Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To Conducting Maritime Strike Operations by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico, 52135-52148 [2013-20521]

Download as PDF Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 163 / Thursday, August 22, 2013 / Notices June 20–25, 2014, meeting in Garden Grove, California (Hyatt Regency Orange County, 11999 Harbor Blvd., Garden Grove, CA 92840). For further information on these meetings, visit the Council’s Web site, http:// www.pcouncil.org/council-operations/ council-meetings/future-meetings/. Special Accommodations The meetings are physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for sign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids should be directed to Kris Kleinschmidt Kris.Kleinschmidt@noaa.gov (503)820– 2280 at least 5 days prior to the meeting date. Management Council, 800 N. State Street, Suite 201, Dover, DE 19901; telephone: (302) 526–5255. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The original notice published in the Federal Register on August 8, 2013 (78 FR 48421). The original notice stated that the meeting ends at 12 noon. This notice corrects the time of the webinar. All other previously-published information remains unchanged. The Advisory Panel will develop a Fishery Performance Report for consideration by the Council and the Council’s SSC as they review spiny dogfish management measures established for the 2014 fishing year. Special Accommodations Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq. Dated: August 19, 2013. Emily H. Menashes, Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR Doc. 2013–20523 Filed 8–21–13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510–22–P The meeting is physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for sign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids should be directed to M. Jan Saunders at the Mid-Atlantic Council Office, (302) 526–5251, at least 5 days prior to the meeting date. Dated: August 16, 2013. William D. Chappell, Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [FR Doc. 2013–20448 Filed 8–21–13; 8:45 am] RIN 0648–XC797 BILLING CODE 3510–22–P Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting; Correction DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of correction to a public meeting. RIN 0648–XC561 AGENCY: The Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council’s (Council) Spiny Dogfish Advisory Panel (AP) will meet to develop a Fishery Performance Report for the Spiny Dogfish fishery in preparation for the Council and the Council’s Scientific and Statistical Committee review of specifications that have been set for the 2014 fishing year. DATES: The meeting will be held on Wednesday, August 28, 2013 at 1 a.m. until 4 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held via webinar with a listening station also available at the Council address below. Webinar link: http:// mafmc.adobeconnect.com/dogfish/ Council address: Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 800 N. State Street, Suite 201, Dover, DE 19901; telephone: (302) 674–2331. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christopher M. Moore Ph.D., Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery tkelley on DSK3SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES SUMMARY: VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:07 Aug 21, 2013 Jkt 229001 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To Conducting Maritime Strike Operations by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; issuance of incidental harassment authorization. AGENCY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the U.S. Air Force (USAF), Eglin Air Force Base (Eglin AFB), to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to Maritime Strike Operations in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). The USAF’s activities are considered military readiness activities. DATES: Effective August 19, 2013, through August 18, 2014. SUMMARY: PO 00000 Frm 00009 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 52135 An electronic copy of the authorization, the application containing a list of the references used in this document, and the Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) may be obtained by writing to Michael Payne, Chief, Permits, Conservation and Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315 EastWest Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910–3225, telephoning the contact listed below (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT), or visiting the internet at: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/ pr/permits/incidental.htm. Documents cited in this notice may also be viewed, by appointment, during regular business hours, at the aforementioned address. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brian D. Hopper, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, (301) 427–8401. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ADDRESSES: Background Sections 101(a)(5)(A) and (D) of the MMPA (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) direct the Secretary of Commerce to allow, upon request, the incidental, but not intentional, taking of small numbers of marine mammals by U.S. citizens who engage in a specified activity (other than commercial fishing) within a specified geographical region if certain findings are made and either regulations are issued or, if the taking is limited to harassment, a notice of a proposed authorization is provided to the public for review. Authorization for incidental takings shall be granted if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s), will not have an unmitigable adverse impact on the availability of the species or stock(s) for subsistence uses (where relevant), and if the permissible methods of taking and requirements pertaining to the mitigation, monitoring and reporting of such takings are set forth. NMFS has defined ‘‘negligible impact’’ in 50 CFR 216.103 as ‘‘ . . . an impact resulting from the specified activity that cannot be reasonably expected to, and is not reasonably likely to, adversely affect the species or stock through effects on annual rates of recruitment or survival.’’ Section 101(a)(5)(D) of the MMPA established an expedited process by which citizens of the U.S. can apply for an authorization to incidentally take small numbers of marine mammals by harassment. Section 101(a)(5)(D) establishes a 45-day time limit for NMFS review of an application followed by a 30-day public notice and comment period on any proposed E:\FR\FM\22AUN1.SGM 22AUN1 52136 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 163 / Thursday, August 22, 2013 / Notices authorizations for the incidental harassment of marine mammals. Within 45 days of the close of the comment period, NMFS must either issue or deny the authorization. The National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) (Pub. L. 108–136) removed the ‘‘small numbers’’ and ‘‘specified geographical region’’ provisions and amended the definition of ‘‘harassment’’ as it applies to a ‘‘military readiness activity’’ to read as follows (section 3(18)(B) of the MMPA): (i) Any act that injures or has the significant potential to injure a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild [Level A Harassment]; or (ii) Any act that disturbs or is likely to disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of natural behavioral patterns, including, but not limited to, migration, surfacing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering, to a point where such behavioral patterns are abandoned or significantly altered [Level B Harassment]. Summary of Request NMFS received an application on December 11, 2012, from Eglin AFB for the taking, by harassment, of marine mammals incidental to Maritime Strike Operations within the Eglin Gulf Test and Training Range (EGTTR). A revised application was submitted on January 22, 2013, which provided updated marine mammal information. The EGTTR is described as the airspace over the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) that is controlled by Eglin AFB. The planned test location in the EGTTR is Warning Area 151 (W–151), which is located approximately 17 miles offshore from Santa Rosa Island, specifically sub-area W–151A. The Maritime Strike operations may potentially impact marine mammals at or near the water surface. Marine mammals could potentially be harassed, injured, or killed by exploding and nonexploding projectiles, and falling debris. However, based on analyses provided in the USAF’s Environmental Assessment (EA), Eglin’s IHA application, including the required mitigation, and for reasons discussed later in this document, NMFS does not anticipate that Eglin’s Maritime Strike exercises will result in any serious injury or mortality to marine mammals. Eglin AFB has requested authorization to take two cetacean species by Level A and Level B harassment. The requested species include: Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis). Description of the Specified Activity This section describes the Maritime Strike missions that have the potential to affect marine mammals present within the test area. Maritime Strike operations, a ‘‘military readiness activity’’ as defined under 16 U.S.C. 703 note, involve detonations above the water, near the water surface, and under water within the EGTTR. These missions involve multiple types of live munitions identified in Tables 1 and 2 below. The Maritime Strike operations are described in more detail in the following paragraphs. The Maritime Strike program was developed in response to the increasing threats at sea posed by operations conducted from small boats. The first phase of the Maritime Strike program focused on detecting and tracking boats using various sensors, simulated weapons engagements, and testing with inert munitions. The final phase, and the subject of this notice, consists of testing the effectiveness of live munitions on small boat threats. The proposed Maritime Strike activities would involve the use of multiple types of live munitions in the EGTTR against small boat targets, at all desired surface and water depth scenarios (maximum depth of 10 feet below the surface) necessary to carry out the Tactics Development and Evaluation (TD&E) Program. Multiple munitions (bombs, missiles, and gunner rounds) and aircraft would be used to meet the objectives of the Maritime Strike program (Table 1). Because the tests focus on weapon/target interaction, particular aircraft are not specified for a given test as long as it meets the delivery parameters. The munitions would be deployed against static, towed, and remotely controlled boat targets. Static and controlled targets consist of stripped boat hulls with plywood simulated crews and systems. Damaged boats would be recovered for data collection. Test data collection and operation of remotely controlled boats would be conducted from an instrumentation barge anchored on-site, which would also provide a platform for cameras and weapon-tracking equipment. Target boats would be positioned 300 to 600 feet from the instrument barge, depending on the munition. TABLE 1—LIVE MUNITIONS AND AIRCRAFT Aircraft (not associated with specific munitions) Munitions tkelley on DSK3SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES GBU–10 laser-guided Mk-84 bomb .................................................................................................................. GBU–24 laser-guided Mk-84 bomb .................................................................................................................. GBU–31 Joint Direct Attack Munition, global positioning system guided Mk-84 bomb ................................... GBU–12 laser-guided Mk-82 bomb .................................................................................................................. GBU–38 Joint Direct Attack Munition, global positioning system guided Mk-82 bomb ................................... GBU–54 Laser Joint Direct Attack Munition, laser-guided Mk-82 bomb .......................................................... CBU–103/B bomb ............................................................................................................................................. AGM–65E/L/K/G2 Maverick air-to-surface missile ........................................................................................... AGM–114 Hellfire air-to-surface missile. M–117 bomb. PGU–12 high explosive incendiary 30 mm rounds. M56/PGU–28 high explosive incendiary 20mm rounds. Live testing will include three detonation options: (1) Above the water surface; (2) at the water surface; and (3) VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:07 Aug 21, 2013 Jkt 229001 below the water surface (two depths). The number of each type of munition, height or depth of detonation, explosive PO 00000 Frm 00010 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 F–16C fighter aircraft. F–16C+ fighter aircraft. F–15E fighter aircraft. A–10 fighter aircraft. B–1B bomber aircraft. B–52H bomber aircraft. MQ–1/9 unmanned aerial vehicle. material, and net explosive weight (NEW) of each munition is provided in Table 2. E:\FR\FM\22AUN1.SGM 22AUN1 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 163 / Thursday, August 22, 2013 / Notices 52137 TABLE 2—MARITIME STRIKE MUNITIONS Type of munition Total number of live munitions Number of detonations by height/ depth Warhead—explosive material GBU–10 .............. GBU–24 .............. GBU–31 (JDAM) 1 ......................... 1 ......................... 13 ....................... 20 feet AGL: 3 5 feet underwater: 3 10 feet underwater: 3 1 ......................... 13 ....................... 20 feet AGL: 3 5 feet underwater: 3 10 feet underwater: 3 1 ......................... 2 each (8 total) ... Water Surface: all ........................... Water Surface: all ........................... Water Surface: 4 ............................. MK–84—Tritonal ............................. MK–84—Tritonal ............................. MK–84—Tritonal ............................. 945 lbs. 945 lbs. 945 lbs (MK–84). Water Surface: all ........................... Water Surface: 4 ............................. MK–82—Tritonal ............................. MK–82—Tritonal ............................. 192 lbs. 192 lbs (MK–82). Water Surface: all ........................... Water Surface: all ........................... 192 lbs (MK–82). 86 lbs. 4 ......................... Water Surface: all ........................... AGM–114 (Hellfire). 4 ......................... Water Surface: all ........................... M–117 ................. 6 ......................... 20 feet AGL: 3 ................................ MK–82—Tritonal ............................. WDU–24/B penetrating blast-fragmentation warhead. 202 Blu-97/B Combined Effects Bomblets (0.63 lbs each). High Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) tandem anti-armor metal augmented charge. 750 lb blast/fragmentation bomb, used the same way as MK–82— Tritonal. Water Surface: 3 1,000 .................. Water Surface: all ........................... 0.1 lbs. 1,500 .................. Water Surface: all ........................... 30x173 mm caliber with aluminized RDX explosive. Designed for GAU–8/A Gun System. 20x120 mm caliber with aluminized Comp A–4 HEI. Designed for M61 and M197 Gun System. GBU–12 .............. GBU–38 (JDAM) GBU–54 (LJDAM) AGM–65E/L/K/G2 (Maverick). CBU–103 ............. PGU–12 HEI 30 mm. tkelley on DSK3SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES M56/PGU–28 HEI 20 mm. Maritime Strike missions are scheduled to occur over an approximate two- to three-week period in August 2013. Missions will occur on weekdays during daytime hours only, with one or two missions occurring per day. All activities will take place within the EGTTR. Activities will occur only in Warning Area W–151, and specifically in sub-area W–151A. W–151A extends approximately 60 nm offshore and has a surface area of 2,565 nm2 (8,797 km2). Water depths range from about 30 to 350 m and include continental shelf and slope zones; however, most of W–151A occurs over the continental shelf, in water depths less than 250 m. Maritime Strike operations will occur in the shallower, northern inshore portion of W–151A, in water depth of about 35 m (see Figure 2–1 in Eglin’s IHA application for a map of the test area). To ensure safety, prior to conducting Maritime Strike exercises, Eglin will conduct a pre-test target area clearance procedure for people and protected species. Support vessels will be deployed around a defined safety zone to ensure that commercial and recreational boats do not accidentally enter the area. Before delivering the VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:07 Aug 21, 2013 Jkt 229001 ordnance, mission aircraft will make a dry run over the target area to ensure that it is clear of commercial and recreational boats (at least two aircraft would participate in each test). Due to the limited duration of the flyover and potentially high speed and altitude, pilots will not be able to survey for marine species. In addition, an E–9A surveillance aircraft will survey the target area for nonparticipating vessels and other objects on the water surface. Based on the results from an acoustic impacts analysis for live ordnance detonations, a separate disturbance zone around the target will be established for the protection of marine species. The size of the zone will be based on the distance to which energy- and pressurerelated impacts will extend for the various type of ordnance listed in Table 2 and will not necessarily be the same size as the human safety zone. Based on the acoustic modeling result, the largest possible distance from the target will be 3,526 m (2.2 miles), which corresponds to the 177 dB Level B harassment threshold for 945 lb NEW munitions detonated at 10 ft underwater (Table 5). At least two of the support vessels will monitor for marine mammals around PO 00000 Frm 00011 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 Net explosive weight per munition 127 lbs. 20 lbs. 386 lbs (Tritonal). 0.02 lbs (Comp A–4 HEI). the target area. Maritime Strike missions will not proceed until the target area is determined to be clear of unauthorized personnel and protected species. In addition to vessel-based monitoring, one to three video cameras will be positioned on an instrumentation barge anchored on-site. The camera configuration and actual number of cameras used would depend on the specific test being conducted. The cameras are typically used for situational awareness of the target area and surrounding area, and could also be used for monitoring the test site for the presence of marine species. A marine species observer will be located in the Eglin control tower, along with mission personnel, to monitor the video feed before and during test activities. After each test, floating targets will be inspected to identify and render safe any unexploded ordnance (UXO), including fuzes or intact munitions. The Eglin Air Force Explosive Disposal Team will be on hand for each test. UXO that cannot be removed will be detonated in place, which could result in the sinking of the target vessel. Once the area has been cleared for re-entry, test personnel will retrieve target debris and marine species observers will E:\FR\FM\22AUN1.SGM 22AUN1 52138 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 163 / Thursday, August 22, 2013 / Notices tkelley on DSK3SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES survey the area for any evidence of adverse impacts to protected species. Comments and Responses A notice of receipt of Eglin AFB’s application and NMFS’ proposal to issue an IHA to the USAF, Eglin AFB, published in the Federal Register on June 4, 2013 (78 FR 33357). During the 30-day public comment period, NMFS received comments from the Marine Mammal Commission (MMC) and a member of the public. The comment from the private citizen opposed the issuance of an authorization without any specific substantiation for why the authorization should not be issued. Following are the comments from the MMC and NMFS’ responses. Comment 1: The MMC expressed their belief that all permanent hearing loss should be considered a serious injury and recommends that NMFS propose to issue regulations under section 101(a)(5)(A) of the MMPA and a letter of authorization, rather than an incidental harassment authorization, for any proposed activities expected to cause a permanent threshold shift (PTS). Response: PTS is considered an injury to the auditory system, but not a serious injury. NMFS PTS thresholds are based on the onset of PTS, meaning about a 30% incident of PTS (Ketten 1995; DON 1998) and a 50% likelihood of eardrum rupture (which is often recoverable (Kerr and Byrne, 1975). An animal would either need to be exposed to the sound above this threshold for a long amount of time (not likely with explosives) or a much higher level (meaning being closer to the source) than the threshold in order to incur a significantly more serious degree of PTS. Because of the short duration of the proposed activity (few weeks) combined with the density of marine mammals, it is unlikely that a marine mammal would even randomly enter the area where more severe PTS would be a risk. However, when mitigation measures and likely avoidance of an area of high levels of training activities are considered, it becomes highly unlikely. Additionally, some degree of presbycusis is fairly common in the wild (i.e., high-frequency hearing loss), especially with older animals, and there is no data suggesting whether, or at what significantly greater degree of PTS, this reduced hearing might potentially lead to mortality. NMFS does not believe that serious injury will result from this activity and that therefore it is not necessary to issue regulations through section 101(a)(5)(A), rather, an IHA may be issued. Comment 2: The MMC expressed concern regarding Eglin AFB’s use of VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:07 Aug 21, 2013 Jkt 229001 two different, and seemingly contrary, methods (i.e., total net explosive weight of all ordnance in a single burst versus net explosive weight of a single bomblet as numerous individual burts) for estimating zones of exposure. The MMC recommended that NMFS withhold issuing the IHA until (1) the USAF has modeled the various scenarios consistently for all operations that involve more than one bomb, bomblet, missile, or round and (2) has consulted with the MMC regarding resolution of this issue. Response: The MMC may be confusing calculation methods for determining zones of exposures (the area of potential impact defined as a radius in the application) with estimating takes of