Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans, 51553-51555 [E9-24224]

Download as PDF Federal Register / Vol. 74, No. 193 / Wednesday, October 7, 2009 / Notices and Community Forestry Advisory Council, 201 14th St., SW., Yates Building (1 Central) MS–1151, Washington, DC 20250–1151, phone 202–205–1054. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1–800–877–8339 between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern, Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The 2010 U. S. Forest Service Urban and Community Forestry Challenge CostShare Grant instructions and application are posted on http:// www.grants.gov. The instructions only will be posted on the U.S. Forest Service Web site at: http://www.fs.fed.us/ucf. If interested applicants are not already registered in Grants.gov, they are encouraged to register now. The process may take up to 2 weeks to collect the required information. Dated: October 1, 2009. Robin L. Thompson, Associate Deputy Chief, State & Private Forestry. [FR Doc. E9–24137 Filed 10–6–09; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3410–11–P DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648–XR39 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans erowe on DSK5CLS3C1PROD with NOTICES AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments and notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) announces availability for public review and comment of the Draft Central Valley Salmon and Steelhead Recovery Plan (Draft Plan). The Draft Plan addresses the Sacramento River winter-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU), the Central Valley springrun Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) ESU, and the Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of Central Valley Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). NMFS is soliciting review and comment from the public and all interested parties on the Draft Plan. In addition, four public meetings will be held in October 2009 as opportunities for VerDate Nov<24>2008 15:25 Oct 06, 2009 Jkt 220001 providing comments on the Draft Plan (dates to be determined). DATES: NMFS will consider and address all substantive comments received during the comment period. Comments must be received no later than 5 p.m. Pacific Standard Time on December 7, 2009. Public meetings will also be held (see Public Meetings below). ADDRESSES: Please send written comments and materials to Brian Ellrott, National Marine Fisheries Service, 650 Capitol Mall, Suite 8–300, Sacramento, CA 95816. Comments may also be submitted by e-mail to: CentralValleyPlan.SWR@noaa.gov. Include in the subject line of the e-mail comment the following identifier: ‘‘Comments on Central Valley Salmon and Steelhead Draft Plan.’’ Comments may be submitted via facsimile (fax) to (916) 930–3629. Persons wishing to review the Draft Plan can obtain an electronic copy (i.e., CD-ROM) from Aimee Diefenbach by calling (916) 930–3600 or by e-mailing a request to aimee.diefenbach@noaa.gov with the subject line ‘‘CD-ROM Request for Central Valley Salmon and Steelhead Recovery Draft Plan.’’ Electronic copies of the Draft Plan are also available online on the NMFS website http:// swr.nmfs.noaa.gov/recovery/ centralvalleyplan.htm. The specific dates, times, and locations of public meetings will be posted on this website as they become available. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brian Ellrott at (916) 930–3612 or Howard Brown, NMFS Sacramento River Basin Branch Chief at (916) 930– 3608. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Recovery plans describe actions beneficial to the conservation and recovery of species listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA), as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). The ESA requires that recovery plans incorporate: (1) objective, measurable criteria which, when met, would result in a determination that the species is no longer threatened or endangered; (2) site-specific management actions necessary to achieve the plan’s goals; and (3) estimates of the time required and costs to implement recovery actions. The ESA requires the development of recovery plans for each listed species unless such a plan would not promote its recovery. NMFS is responsible for developing and implementing ESA recovery plans for listed salmon and steelhead. In so doing, NMFS’ goal is to restore PO 00000 Frm 00004 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 51553 endangered and threatened Pacific salmonids to the point that they are again self-sustaining members of their ecosystems and no longer need the protections of the ESA. Recovery Plans developed under the ESA are guidance documents, not regulatory documents. However, the ESA envisions Recovery Plans as the central organizing tool for guiding the recovery of listed species. Recovery Plans also guide Federal agencies in fulfilling their obligations under section 7(a)(1) of the ESA, which calls on all Federal agencies to ‘‘utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of this Act by carrying out programs for the conservation of endangered species and threatened species.’’ In addition to outlining proactive measures to achieve species recovery, Recovery Plans provide a context and framework for implementing other provisions of the ESA with respect to a particular species, including consultations on Federal agency activities under section 7(a)(2) and the development of Habitat Conservation Plans in accordance with section 10(a)(1)(B). This Draft Plan serves as a guideline for achieving recovery criteria and goals by describing the criteria by which NMFS would measure species recovery, the strategy to achieve recovery, and the recovery actions necessary to achieve viable ESU’s of Sacramento River winter-run Chinook salmon and Central Valley spring-run Chinook salmon, and a viable DPS of Central Valley steelhead. Recovery Criteria Recovery criteria are built upon criteria recommended by the NMFS Technical Recovery Team (TRT) for the identification of viable anadromous salmonid populations and ESUs/DPSs. A viable population is defined as a population having a negligible risk (<5%) of extinction due to threats from demographic variation, non-catastrophic environmental variation, and genetic diversity changes over a 100–year time frame. A viable ESU/DPS is comprised of a sufficient number of viable populations sufficiently dispersed spatially, but well connected enough to maintain long-term (1,000–year) persistence and evolutionary potential (McElhany et al. 2000). The viability criteria are intended to describe characteristics of the species and its natural environments necessary for both individual populations and the ESU/ DPS as a whole to be viable, i.e., persist over a specific period of time. Recovery of winter-run Chinook salmon, spring-run Chinook salmon, and steelhead in the Central Valley will E:\FR\FM\07OCN1.SGM 07OCN1 51554 Federal Register / Vol. 74, No. 193 / Wednesday, October 7, 2009 / Notices erowe on DSK5CLS3C1PROD with NOTICES require recovery of a sufficient number of viable populations of each species within each of the species’ historic diversity groups defined by the TRT. Recovery of individual populations is necessary to conserve the natural diversity (genetic, phenotypic, and behavioral), spatial distribution, and abundance of each species, and thus the long-term viability of each ESU/DPS as a whole. Additionally, the ESU/DPS as a whole must contain a minimal number of viable populations, or interacting trans-basin populations, within each diversity group in order to withstand environmental variation of the sort known to have occurred in the Central Valley over the last 500–1,000 years. Such variation has included natural catastrophes such as prolonged drought, volcanic eruptions, large wildfires, and anthropogenic impacts such as the 1991 Cantara metam sodium spill. Therefore, for ESUs/DPSs to be considered viable, they should be able to persist if challenged by these types of catastrophes as well as anthropogenic climate change. Recovery Strategy Achieving recovery of winter-run Chinook salmon, spring-run Chinook salmon, and steelhead will require a number of coordinated activities, such as: (1) implementing the strategic and threat-specific recovery actions identified in this Draft Plan, including actions directed at increasing the quantity and quality of habitat available to anadromous salmonids, minimizing hatchery effects, and improving harvest management; (2) monitoring the abundance and distribution of existing populations for all three species and their response to recovery actions; and (3) researching the diverse life-history patterns and adaptations of Central Valley steelhead to a highly dynamic environment (e.g., the ecological relationship between anadromous and non-anadromous life-history forms). There remain uncertainties regarding the level of recovery necessary to achieve population viability, therefore, additional research and monitoring of winter-run Chinook salmon, spring-run Chinook salmon, and steelhead in the Central Valley is an essential component of this Draft Plan. As this Draft Plan is implemented over time, additional information will become available to: (1) refine the viability criteria; (2) update and refine the species-specific threats assessments and related recovery actions; (3) determine whether individual threats have been abated; and (4) evaluate the overall viability of winter-run Chinook salmon, spring-run Chinook salmon, and VerDate Nov<24>2008 15:25 Oct 06, 2009 Jkt 220001 Recovery Actions Many complex and inter-related biological, economic, social, and technological issues must be addressed in order to recover anadromous salmonids in the Central Valley. Policy changes at the Federal, state, and local levels will likely be necessary to implement many of the recovery actions identified in this Draft Plan. For example, without substantial strides in water conservation throughout California, flow conditions for anadromous salmonids will limit recovery. Similarly, recovery is unlikely without programs to restore properly functioning historic habitat such as estuaries, and access to upstream spawning and rearing habitat. on planning and implementation of all high priority recovery actions. Additionally it will be important to work with local governments to ensure that protective measures consistent with recovery objectives are included in their general and local plans. NMFS should also work with state and Federal regional entities on Regional Water Control Board Basin Plans and U.S. Forest Service Plans. An implementation schedule describing time frames and costs associated with individual recovery actions is included in the Draft Plan and is continuing to