Request for Information (RFI) Regarding Miscellaneous Residential and Commercial Electrical Equipment, 3461-3468 [2012-1347]

Download as PDF Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 15 / Tuesday, January 24, 2012 / Notices Authority: Section 1001–1004 of Pub. L. 102–486, 106 Stat. 2776 (42 U.S.C. 2296a et seq.). Issued in Washington, DC, on this 17th of January 2012. David E. Mathes, Office of Disposal Operations, Office of Technical and Regulatory Support. [FR Doc. 2012–1352 Filed 1–23–12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6450–01–P DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Docket No. EERE–2011–BT–NOA–0065] Request for Information (RFI) Regarding Miscellaneous Residential and Commercial Electrical Equipment Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for Information. AGENCY: The Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the energy use and energy efficiency potential of miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical equipment, including: audio-video equipment, computer systems, household cleaning equipment, imaging equipment, network equipment, personal space heating equipment, thermal household equipment, thermal kitchen equipment, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and vertical transport equipment. DOE is requesting information from interested parties regarding product markets, energy use, test procedures, and energy efficient product design. DATES: Written comments and information are requested by March 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Interested persons may submit comments in writing, identified by docket number EERE–2011–BT– NOA–0065 by any of the following methods: • Federal eRulemaking Portal: www. regulations.gov. Follow the instructions for submitting comments. • Email: MEL-RFI-2011-NOA-0065@ ee.doe.gov. • Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE–2J, Request for Information for on Miscellaneous Electrical Equipment, EERE–2011–BT–NOA–0065. 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585–0121. Phone: (202) 586–2945. Please submit one signed paper original. • Hand Delivery/Courier: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, srobinson on DSK4SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES SUMMARY: VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:25 Jan 23, 2012 Jkt 226001 Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L’Enfant Plaza SW., Washington, DC 20024. Phone: (202) 586–2945. Please submit one signed paper original. Instructions: All submissions received must include the agency name and docket number. Docket: For access to the docket to read background documents or comments received, please call Ms. Brenda Edwards at the above telephone number. Jeremy Dommu, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE–2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585–0121. Telephone: (202) 586–9870. Email: jeremy.dommu@ee.doe.gov. In the Office of General Counsel, Ms. Elizabeth Kohl, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of the General Counsel, GC–71, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585–0121. Telephone: (202) 586–7796. Email: Elizabeth.Kohl@hq.doe.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 1. Statutory Authority Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq.), sets forth various provisions designed to improve energy efficiency. Part B of Title III of EPCA established the ‘‘Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles.’’ 1 Part C of Title III includes measures to improve the energy efficiency of commercial and industrial equipment. 2. Miscellaneous Residential and Commercial Electrical Equipment Considered In this notice, DOE seeks data and information on the energy use of a variety of miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical equipment. For the purposes of this request for information, these products are organized into the following categories. a. Audio-Video Equipment This category includes devices that offer audio amplification, optical disc drive functions, and/or audio digital signal processing as a primary function. Example products include DVD and Blu-ray players, stereo systems, and clock radios. 1 For editorial reasons, upon codification in the U.S. Code, Parts B and C were re-designated as Parts A and A–1, respectively. PO 00000 Frm 00029 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 3461 b. Computer Systems This category includes devices and systems that primarily perform logical operations and process data, and components of such devices. Example products include desktop computers (including integrated computers), laptop computers, servers, monitors, and video game consoles. c. Household Cleaning Equipment This category includes devices whose principle function is to remove dirt, stains, and/or odors from interior dwelling spaces and furniture. Example products include steam cleaners and vacuum cleaners. d. Imaging Equipment This category includes devices whose primary function(s) include generating hard copy output from electronic input, generating electronic output from hard copy input, generating hard copy duplicates from hard copy originals, or some combination of these. Example products include printers, scanners, copiers, facsimile (fax) machines, and multi-function devices (such as a combination printer, scanner and fax). e. Network Equipment This category includes devices whose principle function(s) is to pass Internet Protocol traffic among various network interfaces. Example products include routers, modems, switches, and integrated home access devices. This category also includes security equipment. f. Personal Space Heating Equipment This category includes electrical devices that primarily deliver thermal energy (heat) for the purpose of space conditioning a person’s body or single room. Example products include electric blankets and space heaters. g. Thermal Household Equipment This category includes electrical devices that primarily deliver thermal energy (heat) for the purpose of personal grooming. Example products include clothing irons and hair dryers. h. Thermal Kitchen Equipment This category includes electrical devices that primarily deliver thermal energy (heat) for the purpose of food or beverage preparation. Example products include toasters, toaster ovens, slow and rice cookers, and coffee makers. i. Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPSs) This category includes devices that are a combination of converters, switches, and energy storage devices E:\FR\FM\24JAN1.SGM 24JAN1 3462 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 15 / Tuesday, January 24, 2012 / Notices (such as batteries) constituting a power system for maintaining continuity of load power in case of input power failure. Example products include static, rotary, modular and multi-mode UPSs. (Note that while DOE currently has an ongoing rulemaking to cover residential UPSs,2 it does not cover exclusively commercial-sector UPSs.). j. Vertical Transport Equipment This category includes electrical equipment designed to move people or goods between floors of a structure. Example products include elevators and escalators. 3. Preliminary Evaluation of Miscellaneous Residential and Commercial Electrical Equipment The energy use of many miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical equipment (including audio-video equipment, computer systems, imaging equipment, network equipment, thermal kitchen equipment, and uninterruptible power supplies) has been increasing in the last twenty years due to increased ownership and use of miscellaneous electrical (particularly electronic) devices, rapid growth in internet connections in both residential and commercial settings, and increased computing power of many electronic devices. The energy use of household cleaning equipment, personal space heating equipment, thermal household equipment, and vertical transport equipment may not have grown appreciably, but the energy use of these types of products and equipment remains high. Significant variation in the annual energy consumption of different basic models exists for many of these types of products and equipment, which indicates that technologies likely exist to reduce their energy consumption. a. Consumer Products: Average Residential Energy Use DOE calculated average energy use for the products described in this request for information based on several reports and DOE’s own estimates.3 Table 1 summarizes available estimates for miscellaneous residential electrical products. Subsequent discussion provides additional detail on DOE’s energy use calculations for each product category. DOE seeks feedback from interested parties on any revised estimates of residential energy use for miscellaneous electrical equipment. TABLE 1—ENERGY CONSUMPTION ESTIMATES OF MISCELLANEOUS RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS 4 Stock a (millions) Average unit energy use (kWh/yr) Annual energy use a (TWh/yr) Percentage of households Household energy use (kWh/yr) Source Audio-Video Equipment Compact Audio ........................................ Computer Speakers ................................ Home Theater Systems (in-a-box) .......... MP3 Player Docking Stations ................. Portable Audio ......................................... Radios ..................................................... Clock Radios ........................................... 63 74 30 48 120 81 157 105 37 91 25 6 16 15 6.6 2.8 2.7 1.2 0.7 1.3 2.3 54 47 26 41 30 70 90 105 50 91 25 19 16 22 All audio equipment ......................... 577 .................... 17.8 b 99+ 154 Blu-ray Players ........................................ DVD Players ............................................ Video Cassette Recorders (VCR) ........... 12 223 57 14 28 47 0.2 6.3 2.7 11 93 49 13 58 47 All video players ............................... 292 .................... 9.1 b 97 81 Audio/Video Receivers ............................ 99 65 6.4 50 111 33.2 b 99+ 286 Total ................................................. 962 .................... Urban et al. (2011).5 Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). Roth et al. (2007).6 Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). Computer Systems 101 132 220 63 22.2 8.3 66 61 290 118 All computers ................................... 233 .................... 30.5 b 87 303 Desktop PC Monitors .............................. Portable PC Monitors .............................. 96 35 97 97 9.3 3.4 63 16 93 25 All monitors ...................................... 131 .................... 12.7 c 69 158 External Storage Devices ........................ srobinson on DSK4SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES Desktop ................................................... Portable ................................................... 80 11 0.8 69 11 2 Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies Preliminary Analysis Public Meeting, Appliances & Commercial Equipment Standards, U.S. Department of Energy, 13 October 2010. 75 FR 56021–56024 https://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_ standards/residential/battery_external_ preliminaryanalysis_public_mtg.html. 3 Desroches, L.B., & Garbesi, K., 2011, Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:25 Jan 23, 2012 Jkt 226001 Efficiency by Design, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Final Report, LBNL–4998E. https:// efficiency.lbl.gov/bibliography/max_tech_and_ beyond. 4 Note: Some totals within the table may not sum precisely due to rounding. 5 Urban, B., V. Tiefenbeck, and K. Roth. 2011. Energy Consumption of Consumer Electronics in PO 00000 Frm 00030 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). U.S. Homes in 2010, Final Report to the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA), Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, December. 6 Roth, K.W. et al. 2007. Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Energy Consumption Characterization and Savings Potential. Prepared by TIAX LLC for DOE. E:\FR\FM\24JAN1.SGM 24JAN1 3463 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 15 / Tuesday, January 24, 2012 / Notices TABLE 1—ENERGY CONSUMPTION ESTIMATES OF MISCELLANEOUS RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS 4—Continued Average unit energy use (kWh/yr) Video Game Consoles ............................ Annual energy use a (TWh/yr) 135 Stock a (millions) 14.7 48 264 58.8 b,d 93 544 98 42 Roth et al. (2007). Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). 109 Total ................................................. 553 .................... Percentage of households Household energy use (kWh/yr) Source Urban et al. (2011). Household Cleaning Equipment Vacuum Cleaners .................................... 114 42 4.8 Imaging Equipment Printers & Multi-Function Devices ........... Copiers .................................................... Fax Machines .......................................... 113 9 10 12 14 46 1.3 0.1 0.5 71 8 9 16 14 46 Total ................................................. 132 .................... 1.9 b76 21 Network Equipment Integrated Access Devices ...................... Modems ................................................... Routers .................................................... 42 46 49 53 44 44 2.2 2.0 2.1 33 36 35 58 48 53 All Network Equipment ..................... 137 .................... 6.4 e 69 79 Security Equipment ................................. 27 61 1.7 23 61 Total ................................................. 164 .................... 8.0 b 76 90 25 121 Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). Urban et al. (2011). Roth et al. (2007). Personal Space Heating Equipment Electric Blankets ...................................... 29 120 3.5 Sanchez et al. (2008).7 Thermal Household Equipment Clothes Irons ........................................... Hair Dryers .............................................. 107 100 53 42 5.7 4.2 92 86 53 42 Total ................................................. 207 .................... 9.9 b 99 Roth et al. (2007). Roth et al. (2007). 86 Thermal Kitchen Equipment Coffee Makers ......................................... Rice Cookers ........................................... 71 20 60 45 4.2 0.9 61 17 60 45 Slow Cookers .......................................... 51 25 1.3 43 25 Toasters ................................................... Toaster Ovens ......................................... 105 65 39 33 4.1 2.1 90 56 40 33 Total ................................................. 311 .................... 12.7 b 99 Roth et al. (2007). Desroches and Garbesi (2011). Desroches and Garbesi (2011). Roth et al. (2007). Roth et al. (2007). 110 a Stock and annual energy use have been adjusted to reflect the number of households in 2011. of households owning at least one device is assumed to be uncorrelated for each device or device category. of households owning at least one device is assumed to be the sum of individual percentages. d Monitors and external storage devices are assumed to be 100% correlated with owning a computer, so the percentage of households owning at least one type of computer equipment is assumed to be the joint uncorrelated probability of owning a computer and video game console. e Percentage of households owning at least one device is assumed to be the sum of integrated access devices (which contain modems) and standalone modems. b Percentage c Percentage srobinson on DSK4SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES i. Audio-Video Equipment 7 Sanchez, M.C., Koomey, J.G., Moezzi, M.M., & Huber, W., 1998, Miscellaneous Electricity Use in the U.S. Residential Sector, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Final Report, LBNL–40295. 8 Energy Information Administration. 20110. Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2011. VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:25 Jan 23, 2012 Jkt 226001 DOE calculated average residential energy use for audio-video equipment, in households that used the product, based on data from reports on residential miscellaneous electric loads.9 These reports provide annual 9 Roth PO 00000 et al., 2011; Urban et al., 2011. Frm 00031 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 energy use per device and the total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of residential audio-video equipment included compact audio, computer speakers, home theater in-abox systems, MP3 player docking stations, portable audio, radios, clock radios, Blu-ray players, digital versatile disk (DVD) players, video cassette recorders (VCR) and audio-video E:\FR\FM\24JAN1.SGM 24JAN1 3464 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 15 / Tuesday, January 24, 2012 / Notices receivers. See Table 1 for more information. Based on these data, DOE believes the presence of one type of audio or video equipment within a household is not necessarily correlated with the presence of another type of audio or video equipment. Therefore, DOE estimated the percentage of households with at least one type of audio or video equipment to be more than 99%, by calculating the total uncorrelated probability of all device combinations.10 The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 million;11 therefore DOE estimated the number of households in which audio or video equipment was used to be 116 million. The estimated total household energy use of audio-video equipment was 33.2 billion kWh. Therefore, the estimated average annual U.S. household energy use for homes with audio-video equipment was 286 kWh. srobinson on DSK4SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES ii. Computer Systems DOE calculated average residential energy use for computer systems in households that used the product, based on data from a report on residential miscellaneous electric loads.12 This report provides annual energy use per device and the total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of residential computer systems included desktop computers, portable (laptop, netbook, and tablet) computers, monitors (for desktop and portable computers), external storage devices, and video game consoles. See Table 1 for more information. Based on these data, DOE believes that monitors and external storage devices are only present along with a computer, but the presence of one type of computer system (desktop computer, portable computer or game console) within a household is not necessarily correlated with the presence of another type of computer system. Therefore, DOE estimated the percentage of households with at least one type of computer equipment to be 10 The uncorrelated probability of owning more than one type of device is equal to one minus the probability that a home has neither type. This latter quantity is found by multiplying the probabilities that a home does not have each type of device. For instance, for video players, the probability that a home has a Blu-ray player is 11%, a DVD player, 93% and a VCR, 49%. Therefore, the probability that a home has none of these types is (1—11%) (1—93%) (1—49%) = 3%, while the probability that a home has at least one type is 1—3% = 97%. Similarly, the probability that a home has at least one type of audio equipment is more than 99%, and of audio/video receivers is 50%. Therefore, the joint probability that a home has at least one type of audio or video equipment is 1— (1—97%) (1—99%) (1—50%) = 99.99% 11 AEO 2011. 12 Urban et al., 2011. VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:25 Jan 23, 2012 Jkt 226001 93%, by calculating the total uncorrelated probability of all device combinations. The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 million;13 therefore, the number of households in which computer systems were used was approximately 108 million. The total reported household energy use of computer systems was 58.8 billion kWh. Therefore, the estimated average annual U.S. household energy use for computer systems was 544 kWh. iii. Household Cleaning Equipment DOE calculated average residential energy use for household cleaning equipment, in households that used the product, based on data from a report on residential miscellaneous electric loads.14 This report provides annual energy use per device and the total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of household cleaning equipment included vacuum cleaners; no data were available for other types of devices, including steam cleaning equipment and possibly other devices, which may be potentially significant categories of residential energy use. See Table 1 for more information. The percentage of households with at least one type of household cleaning equipment is estimated to be 98%. The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 million;15 therefore, the number of households using household cleaning equipment was approximately 114 million. The total estimated household energy use of household cleaning equipment was 4.8 billion kWh. Therefore, the average U.S. per-household energy use of household cleaning equipment was 42 kWh. iv. Imaging Equipment DOE calculated average residential energy use for imaging equipment in households that used the product, based on data from a report on residential miscellaneous electric loads.16 This report provides annual energy use per device and the total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of residential imaging equipment included printers, copiers, fax machines, and multi-function devices (such as a combination printer, scanner and fax). See Table 1 for more information. Based on these data, DOE believes the presence of one type of imaging equipment in a household is not necessarily correlated with the presence of another type of imaging equipment. 2011. et al., 2007. 15 AEO 2011. 16 Urban et al., 2011. Therefore, DOE estimated the percentage of households with at least one type of imaging equipment to be 76%, by calculating the total uncorrelated probability of all device combinations. The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 million;17 therefore, the number of households in which imaging equipment was used was approximately 88 million. The total reported household energy use of imaging equipment was 1.9 billion kWh. Therefore, the estimated average annual U.S. household energy use for imaging equipment was 21 kWh. v. Network Equipment DOE calculated average residential energy use for network equipment in households that used the product, based on data from reports on residential miscellaneous electric loads.18 These reports provide annual energy use per device and the total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of residential network equipment included modems, routers, integrated access devices (IAD, which are combination modem/routers), and security equipment. See Table 1 for more information. Based on these data, DOE believes the presence of an IAD within a household excludes the presence of a modem and vice-versa. DOE also believes that routers are 100% correlated with the presence of a modem or IAD, and that security equipment is uncorrelated with other network equipment. Therefore, DOE estimated the percentage of households with at least one type of network equipment to be 76%, by calculating the total probability of all device combinations. The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 million;19 therefore, the number of households using network equipment was approximately 88 million. The total reported household energy use of network equipment was 8.0 billion kWh. Therefore, the average U.S. perhousehold energy use for network equipment was 90 kWh. vi. Personal Space Heating Equipment DOE calculated average residential energy use for personal space heating equipment, in households that used the product, based on data from a report on residential miscellaneous electric loads.20 This report provides annual energy use per device and the total 13 AEO 17 AEO 14 Roth 18 Roth PO 00000 Frm 00032 Fmt 4703 2011. et al. 2007; Urban et al., 2011. 19 AEO 2011. 