each species for each threshold and criteria (total number of animals exposed to noise levels that may result in Level A or Level B harassment). These calculations are two separate processes. With the exception of the gunnery rounds and CBU–103 cluster bombs, the zones of exposure for all other munitions were based on the detonation/burst of one munition at a given depth; not the total number of munitions planned to be detonated for the duration of the test. On the other hand, Level A and Level B take estimates of each species were calculated by summing together all detonations proposed to occur for each munition at a given depth. The methodology and analytical approach for determining the exposure zones and estimating the number of marine mammal takes was fully explained in the IHA application, the Notice of Proposed IHA (78 FR 33357, June 4, 2013), as well as in the previous IHAs issued to Eglin AFB, and supporting documents issued for this activity. Readers should refer to those documents for additional information, but a summary follows. Zones of exposure to determine Level A and Level B Harassment impact areas were calculated as the product of the impact area of a single burst of each munition and the number of bursts planned to occur during each testing scenario. For this analysis, a ‘‘burst’’ must be sufficiently spaced in time or location such that it could: (1) Affect a different set of marine mammals; or (2) affect the same individuals multiple times. The firing sequence for the 20mm and 30-mm rounds consists of expending a large number of individual rounds at one target, all of which detonate within one second of each other. Due to the tight spacing in time and location, for modeling purposes, each burst of 1,000 or 1,500 rounds is treated as a single detonation. On the PO 00000 Frm 00012 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 other hand, the CBU–103 cluster bombs are treated differently based on the dispersed pattern and timing of individual bomblet detonations. The CBU–103’s 202 bomblets are released mid-air and spread out to cover a larger target area, and may detonate over the course of a few to several seconds. Therefore the 202 bomblets are not combined as a single burst for calculating the zones of exposure for Level A and Level B Harassment. Using this approach, Eglin AFB estimated the number of marine mammal takes using the adjusted density estimates for each species, the ZOI of each type of ordnance deployed, and the total number of live ordnance events. The results are presented in Table 8. Description of Marine Mammals in the Area of the Specified Activity There are 28 species of marine mammals documented as occurring in Federal waters of the northern GOM. However, species with likely occurrence in the test area, and the subject of Eglin’s incidental take request, are the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis). These two species are frequently sighted in the northern GOM over the continental shelf, in a water depth range that encompasses the Maritime Strike test location (Garrison et al., 2008; Navy, 2007; Davis et al., 2000). Dwarf sperm whales (Kogia sima) and pygmy sperm whales (K. breviceps) are occasionally sighted over the shelf, but are not considered regular inhabitants (Davis et al., 2000). The remaining cetacean species are primarily considered to occur at or beyond the shelf break (water depth of approximately 200 m), and are not included in the proposed take authorization. Of the 28 marine mammal species or stocks that may occur in the northern GOM, only the sperm whale is listed as endangered under the ESA and as depleted under the MMPA. Sperm whale occurrence in the area of the proposed activity is unlikely because almost all reported sightings have occurred in water depths greater than 200 m. Occurrence in the deeper portions of W–151 is possible, although based on reported sightings locations, density is expected to be low. Therefore, Eglin AFB has not requested and NMFS has not proposed the issuance of take authorizations for this species. Eglin AFB’s MMPA application contains a detailed discussion on the description, status, distribution, regional distribution, diving behavior, and acoustics and hearing for the marine mammals in the action area. E:\FR\FM\22AUN1.SGM 22AUN1 More detailed information on these species can be found in Wursig et al. (2000), Eglin’s EA (see ADDRESSES), and in the NMFS U.S. Atlantic and GOM Stock Assessment Reports (SARs; Waring et al., 2011). This latter document is available at: http:// www.nefsc.noaa.gov/publications/tm/ tm210/. The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is not considered further in this proposed IHA Federal Register notice. Density estimates for bottlenose dolphin and spotted dolphin were derived from two sources. Bottlenose dolphin density estimates were derived from a habitat modeling project conducted for portions of the EGTTR, including the Maritime Strike project area (Garrison, 2008). NMFS developed habitat models using recent aerial survey line transect data collected during winter and summer. The surveys covered nearshore and continental shelf waters (to a maximum depth of 200 meters), with the majority of effort concentrated in waters from the shoreline to 20 meters depth. Marine species encounter rates during the surveys were corrected for sighting probability and the probability that animals were available on the surface to be seen. In combination with remotely sensed environmental data/habitat parameters (water depth, sea surface temperature and chlorophyll), these data were used to develop habitat models for cetaceans within the continental shelf and coastal waters of the eastern GOM. The technical approach, described as Generalized Regression and Spatial Prediction, spatially projects the species-habitat relationship based on distribution of environmental factors, resulting in predicted densities for un-sampled locations and times. The spatial density model can therefore be used to predict density in unobserved areas and at different times of year based upon the monthly composite SST and chlorophyll datasets derived from satellite data. Similarly, the spatial density model can be used to predict relative density for any sub-region within the surveyed area. Garrison (2008) produced bottlenose dolphin density estimates at various spatial scales within the EGTTR. At the largest scale, density data were aggregated into four principal strata categories: North-Inshore, NorthOffshore, South-Inshore, and SouthOffshore. Densities for these strata were provided in the published survey report. Unpublished densities were also provided for smaller blocks (sub-areas) corresponding to airspace units and a VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:07 Aug 21, 2013 Jkt 229001 number of these sub-areas were combined to form larger zones. Densities in these smaller areas were provided to Eglin AFB in Excel© spreadsheets by the report author. For both large areas and sub-areas, regions occurring entirely within waters deeper than 200 meters were excluded from predictions, and those straddling the 200 meter isobath were clipped to remove deep water areas. In addition, because of limited survey effort, density estimates beyond 150 meters water depth are considered invalid. The environmental conditions encountered during the survey periods (February and July/August) do not necessarily reflect the range of conditions potentially encountered throughout the year. In particular, the transition seasons of spring (April–May) and fall (October– November) have a very different range of water temperatures. Accordingly, for predictions outside of the survey period or spatial range, it is necessary to evaluate the statistical variance in predicted values when attempting to apply the model. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the predicted quantity is used to measure the validity of model predictions. According to Garrison (2008), the best predictions have CV values of approximately 0.2. When CVs approach 0.7, and particularly when they exceed 1.0, the resulting model predictions are extremely uncertain and are considered invalid. Based upon the preceding discussion, the bottlenose dolphin density estimate used in this document is the median density corresponding to sub-area 137 (see Figure 3–1 in Eglin AFB’s IHA application). The planned Maritime Strike test location lies within this subarea. Within this block, Garrison (2008) provided densities based upon one year (2007) and five-year monthly averages for SST and chlorophyll. The 5-year average is considered preferable. Only densities with a CV rounded to 0.7 or lower (i.e., 0.64 and below) were considered. The CV for June in this particular block is 0.62. Density estimates for bottlenose dolphin are provided in Table 3. Atlantic spotted dolphin density was derived from Fulling et al. (2003), which describes the results of mammal surveys conducted in association with fall ichthyoplankton surveys from 1998 to 2001. The surveys were conducted by NMFS personnel from the U.S.-Mexico border to southern Florida, in water depths of 20 to 200 meters. Using the software program DISTANCE©, density estimates were generated for East and West regions, with Mobile Bay as the dividing point. The East region is used in this document. Densities were PO 00000 Frm 00013 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 52139 provided for Atlantic spotted dolphins and unidentified T. truncatus/S. frontalis (among other species). The unidentified T. truncatus/S. frontalis category is treated as a separate species group with a unique density. Density estimates from Fulling et al. (2003) were not adjusted for sighting probability (perception bias) or surface availability (availability bias) [g(0) = 1] in the original survey report, likely resulting in underestimation of true density. Perception bias refers to the failure of observers to detect animals, although they are present in the survey area and available to be seen. Availability bias refers to animals that are in the survey area, but are not able to be seen because they are submerged when observers are present. Perception bias and availability bias result in the underestimation of abundance and density numbers (negative bias). Fulling et al. (2003) did not collect data to correct density for perception and availability bias. However, in order to address this negative bias, Eglin AFB has adjusted density estimates based on information provided in available literature. There are no published g(0) correction factors for Atlantic spotted dolphins. However, Barlow (2006) estimated g(0) for numerous marine mammal species near the Hawaiian Islands, including offshore pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata). Separate estimates for this species were provided for group sizes of 1 to 20 animals [g(0) = 0.76], and greater than 20 animals [g(0) = 1.00]. Although Fulling et al. (2003) sighted some spotted dolphin groups of more than 20 individuals, the 0.76 value is used as a more conservative approach. Barlow (2006) provides the following equation for calculating density: Where n = number of animal group sightings on effort S = mean group size f(0) = sighting probability density at zero perpendicular distance (influenced by species detectability and sighting cues such as body size, blows, and number of animals in a group) L = transect length completed (km) g(0) = probability of seeing a group directly on a trackline (influenced by perception bias and availability bias) Because (n), (S), and (f0) cannot be directly incorporated as independent values due to lack of the original information, we substitute the variable E:\FR\FM\22AUN1.SGM 22AUN1 EN22AU13.003</GPH> tkelley on DSK3SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 163 / Thursday, August 22, 2013 / Notices 52140 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 163 / Thursday, August 22, 2013 / Notices a given species. This changes the density equation to: Using the same method, adjusted density for the unidentified T. truncatus/S. frontalis species group is 0.009 animals/km2. There are no variances attached to either of these recalculated density values, so overall confidence in these values is unknown. (Level A harassment) and disturbance (Level B harassment). Takes in the form of mortality are neither anticipated nor requested. The number of marine mammals potentially impacted by Maritime Strike operations is based on impulsive noise and pressure waves generated by ordinance detonation at or near the water surface. Exposure to energy or pressure resulting from these detonations could result in injury or harassment of marine mammal species. The number of Maritime Strike missions generally corresponds to the number of live ordnance expenditures shown in Table 2. However, the number of bursts modeled for the CBU–103 cluster bomb is 202, which is the number of individual bomblets per bomb. Also, the 20 mm and 30 mm gunnery rounds were modeled as one burst each. Criteria and thresholds for estimating the exposures from a single explosive activity on marine mammals were established for the Seawolf Submarine Shock Test Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (‘‘SEAWOLF’’) and subsequently used in the USS TABLE 3—MARINE MAMMAL DENSITY ESTIMATES Species Density (animals/km 2) Bottlenose dolphin 1 .............. Atlantic spotted dolphin 2 ...... Unidentified bottlenose dolphin/Atlantic spotted dolphin 2 ................................. 0.455 0.265 0.009 tkelley on DSK3SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES 1 Source: Garrison, 2008; adjusted for observer and availability bias by the author. 2 Source: Fulling et al., 2003; adjusted for negative bias based on information provided by Barlow (2003; 2006). Potential Effects of the Specified Activity on Marine Mammals Potential impacts from the detonation of explosives include non-lethal injury VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:07 Aug 21, 2013 Jkt 229001 PO 00000 Frm 00014 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 WINSTON S. CHURCHILL (DDG 81) Ship Shock FEIS (‘‘CHURCHILL’’) (DoN, 1998 and 2001). We adopted these criteria and thresholds in a final rule on the unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental to the shock testing which involved large explosives (65 FR 77546; December 12, 2000). Because no large explosives (greater than 1000 lbs NEW) would be used by Eglin AFB during the specified activities, a revised acoustic criterion for small underwater explosions (i.e., 23 pounds per square inch [psi] instead of previous acoustic criteria of 12 psi for peak pressure over all exposures) has been established to predict onset of TTS. Thresholds and Criteria for Injurious Physiological Impacts Single Explosion For injury, NMFS uses dual criteria, eardrum rupture (i.e. tympanicmembrane injury) and onset of slight lung injury, to indicate the onset of injury. The threshold for tympanicmembrane (TM) rupture corresponds to E:\FR\FM\22AUN1.SGM 22AUN1 EN22AU13.002</GPH> Xspecies which incorporates all three values, such that Xspecies = (n)(S)(f0) for Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 163 / Thursday, August 22, 2013 / Notices tkelley on DSK3SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES a 50 percent rate of rupture (i.e., 50 percent of animals exposed to the level are expected to suffer TM rupture). This value is stated in terms of an Energy Flux Density Level (EL) value of 1.17 inch pounds per square inch (in-lb/in2), approximately 205 dB re 1 microPa2sec. The threshold for onset of slight lung injury is calculated for a small animal (a dolphin calf weighing 26.9 lbs), and is given in terms of the ‘‘Goertner modified positive impulse,’’ indexed to 13 psi-msec (DoN, 2001). This threshold is conservative since the positive impulse needed to cause injury is proportional to animal mass, and therefore, larger animals require a higher impulse to cause the onset of injury. This analysis assumed the marine species populations were 100 percent small animals. The criterion with the largest potential impact range (most conservative), either TM rupture (energy threshold) or onset of slight lung injury (peak pressure), will be used in the analysis to determine Level A exposures for single explosive events. For mortality and serious injury, we use the criterion corresponding to the onset of extensive lung injury. This is conservative in that it corresponds to a 1 percent chance of mortal injury, and yet any animal experiencing onset severe lung injury is counted as a lethal exposure. For small animals, the threshold is given in terms of the Goertner modified positive impulse, indexed to 30.5 psi-msec. Since the Goertner approach depends on propagation, source/animal depths, and animal mass in a complex way, the actual impulse value corresponding to the 30.5 psi-msec index is a complicated calculation. To be conservative, the analysis used the mass of a calf dolphin (at 26.9 lbs) for 100 percent of the populations. Multiple Explosions For multiple explosions, the CHURCHILL approach had to be extended to cover multiple sound events at the same training site. For multiple exposures, accumulated energy over the entire training time is the natural extension for energy thresholds since energy accumulates with each subsequent shot (detonation); this is consistent with the treatment of multiple arrivals in CHURCHILL. For positive impulse, it is consistent with the CHURCHILL final rule to use the maximum value over all impulses received. VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:07 Aug 21, 2013 Jkt 229001 Thresholds and Criteria for NonInjurious Physiological Effects To determine the onset of TTS (noninjurious harassment)—a slight, recoverable loss of hearing sensitivity, there are dual criteria: an energy threshold and a peak pressure threshold. The criterion with the largest potential impact range (most conservative), either the energy or peak pressure threshold, will be used in the analysis to determine Level B TTS exposures. We refer the reader to the following sections for descriptions of the thresholds for each criterion. Single Explosion—TTS-Energy Threshold The TTS energy threshold for explosives is derived from the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center (SSC) pure-tone tests for TTS (Schlundt et al., 2000; Finneran and Schlundt, 2004). The pure-tone threshold (192 dB as the lowest value) is modified for explosives by (a) interpreting it as an energy metric, (b) reducing it by 10 dB to account for the time constant of the mammal ear, and (c) measuring the energy in 1/3-octave bands, the natural filter band of the ear. The resulting threshold is 182 dB re 1 microPa2-sec in any 1/3-octave band. Single Explosion—TTS-Peak Pressure Threshold The second threshold applies to all species and is stated in terms of peak pressure at 23 psi (about 225 dB re 1 mPa). This criterion was adopted for Precision Strike Weapons (PSW) Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico (NMFS, 2005). It is important to note that for small shots near the surface (such as in this analysis), the 23-psi peak pressure threshold generally will produce longer impact ranges than the 182-dB energy metric. Furthermore, it is not unusual for the TTS impact range for the 23-psi pressure metric to actually exceed the without-TTS (behavioral change without onset of TTS) impact range for the 177-dB energy metric. Thresholds and Criteria for Behavioral Effects Single Explosion For a single explosion, to be consistent with CHURCHILL, TTS is the criterion for Level B harassment. In other words, because behavioral disturbance for a single explosion is likely to be limited to a short-lived PO 00000 Frm 00015 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 52141 startle reaction, use of the TTS criterion is considered sufficient protection and therefore behavioral effects (Level B behavioral harassment without onset of TTS) are not expected for single explosions. Multiple Explosions—Without TTS For multiple explosions, the CHURCHILL approach had to be extended to cover multiple sound events at the same training site. For multiple exposures, accumulated energy over the entire uninterrupted firing time is the natural extension for energy thresholds since energy accumulates with each subsequent shot (detonation); this is consistent with the treatment of multiple arrivals in CHURCHILL. Because multiple explosions could occur within a discrete time period, a new acoustic criterion-behavioral disturbance without TTS is used to account for behavioral effects significant enough to be judged as harassment, but occurring at lower noise levels than those that may cause TTS. The threshold is based on test results published in Schlundt et al. (2000), with derivation following the approach of the CHURCHILL FEIS for the energy-based TTS threshold. The original Schlundt et al. (2000) data and the report of Finneran and Schlundt (2004) are the basis for thresholds for behavioral disturbance without TTS. During this study, instances of altered behavior sometimes began at lower exposures than those causing TTS; however, there were many instances when subjects exhibited no altered behavior at levels above the onset-TTS levels. Regardless of reactions at higher or lower levels, all instances of altered behavior were included in the statistical summary. The behavioral disturbance without TTS threshold for tones is derived from the SSC tests, and is found to be 5 dB below the threshold for TTS, or 177 dB re 1 microPa2-sec maximum energy flux density level in any 1/3-octave band at frequencies above 100 Hz for cetaceans. Summary of Thresholds and Criteria for Impulsive Sounds The effects, criteria, and thresholds used in the assessment for impulsive sounds are summarized in Table 4. The criteria for behavioral effects without physiological effects used in this analysis are based on use of multiple explosives from live, explosive firing during Maritime Strike exercises. E:\FR\FM\22AUN1.SGM 22AUN1 52142 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 163 / Thursday, August 22, 2013 / Notices TABLE 4—CURRENT NMFS ACOUSTIC CRITERIA WHEN ADDRESSING HARASSMENT FROM EXPLOSIVES Effect Criteria Metric Threshold Mortality .................. Onset of Extensive Lung Injury. 50 percent Tympanic Membrane Rupture. Onset Slight Lung Injury. TTS ......................... Goertner modified positive impulse ........ indexed to 30.5 psi-msec (assumes 100 percent small animal at 26.9 lbs). 1.17 in-lb/in2 (about 205 dB re 1 microPa2-sec). Mortality. indexed to 13 psi-msec (assumes 100 percent small animal at 26.9 lbs). 