be developed as information becomes available. Estimating total cost to recovery is much more challenging, if not impossible to estimate for a variety of reasons. These include the large geographic extent of the Central Valley; the long-term duration (e.g., likely decades) expected to achieve full recovery; and the uncertainty associated with population responses to changing environmental conditions. In some instances, however, NMFS is able to estimate the costs associated with certain common restoration activities such as those undertaken as part of the Calfed Ecosystem Restoration Program, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Anadromous Fish Restoration Program, or the California Department of Water Resource’s Fish Passage Improvement Program. An appendix to the Draft Plan contains estimates for these categories of typical watershed restoration actions. The criteria and recovery actions identified in the Draft Plan provide a comprehensive road-map for recovery and are consistent with many ongoing activities intended to protect and or restore ecosystem functions in Central Valley watersheds. As a result, many of these recovery actions will be undertaken by local, state and Federal agencies, as well as non-governmental organizations and other private entities as a part of their local ecosystem protection efforts. Also, the wide variety of threats to Central Valley salmon and steelhead provide for a variety of potential funding sources available to develop and implement these recovery actions, often as part of other ongoing natural resource restoration, management, and mitigation programs. Implementation and Cost Estimates Implementation of this Draft Plan by NMFS will take many forms. To achieve recovery, NMFS will need to promote the Draft Plan and provide needed technical information and assistance to other entities responsible for actions that may impact the species’ recovery. NMFS should work with key partners Public Comments Solicited NMFS solicits written comments on the Draft Plan. All comments received by the date specified above will be considered prior to NMFS’ decision whether to approve the Draft Plan. NMFS seeks comments particularly in the following areas: (1) the analysis of limiting factors and threats; (2) the steelhead in the Central Valley. There will be a review of the recovery actions implemented and population and habitat responses to these actions at the 5–year and 10–year status reviews for each ESU/DPS. Effective implementation of recovery actions will also entail: (1) extensive public education (including the general public, non-governmental agencies, and local, regional, State, and Federal governmental agencies,) regarding the role and value of these species within the larger watershed environment; (2) development of cooperative relationships with private land owners, special districts, federally-recognized tribes, and local governments with direct control and responsibilities over non-federal land-use practices; (3) participation in the land use and water planning and regulatory processes of local, regional, State, and Federal agencies; (4) close cooperation with other state resource agencies such as the California Department of Fish and Game, California Department of Water Resources, CalTrans, and the California Department of Parks and Recreation, and (5) partnering with Federal resource agencies, including the U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Defense, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PO 00000 Frm 00005 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 E:\FR\FM\07OCN1.SGM 07OCN1 Federal Register / Vol. 74, No. 193 / Wednesday, October 7, 2009 / Notices recovery objectives, strategies, and actions, especially in regard to the selection of core populations, priority areas for reintroduction, and critical recovery actions; (3) the criteria for removing ESUs/DPSs from the Federal list of endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; and (4) estimates of time and cost to implement recovery actions. NMFS will also hold public meetings to provide an opportunity for the public to learn more about the Draft Plan, ask questions of NMFS staff, and submit oral or written comments on the Draft Plan. Public Meetings Four public meetings will be held, two in Chico, CA and two in Sacramento, CA . The two Chico meetings will occur on the same date with one three-hour meeting during the day followed by one two-hour meeting in the evening. The Sacramento meetings will follow this same day/ evening approach. The meetings will be targeted toward receiving comments from key stakeholders and salmon recovery ‘‘practitioners’’ such as local jurisdiction officials, state and local agency personnel, industry representatives, public and non-profit interest representatives, and others who have a professional involvement and knowledge of salmon recovery issues, as well as general public and other constituencies. Literature Cited McElhany, P., Ruckelshaus, M.H., Ford, M.J., Wainwright, T.C., and Bjorkstedt, E.P. 2000. Viable Salmonid Populations and the Conservation of Evolutionarily Significant Units. U.S. Department of Commerce. NOAA Technical Memorandum. NMFS NWFSC 42. Seattle, WA.Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq. Dated:September 30, 2009. