                                                                        an agent generator while
                                                                                        persons are present in
                                                                                        the protected space.
                                                                                        Also required by the
                                                                                        manufacturer is warning
                                                                                        of pending discharge and
                                                                                        delay in release to
                                                                                        ensure egress prior to
                                                                                        activation of the agent
                                                                                        to reduce the risk of
                                                                                        exposure.
                                                                                       See additional comments
                                                                                        1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. The EPA recommends that users consult Section VIII of the OSHA Technical Manual for information on selecting
  the appropriate types of personal protective equipment for all listed fire suppression agents. The EPA has no
  intention of duplicating or displacing OSHA coverage related to the use of personal protective equipment
  (e.g., respiratory protection), fire protection, hazard communication, worker training or any other
  occupational safety and health standard with respect to halon substitutes.
2. Use of all listed fire suppression agents should conform to relevant OSHA requirements, including 29 CFR part
  1910, subpart L, sections 1910.160 and 1910.162.
3. Per OSHA requirements, protective gear (SCBA) should be available in the event personnel should reenter the
  area.
4. Discharge testing should be strictly limited to that which is essential to meet safety or performance
  requirements.
5. The agent should be recovered from the fire protection system in conjunction with testing or servicing, and
  recycled for later use or destroyed.

[FR Doc. 2014-24989 Filed 10-20-14; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P