182 dB re 1 microPa2-sec ...................... Level A. 23 psi ...................................................... Level B. 177 dB re 1 microPa2-sec ...................... Level B. Injurious Physiological. Injurious Physiological. Non-injurious Physiological. tkelley on DSK3SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES Non-injurious Physiological. Non-injurious Behavioral. TTS ......................... Multiple Explosions Without TTS. Energy flux density ................................. Goertner modified positive impulse ........ Greatest energy flux density level in any 1/3-octave band (> 100 Hz for toothed whales and > 10 Hz for baleen whales)—for total energy over all exposures. Peak pressure over all exposures .......... Greatest energy flux density level in any 1/3-octave (> 100 Hz for toothed whales and > 10 Hz for baleen whales)—for total energy over all exposures (multiple explosions only). Anticipated Effects on Habitat The primary source of marine mammal habitat impact is noise resulting from live Maritime Strike missions. However, the noise does not constitute a long-term physical alteration of the water column or bottom topography. In addition, the activity is not expected to affect prey availability, is of limited duration, and is intermittent in time. Surface vessels associated with the missions are present in limited duration and are intermittent as well. Therefore, it is not anticipated that marine mammal utilization of the waters in the project area will be affected, either temporarily or permanently, as a result of mission activities. Other sources that could potentially impact marine mammal habitat were considered and include the introduction of fuel, debris, ordnance, and chemical materials into the water column. The potential effects of each were analyzed in the Environmental Assessment and determined to be insignificant. The analyses are summarized in the following paragraphs (for a complete discussion of potential effects, please refer to section 3.3 in the EA). Metals typically used to construct bombs, missiles, and gunnery rounds include copper, aluminum, steel, and lead, among others. Aluminum is also present in some explosive materials. These materials would settle to the seafloor after munitions detonate. Metal ions would slowly leach into the substrate and the water column, causing elevated concentrations in a small area around the munitions fragments. Some of the metals, such as aluminum, occur naturally in the ocean at varying concentrations and would not VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:07 Aug 21, 2013 Jkt 229001 necessarily impact the substrate or water column. Other metals, such as lead, could cause toxicity in microbial communities in the substrate. However, such effects would be localized to a very small distance around munitions fragments and would not significantly affect the overall habitat quality of sediments in the northeastern GOM. In addition, metal fragments would corrode, degrade, and become encrusted over time. Chemical materials include explosive byproducts and also fuel, oil, and other fluids associated with remotely controlled target boats. Explosive byproducts would be introduced into the water column through detonation of live munitions. Explosive materials would include 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and RDX, among others. Various byproducts are produced during and immediately after detonation of TNT and RDX. During the very brief time that a detonation is in progress, intermediate products may include carbon ions, nitrogen ions, oxygen ions, water, hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen gas, nitrous oxide, cyanic acid, and carbon dioxide (Becker, 1995). However, reactions quickly occur between the intermediates, and the final products consist mainly of water, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen gas, although small amounts of other compounds are typically produced as well. Chemicals introduced into the water column would be quickly dispersed by waves, currents, and tidal action, and eventually become uniformly distributed. A portion of the carbon compounds such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide would likely become integrated into the carbonate PO 00000 Frm 00016 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 Effect Level A. Level B. system (alkalinity and pH buffering capacity of seawater). Some of the nitrogen and carbon compounds, including petroleum products, would be metabolized or assimilated by phytoplankton and bacteria. Most of the gas products that do not react with the water or become assimilated by organisms would be released into the atmosphere. Due to dilution, mixing, and transformation, none of these chemicals are expected to have significant impacts on the marine environment. Explosive material that is not consumed in a detonation could sink to the substrate and bind to sediments. However, the quantity of such materials is expected to be inconsequential. Research has shown that if munitions function properly, nearly full combustion of the explosive materials will occur, and only extremely small amounts of raw material will remain. In addition, any remaining materials would be naturally degraded. TNT decomposes when exposed to sunlight (ultraviolet radiation), and is also degraded by microbial activity (Becker, 1995). Several types of microorganisms have been shown to metabolize TNT. Similarly, RDX decomposes by hydrolysis, ultraviolet radiation exposure, and biodegradation. Based on this information, the proposed Maritime Strike activities would not have any impact on the food or feeding success of marine mammals in the northern GOM. Additionally, no loss or modification of the habitat used by cetaceans in the GOM is expected. Marine mammals are anticipated to temporarily vacate the area of live fire events. However, these events usually do not last more than 90 to 120 min at E:\FR\FM\22AUN1.SGM 22AUN1 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 163 / Thursday, August 22, 2013 / Notices a time, and animals are anticipated to return to the activity area during periods of non-activity. Thus, the proposed activity is not expected to have any habitat-related effects that could cause significant or long-term consequences for individual marine mammals or on the food sources that they utilize. tkelley on DSK3SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES Mitigation In order to issue an incidental take authorization (ITA) under sections 101(a)(5)(A) and (D) of the MMPA, NMFS must, where applicable, set forth the permissible methods of taking pursuant to such activity and other means of effecting the least practicable impact on such species or stock and its habitat, paying particular attention to rookeries, mating grounds, and areas of similar significance, and on the availability of such species or stock for taking for certain subsistence uses (where relevant). The NDAA of 2004 amended the MMPA as it relates to military readiness activities and the ITA process such that ‘‘least practicable impact’’ shall include consideration of personnel safety, practicality of implementation, and impact on the effectiveness of the ‘‘military readiness activity’’. The Maritime Strike activities described in Eglin AFB’s application are considered military readiness activities. Visual Mitigation Areas to be used for Maritime Strike operations would be visually monitored for marine mammal presence from several platforms before, during, and after the commencement of the mission. Eglin AFB would provide experienced protected species survey personnel, vessels, and equipment as required for vessel-based surveys. The primary observers would be marine scientists with over 1,000 hours of marine mammal surveying experience collectively. Additionally, all range clearance personnel involved with the missions would receive NMFSapproved training developed by the Eglin Natural Resources Section. The designated protected species survey vessels would be two 25-ft (7.6 m) Parker 2520 boats with a fully enclosed pilothouse and tower. These vessels provide large viewing areas and observers would be stationed approximately 16-ft (4.9 m) above the water surface. Each vessel will have two observers and each observer will be equipped with binoculars. Observers will rotate on a regular basis to prevent eye fatigue as needed. Additional protected species survey vessels can be made available if required. If the presence of one or more marine mammals is detected, the target area VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:07 Aug 21, 2013 Jkt 229001 52143 will be avoided. In addition, monitoring will continue during the mission. If marine mammals are detected at any time, the mission will halt immediately and relocate as necessary or be suspended until the marine mammal has left the area. The visual mitigation procedures for Maritime Strike operations are outlined below. Pre-mission: The purposes of premission monitoring are to: (1) Evaluate the test site for environmental suitability of the mission; and (2) verify that the Zone of Influence (ZOI) is free of visually detectable marine mammals, as well as potential indicators of these species. The area of the ZOI surveyed would be based on the distance to the largest Level B harassment threshold for the specific ordnance involved in a given test. For example, the largest ZOI would be 3,526 m (2.2 mi), which corresponds to the distance to the Level B threshold (177 dB) for 945 lb munitions detonated at 3 m (10 ft) underwater. The smallest ZOI would be 37 m (0.02 mi), which is the distance to the Level B threshold (23 psi) for 20 mm gunnery rounds. Table 5 provides the ZOI ranges for all the ordnance types and detonation depths proposed for Maritime Strike operations. On the morning of the Maritime Strike mission, the test director and safety officer would confirm that there are no issues that would preclude mission execution and that weather is adequate to support mitigation measures. to mission personnel that conditions are such that a live ordnance drop cannot occur (e.g., protected species or civilian vessels are in the test area). If no marine mammals or indicators are observed, the range will be declared ‘‘green.’’ (A) Two Hours Prior to Mission Mission-related surface vessels would be on site at least two hours prior to the mission. Observers on board at least one vessel would assess the overall suitability of the test site based on environmental conditions (e.g., sea state) and presence/absence of marine mammals or marine mammal indicators. This information would be related to the safety officer. (D) Execution of Mission Immediately prior to live weapons drop, the test director and safety officer will communicate to confirm the results of marine mammal surveys and the appropriateness of proceeding with the mission. The safety officer will have final authority to proceed with, postpone, move, or cancel the mission. The mission will be postponed or moved if: (1) Any marine mammal is visually detected within the applicable ZOI. Postponement will continue until the animal(s) that caused the postponement is confirmed to be outside of the applicable ZOI due to the animal swimming out of the range. (2) Large schools of fish or large flocks of birds feeding at the surface are observed within the applicable ZOI. Postponement will continue until these potential indicators are confirmed to be outside the applicable ZOI. In the event of a postponement, premission monitoring will continue as long as weather and daylight hours allow. Post-mission Monitoring: Post mission monitoring will be designed to (B) One and One-half Hours Prior to Mission Vessel-based surveys and video camera surveillance would begin one and one-half hours prior to live weapon deployment. Surface vessel observers would survey the applicable ZOI and relay all marine species and indicator sightings, including the time of sighting and direction of travel, if known, to the safety officer. Surveys would continue for approximately one hour. During this time, mission personnel in the test area would also observe for marine species as feasible. If marine mammals or indicators are observed within the applicable ZOI, the test range would be declared ‘‘fouled,’’ which would signify PO 00000 Frm 00017 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 (C) One-Half Hour Prior to Mission At approximately 30 minutes prior to live weapon deployment, marine species observers would be instructed to leave the test site and remain outside the safety zone, which on average would be 9.5 miles from the detonation point, (the actual size would be determined by weapon NEW and method of delivery) during conduct of the mission. Once the survey vessels have arrived at the perimeter of the safety zone (approximately 30 minutes after being instructed to leave, depending on actual travel time) the mission would be allowed to proceed. Monitoring for protected species would continue from the periphery of the safety zone while the mission is in progress. The other safety boat crews would also be instructed to observe for marine mammals. Due to the distance from the target site, these observations would be considered supplemental and would not be relied upon as the primary monitoring method. After survey vessels leave the area, marine species monitoring would continue from the tower through the video feed received from the high definition cameras on the instrument barge. E:\FR\FM\22AUN1.SGM 22AUN1 tkelley on DSK3SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES 52144 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 163 / Thursday, August 22, 2013 / Notices determine the effectiveness of premission visual mitigation by reporting sightings of any dead or injured marine mammals. If post-mission surveys determine that an injury or lethal take of a marine mammal has occurred, the next Maritime Strike mission will be suspended until the test procedure and the monitoring methods have been reviewed with NMFS and appropriate changes made. Post-mission monitoring surveys will be conducted by the same observers that conducted pre-mission surveys, and will commence as soon as EOD personnel declare the test area safe. Vessels will move into the applicable ZOI from outside the safety zone and monitor for at least 30 minutes, concentrating on the area down-current of the test site. The monitoring team will document any marine mammals that were killed or injured as a result of the test and immediately contact the local marine mammal stranding network and NMFS to coordinate recovery and examination of any dead animals. The species, number, location, and behavior of any animals observed will be documented and reported to the Eglin Natural Resources Section. Multiple offshore Air Force missions have been successfully executed in the general vicinity of the proposed Maritime Strike test location (W–151 of the EGTTR). These missions have involved both inert (no explosives) and live weapons testing, and include the following: • 2009 Stand-off Precision Guided Munitions (SOPGM) live missile tests • 2012 Maritime Strike inert drops • 2013 Longbow live missile test (inair detonation) • 2013 Combat Hammer Maritime WESP missions (inert drops in the Gulf and strafing in the Choctawhatchee Bay) During these missions, vessel-based observers surveyed for protected marine species (marine mammals and sea turtles) and species indicators. They also provided support to enforce human safety exclusion zones. All live and inert missions were conducted in a variety of sea states and weather conditions that encompass the environmental conditions likely to be encountered during Maritime Strike activities. While no marine mammals were sighted within the various take threshold zones (mortality, Level A and B harassment zones) during any of the live tests (i.e., SOPGM and Longbow missile), survey personnel judged that they were able to adequately observe the sea surface and there was reasonable likelihood that marine mammals would have been detected if present. There have been no documented marine mammal takes throughout Eglin’s VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:07 Aug 21, 2013 Jkt 229001 history of activities in the Gulf of Mexico. Therefore, based on these factors, Eglin AFB and NMFS expect that trained protected species observers would be able to adequately survey and clear mortality zones (maximum of 457 m) and effectively communicate any marine mammal sightings to test directors. Further, we expect that test directors would be able to act quickly to delay live weapon drops should protected species be observed. NMFS has carefully evaluated the applicant’s proposed mitigation measures and considered a range of other measures in the context of ensuring that NMFS prescribes the means of effecting the least practicable impact on the affected marine mammal species and stocks and their habitat. Our evaluation of potential measures included consideration of the following factors in relation to one another: • The manner in which, and the degree to which, the successful implementation of the measure is expected to minimize adverse impacts to marine mammals; • The proven or likely efficacy of the specific measure to minimize adverse impacts as planned; and • The practicability of the measure for applicant implementation, including consideration of personnel safety, practicability of implementation, and impact on the effectiveness of the military-readiness activity. Based on our evaluation of the applicant’s proposed measures, as well as other measures considered by NMFS, the required mitigation measures provide the means of effecting the least practicable impact on marine mammal species or stocks and their habitat, paying particular attention to rookeries, mating grounds, and areas of similar significance, while also considering personnel safety, practicability of implementation, and impact on the effectiveness of the military-readiness activity. Monitoring and Reporting In order to issue an ITA for an activity, section 101(a)(5)(D) of the MMPA states that NMFS must, where applicable, set forth ‘‘requirements pertaining to the monitoring and reporting of such taking’’. The MMPA implementing regulations at 50 CFR 216.104 (a)(13) indicate that requests for ITAs must include the suggested means of accomplishing the necessary monitoring and reporting that will result in increased knowledge of the species and of the level of taking or impacts on populations of marine mammals that are expected to be present in the proposed action area. PO 00000 Frm 00018 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 NMFS has included the following measures in the Maritime Strike IHA. They are: (1) Eglin will track their use of the EGTTR for test firing missions and protected species observations, through the use of mission reporting forms. (2) A summary annual report of marine mammal observations and Maritime Strike activities will be submitted to the NMFS Southeast Regional Office (SERO) and the Office of Protected Resources either at the time of a request for renewal of an IHA or 90 days after expiration of the current IHA if a new IHA is not requested. This annual report must include the following information: (i) Date and time of each Maritime Strike exercise; (ii) a complete description of the pre-exercise and post-exercise activities related to mitigating and monitoring the effects of Maritime Strike exercises on marine mammal populations; and (iii) results of the Maritime Strike exercise monitoring, including numbers by species/stock of any marine mammals noted injured or killed as a result of the missions and number of marine mammals (by species if possible) that may have been harassed due to presence within the activity zone. (3) If any dead or injured marine mammals are observed or detected prior to testing, or injured or killed during live fire, a report must be made to NMFS by the following business day. (4) Any unauthorized takes of marine mammals (i.e., injury or mortality) must be immediately reported to NMFS and to the respective stranding network representative. Estimated Take by Incidental Harassment As it applies to a ‘‘military readiness activity’’, the definition of harassment is (Section 3(18)(B) of the MMPA): (i) Any act that injures or has the significant potential to injure a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild [Level A Harassment]; or (ii) Any act that disturbs or is likely to disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of natural behavioral patterns, including, but not limited to, migration, surfacing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering, to a point where such behavioral patterns are abandoned or significantly altered [Level B Harassment]. Takes by Level A and B harassment are anticipated as a result of the Maritime Strike mission activities. The exercises are expected to only affect animals at or very near the surface of the water. Cetaceans in the vicinity of the exercises may incur temporary changes in behavior, and/or temporary changes E:\FR\FM\22AUN1.SGM 22AUN1 52145 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 163 / Thursday, August 22, 2013 / Notices in their hearing thresholds. Based on the proposed mitigation and monitoring measures described earlier in this document, no serious injury or mortality of marine mammals is anticipated as a result of Maritime Strike activities, and no takes by serious injury or mortality are proposed to be authorized. Estimating the impacts to marine mammals from underwater detonations is difficult due to complexities of the physics of explosive sound under water and the limited understanding with respect to hearing in marine mammals. Assessments of impacts from Maritime Strike exercises use, and improve upon, the criteria and thresholds for marine mammal impacts that were developed for the shock trials of the USS SEAWOLF and the USS WINSTON S. CHURCHILL (DDG–81) (Navy, 1998; 2001). The criteria and thresholds used in those actions were adopted by NMFS for use in calculating incidental takes from explosives. Criteria for assessing impacts from Eglin AFB’s Maritime Strike exercises include: (1) mortality, as determined by exposure to a certain level of positive impulse pressure (expressed as pounds per square inch per millisecond or psi-msec); (2) injury, both hearing-related and non-hearing related; and (3) harassment, as determined by a temporary loss of some hearing ability and behavioral reactions. Due to the mitigation measures proposed by NMFS for implementation, mortality resulting from the resulting sounds generated into the water column from detonations was determined to be highly unlikely and was not considered further by Eglin AFB or NMFS. Permanent hearing loss is considered an injury and is termed permanent threshold shift (PTS). NMFS, therefore, categorizes PTS as Level A harassment. Temporary loss of hearing ability is termed TTS, meaning a temporary reduction of hearing sensitivity which abates following noise exposure. TTS is considered non-injurious and is categorized as Level B harassment. NMFS recognizes dual criteria for TTS, one based on peak pressure and one based on the greatest 1/3 octave sound exposure level (SEL) or energy flux density level (EFDL), with the more conservative (i.e., larger) of the two criteria being selected for impacts analysis (note: SEL and EFDL are used interchangeably, but with increasing scientific preference for SEL). The peak pressure metric used to predict TTS is 23 pounds per square inch (psi). Documented behavioral reactions occur at noise levels below those considered to cause TTS in marine mammals (Finneran et al., 2002; Schlundt et al., 2000; Finneran and Schlundt, 2004). In controlled experimental situations, behavioral effects are typically defined as alterations of trained behaviors. Behavioral effects in wild animals are more difficult to define but may include decreased ability to feed, communicate, migrate, or reproduce. Abandonment of an area due to repeated noise exposure is also considered a behavioral effect. Analyses in other sections of this document refer to such behavioral effects as ‘‘sub-TTS Level B harassment.’’ Schlundt et al. (2000) exposed bottlenose dolphins and beluga whales to various pure-tone sound frequencies and intensities in order to measure underwater hearing thresholds. Masking is considered to have occurred because of the ambient noise environment in which the experiments took place. Sound levels were progressively increased until behavioral alterations were noted (at which point the onset of TTS was presumed). It was found that decreasing the sound intensity by 4 to 6 dB greatly decreased the occurrence of anomalous behaviors. The lowest sound pressure levels, over all frequencies, at which altered behaviors were observed, ranged from 178 to 193 dB re 1 mPa for the bottlenose dolphins and from 180 to 196 dB re 1 mPa for the beluga whales. Thus, it is reasonable to consider that sub-TTS (behavioral) effects occur at approximately 6 dB below the TTSinducing sound level, or at approximately 177 dB in the greatest 1/ 3 octave band EFDL/SEL. Table 4 (earlier in this document) summarizes the relevant thresholds for levels of noise that may result in Level A harassment (injury) or Level B harassment via TTS or behavioral disturbance to marine mammals. Mortality and injury thresholds are designed to be conservative by considering the impacts that would occur to the most sensitive life stage (e.g., a dolphin calf). The following three factors were used to estimate the potential noise effects on marine mammals from Maritime Strike operations: (1) The zone of influence, which is the distance from the explosion to which a particular energy or pressure threshold extends; (2) the density of animals potentially occurring within the zone of influence; and (3) the number of events. The zone of influence is defined as the area or volume of ocean in which marine mammals could potentially be exposed to various noise thresholds associated with exploding ordnance. Table 5 provides the estimated ZOI radii for the Maritime Strike ordnance. At this time, there are no empirical data or information that would allow NMFS to establish a peak pressure criterion for sub-TTS behavioral disruption. TABLE 5—ESTIMATED RANGE FOR A ZONE OF IMPACT (ZOI) DISTANCE FOR THE MARITIME STRIKE ORDNANCE [In meters] Height/depth of detonation Munition tkelley on DSK3SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES GBU–10 ............. GBU–24 ............. GBU–31 (JDAM) GBU–12 ............. GBU–38 (JDAM) GBU–54 (LJDAM). VerDate Mar<15>2010 Mortality 30.5 psi-msec Water Surface .... Water Surface .... Water Surface .... 20 feet AGL ....... 5 feet underwater 10 feet underwater. Water Surface .... Water Surface .... 20 feet AGL ....... 5 feet underwater 10 feet underwater. Water Surface .... 17:07 Aug 21, 2013 Jkt 229001 Level A harassment 205 dB EFD * Level B harassment 13 psi-msec 182 dB EFD * 23 psi 177 dB EFD * 202 202 202 0 385 457 362 362 362 0 700 836 1023 1023 1023 0 2084 2428 1280 1280 1280 0 1281 1280 1361 1361 1361 0 2775 3526 114 114 0 239 279 161 161 0 280 345 243 243 0 445 532 744 744 0 1411 1545 752 752 0 752 752 1020 1020 0 2070 2336 114 PO 00000 275 275 275 0 468 591 161 243 744 752 1020 Frm 00019 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 E:\FR\FM\22AUN1.SGM 22AUN1 52146 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 163 / Thursday, August 22, 2013 / Notices TABLE 5—ESTIMATED RANGE FOR A ZONE OF IMPACT (ZOI) DISTANCE FOR THE MARITIME STRIKE ORDNANCE— Continued [In meters] Height/depth of detonation Munition AGM–65E/L/K/ G2 (Maverick). CBU–103 ........... AGM–114 (Hellfire). M–117 ................ Mortality Level A harassment 30.5 psi-msec 205 dB EFD * Level B harassment 13 psi-msec 182 dB EFD * 23 psi 177 dB EFD * Water Surface .... 124 187 618 575 846 Water Surface .... Water Surface .... 9 46 231 70 21 105 947 425 111 353 1335 618 20 feet AGL ....... Water Surface .... Water Surface .... 0 147 0 0 203 6 0 293 7 0 847 31 0 950 60 0 1125 55 Water Surface .... PGU–13 HEI 30 mm. M56/PGU–28 HEI 20 mm. 84 0 0 0 16 37 27 * In greatest 1/3-octave band above 10 Hz or 100 Hz. Density estimates for marine mammals occurring in the EGTTR are provided in Table 3. As discussed above, densities were derived from the results of published documents authored by NMFS personnel. Density is nearly always reported for an area (e.g., animals per square kilometer). Analyses of survey results may include correction factors for negative bias, such as the Garrison (2008) report for bottlenose dolphins. Even though Fulling et al. (2003) did not provide a correction for Atlantic spotted dolphins or unidentified bottlenose/spotted dolphins, Eglin AFB adjusted those densities based on information provided in other published literature (Barlow 2003; 2006). Although the study area appears to represent only the surface of the water (two-dimensional), density actually implicitly includes animals anywhere within the water column under that surface area. Density estimates usually assume that animals are uniformly distributed within the prescribed area, even though this is likely rarely true. Marine mammals are often clumped in areas of greater importance, for example, in areas of high productivity, lower predation, safe calving, etc. Density can occasionally be calculated for smaller areas, but usually there are insufficient data to calculate density for such areas. Therefore, assuming an even distribution within the prescribed area is the typical approach. In addition, assuming that marine mammals are distributed evenly within the water column does not accurately reflect behavior. Databases of behavioral and physiological parameters obtained through tagging and other technologies have demonstrated that marine animals use the water column in various ways. Some species conduct regular deep dives while others engage in much shallower dives, regardless of bottom depth. Assuming that all species are evenly distributed from surface to bottom is almost never appropriate and can present a distorted view of marine mammal distribution in any region. Therefore, a depth distribution adjustment is applied to marine mammal densities in this document (Table 6). By combining marine mammal density with depth distribution information, a threedimensional density estimate is possible. These estimates allow more accurate modeling of potential marine mammal exposures from specific noise sources. TABLE 6—DEPTH DISTRIBUTION OF MARINE MAMMALS IN THE MARITIME STRIKE TEST AREA Species Depth distribution Bottlenose dolphin ............... Daytime: 96% at <50 m, 4% at >50 m; Nightime: 51% at <50 m, 8% at 50–100 m, 19% at 101–250 m, 13% at 251–450 m, and 9% at >450 m. 76% at <10 m, 20% at 10–20 m, and 4% at 21–60 m. tkelley on DSK3SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES Atlantic spotted dolphin ........ As mentioned previously, the number of Maritime Strike activities generally corresponds to the number of live ordnance expenditures, as shown in Table 2. However, the number of bursts modeled for the CBU–103 cluster bomb is 202, which is the number of individual bomblets per bomb. Also, the 20 mm and 30 mm gunnery rounds were modeled as one burst each. Table 7 indicates the modeled potential for lethality, injury, and non- VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:07 Aug 21, 2013 Jkt 229001 Reference injurious harassment (including behavioral harassment) to marine mammals in the absence of mitigation measures. The numbers represent total impacts for all detonations combined. Mortality was calculated as approximately one-half an animal for bottlenose dolphins and about 0.1 animals for spotted dolphins. It is expected that, with implementation of the management practices described PO 00000 Frm 00020 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 Klatsky et al. (2007) Davis et al. (1996) below, potential impacts would be mitigated to the point that there would be no mortality takes. Based on the low mortality exposure estimates calculated by the acoustic model combined with the implementation of mitigation measures, zero marine mammals are expected to be affected by pressure levels associated with mortality. Therefore, Eglin AFB has requested an IHA, as opposed to an LOA. E:\FR\FM\22AUN1.SGM 22AUN1 52147 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 163 / Thursday, August 22, 2013 / Notices TABLE 7—MODELED NUMBER OF MARINE MAMMALS POTENTIALLY AFFECTED BY MARITIME STRIKE MISSIONS Species Mortality Level B harassment (TTS) Level A harassment Level B harassment (behavioral) Bottlenose dolphin ........................................................................................... Atlantic spotted dolphin ................................................................................... Unidentified bottlenose dolphin/Atlantic spotted dolphin ................................. 0.524 0.145 0.010 2.008 1.050 0.040 30.187 16.565 0.597 61.069 31.345 1.208 Total .......................................................................................................... 0.679 3.098 47.349 93.622 Table 8 provides Eglin AFB’s the annual number of marine mammals, by species, authorized for taking by Level A harassment and Level B harassment, incidental to Maritime Strike operations. It should be noted that these takes are authorized without consideration of the effectiveness of Eglin AFB’s proposed mitigation measures. As indicated in Table 8, Eglin AFB and NMFS estimate that approximately three marine mammals could potentially be exposed to injurious Level A harassment noise levels (205 dB re 1 mPa 2-s or higher). TABLE 8—NUMBER OF MARINE MAMMALS TAKES Level B harassment (TTS) Level A harassment Species Level B harassment (behavioral) Bottlenose dolphin ....................................................................................................................... Atlantic spotted dolphin ............................................................................................................... Unidentified bottlenose dolphin/Atlantic spotted dolphin ............................................................. 2 1 0 30 16 1 61 32 1 Total ...................................................................................................................................... 3 47 94 Approximately 47 marine mammals may be exposed annually to noninjurious (TTS) Level B harassment associated with the 182 dB re 1 mPa2-s threshold. TTS results from fatigue or damage to hair cells or supporting structures and may cause disruption in the processing of acoustic cues; however, hearing sensitivity is recovered within a relatively short time. Based on Eglin AFB and NMFS’ estimates, up to 94 marine mammals may experience a behavioral response to these exercises associated with the 177 dB re 1 mPa 2-s threshold (see Table 8). NMFS has determined that this number will be significantly lower due to the expected effectiveness of the mitigation measures included in the IHA. tkelley on DSK3SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES Negligible Impact and Determinations NMFS has defined ‘‘negligible impact’’ in 50 CFR 216.103 as ‘‘. . . an impact resulting from the specified activity that cannot be reasonably expected to, and is not reasonably likely to, adversely affect the species or stock through effects on annual rates of recruitment or survival.’’ In making a negligible impact determination, NMFS considers a variety of factors, including but not limited to: (1) The number of anticipated mortalities; (2) the number and nature of anticipated injuries; (3) the number, nature, and intensity, and duration of harassment; and (4) the context in which the takes occur. VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:07 Aug 21, 2013 Jkt 229001 The takes from Level B harassment will be due to potential behavioral disturbance and TTS. The takes from Level A harassment will be due to potential tympanic-membrane (TM) rupture. Activities would only occur over a timeframe of two to three weeks in August 2013, with one or two missions occurring per day. It is possible that some individuals may be taken more than once if those individuals are located in the exercise area on two different days when exercises are occurring. However, multiple exposures are not anticipated to have effects beyond Level A and Level B harassment While animals may be impacted in the immediate vicinity of the activity, because of the small ZOIs (compared to the vast size of the GOM ecosystem where these species live) and the short duration of the Maritime Strike operations, NMFS has determined that there will not be a substantial impact on marine mammals. The activity is not expected to impact rates of recruitment or survival of marine mammals because neither mortality (which would remove individuals from the population) nor serious injury are anticipated to occur. In addition, the activity will not occur in areas (and/or times) of significance for the marine mammal populations potentially affected by the exercises (e.g., feeding or resting areas, reproductive areas), and the activities PO 00000 Frm 00021 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 will only occur in a small part of their overall range, so the impact of any potential temporary displacement will be negligible and animals are expected to return to the area after the cessations of activities. Although the activity could result in Level A (TM rupture) and Level B (behavioral disturbance and TTS) harassment of marine mammals, the level of harassment is not anticipated to impact rates of recruitment or survival of marine mammals because the number of exposed animals is expected to be low due to the short term and site specific nature of the activity, and the type of effect would not be detrimental to rates of recruitment and survival. Additionally, the mitigation and monitoring measures to be implemented (described earlier in this document) are expected to further minimize the potential for harassment. The protected species surveys will require Eglin AFB to search the area for marine mammals, and if any are found in the live fire area, then the exercise will be suspended until the animal(s) has left the area or relocated. Moreover, marine species observers located in the Eglin control tower will monitor the high-definition video feed from cameras located on the instrument barge anchored on-site for the presence of protected species. Furthermore, Maritime Strike missions will be delayed or rescheduled if the sea state is greater than a 4 on the Beaufort Scale at the time of the test. In addition, E:\FR\FM\22AUN1.SGM 22AUN1 52148 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 163 / Thursday, August 22, 2013 / Notices Maritime Strike missions will occur no earlier than two hours after sunrise and no later than two hours prior to sunset to ensure adequate daylight for pre- and post-mission monitoring. Based on the analysis contained herein of the likely effects of the specified activity on marine mammals and their habitat, and taking into consideration the implementation of the mitigation and monitoring measures, NMFS finds that Eglin AFB’s Maritime Strike operations will result in the incidental take of marine mammals, by Level A and Level B harassment, and that the taking from the Maritime Strike exercises will have a negligible impact on the affected species or stocks. Environmental Policy Act, May 20, 1999), NMFS reviewed the information contained in Eglin AFB’s EA and determined the EA accurately and completely described the preferred action alternative, a reasonable range of alternatives, and the potential impacts on marine mammals, endangered species, and other marine life that could be impacted by the preferred and nonpreferred alternatives. Based on this review and analysis, NMFS adopted Eglin AFB’s PEA under 40 CFR 1506.3, and issued its own FONSI statement on issuance of an annual authorization under section 101(a)(5) of the MMPA. Impact on Availability of Affected Species or Stock for Taking for Subsistence Uses There are no relevant subsistence uses of marine mammals implicated by this action. Therefore, NMFS has determined that the total taking of affected species or stocks would not have an unmitigable adverse impact on the availability of such species or stocks for taking for subsistence purposes. As a result of these determinations, NMFS authorizes the take of two species of marine mammals incidental to Eglin AFB’s Maritime Strike operations in the GOM provided the previously mentioned mitigation, monitoring, and reporting requirements are incorporated. tkelley on DSK3SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES Endangered Species Act (ESA) Eglin AFB initiated consultation with the Southeast Region, NMFS, under section 7 of the ESA regarding the effects of this action on ESA-listed species and critical habitat under the jurisdiction of NMFS. The consultation was completed and a biological opinion issued on May 6, 2013. The biological opinion analyzed the effects of the exercise on five species of sea turtles, Gulf sturgeon, smalltooth sawfish, sperm whales, and Gulf sturgeon critical habitat. The biological opinion concluded that the action, as proposed, may adversely affect four species of sea turtles (loggerhead, Kemp’s ridley, green, and leatherback). In addition, the project may affect, but is not likely to adversely affect, hawksbill sea turtles, smalltooth sawfish, Gulf sturgeon, sperm whales, and Gulf sturgeon critical habitat. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Eglin AFB released a Draft Environmental Assessment (EA) on the Maritime Strike Operations. NMFS made this EA available on the permits Web page. On May 30, 2013, Eglin AFB issued a Final EA and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) on the Maritime Strike Operations. In accordance with NOAA Administrative Order 216–6 (Environmental Review Procedures for Implementing the National VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:07 Aug 21, 2013 Jkt 229001 Proposed Authorization Dated: August 13, 2013. Donna S. Wieting, Director, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR Doc. 2013–20521 Filed 8–21–13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510–22–P DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648–XC762 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a Wharf Recapitalization Project Comments on this proposal should be addressed to Michael Payne, Chief, Permits and Conservation Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service. Physical comments should be sent to 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 and electronic comments should be sent to ITP.Laws@noaa.gov. Instructions: Comments sent by any other method, to any other address or individual, or received after the end of the comment period, may not be considered. Comments received electronically, including all attachments, must not exceed a 25megabyte file size. All comments received are a part of the public record. All personal identifying information (e.g., name, address) voluntarily submitted by the commenter may be publicly accessible. Do not submit confidential business information or otherwise sensitive or protected information. Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ben Laws, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, (301) 427–8401. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ADDRESSES: Availability A copy of the Navy’s application and any supporting documents, as well as a list of the references cited in this document, may be obtained by visiting the internet at: http:// www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/permits/ incidental.htm. In the case of problems accessing these documents, please call the contact listed above. AGENCY: National Environmental Policy Act NMFS has received a request from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for authorization to take marine mammals incidental to construction activities as part of a wharf recapitalization project. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting public comment on its proposal to issue an incidental harassment authorization (IHA) to the Navy to take, by harassment only, two species of marine mammal during the specified activity. DATES: Comments and information must be received no later than September 23, 2013. The Navy has prepared a draft Environmental Assessment (Wharf C–2 Recapitalization at Naval Station Mayport, FL) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the regulations published by the Council on Environmental Quality. It is posted at the aforementioned site. NMFS will independently evaluate the EA and determine whether or not to adopt it. We may prepare a separate NEPA analysis and incorporate relevant portions of Navy’s EA by reference. Information in the Navy’s application, EA, and this notice collectively provide the environmental information related to proposed issuance of this IHA for public review and comment. We will review all comments submitted in response to this notice as we complete the NEPA process, including a decision of whether to sign a Finding of No National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; proposed incidental harassment authorization; request for comments. SUMMARY: PO 00000 Frm 00022 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 E:\FR\FM\22AUN1.SGM 22AUN1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 78, Number 163 (Thursday, August 22, 2013)]
[Notices]
[Pages 52135-52148]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2013-20521]