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR Doc. E9–24224 Filed 10–6–09; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510–22–S DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (‘‘Department’’’) has a longstanding practice of calculating expected nonmarket economy (‘‘NME’’) wages for use as the surrogate value for direct labor in antidumping proceedings involving NME countries. These expected NME wages are calculated annually in accordance with the Department’s regulations, see 19 CFR 351.408(c)(3). This notice constitutes the Department’s 2009 expected NME wages, which were calculated from 2007 data made available in 2009 according to the Department’s revised methodology described in the Federal Register notice entitled Antidumping Methodologies: Market Economy Inputs, Expected NonMarket Economy Wages, Duty Drawback; and Request for Comments, 71 FR 61716, Oct. 19, 2006 (hereafter, the Antidumping Methodologies notice). The Department further provides the public with an opportunity to comment on potential clerical errors in the calculation. Id. DATES: Any comments must be submitted no later than 10 days after publication of this notice. ADDRESSES: Written comments (original and six copies) should be sent to Ronald Lorentzen, Acting Assistant Secretary for Import Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Central Records Unit, Room 1870, 14th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bobby Wong, Senior International Trade Analyst, China/NME Group, Import Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230, (202) 482–0409. Background The Department’s regulations generally describe the methodology by which the Department calculates expected NME wages. For labor, the Secretary will use regression-based wage rates reflective of the observed relationship between wages and national income in market economy countries. The Secretary will calculate the wage rate to be applied in nonmarket economy proceedings each year.1 The calculation will be based on erowe on DSK5CLS3C1PROD with NOTICES International Trade Administration Expected Non-Market Economy Wages: Request for Comments on 2009 Calculation AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. VerDate Nov<24>2008 15:25 Oct 06, 2009 Jkt 220001 1 Pursuant to the Antidumping Methodologies Notice, 71 FR 61722, the Department intends to publish the annual revisions of the expected NME wage rates on its Web site in the fall. Since there is no fixed deadline for the submission of the relevant country data to the World Bank and ILO, the Department cannot specify a date certain by which the revision will be published. We can say, however, that because not all countries submit their data at the same time and because the Department must wait until all relevant data is submitted, PO 00000 Frm 00006 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 51555 current data, and will be made available to the public. See 19 CFR 351.408(c)(3). The Department’s expected NME wages are calculated each year in two steps. First, the relationship between hourly wage rates (obtained from the International Labour Organization’s (‘‘ILO’’) Yearbook of Labour Statistics) and per-capita gross national income (‘‘GNI’’) (obtained from the World Bank) is estimated using ordinary least squares (‘‘OLS’’) regression analysis. Second, the GNI of each of the countries designated by the Department to be an NME is applied to the regression, which yields an expected hourly wage rate for each NME. The Department published a notice in the Federal Register on October 19, 2006, which detailed its revised methodology for calculating expected NME wages in antidumping proceedings involving NME countries. See the Antidumping Methodologies notice. In that notice, the Department stated that ‘‘{e}ach year, the Department’s annual calculation will be subject to public notice prior to the adoption of the resulting expected NME wage rates for use in antidumping proceedings. Comment will be requested only with regard to potential clerical errors in the Department’s calculation.’’ Antidumping Methodology notice, 71 FR 61722. This notice constitutes the Department’s 2009 calculation of expected NME wages in Attachment 1, which were calculated from 2007 data made available in 2009 according to the Department’s revised methodology described in the Antidumping Methodologies notice. The Department is requesting public comment only on the potential clerical errors in the calculation. Comments with regard to the methodology were addressed in the Antidumping Methodologies notice and will not be considered. In order to facilitate a full opportunity for comment, and because the underlying data are voluminous, the preliminary results and underlying data for the preliminary 2009 expected NME wages calculation have been posted on the Import Administration Web site (http://www.ia.ita.doc.gov). This preliminary calculation will not be used for antidumping purposes until it has been finalized by the Department following the public comment period. Submission of Comments Persons wishing to comment on clerical errors in the Department’s 2009 calculation of expected NME wages presented in Attachment 1 should file publication of the revision will likely take place in late fall. E:\FR\FM\07OCN1.SGM 07OCN1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 74, Number 193 (Wednesday, October 7, 2009)]
[Notices]
[Pages 51553-51555]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: E9-24224]