20 Sanchez et al (2008). Sfmt 4703 E:\FR\FM\24JAN1.SGM 24JAN1 3465 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 15 / Tuesday, January 24, 2012 / Notices number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of personal space heating equipment included electric blankets; no data were available for other types of devices, including electric space heaters, which may be a potentially significant category of residential energy use. See Table 1 for more information. The percentage of households with at least one type of personal space heating equipment was estimated to be 25%. The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 million;21 therefore, the number of households using personal space heating equipment was approximately 29 million. The total reported household energy use of personal space heating equipment was 3.5 billion kWh. Therefore, the average U.S. per-household energy use of personal space heating equipment was 121 kWh. vii. Thermal Household Equipment DOE calculated average residential energy use for thermal household equipment, in households that used the product, based on data from a report on residential miscellaneous electric loads.22 This report provides annual energy use per device and the total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of thermal household equipment included clothes irons and hair dryers; no data were available for other types of devices, which may be potentially significant categories of residential energy use. See Table 1 for more information. Based on these data, DOE believes the presence of one type of thermal household equipment within a household is not necessarily correlated with the presence of another type of thermal household equipment. Therefore, DOE estimated the percentage of households with at least one type of thermal household equipment to be 99%, by calculating the total uncorrelated probability of all device combinations. The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 million;23 therefore, the number of households using thermal household equipment was approximately 115 million. The total reported household energy use of thermal household equipment was 9.9 billion kWh. Therefore, the average U.S. per-household energy use thermal household equipment was 86 kWh. viii. Thermal Kitchen Equipment DOE calculated average residential energy use for thermal kitchen equipment, in households that used the product, based on data from a report on residential miscellaneous electric loads 24 and DOE’s own estimates.25 These reports provide annual energy use per device, and the total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of residential thermal kitchen equipment included coffee makers, rice cookers, slow cookers, toasters and toaster ovens. See Table 1 for more information. Based on these data, DOE believes the presence of one type of thermal kitchen equipment within a household is not necessarily correlated with the presence of another type of thermal kitchen equipment. Therefore, DOE estimated the percentage of households with at least one type thermal kitchen equipment to be 99%, by calculating the total uncorrelated probability of all device combinations. The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 million;26 therefore, the number of households using thermal kitchen equipment was approximately 115 million. The total reported household energy use of thermal kitchen equipment was 12.7 billion kWh. Therefore, the average U.S. per-household energy use of thermal kitchen equipment was 110 kWh. ix. Other Devices Many other types of residential products or equipment not covered in the discussion above are listed in Appendix A of Roth et al. (2007). The data available for these types of products and equipment include estimates of numbers of installed devices, unit energy consumption and national energy consumption, but no energy savings potentials. Some of these devices, and other devices not listed in the appendix, represent significant energy consumption and may warrant evaluation by DOE. b. Commercial Equipment: Average Commercial Energy Use DOE calculated average estimated energy use for the commercial equipment described in this request for information based on several reports and DOE’s own estimates.27 Table 2 summarizes available estimates for miscellaneous commercial electrical equipment. Subsequent discussion provides additional detail on DOE’s energy use calculations for each product category. DOE seeks feedback from interested parties on any revised estimates of commercial energy use for miscellaneous electrical equipment. TABLE 2—ENERGY CONSUMPTION ESTIMATES OF MISCELLANEOUS COMMERCIAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 28 Average unit energy use (kWh/yr) Stock (millions) Annual energy use (TWh/yr) Notes Source Computer Systems 60 48 500 28 30.0 1.3 All computers ....................................... 108 290 31.3 Desktop monitors ........................................ srobinson on DSK4SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES Desktop ....................................................... Laptop ......................................................... 65 160 108 169 2,100 6,900 Servers: —Low-end (volume) servers ............... —Mid-range servers ............................ 2011. et al. 2007. 23 AEO 2011. 24 Roth et al. 2007. 25 Desroches and Garbesi, 2011. 12.8 0.35 21 AEO 26 AEO 22 Roth 27 Desroches VerDate Mar<15>2010 18:28 Jan 23, 2012 2011. and Garbesi, 2011. 28 Note: Some totals within the table may not sum precisely due to rounding. 29 Zogg, R. et al., 2009. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building Jkt 226001 PO 00000 Frm 00033 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 ...................... ...................... Zogg et al. (2009). Zogg et al. (2009). 7.0 27.0 Low est ........ High est ........ Zogg et al. (2009). McKenney et al. (2010).30 27.3 2.4 ...................... Low est ........ Zogg et al. (2009). Zogg et al. (2009). Appliances. Prepared by Navigant Consulting, Inc. for DOE. 30 McKenney, K., et al., 2010, Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Energy Consumption Characterization and Savings Potential in 2008 by Building Type. Prepared by TIAX LLC for DOE. E:\FR\FM\24JAN1.SGM 24JAN1 3466 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 15 / Tuesday, January 24, 2012 / Notices TABLE 2—ENERGY CONSUMPTION ESTIMATES OF MISCELLANEOUS COMMERCIAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 28—Continued Average unit energy use (kWh/yr) Stock (millions) 1.3 0.018 0.015 —High-end servers .............................. —Subtotal ............................................ Notes Source McKenney et al. (2010). Zogg et al. (2009). McKenney et al. (2010). 3,923 81,400 2.13 × 106 5.1 1.5 32.0 High est ........ Low est ........ High est ........ 2,335 4,533 30.7 64.0 Low est High est 371 434 13.2 14.1 Total ..................................................... Annual energy use (TWh/yr) 69.5 122.8 Low est High est 186 282 Imaging Equipment Fax machines .............................................. 5.5 16.1 2.9 12.8 6.8 34.0 3.7 3.6 12.3 6.0 8.6 Multi-function devices ................................. Total ..................................................... 0.3 5.2 0.3 0.6 3.0 11.0 2.7 0.1 0.5 0.4 7.7 Low est ........ High est ........ ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... ...................... Low est ........ High est ........ Low est ........ High est ........ 75.3 97.2 Impact printers ............................................ Ink-jet printers ............................................. Laser printers .............................................. Printers ........................................................ Copiers ........................................................ Scanners ..................................................... 55 320 120 44 440 324 730 28 37 67 890 244 318 18.4 30.9 McKenney et al. (2010). Zogg et al. (2009). Zogg et al. (2009). Zogg et al. (2009). Zogg et al. (2009). McKenney et al. (2010). McKenney et al. (2010). McKenney et al. (2010). Zogg et al. (2009). McKenney et al. (2010). Zogg et al. (2009). Low est High est Network Equipment Commercial Routers/WLAN ........................ 7 250 1.8 ...................... Commercial Switches ................................. 435 16.5 7.2 ...................... ISP Equipment ............................................ 91 14 1.3 ...................... 920 2.3 ...................... 114 (2010).31 et al. (2011).32 (2010). et al. (2011). (2010). et al. (2011). (2010). et al. (2011). 12.5 Security Equipment ..................................... 2.5 Total ..................................................... * 109 Lanzisera Lanzisera Lanzisera Lanzisera Lanzisera Lanzisera Lanzisera Lanzisera Uninterruptible Power Supplies UPS (double conversion) ............................ UPS (line interactive) .................................. UPS (standby) ............................................. 1.3 4.5 9.0 3498 158 131 4.5 0.7 1.2 Total ..................................................... 14.7 429 ...................... ...................... ...................... Zogg et al. (2009). Zogg et al. (2009). Zogg et al. (2009). 6.4 McKenney et al. (2010). Zogg et al. (2009). Zogg et al. (2009). Vertical Transport Equipment Elevators + Escalators ................................ Elevators ..................................................... Escalators ................................................... 0.660 0.700 0.035 5,910 7,600 22,850 3.9 5.3 0.8 Low est High est High est ........ Total ..................................................... 0.660 0.735 5,910 8,330 3.9 6.1 Low est High est * Assuming approximately 50 ports per commercial switch. srobinson on DSK4SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES i. Computer Systems (Commercial Use) DOE calculated average commercial energy use for computer systems based 31 Lanzisera, S., 2010, personal communication, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 32 Lanzisera, S., B. Nordman, and R. E. Brown, 2011. ‘‘Data Network Equipment Energy Use and Savings Potential in Buildings.’’ Energy Efficiency, VerDate Mar<15>2010 18:28 Jan 23, 2012 Jkt 226001 on data from reports on commercial miscellaneous electric loads.33 These reports provide annual energy use per device and the total number of devices 23 September, DOI: 10.1007/s12 (053–011–9136–4, https://www.springerlink.com/content/ tm23317547277650. 33 Zogg et al., 2009; McKenney et al., 2010. PO 00000 Frm 00034 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 in operation in the U.S. Types of commercial computer systems include desktop computers, laptop computers, desktop monitors, and servers. See Table 2 for more information. The total number of computer systems in all commercial settings in the U.S. was estimated at between 186 and 282 million in 2008. The total reported E:\FR\FM\24JAN1.SGM 24JAN1 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 15 / Tuesday, January 24, 2012 / Notices ii. Imaging Equipment (Commercial Use) uninterruptible power supplies in the U.S. in all commercial settings was 14.7 million in 2008. The total reported commercial energy use of uninterruptible power supplies was 6.4 billion kWh. DOE calculated average commercial energy use for imaging equipment based on data from reports on commercial miscellaneous electric loads.34 These reports provide annual energy use per device and the total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of commercial imaging equipment included ink-jet printers, laser printers, impact printers, copiers, scanners, fax machines, and multi-function devices (such as a combination printer, copier and fax). See Table 2 for more information. The total number of imaging equipment in all commercial settings in the U.S. was estimated at between 75.3 and 97.2 million in 2008. The total reported energy use of devices in all commercial settings was estimated at between 18.4 and 30.9 billion kWh. v. Vertical Transport Equipment DOE calculated average commercial energy use for vertical transport equipment, based on data from reports on commercial miscellaneous electric loads.37 These reports provide annual energy use per device and the total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of vertical transport equipment included elevators and escalators. See Table 2 for more information. The total number of vertical transport equipment in all commercial settings in the U.S. was estimated to lie between 660 and 735 thousand in 2008. The total reported energy use of devices in all commercial settings was estimated to lie between 3.9 and 6.1 billion kWh. energy use of devices in all commercial settings was estimated at between 69.5 and 122.8 billion kWh. iii. Network Equipment (Commercial Use) DOE calculated average commercial energy use for network equipment based on data from a study on network equipment energy use.35 This report provides annual energy use per device and the total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of commercial network equipment included commercial routers/wireless local area networks (WLAN), commercial switches, Internet service provider (ISP) equipment and security equipment. See Table 2 for more information. The total number of network equipment in the U.S. in all commercial settings was estimated to be 109 million in 2008. The total reported commercial energy use of network equipment was 12.5 billion kWh. srobinson on DSK4SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES iv. Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) DOE calculated average commercial energy use for uninterruptible power supplies based on data from reports on commercial miscellaneous electric loads.36 These reports provide annual energy use per device and the total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of uninterruptible power supplies included double conversion, line interactive, and standby, all of which are typically found in data centers. See Table 2 for more information. The total number of et al. 2009, excluding products listed elsewhere in this RFI. 35 Lanzisera, 2010; Lanzisera et al., 2011. 36 Zogg et al., 2009. c. Energy Savings Estimates: Technical Potential Reports on miscellaneous residential and commercial electric products and equipment as well as DOE’s own estimates, as discussed above, provided estimates of typical energy savings from these products and equipment ranging from 3% to more than 80%. In the sections below, the technical savings potential has been determined by comparing the energy use of best-inclass devices to the average energy use for a particular device. DOE seeks feedback from interested parties on any revised estimates of energy savings potential for miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical equipment. i. Audio-Video Equipment Typical energy savings for audio equipment vary from approximately 3% to 60%, with most of the savings at the high end of the range, and typical energy savings for video equipment vary from approximately 35% to 85%. While the power draw in active and idle modes has generally decreased in home audio and video products as a result of gradual technology improvements and an increased focus on power management by manufacturers, the majority of energy savings opportunities continue to exist in these two modes. ii. Computer Systems Typical energy savings for computer systems and computer components vary from approximately 30% to 45%. 38 VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:25 Jan 23, 2012 Jkt 226001 Most of these savings arise from better power management, but some savings are due to lower power draw values in each mode as well, presumably from more efficient components. Improvements in power consumption among notebook computers, particularly chip-level voltage and clock frequency scaling, can be applied to desktop computer systems as the architecture is virtually identical.39 iii. Household Cleaning Equipment ENERGY STAR has evaluated potential savings for vacuum cleaners and determined that a 17% to 33% energy savings is possible by reducing motor size from 12 amps to between 8 and 10 amps, with no impact on performance.40 Little other information exists about energy savings opportunities for vacuum cleaners, aside from one identified technology that utilizes a closed air circuit to reduce the suction motor power, achieving a 50% reduction in energy use.41 The energy savings potential of other household cleaning equipment devices is unknown. iv. Imaging Equipment Typical energy savings for imaging equipment can be up to 90%.42 Most of these savings arise from better power management, but some savings are due to lower power draw values in each mode (i.e., active and standby modes). More efficient electrophotographic (e.g., laser) technology can also reduce active mode energy use in some devices. v. Network Equipment Typical energy savings for network equipment are approximately 40%.43 Network equipment typically does not scale energy consumption with utilization. As a result, there is very little difference between the active and sleep mode power consumption. Some technologies exist that allow network ports to power down when not in use, but wake within a fraction of a second. It is not known, however, if such options are feasible for security systems.44 vi. Personal Space Heating Equipment The energy savings opportunities of personal space heating equipment are mostly unknown. vii. Thermal Household Equipment While limited information exists, clothes irons and hair dryers appear to 39 Intertek, personal communication, 2011. et al., 2007. 41 Roth et al., 2007. 42 Roth et al., 2007; Zogg et al., 2009. 43 Lanzisera, 2010; Lanzisera et al., 2011. 40 Roth 34 Zogg 37 Zogg et al., 2009, excluding products listed elsewhere in this RFI. 38 Roth et al., 2007. PO 00000 Frm 00035 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 3467 E:\FR\FM\24JAN1.SGM 24JAN1 3468 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 15 / Tuesday, January 24, 2012 / Notices have limited savings opportunities, though hair dryers may offer some savings by reducing standby losses from ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI).45 The energy savings potential of other thermal household equipment devices is unknown. viii. Thermal Kitchen Equipment Typical energy savings for examined types of thermal kitchen equipment vary from approximately 20% to 33%.46 Approaches include use of more insulating materials, increasing the radiant efficiency of heating elements, modifying the internal geometry of the devices to prevent undesirable heat loss, and automatic shutoff control. In particular, for coffee makers, the use of a thermal insulating carafe to keep brewed coffee hot could reduce energy consumption by 26%, with minimal impact on consumer utility, other than a slightly smaller capacity (which could be compensated by a larger exterior volume) and slow cooling of the beverage (which could conceivably be addressed by periodic reheating). For toasters and toaster ovens, infrared heating elements offer the ability to reduce amount of energy required to heat the elements and are also very efficient radiators. ix. Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) Typical energy savings for uninterruptible power supplies are approximately 50%.47 The main means of accomplishing these savings are through replacement of double conversion (from AC to DC back to AC current) to DC-based power distribution, and minimizing UPS system sizing by moving from a single, central UPS system to distributional approach, where small UPS systems are dedicated to each machine. srobinson on DSK4SPTVN1PROD with NOTICES x. Vertical Transport Equipment Typical energy savings for vertical transport equipment vary from approximately 25% to 30%, though some manufacturers of efficient escalators claim savings up to 50%.48 Some important improvements include: Variable-voltage, variable-frequency drives, gearless permanent magnet motors, regenerative braking drives (for elevators), motor efficiency controllers, controls to shut off lights and fans when not in use, destination control software to optimize elevator trips, and higher45 Roth et al., 2007. et al., 2007; Desroches and Garbesi, 2011. 47 Zogg et al., 2009. 48 Zogg et al., 2009; McKenney et al., 2010. 46 Roth VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:25 Jan 23, 2012 Jkt 226001 efficiency lighting technology (CFL, LED). d. Consumer Utility Considerations Reducing energy consumption when equipment is idle or off must be balanced against network availability and the need for continuous communication among many types of miscellaneous electrical equipment, especially computer systems, imaging equipment, network equipment, and, increasingly, audio-video equipment. Security requirements and wake-up time are also important considerations for almost all equipment of these types. DOE seeks data and information on potential utility impacts associated with efficiency improvements for the various product and equipment types discussed above. 4. Other Regulatory Programs The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and DOE jointly administer the voluntary ENERGY STAR labeling program (www.energystar.gov) for various products and equipment. ENERGY STAR currently has standards for miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical equipment that includes audio-video equipment, computers, displays, imaging equipment, and set-top boxes & cable boxes. ENERGY STAR programs for network equipment and uninterruptible power supplies are currently under development. 5. Public Participation A. Submission of Information DOE will accept information and data in response to this Request for Information under the timeline provided in the DATES section above. Information submitted to the Department by email should be provided in WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, PDF, or text file format. Those responding should avoid the use of special characters or any form of encryption, and wherever possible, comments should include the electronic signature of the author. Comments submitted to the Department by mail or hand delivery/courier should include one signed original paper copy. No telefacsimiles will be accepted. Comments submitted in response to this notice will become a matter of public record and will be made publicly available. B. Issues on Which DOE Seeks Information DOE welcomes comments on all aspects of its consideration of miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical equipment. DOE PO 00000 Frm 00036 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 is particularly interested in receiving comments from interested parties on the following issues: (1) Which products or equipment should be included in the following categories of miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical products or equipment: Audiovideo equipment, computer systems, household cleaning equipment, imaging equipment, medical equipment, network equipment, personal space heating equipment, thermal household equipment, thermal kitchen equipment, uninterruptible power supplies, and vertical transport equipment. (2) Should DOE consider additional categories of miscellaneous residential electrical products or equipment, such as those referenced in Section 3.a)(ix)? (3) Recent estimates of the energy use of the various types of miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical products and equipment. (4) Examples of efficient technologies and energy savings potential of miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical products and equipment. (5) Overview of miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical product and equipment markets, including stocks in U.S. residential and commercial buildings, shipments, and efficiency ranges. (6) Availability and applicability of U.S. and international test procedures for miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical products and equipment. (7) Information regarding potential test procedure designs or enhancements for categories of miscellaneous electrical products and equipment. (8) Information regarding voluntary and mandatory product labeling programs in the U.S. or in other countries that have been effective in enabling consumers to chose more efficient miscellaneous electrical products and equipment. Issued in Washington, DC, on January 4, 2012. Kathleen B. Hogan, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. [FR Doc. 2012–1347 Filed 1–23–12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6450–01–P DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings #1 Take notice that the Commission received the following electric rate filings: Docket Numbers: ER07–562–000. Applicants: Trans-Allegheny Interstate Line Company. Description: Trans-Allegheny Interstate Line Company, Revised Electronic Informational Filing of 2011 Formula Rate Annual Update. E:\FR\FM\24JAN1.SGM 24JAN1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 77, Number 15 (Tuesday, January 24, 2012)]
[Notices]
[Pages 3461-3468]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2012-1347]