-----------------------------------------------------------------------

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

RIN 0648-XC561


Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; 
Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To Conducting Maritime Strike 
Operations by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico

AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce.

ACTION: Notice; issuance of incidental harassment authorization.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) 
regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an 
Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the U.S. Air Force (USAF), 
Eglin Air Force Base (Eglin AFB), to take marine mammals, by 
harassment, incidental to Maritime Strike Operations in the Gulf of 
Mexico (GOM). The USAF's activities are considered military readiness 
activities.

DATES: Effective August 19, 2013, through August 18, 2014.

ADDRESSES: An electronic copy of the authorization, the application 
containing a list of the references used in this document, and the 
Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact 
(FONSI) may be obtained by writing to Michael Payne, Chief, Permits, 
Conservation and Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, 
National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver 
Spring, MD 20910-3225, telephoning the contact listed below (see FOR 
FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT), or visiting the internet at: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/permits/incidental.htm. Documents cited in this 
notice may also be viewed, by appointment, during regular business 
hours, at the aforementioned address.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brian D. Hopper, Office of Protected 
Resources, NMFS, (301) 427-8401.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 

Background

    Sections 101(a)(5)(A) and (D) of the MMPA (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) 
direct the Secretary of Commerce to allow, upon request, the 
incidental, but not intentional, taking of small numbers of marine 
mammals by U.S. citizens who engage in a specified activity (other than 
commercial fishing) within a specified geographical region if certain 
findings are made and either regulations are issued or, if the taking 
is limited to harassment, a notice of a proposed authorization is 
provided to the public for review.
    Authorization for incidental takings shall be granted if NMFS finds 
that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or 
stock(s), will not have an unmitigable adverse impact on the 
availability of the species or stock(s) for subsistence uses (where 
relevant), and if the permissible methods of taking and requirements 
pertaining to the mitigation, monitoring and reporting of such takings 
are set forth. NMFS has defined ``negligible impact'' in 50 CFR 216.103 
as `` . . . an impact resulting from the specified activity that cannot 
be reasonably expected to, and is not reasonably likely to, adversely 
affect the species or stock through effects on annual rates of 
recruitment or survival.''
    Section 101(a)(5)(D) of the MMPA established an expedited process 
by which citizens of the U.S. can apply for an authorization to 
incidentally take small numbers of marine mammals by harassment. 
Section 101(a)(5)(D) establishes a 45-day time limit for NMFS review of 
an application followed by a 30-day public notice and comment period on 
any proposed

[[Page 52136]]

authorizations for the incidental harassment of marine mammals. Within 
45 days of the close of the comment period, NMFS must either issue or 
deny the authorization.
    The National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) (Pub. L. 108-136) 
removed the ``small numbers'' and ``specified geographical region'' 
provisions and amended the definition of ``harassment'' as it applies 
to a ``military readiness activity'' to read as follows (section 
3(18)(B) of the MMPA): (i) Any act that injures or has the significant 
potential to injure a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild 
[Level A Harassment]; or (ii) Any act that disturbs or is likely to 
disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing 
disruption of natural behavioral patterns, including, but not limited 
to, migration, surfacing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering, to 
a point where such behavioral patterns are abandoned or significantly 
altered [Level B Harassment].

Summary of Request

    NMFS received an application on December 11, 2012, from Eglin AFB 
for the taking, by harassment, of marine mammals incidental to Maritime 
Strike Operations within the Eglin Gulf Test and Training Range 
(EGTTR). A revised application was submitted on January 22, 2013, which 
provided updated marine mammal information. The EGTTR is described as 
the airspace over the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) that is controlled by Eglin 
AFB. The planned test location in the EGTTR is Warning Area 151 (W-
151), which is located approximately 17 miles offshore from Santa Rosa 
Island, specifically sub-area W-151A.
    The Maritime Strike operations may potentially impact marine 
mammals at or near the water surface. Marine mammals could potentially 
be harassed, injured, or killed by exploding and non-exploding 
projectiles, and falling debris. However, based on analyses provided in 
the USAF's Environmental Assessment (EA), Eglin's IHA application, 
including the required mitigation, and for reasons discussed later in 
this document, NMFS does not anticipate that Eglin's Maritime Strike 
exercises will result in any serious injury or mortality to marine 
mammals. Eglin AFB has requested authorization to take two cetacean 
species by Level A and Level B harassment. The requested species 
include: Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and Atlantic 
spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis).

Description of the Specified Activity

    This section describes the Maritime Strike missions that have the 
potential to affect marine mammals present within the test area. 
Maritime Strike operations, a ``military readiness activity'' as 
defined under 16 U.S.C. 703 note, involve detonations above the water, 
near the water surface, and under water within the EGTTR. These 
missions involve multiple types of live munitions identified in Tables 
1 and 2 below. The Maritime Strike operations are described in more 
detail in the following paragraphs.
    The Maritime Strike program was developed in response to the 
increasing threats at sea posed by operations conducted from small 
boats. The first phase of the Maritime Strike program focused on 
detecting and tracking boats using various sensors, simulated weapons 
engagements, and testing with inert munitions. The final phase, and the 
subject of this notice, consists of testing the effectiveness of live 
munitions on small boat threats. The proposed Maritime Strike 
activities would involve the use of multiple types of live munitions in 
the EGTTR against small boat targets, at all desired surface and water 
depth scenarios (maximum depth of 10 feet below the surface) necessary 
to carry out the Tactics Development and Evaluation (TD&E) Program. 
Multiple munitions (bombs, missiles, and gunner rounds) and aircraft 
would be used to meet the objectives of the Maritime Strike program 
(Table 1). Because the tests focus on weapon/target interaction, 
particular aircraft are not specified for a given test as long as it 
meets the delivery parameters. The munitions would be deployed against 
static, towed, and remotely controlled boat targets. Static and 
controlled targets consist of stripped boat hulls with plywood 
simulated crews and systems. Damaged boats would be recovered for data 
collection. Test data collection and operation of remotely controlled 
boats would be conducted from an instrumentation barge anchored on-
site, which would also provide a platform for cameras and weapon-
tracking equipment. Target boats would be positioned 300 to 600 feet 
from the instrument barge, depending on the munition.

                                      Table 1--Live Munitions and Aircraft
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    Munitions                            Aircraft (not associated with specific munitions)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GBU-10 laser-guided Mk-84 bomb...................  F-16C fighter aircraft.
GBU-24 laser-guided Mk-84 bomb...................  F-16C+ fighter aircraft.
GBU-31 Joint Direct Attack Munition, global        F-15E fighter aircraft.
 positioning system guided Mk-84 bomb.
GBU-12 laser-guided Mk-82 bomb...................  A-10 fighter aircraft.
GBU-38 Joint Direct Attack Munition, global        B-1B bomber aircraft.
 positioning system guided Mk-82 bomb.
GBU-54 Laser Joint Direct Attack Munition, laser-  B-52H bomber aircraft.
 guided Mk-82 bomb.
CBU-103/B bomb...................................  MQ-1/9 unmanned aerial vehicle.
AGM-65E/L/K/G2 Maverick air-to-surface missile...  .............................................................
AGM-114 Hellfire air-to-surface missile..........
M-117 bomb.......................................
PGU-12 high explosive incendiary 30 mm rounds....
M56/PGU-28 high explosive incendiary 20mm rounds.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Live testing will include three detonation options: (1) Above the 
water surface; (2) at the water surface; and (3) below the water 
surface (two depths). The number of each type of munition, height or 
depth of detonation, explosive material, and net explosive weight (NEW) 
of each munition is provided in Table 2.

[[Page 52137]]



                                                           Table 2--Maritime Strike Munitions
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                     Total number of live   Number of detonations by       Warhead--explosive
         Type of munition                 munitions               height/depth                  material             Net explosive weight per munition
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GBU-10............................  1....................  Water Surface: all........  MK-84--Tritonal..........  945 lbs.
GBU-24............................  1....................  Water Surface: all........  MK-84--Tritonal..........  945 lbs.
GBU-31 (JDAM).....................  13...................  Water Surface: 4..........  MK-84--Tritonal..........  945 lbs (MK-84).
                                    20 feet AGL: 3
                                    5 feet underwater: 3
                                    10 feet underwater: 3
GBU-12............................  1....................  Water Surface: all........  MK-82--Tritonal..........  192 lbs.
GBU-38 (JDAM).....................  13...................  Water Surface: 4..........  MK-82--Tritonal..........  192 lbs (MK-82).
                                    20 feet AGL: 3
                                    5 feet underwater: 3
                                    10 feet underwater: 3
GBU-54 (LJDAM)....................  1....................  Water Surface: all........  MK-82--Tritonal..........  192 lbs (MK-82).
AGM-65E/L/K/G2 (Maverick).........  2 each (8 total).....  Water Surface: all........  WDU-24/B penetrating       86 lbs.
                                                                                        blast-fragmentation
                                                                                        warhead.
CBU-103...........................  4....................  Water Surface: all........  202 Blu-97/B Combined      127 lbs.
                                                                                        Effects Bomblets (0.63
                                                                                        lbs each).
AGM-114 (Hellfire)................  4....................  Water Surface: all........  High Explosive Anti-Tank   20 lbs.
                                                                                        (HEAT) tandem anti-armor
                                                                                        metal augmented charge.
M-117.............................  6....................  20 feet AGL: 3............  750 lb blast/              386 lbs (Tritonal).
                                                                                        fragmentation bomb, used
                                                                                        the same way as MK-82--
                                                                                        Tritonal.
                                    Water Surface: 3
PGU-12 HEI 30 mm..................  1,000................  Water Surface: all........  30x173 mm caliber with     0.1 lbs.
                                                                                        aluminized RDX
                                                                                        explosive. Designed for
                                                                                        GAU-8/A Gun System.
M56/PGU-28 HEI 20 mm..............  1,500................  Water Surface: all........  20x120 mm caliber with     0.02 lbs (Comp A-4 HEI).
                                                                                        aluminized Comp A-4 HEI.
                                                                                        Designed for M61 and
                                                                                        M197 Gun System.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Maritime Strike missions are scheduled to occur over an approximate 
two- to three-week period in August 2013. Missions will occur on 
weekdays during daytime hours only, with one or two missions occurring 
per day. All activities will take place within the EGTTR. Activities 
will occur only in Warning Area W-151, and specifically in sub-area W-
151A. W-151A extends approximately 60 nm offshore and has a surface 
area of 2,565 nm\2\ (8,797 km\2\). Water depths range from about 30 to 
350 m and include continental shelf and slope zones; however, most of 
W-151A occurs over the continental shelf, in water depths less than 250 
m. Maritime Strike operations will occur in the shallower, northern 
inshore portion of W-151A, in water depth of about 35 m (see Figure 2-1 
in Eglin's IHA application for a map of the test area).
    To ensure safety, prior to conducting Maritime Strike exercises, 
Eglin will conduct a pre-test target area clearance procedure for 
people and protected species. Support vessels will be deployed around a 
defined safety zone to ensure that commercial and recreational boats do 
not accidentally enter the area. Before delivering the ordnance, 
mission aircraft will make a dry run over the target area to ensure 
that it is clear of commercial and recreational boats (at least two 
aircraft would participate in each test). Due to the limited duration 
of the flyover and potentially high speed and altitude, pilots will not 
be able to survey for marine species. In addition, an E-9A surveillance 
aircraft will survey the target area for nonparticipating vessels and 
other objects on the water surface. Based on the results from an 
acoustic impacts analysis for live ordnance detonations, a separate 
disturbance zone around the target will be established for the 
protection of marine species. The size of the zone will be based on the 
distance to which energy- and pressure-related impacts will extend for 
the various type of ordnance listed in Table 2 and will not necessarily 
be the same size as the human safety zone. Based on the acoustic 
modeling result, the largest possible distance from the target will be 
3,526 m (2.2 miles), which corresponds to the 177 dB Level B harassment 
threshold for 945 lb NEW munitions detonated at 10 ft underwater (Table 
5). At least two of the support vessels will monitor for marine mammals 
around the target area. Maritime Strike missions will not proceed until 
the target area is determined to be clear of unauthorized personnel and 
protected species.
    In addition to vessel-based monitoring, one to three video cameras 
will be positioned on an instrumentation barge anchored on-site. The 
camera configuration and actual number of cameras used would depend on 
the specific test being conducted. The cameras are typically used for 
situational awareness of the target area and surrounding area, and 
could also be used for monitoring the test site for the presence of 
marine species. A marine species observer will be located in the Eglin 
control tower, along with mission personnel, to monitor the video feed 
before and during test activities.
    After each test, floating targets will be inspected to identify and 
render safe any unexploded ordnance (UXO), including fuzes or intact 
munitions. The Eglin Air Force Explosive Disposal Team will be on hand 
for each test. UXO that cannot be removed will be detonated in place, 
which could result in the sinking of the target vessel. Once the area 
has been cleared for re-entry, test personnel will retrieve target 
debris and marine species observers will

[[Page 52138]]

survey the area for any evidence of adverse impacts to protected 
species.

Comments and Responses

    A notice of receipt of Eglin AFB's application and NMFS' proposal 
to issue an IHA to the USAF, Eglin AFB, published in the Federal 
Register on June 4, 2013 (78 FR 33357). During the 30-day public 
comment period, NMFS received comments from the Marine Mammal 
Commission (MMC) and a member of the public. The comment from the 
private citizen opposed the issuance of an authorization without any 
specific substantiation for why the authorization should not be issued. 
Following are the comments from the MMC and NMFS' responses.
    Comment 1: The MMC expressed their belief that all permanent 
hearing loss should be considered a serious injury and recommends that 
NMFS propose to issue regulations under section 101(a)(5)(A) of the 
MMPA and a letter of authorization, rather than an incidental 
harassment authorization, for any proposed activities expected to cause 
a permanent threshold shift (PTS).
    Response: PTS is considered an injury to the auditory system, but 
not a serious injury. NMFS PTS thresholds are based on the onset of 
PTS, meaning about a 30% incident of PTS (Ketten 1995; DON 1998) and a 
50% likelihood of eardrum rupture (which is often recoverable (Kerr and 
Byrne, 1975). An animal would either need to be exposed to the sound 
above this threshold for a long amount of time (not likely with 
explosives) or a much higher level (meaning being closer to the source) 
than the threshold in order to incur a significantly more serious 
degree of PTS. Because of the short duration of the proposed activity 
(few weeks) combined with the density of marine mammals, it is unlikely 
that a marine mammal would even randomly enter the area where more 
severe PTS would be a risk. However, when mitigation measures and 
likely avoidance of an area of high levels of training activities are 
considered, it becomes highly unlikely. Additionally, some degree of 
presbycusis is fairly common in the wild (i.e., high-frequency hearing 
loss), especially with older animals, and there is no data suggesting 
whether, or at what significantly greater degree of PTS, this reduced 
hearing might potentially lead to mortality. NMFS does not believe that 
serious injury will result from this activity and that therefore it is 
not necessary to issue regulations through section 101(a)(5)(A), 
rather, an IHA may be issued.
    Comment 2: The MMC expressed concern regarding Eglin AFB's use of 
two different, and seemingly contrary, methods (i.e., total net 
explosive weight of all ordnance in a single burst versus net explosive 
weight of a single bomblet as numerous individual burts) for estimating 
zones of exposure. The MMC recommended that NMFS withhold issuing the 
IHA until (1) the USAF has modeled the various scenarios consistently 
for all operations that involve more than one bomb, bomblet, missile, 
or round and (2) has consulted with the MMC regarding resolution of 
this issue.
    Response: The MMC may be confusing calculation methods for 
determining zones of exposures (the area of potential impact defined as 
a radius in the application) with estimating takes of each species for 
each threshold and criteria (total number of animals exposed to noise 
levels that may result in Level A or Level B harassment). These 
calculations are two separate processes. With the exception of the 
gunnery rounds and CBU-103 cluster bombs, the zones of exposure for all 
other munitions were based on the detonation/burst of one munition at a 
given depth; not the total number of munitions planned to be detonated 
for the duration of the test. On the other hand, Level A and Level B 
take estimates of each species were calculated by summing together all 
detonations proposed to occur for each munition at a given depth. The 
methodology and analytical approach for determining the exposure zones 
and estimating the number of marine mammal takes was fully explained in 
the IHA application, the Notice of Proposed IHA (78 FR 33357, June 4, 
2013), as well as in the previous IHAs issued to Eglin AFB, and 
supporting documents issued for this activity. Readers should refer to 
those documents for additional information, but a summary follows.
    Zones of exposure to determine Level A and Level B Harassment 
impact areas were calculated as the product of the impact area of a 
single burst of each munition and the number of bursts planned to occur 
during each testing scenario. For this analysis, a ``burst'' must be 
sufficiently spaced in time or location such that it could: (1) Affect 
a different set of marine mammals; or (2) affect the same individuals 
multiple times. The firing sequence for the 20-mm and 30-mm rounds 
consists of expending a large number of individual rounds at one 
target, all of which detonate within one second of each other. Due to 
the tight spacing in time and location, for modeling purposes, each 
burst of 1,000 or 1,500 rounds is treated as a single detonation. On 
the other hand, the CBU-103 cluster bombs are treated differently based 
on the dispersed pattern and timing of individual bomblet detonations. 
The CBU-103's 202 bomblets are released mid-air and spread out to cover 
a larger target area, and may detonate over the course of a few to 
several seconds. Therefore the 202 bomblets are not combined as a 
single burst for calculating the zones of exposure for Level A and 
Level B Harassment.
    Using this approach, Eglin AFB estimated the number of marine 
mammal takes using the adjusted density estimates for each species, the 
ZOI of each type of ordnance deployed, and the total number of live 
ordnance events. The results are presented in Table 8.