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DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

RIN 0648-XR39


Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

AGENCY:  National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration, Commerce.

ACTION:  Notice of availability; request for comments and notice of 
public meetings.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY:  The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) announces 
availability for public review and comment of the Draft Central Valley 
Salmon and Steelhead Recovery Plan (Draft Plan). The Draft Plan 
addresses the Sacramento River winter-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus 
tshawytscha) Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU), the Central Valley 
spring-run Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) ESU, and the Distinct 
Population Segment (DPS) of Central Valley Steelhead (Oncorhynchus 
mykiss). NMFS is soliciting review and comment from the public and all 
interested parties on the Draft Plan. In addition, four public meetings 
will be held in October 2009 as opportunities for providing comments on 
the Draft Plan (dates to be determined).

DATES:  NMFS will consider and address all substantive comments 
received during the comment period. Comments must be received no later 
than 5 p.m. Pacific Standard Time on December 7, 2009. Public meetings 
will also be held (see Public Meetings below).

ADDRESSES:  Please send written comments and materials to Brian 
Ellrott, National Marine Fisheries Service, 650 Capitol Mall, Suite 8-
300, Sacramento, CA 95816. Comments may also be submitted by e-mail to: 
CentralValleyPlan.SWR@noaa.gov. Include in the subject line of the e-
mail comment the following identifier: ``Comments on Central Valley 
Salmon and Steelhead Draft Plan.'' Comments may be submitted via 
facsimile (fax) to (916) 930-3629.
    Persons wishing to review the Draft Plan can obtain an electronic 
copy (i.e., CD-ROM) from Aimee Diefenbach by calling (916) 930-3600 or 
by e-mailing a request to aimee.diefenbach@noaa.gov with the subject 
line ``CD-ROM Request for Central Valley Salmon and Steelhead Recovery 
Draft Plan.'' Electronic copies of the Draft Plan are also available 
on-line on the NMFS website http://swr.nmfs.noaa.gov/recovery/centralvalleyplan.htm.
    The specific dates, times, and locations of public meetings will be 
posted on this website as they become available.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brian Ellrott at (916) 930-3612 or 
Howard Brown, NMFS Sacramento River Basin Branch Chief at (916) 930-
3608.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

    Recovery plans describe actions beneficial to the conservation and 
recovery of species listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 
(ESA), as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). The ESA requires that 
recovery plans incorporate: (1) objective, measurable criteria which, 
when met, would result in a determination that the species is no longer 
threatened or endangered; (2) site-specific management actions 
necessary to achieve the plan's goals; and (3) estimates of the time 
required and costs to implement recovery actions. The ESA requires the 
development of recovery plans for each listed species unless such a 
plan would not promote its recovery.
    NMFS is responsible for developing and implementing ESA recovery 
plans for listed salmon and steelhead. In so doing, NMFS' goal is to 
restore endangered and threatened Pacific salmonids to the point that 
they are again self-sustaining members of their ecosystems and no 
longer need the protections of the ESA.
    Recovery Plans developed under the ESA are guidance documents, not 
regulatory documents. However, the ESA envisions Recovery Plans as the 
central organizing tool for guiding the recovery of listed species. 
Recovery Plans also guide Federal agencies in fulfilling their 
obligations under section 7(a)(1) of the ESA, which calls on all 
Federal agencies to ``utilize their authorities in furtherance of the 
purposes of this Act by carrying out programs for the conservation of 
endangered species and threatened species.'' In addition to outlining 
proactive measures to achieve species recovery, Recovery Plans provide 
a context and framework for implementing other provisions of the ESA 
with respect to a particular species, including consultations on 
Federal agency activities under section 7(a)(2) and the development of 
Habitat Conservation Plans in accordance with section 10(a)(1)(B).
    This Draft Plan serves as a guideline for achieving recovery 
criteria and goals by describing the criteria by which NMFS would 
measure species recovery, the strategy to achieve recovery, and the 
recovery actions necessary to achieve viable ESU's of Sacramento River 
winter-run Chinook salmon and Central Valley spring-run Chinook salmon, 
and a viable DPS of Central Valley steelhead.