-----------------------------------------------------------------------

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

[Docket No. EERE-2011-BT-NOA-0065]


Request for Information (RFI) Regarding Miscellaneous Residential 
and Commercial Electrical Equipment

AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of 
Energy.

ACTION: Request for Information.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the energy use 
and energy efficiency potential of miscellaneous residential and 
commercial electrical equipment, including: audio-video equipment, 
computer systems, household cleaning equipment, imaging equipment, 
network equipment, personal space heating equipment, thermal household 
equipment, thermal kitchen equipment, uninterruptible power supplies 
(UPS), and vertical transport equipment. DOE is requesting information 
from interested parties regarding product markets, energy use, test 
procedures, and energy efficient product design.

DATES: Written comments and information are requested by March 26, 
2012.

ADDRESSES: Interested persons may submit comments in writing, 
identified by docket number EERE-2011-BT-NOA-0065 by any of the 
following methods:
     Federal eRulemaking Portal: www.regulations.gov. Follow 
the instructions for submitting comments.
     Email: MEL-RFI-2011-NOA-0065@ee.doe.gov.
     Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, 
Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, Request for Information 
for on Miscellaneous Electrical Equipment, EERE-2011-BT-NOA-0065. 1000 
Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Phone: (202) 586-
2945. Please submit one signed paper original.
     Hand Delivery/Courier: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department 
of Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza 
SW., Washington, DC 20024. Phone: (202) 586-2945. Please submit one 
signed paper original.
    Instructions: All submissions received must include the agency name 
and docket number.
    Docket: For access to the docket to read background documents or 
comments received, please call Ms. Brenda Edwards at the above 
telephone number.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeremy Dommu, U.S. Department of 
Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building 
Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, 
DC 20585-0121. Telephone: (202) 586-9870. Email: 
jeremy.dommu@ee.doe.gov.
    In the Office of General Counsel, Ms. Elizabeth Kohl, U.S. 
Department of Energy, Office of the General Counsel, GC-71, 1000 
Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone: (202) 
586-7796. Email: Elizabeth.Kohl@hq.doe.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

1. Statutory Authority

    Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as 
amended (42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq.), sets forth various provisions 
designed to improve energy efficiency. Part B of Title III of EPCA 
established the ``Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products 
Other Than Automobiles.'' \1\ Part C of Title III includes measures to 
improve the energy efficiency of commercial and industrial equipment.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \1\ For editorial reasons, upon codification in the U.S. Code, 
Parts B and C were re-designated as Parts A and A-1, respectively.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Miscellaneous Residential and Commercial Electrical Equipment 
Considered

    In this notice, DOE seeks data and information on the energy use of 
a variety of miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical 
equipment. For the purposes of this request for information, these 
products are organized into the following categories.

a. Audio-Video Equipment

    This category includes devices that offer audio amplification, 
optical disc drive functions, and/or audio digital signal processing as 
a primary function. Example products include DVD and Blu-ray players, 
stereo systems, and clock radios.

b. Computer Systems

    This category includes devices and systems that primarily perform 
logical operations and process data, and components of such devices. 
Example products include desktop computers (including integrated 
computers), laptop computers, servers, monitors, and video game 
consoles.

c. Household Cleaning Equipment

    This category includes devices whose principle function is to 
remove dirt, stains, and/or odors from interior dwelling spaces and 
furniture. Example products include steam cleaners and vacuum cleaners.

d. Imaging Equipment

    This category includes devices whose primary function(s) include 
generating hard copy output from electronic input, generating 
electronic output from hard copy input, generating hard copy duplicates 
from hard copy originals, or some combination of these. Example 
products include printers, scanners, copiers, facsimile (fax) machines, 
and multi-function devices (such as a combination printer, scanner and 
fax).

e. Network Equipment

    This category includes devices whose principle function(s) is to 
pass Internet Protocol traffic among various network interfaces. 
Example products include routers, modems, switches, and integrated home 
access devices. This category also includes security equipment.

f. Personal Space Heating Equipment

    This category includes electrical devices that primarily deliver 
thermal energy (heat) for the purpose of space conditioning a person's 
body or single room. Example products include electric blankets and 
space heaters.

g. Thermal Household Equipment

    This category includes electrical devices that primarily deliver 
thermal energy (heat) for the purpose of personal grooming. Example 
products include clothing irons and hair dryers.

h. Thermal Kitchen Equipment

    This category includes electrical devices that primarily deliver 
thermal energy (heat) for the purpose of food or beverage preparation. 
Example products include toasters, toaster ovens, slow and rice 
cookers, and coffee makers.

i. Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPSs)

    This category includes devices that are a combination of 
converters, switches, and energy storage devices

[[Page 3462]]

(such as batteries) constituting a power system for maintaining 
continuity of load power in case of input power failure. Example 
products include static, rotary, modular and multi-mode UPSs. (Note 
that while DOE currently has an ongoing rulemaking to cover residential 
UPSs,\2\ it does not cover exclusively commercial-sector UPSs.).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \2\ Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies Preliminary 
Analysis Public Meeting, Appliances & Commercial Equipment 
Standards, U.S. Department of Energy, 13 October 2010. 75 FR 56021-
56024 https://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/residential/battery_external_preliminaryanalysis_public_mtg.html.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

j. Vertical Transport Equipment

    This category includes electrical equipment designed to move people 
or goods between floors of a structure. Example products include 
elevators and escalators.

3. Preliminary Evaluation of Miscellaneous Residential and Commercial 
Electrical Equipment

    The energy use of many miscellaneous residential and commercial 
electrical equipment (including audio-video equipment, computer 
systems, imaging equipment, network equipment, thermal kitchen 
equipment, and uninterruptible power supplies) has been increasing in 
the last twenty years due to increased ownership and use of 
miscellaneous electrical (particularly electronic) devices, rapid 
growth in internet connections in both residential and commercial 
settings, and increased computing power of many electronic devices. The 
energy use of household cleaning equipment, personal space heating 
equipment, thermal household equipment, and vertical transport 
equipment may not have grown appreciably, but the energy use of these 
types of products and equipment remains high. Significant variation in 
the annual energy consumption of different basic models exists for many 
of these types of products and equipment, which indicates that 
technologies likely exist to reduce their energy consumption.

a. Consumer Products: Average Residential Energy Use

    DOE calculated average energy use for the products described in 
this request for information based on several reports and DOE's own 
estimates.\3\ Table 1 summarizes available estimates for miscellaneous 
residential electrical products. Subsequent discussion provides 
additional detail on DOE's energy use calculations for each product 
category. DOE seeks feedback from interested parties on any revised 
estimates of residential energy use for miscellaneous electrical 
equipment.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \3\ Desroches, L.B., & Garbesi, K., 2011, Max Tech and Beyond: 
Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design, Lawrence 
Berkeley National Laboratory Final Report, LBNL-4998E. https://efficiency.lbl.gov/bibliography/max_tech_and_beyond.
    \4\ Note: Some totals within the table may not sum precisely due 
to rounding.
    \5\ Urban, B., V. Tiefenbeck, and K. Roth. 2011. Energy 
Consumption of Consumer Electronics in U.S. Homes in 2010, Final 
Report to the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA), Fraunhofer 
Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, December.
    \6\ Roth, K.W. et al. 2007. Residential Miscellaneous Electric 
Loads: Energy Consumption Characterization and Savings Potential. 
Prepared by TIAX LLC for DOE.

                                Table 1--Energy Consumption Estimates of Miscellaneous Residential Electrical Products 4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                          Average
                                             Stock a    unit energy     Annual      Percentage    Household
                                            (millions)   use (kWh/   energy use a       of       energy use                     Source
                                                            yr)        (TWh/yr)     households    (kWh/yr)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  Audio-Video Equipment
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Compact Audio............................           63          105          6.6            54        105     Urban et al. (2011).5
Computer Speakers........................           74           37          2.8            47         50     Urban et al. (2011).
Home Theater Systems (in-a-box)..........           30           91          2.7            26         91     Urban et al. (2011).
MP3 Player Docking Stations..............           48           25          1.2            41         25     Urban et al. (2011).
Portable Audio...........................          120            6          0.7            30         19     Urban et al. (2011).
Radios...................................           81           16          1.3            70         16     Urban et al. (2011).
Clock Radios.............................          157           15          2.3            90         22     Roth et al. (2007).6
                                          -------------------------------------------------------------------
    All audio equipment..................          577  ...........         17.8         b 99+        154     ..........................................
                                          ===================================================================
Blu-ray Players..........................           12           14          0.2            11         13     Urban et al. (2011).
DVD Players..............................          223           28          6.3            93         58     Urban et al. (2011).
Video Cassette Recorders (VCR)...........           57           47          2.7            49         47     Urban et al. (2011).
                                          -------------------------------------------------------------------
    All video players....................          292  ...........          9.1          b 97         81     ..........................................
                                          ===================================================================
Audio/Video Receivers....................           99           65          6.4            50        111     Urban et al. (2011).
                                          -------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total................................          962  ...........         33.2         b 99+        286     ..........................................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Computer Systems
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Desktop..................................          101          220         22.2            66        290     Urban et al. (2011).
Portable.................................          132           63          8.3            61        118     Urban et al. (2011).
                                          -------------------------------------------------------------------
    All computers........................          233  ...........         30.5          b 87        303     ..........................................
                                          ===================================================================
Desktop PC Monitors......................           96           97          9.3            63         93     Urban et al. (2011).
Portable PC Monitors.....................           35           97          3.4            16         25     Urban et al. (2011).
                                          -------------------------------------------------------------------
    All monitors.........................          131  ...........         12.7          c 69        158     ..........................................
                                          ===================================================================
External Storage Devices.................           80           11          0.8            69         11     Urban et al. (2011).