Description of Marine Mammals in the Area of the Specified Activity

    There are 28 species of marine mammals documented as occurring in 
Federal waters of the northern GOM. However, species with likely 
occurrence in the test area, and the subject of Eglin's incidental take 
request, are the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and 
Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis). These two species are 
frequently sighted in the northern GOM over the continental shelf, in a 
water depth range that encompasses the Maritime Strike test location 
(Garrison et al., 2008; Navy, 2007; Davis et al., 2000). Dwarf sperm 
whales (Kogia sima) and pygmy sperm whales (K. breviceps) are 
occasionally sighted over the shelf, but are not considered regular 
inhabitants (Davis et al., 2000). The remaining cetacean species are 
primarily considered to occur at or beyond the shelf break (water depth 
of approximately 200 m), and are not included in the proposed take 
authorization. Of the 28 marine mammal species or stocks that may occur 
in the northern GOM, only the sperm whale is listed as endangered under 
the ESA and as depleted under the MMPA. Sperm whale occurrence in the 
area of the proposed activity is unlikely because almost all reported 
sightings have occurred in water depths greater than 200 m. Occurrence 
in the deeper portions of W-151 is possible, although based on reported 
sightings locations, density is expected to be low. Therefore, Eglin 
AFB has not requested and NMFS has not proposed the issuance of take 
authorizations for this species. Eglin AFB's MMPA application contains 
a detailed discussion on the description, status, distribution, 
regional distribution, diving behavior, and acoustics and hearing for 
the marine mammals in the action area.

[[Page 52139]]

More detailed information on these species can be found in Wursig et 
al. (2000), Eglin's EA (see ADDRESSES), and in the NMFS U.S. Atlantic 
and GOM Stock Assessment Reports (SARs; Waring et al., 2011). This 
latter document is available at: http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/publications/tm/tm210/. The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is 
managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is not considered 
further in this proposed IHA Federal Register notice.
    Density estimates for bottlenose dolphin and spotted dolphin were 
derived from two sources. Bottlenose dolphin density estimates were 
derived from a habitat modeling project conducted for portions of the 
EGTTR, including the Maritime Strike project area (Garrison, 2008). 
NMFS developed habitat models using recent aerial survey line transect 
data collected during winter and summer. The surveys covered nearshore 
and continental shelf waters (to a maximum depth of 200 meters), with 
the majority of effort concentrated in waters from the shoreline to 20 
meters depth. Marine species encounter rates during the surveys were 
corrected for sighting probability and the probability that animals 
were available on the surface to be seen. In combination with remotely 
sensed environmental data/habitat parameters (water depth, sea surface 
temperature and chlorophyll), these data were used to develop habitat 
models for cetaceans within the continental shelf and coastal waters of 
the eastern GOM. The technical approach, described as Generalized 
Regression and Spatial Prediction, spatially projects the species-
habitat relationship based on distribution of environmental factors, 
resulting in predicted densities for un-sampled locations and times. 
The spatial density model can therefore be used to predict density in 
unobserved areas and at different times of year based upon the monthly 
composite SST and chlorophyll datasets derived from satellite data. 
Similarly, the spatial density model can be used to predict relative 
density for any sub-region within the surveyed area.
    Garrison (2008) produced bottlenose dolphin density estimates at 
various spatial scales within the EGTTR. At the largest scale, density 
data were aggregated into four principal strata categories: North-
Inshore, North-Offshore, South-Inshore, and South-Offshore. Densities 
for these strata were provided in the published survey report. 
Unpublished densities were also provided for smaller blocks (sub-areas) 
corresponding to airspace units and a number of these sub-areas were 
combined to form larger zones. Densities in these smaller areas were 
provided to Eglin AFB in Excel(copyright) spreadsheets by 
the report author.
    For both large areas and sub-areas, regions occurring entirely 
within waters deeper than 200 meters were excluded from predictions, 
and those straddling the 200 meter isobath were clipped to remove deep 
water areas. In addition, because of limited survey effort, density 
estimates beyond 150 meters water depth are considered invalid. The 
environmental conditions encountered during the survey periods 
(February and July/August) do not necessarily reflect the range of 
conditions potentially encountered throughout the year. In particular, 
the transition seasons of spring (April-May) and fall (October-
November) have a very different range of water temperatures. 
Accordingly, for predictions outside of the survey period or spatial 
range, it is necessary to evaluate the statistical variance in 
predicted values when attempting to apply the model. The coefficient of 
variation (CV) of the predicted quantity is used to measure the 
validity of model predictions. According to Garrison (2008), the best 
predictions have CV values of approximately 0.2. When CVs approach 0.7, 
and particularly when they exceed 1.0, the resulting model predictions 
are extremely uncertain and are considered invalid.
    Based upon the preceding discussion, the bottlenose dolphin density 
estimate used in this document is the median density corresponding to 
sub-area 137 (see Figure 3-1 in Eglin AFB's IHA application). The 
planned Maritime Strike test location lies within this sub-area. Within 
this block, Garrison (2008) provided densities based upon one year 
(2007) and five-year monthly averages for SST and chlorophyll. The 5-
year average is considered preferable. Only densities with a CV rounded 
to 0.7 or lower (i.e., 0.64 and below) were considered. The CV for June 
in this particular block is 0.62. Density estimates for bottlenose 
dolphin are provided in Table 3.
    Atlantic spotted dolphin density was derived from Fulling et al. 
(2003), which describes the results of mammal surveys conducted in 
association with fall ichthyoplankton surveys from 1998 to 2001. The 
surveys were conducted by NMFS personnel from the U.S.-Mexico border to 
southern Florida, in water depths of 20 to 200 meters. Using the 
software program DISTANCE(copyright), density estimates were 
generated for East and West regions, with Mobile Bay as the dividing 
point. The East region is used in this document. Densities were 
provided for Atlantic spotted dolphins and unidentified T. truncatus/S. 
frontalis (among other species). The unidentified T. truncatus/S. 
frontalis category is treated as a separate species group with a unique 
density. Density estimates from Fulling et al. (2003) were not adjusted 
for sighting probability (perception bias) or surface availability 
(availability bias) [g(0) = 1] in the original survey report, likely 
resulting in underestimation of true density. Perception bias refers to 
the failure of observers to detect animals, although they are present 
in the survey area and available to be seen. Availability bias refers 
to animals that are in the survey area, but are not able to be seen 
because they are submerged when observers are present. Perception bias 
and availability bias result in the underestimation of abundance and 
density numbers (negative bias).
    Fulling et al. (2003) did not collect data to correct density for 
perception and availability bias. However, in order to address this 
negative bias, Eglin AFB has adjusted density estimates based on 
information provided in available literature. There are no published 
g(0) correction factors for Atlantic spotted dolphins. However, Barlow 
(2006) estimated g(0) for numerous marine mammal species near the 
Hawaiian Islands, including offshore pantropical spotted dolphins 
(Stenella attenuata). Separate estimates for this species were provided 
for group sizes of 1 to 20 animals [g(0) = 0.76], and greater than 20 
animals [g(0) = 1.00]. Although Fulling et al. (2003) sighted some 
spotted dolphin groups of more than 20 individuals, the 0.76 value is 
used as a more conservative approach. Barlow (2006) provides the 
following equation for calculating density:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TN22AU13.003

    Where
    n = number of animal group sightings on effort
    S = mean group size
    f(0) = sighting probability density at zero perpendicular 
distance (influenced by species detectability and sighting cues such 
as body size, blows, and number of animals in a group)
    L = transect length completed (km)
    g(0) = probability of seeing a group directly on a trackline 
(influenced by perception bias and availability bias)

    Because (n), (S), and (f0) cannot be directly 
incorporated as independent values due to lack of the original 
information, we substitute the variable

[[Page 52140]]

Xspecies which incorporates all three values, such that 
Xspecies = (n)(S)(f0) for a given species. This 
changes the density equation to:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TN22AU13.002

    Using the same method, adjusted density for the unidentified T. 
truncatus/S. frontalis species group is 0.009 animals/km\2\. There are 
no variances attached to either of these recalculated density values, 
so overall confidence in these values is unknown.

                Table 3--Marine Mammal Density Estimates
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Density
                         Species                            (animals/km
                                                               \2\)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bottlenose dolphin \1\..................................           0.455
Atlantic spotted dolphin \2\............................           0.265
Unidentified bottlenose dolphin/Atlantic spotted dolphin           0.009
 \2\....................................................
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Source: Garrison, 2008; adjusted for observer and availability bias
  by the author.
\2\ Source: Fulling et al., 2003; adjusted for negative bias based on
  information provided by Barlow (2003; 2006).

Potential Effects of the Specified Activity on Marine Mammals

    Potential impacts from the detonation of explosives include non-
lethal injury (Level A harassment) and disturbance (Level B 
harassment). Takes in the form of mortality are neither anticipated nor 
requested. The number of marine mammals potentially impacted by 
Maritime Strike operations is based on impulsive noise and pressure 
waves generated by ordinance detonation at or near the water surface. 
Exposure to energy or pressure resulting from these detonations could 
result in injury or harassment of marine mammal species. The number of 
Maritime Strike missions generally corresponds to the number of live 
ordnance expenditures shown in Table 2. However, the number of bursts 
modeled for the CBU-103 cluster bomb is 202, which is the number of 
individual bomblets per bomb. Also, the 20 mm and 30 mm gunnery rounds 
were modeled as one burst each.
    Criteria and thresholds for estimating the exposures from a single 
explosive activity on marine mammals were established for the Seawolf 
Submarine Shock Test Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) 
(``SEAWOLF'') and subsequently used in the USS WINSTON S. CHURCHILL 
(DDG 81) Ship Shock FEIS (``CHURCHILL'') (DoN, 1998 and 2001). We 
adopted these criteria and thresholds in a final rule on the 
unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental to the 
shock testing which involved large explosives (65 FR 77546; December 
12, 2000). Because no large explosives (greater than 1000 lbs NEW) 
would be used by Eglin AFB during the specified activities, a revised 
acoustic criterion for small underwater explosions (i.e., 23 pounds per 
square inch [psi] instead of previous acoustic criteria of 12 psi for 
peak pressure over all exposures) has been established to predict onset 
of TTS.

Thresholds and Criteria for Injurious Physiological Impacts

Single Explosion

    For injury, NMFS uses dual criteria, eardrum rupture (i.e. 
tympanic-membrane injury) and onset of slight lung injury, to indicate 
the onset of injury. The threshold for tympanic-membrane (TM) rupture 
corresponds to

[[Page 52141]]

a 50 percent rate of rupture (i.e., 50 percent of animals exposed to 
the level are expected to suffer TM rupture). This value is stated in 
terms of an Energy Flux Density Level (EL) value of 1.17 inch pounds 
per square inch (in-lb/in2), approximately 205 dB re 1 microPa\2\- sec.
    The threshold for onset of slight lung injury is calculated for a 
small animal (a dolphin calf weighing 26.9 lbs), and is given in terms 
of the ``Goertner modified positive impulse,'' indexed to 13 psi-msec 
(DoN, 2001). This threshold is conservative since the positive impulse 
needed to cause injury is proportional to animal mass, and therefore, 
larger animals require a higher impulse to cause the onset of injury. 
This analysis assumed the marine species populations were 100 percent 
small animals. The criterion with the largest potential impact range 
(most conservative), either TM rupture (energy threshold) or onset of 
slight lung injury (peak pressure), will be used in the analysis to 
determine Level A exposures for single explosive events.
    For mortality and serious injury, we use the criterion 
corresponding to the onset of extensive lung injury. This is 
conservative in that it corresponds to a 1 percent chance of mortal 
injury, and yet any animal experiencing onset severe lung injury is 
counted as a lethal exposure. For small animals, the threshold is given 
in terms of the Goertner modified positive impulse, indexed to 30.5 
psi-msec. Since the Goertner approach depends on propagation, source/
animal depths, and animal mass in a complex way, the actual impulse 
value corresponding to the 30.5 psi-msec index is a complicated 
calculation. To be conservative, the analysis used the mass of a calf 
dolphin (at 26.9 lbs) for 100 percent of the populations.

Multiple Explosions

    For multiple explosions, the CHURCHILL approach had to be extended 
to cover multiple sound events at the same training site. For multiple 
exposures, accumulated energy over the entire training time is the 
natural extension for energy thresholds since energy accumulates with 
each subsequent shot (detonation); this is consistent with the 
treatment of multiple arrivals in CHURCHILL. For positive impulse, it 
is consistent with the CHURCHILL final rule to use the maximum value 
over all impulses received.

Thresholds and Criteria for Non-Injurious Physiological Effects

    To determine the onset of TTS (non-injurious harassment)--a slight, 
recoverable loss of hearing sensitivity, there are dual criteria: an 
energy threshold and a peak pressure threshold. The criterion with the 
largest potential impact range (most conservative), either the energy 
or peak pressure threshold, will be used in the analysis to determine 
Level B TTS exposures. We refer the reader to the following sections 
for descriptions of the thresholds for each criterion.

Single Explosion--TTS-Energy Threshold

    The TTS energy threshold for explosives is derived from the Space 
and Naval Warfare Systems Center (SSC) pure-tone tests for TTS 
(Schlundt et al., 2000; Finneran and Schlundt, 2004). The pure-tone 
threshold (192 dB as the lowest value) is modified for explosives by 
(a) interpreting it as an energy metric, (b) reducing it by 10 dB to 
account for the time constant of the mammal ear, and (c) measuring the 
energy in 1/3-octave bands, the natural filter band of the ear. The 
resulting threshold is 182 dB re 1 microPa\2\-sec in any 1/3-octave 
band.

Single Explosion--TTS-Peak Pressure Threshold

    The second threshold applies to all species and is stated in terms 
of peak pressure at 23 psi (about 225 dB re 1 [mu]Pa). This criterion 
was adopted for Precision Strike Weapons (PSW) Testing and Training by 
Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico (NMFS, 2005). It is 
important to note that for small shots near the surface (such as in 
this analysis), the 23-psi peak pressure threshold generally will 
produce longer impact ranges than the 182-dB energy metric. 
Furthermore, it is not unusual for the TTS impact range for the 23-psi 
pressure metric to actually exceed the without-TTS (behavioral change 
without onset of TTS) impact range for the 177-dB energy metric.

Thresholds and Criteria for Behavioral Effects

Single Explosion
    For a single explosion, to be consistent with CHURCHILL, TTS is the 
criterion for Level B harassment. In other words, because behavioral 
disturbance for a single explosion is likely to be limited to a short-
lived startle reaction, use of the TTS criterion is considered 
sufficient protection and therefore behavioral effects (Level B 
behavioral harassment without onset of TTS) are not expected for single 
explosions.
Multiple Explosions--Without TTS
    For multiple explosions, the CHURCHILL approach had to be extended 
to cover multiple sound events at the same training site. For multiple 
exposures, accumulated energy over the entire uninterrupted firing time 
is the natural extension for energy thresholds since energy accumulates 
with each subsequent shot (detonation); this is consistent with the 
treatment of multiple arrivals in CHURCHILL. Because multiple 
explosions could occur within a discrete time period, a new acoustic 
criterion-behavioral disturbance without TTS is used to account for 
behavioral effects significant enough to be judged as harassment, but 
occurring at lower noise levels than those that may cause TTS.
    The threshold is based on test results published in Schlundt et al. 
(2000), with derivation following the approach of the CHURCHILL FEIS 
for the energy-based TTS threshold. The original Schlundt et al. (2000) 
data and the report of Finneran and Schlundt (2004) are the basis for 
thresholds for behavioral disturbance without TTS. During this study, 
instances of altered behavior sometimes began at lower exposures than 
those causing TTS; however, there were many instances when subjects 
exhibited no altered behavior at levels above the onset-TTS levels. 
Regardless of reactions at higher or lower levels, all instances of 
altered behavior were included in the statistical summary. The 
behavioral disturbance without TTS threshold for tones is derived from 
the SSC tests, and is found to be 5 dB below the threshold for TTS, or 
177 dB re 1 microPa\2\-sec maximum energy flux density level in any 1/
3-octave band at frequencies above 100 Hz for cetaceans.

Summary of Thresholds and Criteria for Impulsive Sounds

    The effects, criteria, and thresholds used in the assessment for 
impulsive sounds are summarized in Table 4. The criteria for behavioral 
effects without physiological effects used in this analysis are based 
on use of multiple explosives from live, explosive firing during 
Maritime Strike exercises.