Recovery Criteria

    Recovery criteria are built upon criteria recommended by the NMFS 
Technical Recovery Team (TRT) for the identification of viable 
anadromous salmonid populations and ESUs/DPSs. A viable population is 
defined as a population having a negligible risk (<5%) of extinction 
due to threats from demographic variation, non-catastrophic 
environmental variation, and genetic diversity changes over a 100-year 
time frame. A viable ESU/DPS is comprised of a sufficient number of 
viable populations sufficiently dispersed spatially, but well connected 
enough to maintain long-term (1,000-year) persistence and evolutionary 
potential (McElhany et al. 2000). The viability criteria are intended 
to describe characteristics of the species and its natural environments 
necessary for both individual populations and the ESU/DPS as a whole to 
be viable, i.e., persist over a specific period of time.
    Recovery of winter-run Chinook salmon, spring-run Chinook salmon, 
and steelhead in the Central Valley will

[[Page 51554]]

require recovery of a sufficient number of viable populations of each 
species within each of the species' historic diversity groups defined 
by the TRT. Recovery of individual populations is necessary to conserve 
the natural diversity (genetic, phenotypic, and behavioral), spatial 
distribution, and abundance of each species, and thus the long-term 
viability of each ESU/DPS as a whole. Additionally, the ESU/DPS as a 
whole must contain a minimal number of viable populations, or 
interacting trans-basin populations, within each diversity group in 
order to withstand environmental variation of the sort known to have 
occurred in the Central Valley over the last 500-1,000 years. Such 
variation has included natural catastrophes such as prolonged drought, 
volcanic eruptions, large wildfires, and anthropogenic impacts such as 
the 1991 Cantara metam sodium spill. Therefore, for ESUs/DPSs to be 
considered viable, they should be able to persist if challenged by 
these types of catastrophes as well as anthropogenic climate change.

Recovery Strategy

    Achieving recovery of winter-run Chinook salmon, spring-run Chinook 
salmon, and steelhead will require a number of coordinated activities, 
such as: (1) implementing the strategic and threat-specific recovery 
actions identified in this Draft Plan, including actions directed at 
increasing the quantity and quality of habitat available to anadromous 
salmonids, minimizing hatchery effects, and improving harvest 
management; (2) monitoring the abundance and distribution of existing 
populations for all three species and their response to recovery 
actions; and (3) researching the diverse life-history patterns and 
adaptations of Central Valley steelhead to a highly dynamic environment 
(e.g., the ecological relationship between anadromous and non-
anadromous life-history forms).
    There remain uncertainties regarding the level of recovery 
necessary to achieve population viability, therefore, additional 
research and monitoring of winter-run Chinook salmon, spring-run 
Chinook salmon, and steelhead in the Central Valley is an essential 
component of this Draft Plan. As this Draft Plan is implemented over 
time, additional information will become available to: (1) refine the 
viability criteria; (2) update and refine the species-specific threats 
assessments and related recovery actions; (3) determine whether 
individual threats have been abated; and (4) evaluate the overall 
viability of winter-run Chinook salmon, spring-run Chinook salmon, and 
steelhead in the Central Valley. There will be a review of the recovery 
actions implemented and population and habitat responses to these 
actions at the 5-year and 10-year status reviews for each ESU/DPS.
    Effective implementation of recovery actions will also entail: (1) 
extensive public education (including the general public, non-
governmental agencies, and local, regional, State, and Federal 
governmental agencies,) regarding the role and value of these species 
within the larger watershed environment; (2) development of cooperative 
relationships with private land owners, special districts, federally-
recognized tribes, and local governments with direct control and 
responsibilities over non-federal land-use practices; (3) participation 
in the land use and water planning and regulatory processes of local, 
regional, State, and Federal agencies; (4) close cooperation with other 
state resource agencies such as the California Department of Fish and 
Game, California Department of Water Resources, CalTrans, and the 
California Department of Parks and Recreation, and (5) partnering with 
Federal resource agencies, including the U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, U.S. Bureau of 
Reclamation, U.S. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Army Corps of 
Engineers, U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of 
Defense, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Recovery Actions

    Many complex and inter-related biological, economic, social, and 
technological issues must be addressed in order to recover anadromous 
salmonids in the Central Valley. Policy changes at the Federal, state, 
and local levels will likely be necessary to implement many of the 
recovery actions identified in this Draft Plan. For example, without 
substantial strides in water conservation throughout California, flow 
conditions for anadromous salmonids will limit recovery. Similarly, 
recovery is unlikely without programs to restore properly functioning 
historic habitat such as estuaries, and access to upstream spawning and 
rearing habitat.