[[Page 3463]]

 
Video Game Consoles......................          109          135         14.7            48        264     Urban et al. (2011).
                                          -------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total................................          553  ...........         58.8        b,d 93        544     ..........................................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Household Cleaning Equipment
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Vacuum Cleaners..........................          114           42          4.8            98         42     Roth et al. (2007).
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Imaging Equipment
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Printers & Multi-Function Devices........          113           12          1.3            71         16     Urban et al. (2011).
Copiers..................................            9           14          0.1             8         14     Urban et al. (2011).
Fax Machines.............................           10           46          0.5             9         46     Urban et al. (2011).
                                          -------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total................................          132  ...........          1.9           b76         21     ..........................................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Network Equipment
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Integrated Access Devices................           42           53          2.2            33         58     Urban et al. (2011).
Modems...................................           46           44          2.0            36         48     Urban et al. (2011).
Routers..................................           49           44          2.1            35         53     Urban et al. (2011).
                                          -------------------------------------------------------------------
    All Network Equipment................          137  ...........          6.4          e 69         79     ..........................................
                                          ===================================================================
Security Equipment.......................           27           61          1.7            23         61     Roth et al. (2007).
                                          -------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total................................          164  ...........          8.0          b 76         90     ..........................................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Personal Space Heating Equipment
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Electric Blankets........................           29          120          3.5            25        121     Sanchez et al. (2008).7
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Thermal Household Equipment
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Clothes Irons............................          107           53          5.7            92         53     Roth et al. (2007).
Hair Dryers..............................          100           42          4.2            86         42     Roth et al. (2007).
                                          -------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total................................          207  ...........          9.9          b 99         86     ..........................................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Thermal Kitchen Equipment
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coffee Makers............................           71           60          4.2            61         60     Roth et al. (2007).
Rice Cookers.............................           20           45          0.9            17         45     Desroches and Garbesi (2011).
Slow Cookers.............................           51           25          1.3            43         25     Desroches and Garbesi (2011).
Toasters.................................          105           39          4.1            90         40     Roth et al. (2007).
Toaster Ovens............................           65           33          2.1            56         33     Roth et al. (2007).
                                          -------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total................................          311  ...........         12.7          b 99        110     ..........................................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ Stock and annual energy use have been adjusted to reflect the number of households in 2011.
\b\ Percentage of households owning at least one device is assumed to be uncorrelated for each device or device category.
\c\ Percentage of households owning at least one device is assumed to be the sum of individual percentages.
\d\ Monitors and external storage devices are assumed to be 100% correlated with owning a computer, so the percentage of households owning at least one
  type of computer equipment is assumed to be the joint uncorrelated probability of owning a computer and video game console.
\e\ Percentage of households owning at least one device is assumed to be the sum of integrated access devices (which contain modems) and standalone
  modems.

     
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \7\ Sanchez, M.C., Koomey, J.G., Moezzi, M.M., & Huber, W., 
1998, Miscellaneous Electricity Use in the U.S. Residential Sector, 
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Final Report, LBNL-40295.
    \8\ Energy Information Administration. 20110. Annual Energy 
Outlook (AEO) 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

i. Audio-Video Equipment
    DOE calculated average residential energy use for audio-video 
equipment, in households that used the product, based on data from 
reports on residential miscellaneous electric loads.\9\ These reports 
provide annual energy use per device and the total number of devices in 
operation in the U.S. Types of residential audio-video equipment 
included compact audio, computer speakers, home theater in-a-box 
systems, MP3 player docking stations, portable audio, radios, clock 
radios, Blu-ray players, digital versatile disk (DVD) players, video 
cassette recorders (VCR) and audio-video

[[Page 3464]]

receivers. See Table 1 for more information. Based on these data, DOE 
believes the presence of one type of audio or video equipment within a 
household is not necessarily correlated with the presence of another 
type of audio or video equipment. Therefore, DOE estimated the 
percentage of households with at least one type of audio or video 
equipment to be more than 99%, by calculating the total uncorrelated 
probability of all device combinations.\10\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \9\ Roth et al., 2011; Urban et al., 2011.
    \10\ The uncorrelated probability of owning more than one type 
of device is equal to one minus the probability that a home has 
neither type. This latter quantity is found by multiplying the 
probabilities that a home does not have each type of device. For 
instance, for video players, the probability that a home has a Blu-
ray player is 11%, a DVD player, 93% and a VCR, 49%. Therefore, the 
probability that a home has none of these types is (1--11%) (1--93%) 
(1--49%) = 3%, while the probability that a home has at least one 
type is 1--3% = 97%. Similarly, the probability that a home has at 
least one type of audio equipment is more than 99%, and of audio/
video receivers is 50%. Therefore, the joint probability that a home 
has at least one type of audio or video equipment is 1-- (1--97%) 
(1--99%) (1--50%) = 99.99%
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 
million;\11\ therefore DOE estimated the number of households in which 
audio or video equipment was used to be 116 million. The estimated 
total household energy use of audio-video equipment was 33.2 billion 
kWh. Therefore, the estimated average annual U.S. household energy use 
for homes with audio-video equipment was 286 kWh.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \11\ AEO 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

ii. Computer Systems
    DOE calculated average residential energy use for computer systems 
in households that used the product, based on data from a report on 
residential miscellaneous electric loads.\12\ This report provides 
annual energy use per device and the total number of devices in 
operation in the U.S. Types of residential computer systems included 
desktop computers, portable (laptop, netbook, and tablet) computers, 
monitors (for desktop and portable computers), external storage 
devices, and video game consoles. See Table 1 for more information. 
Based on these data, DOE believes that monitors and external storage 
devices are only present along with a computer, but the presence of one 
type of computer system (desktop computer, portable computer or game 
console) within a household is not necessarily correlated with the 
presence of another type of computer system. Therefore, DOE estimated 
the percentage of households with at least one type of computer 
equipment to be 93%, by calculating the total uncorrelated probability 
of all device combinations.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \12\ Urban et al., 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 
million;\13\ therefore, the number of households in which computer 
systems were used was approximately 108 million. The total reported 
household energy use of computer systems was 58.8 billion kWh. 
Therefore, the estimated average annual U.S. household energy use for 
computer systems was 544 kWh.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \13\ AEO 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

iii. Household Cleaning Equipment
    DOE calculated average residential energy use for household 
cleaning equipment, in households that used the product, based on data 
from a report on residential miscellaneous electric loads.\14\ This 
report provides annual energy use per device and the total number of 
devices in operation in the U.S. Types of household cleaning equipment 
included vacuum cleaners; no data were available for other types of 
devices, including steam cleaning equipment and possibly other devices, 
which may be potentially significant categories of residential energy 
use. See Table 1 for more information. The percentage of households 
with at least one type of household cleaning equipment is estimated to 
be 98%.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \14\ Roth et al., 2007.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 
million;\15\ therefore, the number of households using household 
cleaning equipment was approximately 114 million. The total estimated 
household energy use of household cleaning equipment was 4.8 billion 
kWh. Therefore, the average U.S. per-household energy use of household 
cleaning equipment was 42 kWh.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \15\ AEO 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

iv. Imaging Equipment
    DOE calculated average residential energy use for imaging equipment 
in households that used the product, based on data from a report on 
residential miscellaneous electric loads.\16\ This report provides 
annual energy use per device and the total number of devices in 
operation in the U.S. Types of residential imaging equipment included 
printers, copiers, fax machines, and multi-function devices (such as a 
combination printer, scanner and fax). See Table 1 for more 
information. Based on these data, DOE believes the presence of one type 
of imaging equipment in a household is not necessarily correlated with 
the presence of another type of imaging equipment. Therefore, DOE 
estimated the percentage of households with at least one type of 
imaging equipment to be 76%, by calculating the total uncorrelated 
probability of all device combinations.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \16\ Urban et al., 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 
million;\17\ therefore, the number of households in which imaging 
equipment was used was approximately 88 million. The total reported 
household energy use of imaging equipment was 1.9 billion kWh. 
Therefore, the estimated average annual U.S. household energy use for 
imaging equipment was 21 kWh.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \17\ AEO 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

v. Network Equipment
    DOE calculated average residential energy use for network equipment 
in households that used the product, based on data from reports on 
residential miscellaneous electric loads.\18\ These reports provide 
annual energy use per device and the total number of devices in 
operation in the U.S. Types of residential network equipment included 
modems, routers, integrated access devices (IAD, which are combination 
modem/routers), and security equipment. See Table 1 for more 
information. Based on these data, DOE believes the presence of an IAD 
within a household excludes the presence of a modem and vice-versa. DOE 
also believes that routers are 100% correlated with the presence of a 
modem or IAD, and that security equipment is uncorrelated with other 
network equipment. Therefore, DOE estimated the percentage of 
households with at least one type of network equipment to be 76%, by 
calculating the total probability of all device combinations.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \18\ Roth et al. 2007; Urban et al., 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 
million;\19\ therefore, the number of households using network 
equipment was approximately 88 million. The total reported household 
energy use of network equipment was 8.0 billion kWh. Therefore, the 
average U.S. per-household energy use for network equipment was 90 kWh.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \19\ AEO 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

vi. Personal Space Heating Equipment
    DOE calculated average residential energy use for personal space 
heating equipment, in households that used the product, based on data 
from a report on residential miscellaneous electric loads.\20\ This 
report provides annual energy use per device and the total