[[Page 52142]]



               Table 4--Current NMFS Acoustic Criteria When Addressing Harassment From Explosives
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Effect                 Criteria              Metric               Threshold              Effect
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mortality....................  Onset of          Goertner modified      indexed to 30.5 psi-   Mortality.
                                Extensive Lung    positive impulse.      msec (assumes 100
                                Injury.                                  percent small animal
                                                                         at 26.9 lbs).
Injurious Physiological......  50 percent        Energy flux density..  1.17 in-lb/in\2\       Level A.
                                Tympanic                                 (about 205 dB re 1
                                Membrane                                 microPa\2\-sec).
                                Rupture.
Injurious Physiological......  Onset Slight      Goertner modified      indexed to 13 psi-     Level A.
                                Lung Injury.      positive impulse.      msec (assumes 100
                                                                         percent small animal
                                                                         at 26.9 lbs).
Non-injurious Physiological..  TTS.............  Greatest energy flux   182 dB re 1            Level B.
                                                  density level in any   microPa\2\-sec.
                                                  1/3-octave band (>
                                                  100 Hz for toothed
                                                  whales and > 10 Hz
                                                  for baleen whales)--
                                                  for total energy
                                                  over all exposures.
Non-injurious Physiological..  TTS.............  Peak pressure over     23 psi...............  Level B.
                                                  all exposures.
Non-injurious Behavioral.....  Multiple          Greatest energy flux   177 dB re 1            Level B.
                                Explosions        density level in any   microPa\2\-sec.
                                Without TTS.      1/3-octave (> 100 Hz
                                                  for toothed whales
                                                  and > 10 Hz for
                                                  baleen whales)--for
                                                  total energy over
                                                  all exposures
                                                  (multiple explosions
                                                  only).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Anticipated Effects on Habitat

    The primary source of marine mammal habitat impact is noise 
resulting from live Maritime Strike missions. However, the noise does 
not constitute a long-term physical alteration of the water column or 
bottom topography. In addition, the activity is not expected to affect 
prey availability, is of limited duration, and is intermittent in time. 
Surface vessels associated with the missions are present in limited 
duration and are intermittent as well. Therefore, it is not anticipated 
that marine mammal utilization of the waters in the project area will 
be affected, either temporarily or permanently, as a result of mission 
activities.
    Other sources that could potentially impact marine mammal habitat 
were considered and include the introduction of fuel, debris, ordnance, 
and chemical materials into the water column. The potential effects of 
each were analyzed in the Environmental Assessment and determined to be 
insignificant. The analyses are summarized in the following paragraphs 
(for a complete discussion of potential effects, please refer to 
section 3.3 in the EA).
    Metals typically used to construct bombs, missiles, and gunnery 
rounds include copper, aluminum, steel, and lead, among others. 
Aluminum is also present in some explosive materials. These materials 
would settle to the seafloor after munitions detonate. Metal ions would 
slowly leach into the substrate and the water column, causing elevated 
concentrations in a small area around the munitions fragments. Some of 
the metals, such as aluminum, occur naturally in the ocean at varying 
concentrations and would not necessarily impact the substrate or water 
column. Other metals, such as lead, could cause toxicity in microbial 
communities in the substrate. However, such effects would be localized 
to a very small distance around munitions fragments and would not 
significantly affect the overall habitat quality of sediments in the 
northeastern GOM. In addition, metal fragments would corrode, degrade, 
and become encrusted over time.
    Chemical materials include explosive byproducts and also fuel, oil, 
and other fluids associated with remotely controlled target boats. 
Explosive byproducts would be introduced into the water column through 
detonation of live munitions. Explosive materials would include 2,4,6-
trinitrotoluene (TNT) and RDX, among others. Various byproducts are 
produced during and immediately after detonation of TNT and RDX. During 
the very brief time that a detonation is in progress, intermediate 
products may include carbon ions, nitrogen ions, oxygen ions, water, 
hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen gas, nitrous oxide, cyanic 
acid, and carbon dioxide (Becker, 1995). However, reactions quickly 
occur between the intermediates, and the final products consist mainly 
of water, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen gas, although 
small amounts of other compounds are typically produced as well.
    Chemicals introduced into the water column would be quickly 
dispersed by waves, currents, and tidal action, and eventually become 
uniformly distributed. A portion of the carbon compounds such as carbon 
monoxide and carbon dioxide would likely become integrated into the 
carbonate system (alkalinity and pH buffering capacity of seawater). 
Some of the nitrogen and carbon compounds, including petroleum 
products, would be metabolized or assimilated by phytoplankton and 
bacteria. Most of the gas products that do not react with the water or 
become assimilated by organisms would be released into the atmosphere. 
Due to dilution, mixing, and transformation, none of these chemicals 
are expected to have significant impacts on the marine environment.
    Explosive material that is not consumed in a detonation could sink 
to the substrate and bind to sediments. However, the quantity of such 
materials is expected to be inconsequential. Research has shown that if 
munitions function properly, nearly full combustion of the explosive 
materials will occur, and only extremely small amounts of raw material 
will remain. In addition, any remaining materials would be naturally 
degraded. TNT decomposes when exposed to sunlight (ultraviolet 
radiation), and is also degraded by microbial activity (Becker, 1995). 
Several types of microorganisms have been shown to metabolize TNT. 
Similarly, RDX decomposes by hydrolysis, ultraviolet radiation 
exposure, and biodegradation.
    Based on this information, the proposed Maritime Strike activities 
would not have any impact on the food or feeding success of marine 
mammals in the northern GOM. Additionally, no loss or modification of 
the habitat used by cetaceans in the GOM is expected. Marine mammals 
are anticipated to temporarily vacate the area of live fire events. 
However, these events usually do not last more than 90 to 120 min at

[[Page 52143]]

a time, and animals are anticipated to return to the activity area 
during periods of non-activity. Thus, the proposed activity is not 
expected to have any habitat-related effects that could cause 
significant or long-term consequences for individual marine mammals or 
on the food sources that they utilize.

Mitigation

    In order to issue an incidental take authorization (ITA) under 
sections 101(a)(5)(A) and (D) of the MMPA, NMFS must, where applicable, 
set forth the permissible methods of taking pursuant to such activity 
and other means of effecting the least practicable impact on such 
species or stock and its habitat, paying particular attention to 
rookeries, mating grounds, and areas of similar significance, and on 
the availability of such species or stock for taking for certain 
subsistence uses (where relevant). The NDAA of 2004 amended the MMPA as 
it relates to military readiness activities and the ITA process such 
that ``least practicable impact'' shall include consideration of 
personnel safety, practicality of implementation, and impact on the 
effectiveness of the ``military readiness activity''. The Maritime 
Strike activities described in Eglin AFB's application are considered 
military readiness activities.

Visual Mitigation

    Areas to be used for Maritime Strike operations would be visually 
monitored for marine mammal presence from several platforms before, 
during, and after the commencement of the mission. Eglin AFB would 
provide experienced protected species survey personnel, vessels, and 
equipment as required for vessel-based surveys. The primary observers 
would be marine scientists with over 1,000 hours of marine mammal 
surveying experience collectively. Additionally, all range clearance 
personnel involved with the missions would receive NMFS-approved 
training developed by the Eglin Natural Resources Section. The 
designated protected species survey vessels would be two 25-ft (7.6 m) 
Parker 2520 boats with a fully enclosed pilothouse and tower. These 
vessels provide large viewing areas and observers would be stationed 
approximately 16-ft (4.9 m) above the water surface. Each vessel will 
have two observers and each observer will be equipped with binoculars. 
Observers will rotate on a regular basis to prevent eye fatigue as 
needed. Additional protected species survey vessels can be made 
available if required.
    If the presence of one or more marine mammals is detected, the 
target area will be avoided. In addition, monitoring will continue 
during the mission. If marine mammals are detected at any time, the 
mission will halt immediately and relocate as necessary or be suspended 
until the marine mammal has left the area. The visual mitigation 
procedures for Maritime Strike operations are outlined below.
    Pre-mission: The purposes of pre-mission monitoring are to: (1) 
Evaluate the test site for environmental suitability of the mission; 
and (2) verify that the Zone of Influence (ZOI) is free of visually 
detectable marine mammals, as well as potential indicators of these 
species. The area of the ZOI surveyed would be based on the distance to 
the largest Level B harassment threshold for the specific ordnance 
involved in a given test. For example, the largest ZOI would be 3,526 m 
(2.2 mi), which corresponds to the distance to the Level B threshold 
(177 dB) for 945 lb munitions detonated at 3 m (10 ft) underwater. The 
smallest ZOI would be 37 m (0.02 mi), which is the distance to the 
Level B threshold (23 psi) for 20 mm gunnery rounds. Table 5 provides 
the ZOI ranges for all the ordnance types and detonation depths 
proposed for Maritime Strike operations. On the morning of the Maritime 
Strike mission, the test director and safety officer would confirm that 
there are no issues that would preclude mission execution and that 
weather is adequate to support mitigation measures.
(A) Two Hours Prior to Mission
    Mission-related surface vessels would be on site at least two hours 
prior to the mission. Observers on board at least one vessel would 
assess the overall suitability of the test site based on environmental 
conditions (e.g., sea state) and presence/absence of marine mammals or 
marine mammal indicators. This information would be related to the 
safety officer.
(B) One and One-half Hours Prior to Mission
    Vessel-based surveys and video camera surveillance would begin one 
and one-half hours prior to live weapon deployment. Surface vessel 
observers would survey the applicable ZOI and relay all marine species 
and indicator sightings, including the time of sighting and direction 
of travel, if known, to the safety officer. Surveys would continue for 
approximately one hour. During this time, mission personnel in the test 
area would also observe for marine species as feasible. If marine 
mammals or indicators are observed within the applicable ZOI, the test 
range would be declared ``fouled,'' which would signify to mission 
personnel that conditions are such that a live ordnance drop cannot 
occur (e.g., protected species or civilian vessels are in the test 
area). If no marine mammals or indicators are observed, the range will 
be declared ``green.''
(C) One-Half Hour Prior to Mission
    At approximately 30 minutes prior to live weapon deployment, marine 
species observers would be instructed to leave the test site and remain 
outside the safety zone, which on average would be 9.5 miles from the 
detonation point, (the actual size would be determined by weapon NEW 
and method of delivery) during conduct of the mission. Once the survey 
vessels have arrived at the perimeter of the safety zone (approximately 
30 minutes after being instructed to leave, depending on actual travel 
time) the mission would be allowed to proceed. Monitoring for protected 
species would continue from the periphery of the safety zone while the 
mission is in progress. The other safety boat crews would also be 
instructed to observe for marine mammals. Due to the distance from the 
target site, these observations would be considered supplemental and 
would not be relied upon as the primary monitoring method. After survey 
vessels leave the area, marine species monitoring would continue from 
the tower through the video feed received from the high definition 
cameras on the instrument barge.
(D) Execution of Mission
    Immediately prior to live weapons drop, the test director and 
safety officer will communicate to confirm the results of marine mammal 
surveys and the appropriateness of proceeding with the mission. The 
safety officer will have final authority to proceed with, postpone, 
move, or cancel the mission. The mission will be postponed or moved if:
    (1) Any marine mammal is visually detected within the applicable 
ZOI. Postponement will continue until the animal(s) that caused the 
postponement is confirmed to be outside of the applicable ZOI due to 
the animal swimming out of the range.
    (2) Large schools of fish or large flocks of birds feeding at the 
surface are observed within the applicable ZOI. Postponement will 
continue until these potential indicators are confirmed to be outside 
the applicable ZOI.
    In the event of a postponement, pre-mission monitoring will 
continue as long as weather and daylight hours allow.
    Post-mission Monitoring: Post mission monitoring will be designed 
to

[[Page 52144]]

determine the effectiveness of pre-mission visual mitigation by 
reporting sightings of any dead or injured marine mammals. If post-
mission surveys determine that an injury or lethal take of a marine 
mammal has occurred, the next Maritime Strike mission will be suspended 
until the test procedure and the monitoring methods have been reviewed 
with NMFS and appropriate changes made. Post-mission monitoring surveys 
will be conducted by the same observers that conducted pre-mission 
surveys, and will commence as soon as EOD personnel declare the test 
area safe. Vessels will move into the applicable ZOI from outside the 
safety zone and monitor for at least 30 minutes, concentrating on the 
area down-current of the test site. The monitoring team will document 
any marine mammals that were killed or injured as a result of the test 
and immediately contact the local marine mammal stranding network and 
NMFS to coordinate recovery and examination of any dead animals. The 
species, number, location, and behavior of any animals observed will be 
documented and reported to the Eglin Natural Resources Section.
    Multiple offshore Air Force missions have been successfully 
executed in the general vicinity of the proposed Maritime Strike test 
location (W-151 of the EGTTR). These missions have involved both inert 
(no explosives) and live weapons testing, and include the following:
     2009 Stand-off Precision Guided Munitions (SOPGM) live 
missile tests
     2012 Maritime Strike inert drops
     2013 Longbow live missile test (in-air detonation)
     2013 Combat Hammer Maritime WESP missions (inert drops in 
the Gulf and strafing in the Choctawhatchee Bay)
    During these missions, vessel-based observers surveyed for 
protected marine species (marine mammals and sea turtles) and species 
indicators. They also provided support to enforce human safety 
exclusion zones.
    All live and inert missions were conducted in a variety of sea 
states and weather conditions that encompass the environmental 
conditions likely to be encountered during Maritime Strike activities. 
While no marine mammals were sighted within the various take threshold 
zones (mortality, Level A and B harassment zones) during any of the 
live tests (i.e., SOPGM and Longbow missile), survey personnel judged 
that they were able to adequately observe the sea surface and there was 
reasonable likelihood that marine mammals would have been detected if 
present. There have been no documented marine mammal takes throughout 
Eglin's history of activities in the Gulf of Mexico. Therefore, based 
on these factors, Eglin AFB and NMFS expect that trained protected 
species observers would be able to adequately survey and clear 
mortality zones (maximum of 457 m) and effectively communicate any 
marine mammal sightings to test directors. Further, we expect that test 
directors would be able to act quickly to delay live weapon drops 
should protected species be observed.
    NMFS has carefully evaluated the applicant's proposed mitigation 
measures and considered a range of other measures in the context of 
ensuring that NMFS prescribes the means of effecting the least 
practicable impact on the affected marine mammal species and stocks and 
their habitat. Our evaluation of potential measures included 
consideration of the following factors in relation to one another:
     The manner in which, and the degree to which, the 
successful implementation of the measure is expected to minimize 
adverse impacts to marine mammals;
     The proven or likely efficacy of the specific measure to 
minimize adverse impacts as planned; and
     The practicability of the measure for applicant 
implementation, including consideration of personnel safety, 
practicability of implementation, and impact on the effectiveness of 
the military-readiness activity.
    Based on our evaluation of the applicant's proposed measures, as 
well as other measures considered by NMFS, the required mitigation 
measures provide the means of effecting the least practicable impact on 
marine mammal species or stocks and their habitat, paying particular 
attention to rookeries, mating grounds, and areas of similar 
significance, while also considering personnel safety, practicability 
of implementation, and impact on the effectiveness of the military-
readiness activity.

Monitoring and Reporting

    In order to issue an ITA for an activity, section 101(a)(5)(D) of 
the MMPA states that NMFS must, where applicable, set forth 
``requirements pertaining to the monitoring and reporting of such 
taking''. The MMPA implementing regulations at 50 CFR 216.104 (a)(13) 
indicate that requests for ITAs must include the suggested means of 
accomplishing the necessary monitoring and reporting that will result 
in increased knowledge of the species and of the level of taking or 
impacts on populations of marine mammals that are expected to be 
present in the proposed action area.
    NMFS has included the following measures in the Maritime Strike 
IHA. They are:
    (1) Eglin will track their use of the EGTTR for test firing 
missions and protected species observations, through the use of mission 
reporting forms.
    (2) A summary annual report of marine mammal observations and 
Maritime Strike activities will be submitted to the NMFS Southeast 
Regional Office (SERO) and the Office of Protected Resources either at 
the time of a request for renewal of an IHA or 90 days after expiration 
of the current IHA if a new IHA is not requested. This annual report 
must include the following information: (i) Date and time of each 
Maritime Strike exercise; (ii) a complete description of the pre-
exercise and post-exercise activities related to mitigating and 
monitoring the effects of Maritime Strike exercises on marine mammal 
populations; and (iii) results of the Maritime Strike exercise 
monitoring, including numbers by species/stock of any marine mammals 
noted injured or killed as a result of the missions and number of 
marine mammals (by species if possible) that may have been harassed due 
to presence within the activity zone.
    (3) If any dead or injured marine mammals are observed or detected 
prior to testing, or injured or killed during live fire, a report must 
be made to NMFS by the following business day.
    (4) Any unauthorized takes of marine mammals (i.e., injury or 
mortality) must be immediately reported to NMFS and to the respective 
stranding network representative.