[[Page 3465]]

number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of personal space 
heating equipment included electric blankets; no data were available 
for other types of devices, including electric space heaters, which may 
be a potentially significant category of residential energy use. See 
Table 1 for more information. The percentage of households with at 
least one type of personal space heating equipment was estimated to be 
25%.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \20\ Sanchez et al (2008).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 
million;\21\ therefore, the number of households using personal space 
heating equipment was approximately 29 million. The total reported 
household energy use of personal space heating equipment was 3.5 
billion kWh. Therefore, the average U.S. per-household energy use of 
personal space heating equipment was 121 kWh.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \21\ AEO 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

vii. Thermal Household Equipment
    DOE calculated average residential energy use for thermal household 
equipment, in households that used the product, based on data from a 
report on residential miscellaneous electric loads.\22\ This report 
provides annual energy use per device and the total number of devices 
in operation in the U.S. Types of thermal household equipment included 
clothes irons and hair dryers; no data were available for other types 
of devices, which may be potentially significant categories of 
residential energy use. See Table 1 for more information. Based on 
these data, DOE believes the presence of one type of thermal household 
equipment within a household is not necessarily correlated with the 
presence of another type of thermal household equipment. Therefore, DOE 
estimated the percentage of households with at least one type of 
thermal household equipment to be 99%, by calculating the total 
uncorrelated probability of all device combinations.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \22\ Roth et al. 2007.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 
million;\23\ therefore, the number of households using thermal 
household equipment was approximately 115 million. The total reported 
household energy use of thermal household equipment was 9.9 billion 
kWh. Therefore, the average U.S. per-household energy use thermal 
household equipment was 86 kWh.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \23\ AEO 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

viii. Thermal Kitchen Equipment
    DOE calculated average residential energy use for thermal kitchen 
equipment, in households that used the product, based on data from a 
report on residential miscellaneous electric loads \24\ and DOE's own 
estimates.\25\ These reports provide annual energy use per device, and 
the total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of 
residential thermal kitchen equipment included coffee makers, rice 
cookers, slow cookers, toasters and toaster ovens. See Table 1 for more 
information. Based on these data, DOE believes the presence of one type 
of thermal kitchen equipment within a household is not necessarily 
correlated with the presence of another type of thermal kitchen 
equipment. Therefore, DOE estimated the percentage of households with 
at least one type thermal kitchen equipment to be 99%, by calculating 
the total uncorrelated probability of all device combinations.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \24\ Roth et al. 2007.
    \25\ Desroches and Garbesi, 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The total number of households in the U.S. in 2011 was 116 
million;\26\ therefore, the number of households using thermal kitchen 
equipment was approximately 115 million. The total reported household 
energy use of thermal kitchen equipment was 12.7 billion kWh. 
Therefore, the average U.S. per-household energy use of thermal kitchen 
equipment was 110 kWh.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \26\ AEO 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

ix. Other Devices
    Many other types of residential products or equipment not covered 
in the discussion above are listed in Appendix A of Roth et al. (2007). 
The data available for these types of products and equipment include 
estimates of numbers of installed devices, unit energy consumption and 
national energy consumption, but no energy savings potentials. Some of 
these devices, and other devices not listed in the appendix, represent 
significant energy consumption and may warrant evaluation by DOE.

b. Commercial Equipment: Average Commercial Energy Use

    DOE calculated average estimated energy use for the commercial 
equipment described in this request for information based on several 
reports and DOE's own estimates.\27\ Table 2 summarizes available 
estimates for miscellaneous commercial electrical equipment. Subsequent 
discussion provides additional detail on DOE's energy use calculations 
for each product category. DOE seeks feedback from interested parties 
on any revised estimates of commercial energy use for miscellaneous 
electrical equipment.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \27\ Desroches and Garbesi, 2011.
    \28\ Note: Some totals within the table may not sum precisely 
due to rounding.
    \29\ Zogg, R. et al., 2009. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D 
Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances. Prepared by 
Navigant Consulting, Inc. for DOE.
    \30\ McKenney, K., et al., 2010, Commercial Miscellaneous 
Electric Loads: Energy Consumption Characterization and Savings 
Potential in 2008 by Building Type. Prepared by TIAX LLC for DOE.

                               Table 2--Energy Consumption Estimates of Miscellaneous Commercial Electrical Equipment \28\
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                Annual
                                          Stock      Average  unit  energy    energy use           Notes                           Source
                                       (millions)        use  (kWh/yr)         (TWh/yr)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Computer Systems
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Desktop.............................        60                          500         30.0  .......................  Zogg et al. (2009).
Laptop..............................        48                           28          1.3  .......................  Zogg et al. (2009).
                                     ----------------------------------------------------
    All computers...................       108                          290         31.3                           .....................................
                                     ====================================================
Desktop monitors....................        65                          108          7.0  Low est................  Zogg et al. (2009).
                                           160                          169         27.0  High est...............  McKenney et al. (2010).\30\
Servers:
    --Low-end (volume) servers......        12.8                      2,100         27.3  .......................  Zogg et al. (2009).
    --Mid-range servers.............         0.35                     6,900          2.4  Low est................  Zogg et al. (2009).

[[Page 3466]]

 
                                             1.3                      3,923          5.1  High est...............  McKenney et al. (2010).
    --High-end servers..............         0.018                   81,400          1.5  Low est................  Zogg et al. (2009).
                                             0.015             2.13 x 10\6\         32.0  High est...............  McKenney et al. (2010).
                                     ----------------------------------------------------
    --Subtotal......................        13.2                      2,335         30.7  Low est                  .....................................
                                            14.1                      4,533         64.0  High est                 .....................................
                                     ====================================================
    Total...........................       186                          371         69.5  Low est
                                           282                          434        122.8  High est                 .....................................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Imaging Equipment
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fax machines........................         5.5                         55          0.3  Low est................  McKenney et al. (2010).
                                            16.1                        320          5.2  High est...............  Zogg et al. (2009).
Impact printers.....................         2.9                        120          0.3  .......................  Zogg et al. (2009).
Ink-jet printers....................        12.8                         44          0.6  .......................  Zogg et al. (2009).
Laser printers......................         6.8                        440          3.0  .......................  Zogg et al. (2009).
Printers............................        34.0                        324         11.0  .......................  McKenney et al. (2010).
Copiers.............................         3.7                        730          2.7  .......................  McKenney et al. (2010).
Scanners............................         3.6                         28          0.1  Low est................  McKenney et al. (2010).
                                            12.3                         37          0.5  High est...............  Zogg et al. (2009).
Multi-function devices..............         6.0                         67          0.4  Low est................  McKenney et al. (2010).
                                             8.6                        890          7.7  High est...............  Zogg et al. (2009).
                                     ----------------------------------------------------
    Total...........................        75.3                        244         18.4  Low est                  .....................................
                                            97.2                        318         30.9  High est
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Network Equipment
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commercial Routers/WLAN.............         7                          250          1.8  .......................  Lanzisera (2010).\31\
                                                                                                                   Lanzisera et al. (2011).\32\
Commercial Switches.................       435                         16.5          7.2  .......................  Lanzisera (2010).
                                                                                                                   Lanzisera et al. (2011).
ISP Equipment.......................        91                           14          1.3  .......................  Lanzisera (2010).
                                                                                                                   Lanzisera et al. (2011).
Security Equipment..................         2.5                        920          2.3  .......................  Lanzisera (2010).
                                                                                                                   Lanzisera et al. (2011).
                                     ----------------------------------------------------
    Total...........................     * 109                          114         12.5                           .....................................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Uninterruptible Power Supplies
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
UPS (double conversion).............         1.3                       3498          4.5  .......................  Zogg et al. (2009).
UPS (line interactive)..............         4.5                        158          0.7  .......................  Zogg et al. (2009).
UPS (standby).......................         9.0                        131          1.2  .......................  Zogg et al. (2009).
                                     ----------------------------------------------------
    Total...........................        14.7                        429          6.4                           .....................................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Vertical Transport Equipment
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Elevators + Escalators..............         0.660                    5,910          3.9  Low est                  McKenney et al. (2010).
Elevators...........................         0.700                    7,600          5.3  High est                 Zogg et al. (2009).
Escalators..........................         0.035                   22,850          0.8  High est...............  Zogg et al. (2009).
                                     ----------------------------------------------------
    Total...........................         0.660                    5,910          3.9  Low est                  .....................................
                                             0.735                    8,330          6.1  High est                 .....................................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Assuming approximately 50 ports per commercial switch.

i. Computer Systems (Commercial Use)
    DOE calculated average commercial energy use for computer systems 
based on data from reports on commercial miscellaneous electric 
loads.\33\ These reports provide annual energy use per device and the 
total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of commercial 
computer systems include desktop computers, laptop computers, desktop 
monitors, and servers. See Table 2 for more information. The total 
number of computer systems in all commercial settings in the U.S. was 
estimated at between 186 and 282 million in 2008. The total reported

[[Page 3467]]

energy use of devices in all commercial settings was estimated at 
between 69.5 and 122.8 billion kWh.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \31\ Lanzisera, S., 2010, personal communication, Lawrence 
Berkeley National Laboratory.
    \32\ Lanzisera, S., B. Nordman, and R. E. Brown, 2011. ``Data 
Network Equipment Energy Use and Savings Potential in Buildings.'' 
Energy Efficiency, 23 September, DOI: 10.1007/s12 (053-011-9136-4, 
https://www.springerlink.com/content/tm23317547277650.
    \33\ Zogg et al., 2009; McKenney et al., 2010.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

ii. Imaging Equipment (Commercial Use)
    DOE calculated average commercial energy use for imaging equipment 
based on data from reports on commercial miscellaneous electric 
loads.\34\ These reports provide annual energy use per device and the 
total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of commercial 
imaging equipment included ink-jet printers, laser printers, impact 
printers, copiers, scanners, fax machines, and multi-function devices 
(such as a combination printer, copier and fax). See Table 2 for more 
information. The total number of imaging equipment in all commercial 
settings in the U.S. was estimated at between 75.3 and 97.2 million in 
2008. The total reported energy use of devices in all commercial 
settings was estimated at between 18.4 and 30.9 billion kWh.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \34\ Zogg et al. 2009, excluding products listed elsewhere in 
this RFI.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

iii. Network Equipment (Commercial Use)
    DOE calculated average commercial energy use for network equipment 
based on data from a study on network equipment energy use.\35\ This 
report provides annual energy use per device and the total number of 
devices in operation in the U.S. Types of commercial network equipment 
included commercial routers/wireless local area networks (WLAN), 
commercial switches, Internet service provider (ISP) equipment and 
security equipment. See Table 2 for more information. The total number 
of network equipment in the U.S. in all commercial settings was 
estimated to be 109 million in 2008. The total reported commercial 
energy use of network equipment was 12.5 billion kWh.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \35\ Lanzisera, 2010; Lanzisera et al., 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

iv. Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)
    DOE calculated average commercial energy use for uninterruptible 
power supplies based on data from reports on commercial miscellaneous 
electric loads.\36\ These reports provide annual energy use per device 
and the total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of 
uninterruptible power supplies included double conversion, line 
interactive, and standby, all of which are typically found in data 
centers. See Table 2 for more information. The total number of 
uninterruptible power supplies in the U.S. in all commercial settings 
was 14.7 million in 2008. The total reported commercial energy use of 
uninterruptible power supplies was 6.4 billion kWh.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \36\ Zogg et al., 2009.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

v. Vertical Transport Equipment
    DOE calculated average commercial energy use for vertical transport 
equipment, based on data from reports on commercial miscellaneous 
electric loads.\37\ These reports provide annual energy use per device 
and the total number of devices in operation in the U.S. Types of 
vertical transport equipment included elevators and escalators. See 
Table 2 for more information. The total number of vertical transport 
equipment in all commercial settings in the U.S. was estimated to lie 
between 660 and 735 thousand in 2008. The total reported energy use of 
devices in all commercial settings was estimated to lie between 3.9 and 
6.1 billion kWh.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \37\ Zogg et al., 2009, excluding products listed elsewhere in 
this RFI.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

c. Energy Savings Estimates: Technical Potential

    Reports on miscellaneous residential and commercial electric 
products and equipment as well as DOE's own estimates, as discussed 
above, provided estimates of typical energy savings from these products 
and equipment ranging from 3% to more than 80%. In the sections below, 
the technical savings potential has been determined by comparing the 
energy use of best-in-class devices to the average energy use for a 
particular device. DOE seeks feedback from interested parties on any 
revised estimates of energy savings potential for miscellaneous 
residential and commercial electrical equipment.
i. Audio-Video Equipment
    Typical energy savings for audio equipment vary from approximately 
3% to 60%, with most of the savings at the high end of the range, and 
typical energy savings for video equipment vary from approximately 35% 
to 85%. While the power draw in active and idle modes has generally 
decreased in home audio and video products as a result of gradual 
technology improvements and an increased focus on power management by 
manufacturers, the majority of energy savings opportunities continue to 
exist in these two modes.
ii. Computer Systems
    Typical energy savings for computer systems and computer components 
vary from approximately 30% to 45%. \38\ Most of these savings arise 
from better power management, but some savings are due to lower power 
draw values in each mode as well, presumably from more efficient 
components. Improvements in power consumption among notebook computers, 
particularly chip-level voltage and clock frequency scaling, can be 
applied to desktop computer systems as the architecture is virtually 
identical.\39\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \38\ Roth et al., 2007.
    \39\ Intertek, personal communication, 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

iii. Household Cleaning Equipment
    ENERGY STAR has evaluated potential savings for vacuum cleaners and 
determined that a 17% to 33% energy savings is possible by reducing 
motor size from 12 amps to between 8 and 10 amps, with no impact on 
performance.\40\ Little other information exists about energy savings 
opportunities for vacuum cleaners, aside from one identified technology 
that utilizes a closed air circuit to reduce the suction motor power, 
achieving a 50% reduction in energy use.\41\ The energy savings 
potential of other household cleaning equipment devices is unknown.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \40\ Roth et al., 2007.
    \41\ Roth et al., 2007.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

iv. Imaging Equipment
    Typical energy savings for imaging equipment can be up to 90%.\42\ 
Most of these savings arise from better power management, but some 
savings are due to lower power draw values in each mode (i.e., active 
and standby modes). More efficient electrophotographic (e.g., laser) 
technology can also reduce active mode energy use in some devices.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \42\ Roth et al., 2007; Zogg et al., 2009.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

v. Network Equipment
    Typical energy savings for network equipment are approximately 
40%.\43\ Network equipment typically does not scale energy consumption 
with utilization. As a result, there is very little difference between 
the active and sleep mode power consumption. Some technologies exist 
that allow network ports to power down when not in use, but wake within 
a fraction of a second. It is not known, however, if such options are 
feasible for security systems.\44\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \43\ Lanzisera, 2010; Lanzisera et al., 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

vi. Personal Space Heating Equipment
    The energy savings opportunities of personal space heating 
equipment are mostly unknown.
vii. Thermal Household Equipment
    While limited information exists, clothes irons and hair dryers 
appear to

[[Page 3468]]

have limited savings opportunities, though hair dryers may offer some 
savings by reducing standby losses from ground fault circuit 
interrupters (GFCI).\45\ The energy savings potential of other thermal 
household equipment devices is unknown.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \45\ Roth et al., 2007.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

viii. Thermal Kitchen Equipment
    Typical energy savings for examined types of thermal kitchen 
equipment vary from approximately 20% to 33%.\46\ Approaches include 
use of more insulating materials, increasing the radiant efficiency of 
heating elements, modifying the internal geometry of the devices to 
prevent undesirable heat loss, and automatic shutoff control. In 
particular, for coffee makers, the use of a thermal insulating carafe 
to keep brewed coffee hot could reduce energy consumption by 26%, with 
minimal impact on consumer utility, other than a slightly smaller 
capacity (which could be compensated by a larger exterior volume) and 
slow cooling of the beverage (which could conceivably be addressed by 
periodic reheating). For toasters and toaster ovens, infrared heating 
elements offer the ability to reduce amount of energy required to heat 
the elements and are also very efficient radiators.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \46\ Roth et al., 2007; Desroches and Garbesi, 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

ix. Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)
    Typical energy savings for uninterruptible power supplies are 
approximately 50%.\47\ The main means of accomplishing these savings 
are through replacement of double conversion (from AC to DC back to AC 
current) to DC-based power distribution, and minimizing UPS system 
sizing by moving from a single, central UPS system to distributional 
approach, where small UPS systems are dedicated to each machine.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \47\ Zogg et al., 2009.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

x. Vertical Transport Equipment
    Typical energy savings for vertical transport equipment vary from 
approximately 25% to 30%, though some manufacturers of efficient 
escalators claim savings up to 50%.\48\ Some important improvements 
include: Variable-voltage, variable-frequency drives, gearless 
permanent magnet motors, regenerative braking drives (for elevators), 
motor efficiency controllers, controls to shut off lights and fans when 
not in use, destination control software to optimize elevator trips, 
and higher-efficiency lighting technology (CFL, LED).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \48\ Zogg et al., 2009; McKenney et al., 2010.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

d. Consumer Utility Considerations

    Reducing energy consumption when equipment is idle or off must be 
balanced against network availability and the need for continuous 
communication among many types of miscellaneous electrical equipment, 
especially computer systems, imaging equipment, network equipment, and, 
increasingly, audio-video equipment. Security requirements and wake-up 
time are also important considerations for almost all equipment of 
these types. DOE seeks data and information on potential utility 
impacts associated with efficiency improvements for the various product 
and equipment types discussed above.

4. Other Regulatory Programs

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and DOE jointly administer 
the voluntary ENERGY STAR labeling program (www.energystar.gov) for 
various products and equipment. ENERGY STAR currently has standards for 
miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical equipment that 
includes audio-video equipment, computers, displays, imaging equipment, 
and set-top boxes & cable boxes. ENERGY STAR programs for network 
equipment and uninterruptible power supplies are currently under 
development.

5. Public Participation

A. Submission of Information

    DOE will accept information and data in response to this Request 
for Information under the timeline provided in the DATES section above. 
Information submitted to the Department by email should be provided in 
WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, PDF, or text file format. Those responding 
should avoid the use of special characters or any form of encryption, 
and wherever possible, comments should include the electronic signature 
of the author. Comments submitted to the Department by mail or hand 
delivery/courier should include one signed original paper copy. No 
telefacsimiles will be accepted. Comments submitted in response to this 
notice will become a matter of public record and will be made publicly 
available.

B. Issues on Which DOE Seeks Information

    DOE welcomes comments on all aspects of its consideration of 
miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical equipment. DOE is 
particularly interested in receiving comments from interested parties 
on the following issues:

    (1) Which products or equipment should be included in the 
following categories of miscellaneous residential and commercial 
electrical products or equipment: Audio-video equipment, computer 
systems, household cleaning equipment, imaging equipment, medical 
equipment, network equipment, personal space heating equipment, 
thermal household equipment, thermal kitchen equipment, 
uninterruptible power supplies, and vertical transport equipment.
    (2) Should DOE consider additional categories of miscellaneous 
residential electrical products or equipment, such as those 
referenced in Section 3.a)(ix)?
    (3) Recent estimates of the energy use of the various types of 
miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical products and 
equipment.
    (4) Examples of efficient technologies and energy savings 
potential of miscellaneous residential and commercial electrical 
products and equipment.
    (5) Overview of miscellaneous residential and commercial 
electrical product and equipment markets, including stocks in U.S. 
residential and commercial buildings, shipments, and efficiency 
ranges.
    (6) Availability and applicability of U.S. and international 
test procedures for miscellaneous residential and commercial 
electrical products and equipment.
    (7) Information regarding potential test procedure designs or 
enhancements for categories of miscellaneous electrical products and 
equipment.
    (8) Information regarding voluntary and mandatory product 
labeling programs in the U.S. or in other countries that have been 
effective in enabling consumers to chose more efficient 
miscellaneous electrical products and equipment.

    Issued in Washington, DC, on January 4, 2012.
Kathleen B. Hogan,
Deputy Assistant Secretary for Ene