Estimated Take by Incidental Harassment

    As it applies to a ``military readiness activity'', the definition 
of harassment is (Section 3(18)(B) of the MMPA): (i) Any act that 
injures or has the significant potential to injure a marine mammal or 
marine mammal stock in the wild [Level A Harassment]; or (ii) Any act 
that disturbs or is likely to disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal 
stock in the wild by causing disruption of natural behavioral patterns, 
including, but not limited to, migration, surfacing, nursing, breeding, 
feeding, or sheltering, to a point where such behavioral patterns are 
abandoned or significantly altered [Level B Harassment].
    Takes by Level A and B harassment are anticipated as a result of 
the Maritime Strike mission activities. The exercises are expected to 
only affect animals at or very near the surface of the water. Cetaceans 
in the vicinity of the exercises may incur temporary changes in 
behavior, and/or temporary changes

[[Page 52145]]

in their hearing thresholds. Based on the proposed mitigation and 
monitoring measures described earlier in this document, no serious 
injury or mortality of marine mammals is anticipated as a result of 
Maritime Strike activities, and no takes by serious injury or mortality 
are proposed to be authorized.
    Estimating the impacts to marine mammals from underwater 
detonations is difficult due to complexities of the physics of 
explosive sound under water and the limited understanding with respect 
to hearing in marine mammals. Assessments of impacts from Maritime 
Strike exercises use, and improve upon, the criteria and thresholds for 
marine mammal impacts that were developed for the shock trials of the 
USS SEAWOLF and the USS WINSTON S. CHURCHILL (DDG-81) (Navy, 1998; 
2001). The criteria and thresholds used in those actions were adopted 
by NMFS for use in calculating incidental takes from explosives. 
Criteria for assessing impacts from Eglin AFB's Maritime Strike 
exercises include: (1) mortality, as determined by exposure to a 
certain level of positive impulse pressure (expressed as pounds per 
square inch per millisecond or psi-msec); (2) injury, both hearing-
related and non-hearing related; and (3) harassment, as determined by a 
temporary loss of some hearing ability and behavioral reactions. Due to 
the mitigation measures proposed by NMFS for implementation, mortality 
resulting from the resulting sounds generated into the water column 
from detonations was determined to be highly unlikely and was not 
considered further by Eglin AFB or NMFS.
    Permanent hearing loss is considered an injury and is termed 
permanent threshold shift (PTS). NMFS, therefore, categorizes PTS as 
Level A harassment. Temporary loss of hearing ability is termed TTS, 
meaning a temporary reduction of hearing sensitivity which abates 
following noise exposure. TTS is considered non-injurious and is 
categorized as Level B harassment. NMFS recognizes dual criteria for 
TTS, one based on peak pressure and one based on the greatest 1/3 
octave sound exposure level (SEL) or energy flux density level (EFDL), 
with the more conservative (i.e., larger) of the two criteria being 
selected for impacts analysis (note: SEL and EFDL are used 
interchangeably, but with increasing scientific preference for SEL). 
The peak pressure metric used to predict TTS is 23 pounds per square 
inch (psi).
    Documented behavioral reactions occur at noise levels below those 
considered to cause TTS in marine mammals (Finneran et al., 2002; 
Schlundt et al., 2000; Finneran and Schlundt, 2004). In controlled 
experimental situations, behavioral effects are typically defined as 
alterations of trained behaviors. Behavioral effects in wild animals 
are more difficult to define but may include decreased ability to feed, 
communicate, migrate, or reproduce. Abandonment of an area due to 
repeated noise exposure is also considered a behavioral effect. 
Analyses in other sections of this document refer to such behavioral 
effects as ``sub-TTS Level B harassment.'' Schlundt et al. (2000) 
exposed bottlenose dolphins and beluga whales to various pure-tone 
sound frequencies and intensities in order to measure underwater 
hearing thresholds. Masking is considered to have occurred because of 
the ambient noise environment in which the experiments took place. 
Sound levels were progressively increased until behavioral alterations 
were noted (at which point the onset of TTS was presumed). It was found 
that decreasing the sound intensity by 4 to 6 dB greatly decreased the 
occurrence of anomalous behaviors. The lowest sound pressure levels, 
over all frequencies, at which altered behaviors were observed, ranged 
from 178 to 193 dB re 1 [micro]Pa for the bottlenose dolphins and from 
180 to 196 dB re 1 [micro]Pa for the beluga whales. Thus, it is 
reasonable to consider that sub-TTS (behavioral) effects occur at 
approximately 6 dB below the TTS-inducing sound level, or at 
approximately 177 dB in the greatest 1/3 octave band EFDL/SEL.
    Table 4 (earlier in this document) summarizes the relevant 
thresholds for levels of noise that may result in Level A harassment 
(injury) or Level B harassment via TTS or behavioral disturbance to 
marine mammals. Mortality and injury thresholds are designed to be 
conservative by considering the impacts that would occur to the most 
sensitive life stage (e.g., a dolphin calf).
    The following three factors were used to estimate the potential 
noise effects on marine mammals from Maritime Strike operations: (1) 
The zone of influence, which is the distance from the explosion to 
which a particular energy or pressure threshold extends; (2) the 
density of animals potentially occurring within the zone of influence; 
and (3) the number of events.
    The zone of influence is defined as the area or volume of ocean in 
which marine mammals could potentially be exposed to various noise 
thresholds associated with exploding ordnance. Table 5 provides the 
estimated ZOI radii for the Maritime Strike ordnance. At this time, 
there are no empirical data or information that would allow NMFS to 
establish a peak pressure criterion for sub-TTS behavioral disruption.

                              Table 5--Estimated Range for a Zone of Impact (ZOI) Distance for the Maritime Strike Ordnance
                                                                       [In meters]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                           Mortality            Level A harassment                      Level B harassment
            Munition                Height/depth of   --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       detonation        30.5 psi-msec     205 dB EFD *     13 psi-msec    182 dB EFD *       23 psi       177 dB EFD *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GBU-10..........................  Water Surface......                202             275             362            1023            1280            1361
GBU-24..........................  Water Surface......                202             275             362            1023            1280            1361
GBU-31 (JDAM)...................  Water Surface......                202             275             362            1023            1280            1361
                                  20 feet AGL........                  0               0               0               0               0               0
                                  5 feet underwater..                385             468             700            2084            1281            2775
                                  10 feet underwater.                457             591             836            2428            1280            3526
GBU-12..........................  Water Surface......                114             161             243             744             752            1020
GBU-38 (JDAM)...................  Water Surface......                114             161             243             744             752            1020
                                  20 feet AGL........                  0               0               0               0               0               0
                                  5 feet underwater..                239             280             445            1411             752            2070
                                  10 feet underwater.                279             345             532            1545             752            2336
GBU-54 (LJDAM)..................  Water Surface......                114             161             243             744             752            1020

[[Page 52146]]

 
AGM-65E/L/K/G2 (Maverick).......  Water Surface......                 84             124             187             618             575             846
CBU-103.........................  Water Surface......                  9             231              21             947             111            1335
AGM-114 (Hellfire)..............  Water Surface......                 46              70             105             425             353             618
M-117...........................  20 feet AGL........                  0               0               0               0               0               0
                                  Water Surface......                147             203             293             847             950            1125
PGU-13 HEI 30 mm................  Water Surface......                  0               6               7              31              60              55
M56/PGU-28 HEI 20 mm............  Water Surface......                  0               0               0              16              37              27
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* In greatest 1/3-octave band above 10 Hz or 100 Hz.

    Density estimates for marine mammals occurring in the EGTTR are 
provided in Table 3. As discussed above, densities were derived from 
the results of published documents authored by NMFS personnel. Density 
is nearly always reported for an area (e.g., animals per square 
kilometer). Analyses of survey results may include correction factors 
for negative bias, such as the Garrison (2008) report for bottlenose 
dolphins. Even though Fulling et al. (2003) did not provide a 
correction for Atlantic spotted dolphins or unidentified bottlenose/
spotted dolphins, Eglin AFB adjusted those densities based on 
information provided in other published literature (Barlow 2003; 2006). 
Although the study area appears to represent only the surface of the 
water (two-dimensional), density actually implicitly includes animals 
anywhere within the water column under that surface area. Density 
estimates usually assume that animals are uniformly distributed within 
the prescribed area, even though this is likely rarely true. Marine 
mammals are often clumped in areas of greater importance, for example, 
in areas of high productivity, lower predation, safe calving, etc. 
Density can occasionally be calculated for smaller areas, but usually 
there are insufficient data to calculate density for such areas. 
Therefore, assuming an even distribution within the prescribed area is 
the typical approach.
    In addition, assuming that marine mammals are distributed evenly 
within the water column does not accurately reflect behavior. Databases 
of behavioral and physiological parameters obtained through tagging and 
other technologies have demonstrated that marine animals use the water 
column in various ways. Some species conduct regular deep dives while 
others engage in much shallower dives, regardless of bottom depth. 
Assuming that all species are evenly distributed from surface to bottom 
is almost never appropriate and can present a distorted view of marine 
mammal distribution in any region. Therefore, a depth distribution 
adjustment is applied to marine mammal densities in this document 
(Table 6). By combining marine mammal density with depth distribution 
information, a three-dimensional density estimate is possible. These 
estimates allow more accurate modeling of potential marine mammal 
exposures from specific noise sources.

                 Table 6--Depth Distribution of Marine Mammals in the Maritime Strike Test Area
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Species                        Depth distribution                          Reference
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bottlenose dolphin................  Daytime: 96% at <50 m, 4% at >50 m;   Klatsky et al. (2007)
                                     Nightime: 51% at <50 m, 8% at 50-
                                     100 m, 19% at 101-250 m, 13% at 251-
                                     450 m, and 9% at >450 m.
Atlantic spotted dolphin..........  76% at <10 m, 20% at 10-20 m, and 4%  Davis et al. (1996)
                                     at 21-60 m.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    As mentioned previously, the number of Maritime Strike activities 
generally corresponds to the number of live ordnance expenditures, as 
shown in Table 2. However, the number of bursts modeled for the CBU-103 
cluster bomb is 202, which is the number of individual bomblets per 
bomb. Also, the 20 mm and 30 mm gunnery rounds were modeled as one 
burst each.
    Table 7 indicates the modeled potential for lethality, injury, and 
non-injurious harassment (including behavioral harassment) to marine 
mammals in the absence of mitigation measures. The numbers represent 
total impacts for all detonations combined. Mortality was calculated as 
approximately one-half an animal for bottlenose dolphins and about 0.1 
animals for spotted dolphins. It is expected that, with implementation 
of the management practices described below, potential impacts would be 
mitigated to the point that there would be no mortality takes. Based on 
the low mortality exposure estimates calculated by the acoustic model 
combined with the implementation of mitigation measures, zero marine 
mammals are expected to be affected by pressure levels associated with 
mortality. Therefore, Eglin AFB has requested an IHA, as opposed to an 
LOA.

[[Page 52147]]



           Table 7--Modeled Number of Marine Mammals Potentially Affected by Maritime Strike Missions
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                      Level B         Level B
                     Species                         Mortality        Level A       harassment      harassment
                                                                    harassment         (TTS)       (behavioral)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bottlenose dolphin..............................           0.524           2.008          30.187          61.069
Atlantic spotted dolphin........................           0.145           1.050          16.565          31.345
Unidentified bottlenose dolphin/Atlantic spotted           0.010           0.040           0.597           1.208
 dolphin........................................
                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------
    Total.......................................           0.679           3.098          47.349          93.622
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Table 8 provides Eglin AFB's the annual number of marine mammals, 
by species, authorized for taking by Level A harassment and Level B 
harassment, incidental to Maritime Strike operations. It should be 
noted that these takes are authorized without consideration of the 
effectiveness of Eglin AFB's proposed mitigation measures. As indicated 
in Table 8, Eglin AFB and NMFS estimate that approximately three marine 
mammals could potentially be exposed to injurious Level A harassment 
noise levels (205 dB re 1 [micro]Pa \2\-s or higher).

                                     Table 8--Number of Marine Mammals Takes
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                      Level B         Level B
                             Species                                  Level A       harassment      harassment
                                                                    harassment         (TTS)       (behavioral)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bottlenose dolphin..............................................               2              30              61
Atlantic spotted dolphin........................................               1              16              32
Unidentified bottlenose dolphin/Atlantic spotted dolphin........               0               1               1
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
    Total.......................................................               3              47              94
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Approximately 47 marine mammals may be exposed annually to non-
injurious (TTS) Level B harassment associated with the 182 dB re 1 
[micro]Pa\2\-s threshold. TTS results from fatigue or damage to hair 
cells or supporting structures and may cause disruption in the 
processing of acoustic cues; however, hearing sensitivity is recovered 
within a relatively short time. Based on Eglin AFB and NMFS' estimates, 
up to 94 marine mammals may experience a behavioral response to these 
exercises associated with the 177 dB re 1 [micro]Pa \2\-s threshold 
(see Table 8). NMFS has determined that this number will be 
significantly lower due to the expected effectiveness of the mitigation 
measures included in the IHA.

Negligible Impact and Determinations

    NMFS has defined ``negligible impact'' in 50 CFR 216.103 as ``. . . 
an impact resulting from the specified activity that cannot be 
reasonably expected to, and is not reasonably likely to, adversely 
affect the species or stock through effects on annual rates of 
recruitment or survival.'' In making a negligible impact determination, 
NMFS considers a variety of factors, including but not limited to: (1) 
The number of anticipated mortalities; (2) the number and nature of 
anticipated injuries; (3) the number, nature, and intensity, and 
duration of harassment; and (4) the context in which the takes occur.
    The takes from Level B harassment will be due to potential 
behavioral disturbance and TTS. The takes from Level A harassment will 
be due to potential tympanic-membrane (TM) rupture. Activities would 
only occur over a timeframe of two to three weeks in August 2013, with 
one or two missions occurring per day. It is possible that some 
individuals may be taken more than once if those individuals are 
located in the exercise area on two different days when exercises are 
occurring. However, multiple exposures are not anticipated to have 
effects beyond

Level A and Level B harassment

    While animals may be impacted in the immediate vicinity of the 
activity, because of the small ZOIs (compared to the vast size of the 
GOM ecosystem where these species live) and the short duration of the 
Maritime Strike operations, NMFS has determined that there will not be 
a substantial impact on marine mammals. The activity is not expected to 
impact rates of recruitment or survival of marine mammals because 
neither mortality (which would remove individuals from the population) 
nor serious injury are anticipated to occur. In addition, the activity 
will not occur in areas (and/or times) of significance for the marine 
mammal populations potentially affected by the exercises (e.g., feeding 
or resting areas, reproductive areas), and the activities will only 
occur in a small part of their overall range, so the impact of any 
potential temporary displacement will be negligible and animals are 
expected to return to the area after the cessations of activities. 
Although the activity could result in Level A (TM rupture) and Level B 
(behavioral disturbance and TTS) harassment of marine mammals, the 
level of harassment is not anticipated to impact rates of recruitment 
or survival of marine mammals because the number of exposed animals is 
expected to be low due to the short term and site specific nature of 
the activity, and the type of effect would not be detrimental to rates 
of recruitment and survival.
    Additionally, the mitigation and monitoring measures to be 
implemented (described earlier in this document) are expected to 
further minimize the potential for harassment. The protected species 
surveys will require Eglin AFB to search the area for marine mammals, 
and if any are found in the live fire area, then the exercise will be 
suspended until the animal(s) has left the area or relocated. Moreover, 
marine species observers located in the Eglin control tower will 
monitor the high-definition video feed from cameras located on the 
instrument barge anchored on-site for the presence of protected 
species. Furthermore, Maritime Strike missions will be delayed or 
rescheduled if the sea state is greater than a 4 on the Beaufort Scale 
at the time of the test. In addition,

[[Page 52148]]

Maritime Strike missions will occur no earlier than two hours after 
sunrise and no later than two hours prior to sunset to ensure adequate 
daylight for pre- and post-mission monitoring.
    Based on the analysis contained herein of the likely effects of the 
specified activity on marine mammals and their habitat, and taking into 
consideration the implementation of the mitigation and monitoring 
measures, NMFS finds that Eglin AFB's Maritime Strike operations will 
result in the incidental take of marine mammals, by Level A and Level B 
harassment, and that the taking from the Maritime Strike exercises will 
have a negligible impact on the affected species or stocks.

Impact on Availability of Affected Species or Stock for Taking for 
Subsistence Uses

    There are no relevant subsistence uses of marine mammals implicated 
by this action. Therefore, NMFS has determined that the total taking of 
affected species or stocks would not have an unmitigable adverse impact 
on the availability of such species or stocks for taking for 
subsistence purposes.

Endangered Species Act (ESA)

    Eglin AFB initiated consultation with the Southeast Region, NMFS, 
under section 7 of the ESA regarding the effects of this action on ESA-
listed species and critical habitat under the jurisdiction of NMFS. The 
consultation was completed and a biological opinion issued on May 6, 
2013. The biological opinion analyzed the effects of the exercise on 
five species of sea turtles, Gulf sturgeon, smalltooth sawfish, sperm 
whales, and Gulf sturgeon critical habitat. The biological opinion 
concluded that the action, as proposed, may adversely affect four 
species of sea turtles (loggerhead, Kemp's ridley, green, and 
leatherback). In addition, the project may affect, but is not likely to 
adversely affect, hawksbill sea turtles, smalltooth sawfish, Gulf 
sturgeon, sperm whales, and Gulf sturgeon critical habitat.

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

    Eglin AFB released a Draft Environmental Assessment (EA) on the 
Maritime Strike Operations. NMFS made this EA available on the permits 
Web page. On May 30, 2013, Eglin AFB issued a Final EA and a Finding of 
No Significant Impact (FONSI) on the Maritime Strike Operations.
    In accordance with NOAA Administrative Order 216-6 (Environmental 
Review Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy 
Act, May 20, 1999), NMFS reviewed the information contained in Eglin 
AFB's EA and determined the EA accurately and completely described the 
preferred action alternative, a reasonable range of alternatives, and 
the potential impacts on marine mammals, endangered species, and other 
marine life that could be impacted by the preferred and non-preferred 
alternatives. Based on this review and analysis, NMFS adopted Eglin 
AFB's PEA under 40 CFR 1506.3, and issued its own FONSI statement on 
issuance of an annual authorization under section 101(a)(5) of the 
MMPA.

Proposed Authorization

    As a result of these determinations, NMFS authorizes the take of 
two species of marine mammals incidental to Eglin AFB's Maritime Strike 
operations in the GOM provided the previously mentioned mitigation, 
monitoring, and reporting requirements are incorporated.

    Dated: August 13, 2013.
Donna S. Wieting,
Director, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries 
Service.
[FR Doc. 2013-20521 Filed 8-21-13; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 3510-22-P