Implementation and Cost Estimates

    Implementation of this Draft Plan by NMFS will take many forms. To 
achieve recovery, NMFS will need to promote the Draft Plan and provide 
needed technical information and assistance to other entities 
responsible for actions that may impact the species' recovery. NMFS 
should work with key partners on planning and implementation of all 
high priority recovery actions. Additionally it will be important to 
work with local governments to ensure that protective measures 
consistent with recovery objectives are included in their general and 
local plans. NMFS should also work with state and Federal regional 
entities on Regional Water Control Board Basin Plans and U.S. Forest 
Service Plans.
    An implementation schedule describing time frames and costs 
associated with individual recovery actions is included in the Draft 
Plan and is continuing to be developed as information becomes 
available. Estimating total cost to recovery is much more challenging, 
if not impossible to estimate for a variety of reasons. These include 
the large geographic extent of the Central Valley; the long-term 
duration (e.g., likely decades) expected to achieve full recovery; and 
the uncertainty associated with population responses to changing 
environmental conditions. In some instances, however, NMFS is able to 
estimate the costs associated with certain common restoration 
activities such as those undertaken as part of the Calfed Ecosystem 
Restoration Program, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Anadromous Fish 
Restoration Program, or the California Department of Water Resource's 
Fish Passage Improvement Program. An appendix to the Draft Plan 
contains estimates for these categories of typical watershed 
restoration actions.
    The criteria and recovery actions identified in the Draft Plan 
provide a comprehensive road-map for recovery and are consistent with 
many ongoing activities intended to protect and or restore ecosystem 
functions in Central Valley watersheds. As a result, many of these 
recovery actions will be undertaken by local, state and Federal 
agencies, as well as non-governmental organizations and other private 
entities as a part of their local ecosystem protection efforts. Also, 
the wide variety of threats to Central Valley salmon and steelhead 
provide for a variety of potential funding sources available to develop 
and implement these recovery actions, often as part of other ongoing 
natural resource restoration, management, and mitigation programs.

Public Comments Solicited

    NMFS solicits written comments on the Draft Plan. All comments 
received by the date specified above will be considered prior to NMFS' 
decision whether to approve the Draft Plan. NMFS seeks comments 
particularly in the following areas: (1) the analysis of limiting 
factors and threats; (2) the

[[Page 51555]]

recovery objectives, strategies, and actions, especially in regard to 
the selection of core populations, priority areas for reintroduction, 
and critical recovery actions; (3) the criteria for removing ESUs/DPSs 
from the Federal list of endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; 
and (4) estimates of time and cost to implement recovery actions. NMFS 
will also hold public meetings to provide an opportunity for the public 
to learn more about the Draft Plan, ask questions of NMFS staff, and 
submit oral or written comments on the Draft Plan.

Public Meetings

    Four public meetings will be held, two in Chico, CA and two in 
Sacramento, CA . The two Chico meetings will occur on the same date 
with one three-hour meeting during the day followed by one two-hour 
meeting in the evening. The Sacramento meetings will follow this same 
day/evening approach. The meetings will be targeted toward receiving 
comments from key stakeholders and salmon recovery ``practitioners'' 
such as local jurisdiction officials, state and local agency personnel, 
industry representatives, public and non-profit interest 
representatives, and others who have a professional involvement and 
knowledge of salmon recovery issues, as well as general public and 
other constituencies.

Literature Cited

    McElhany, P., Ruckelshaus, M.H., Ford, M.J., Wainwright, T.C., and 
Bjorkstedt, E.P. 2000. Viable Salmonid Populations and the Conservation 
of Evolutionarily Significant Units. U.S. Department of Commerce. NOAA 
Technical Memorandum. NMFS NWFSC 42. Seattle, WA.Authority: 16 U.S.C. 
1531 et seq.

    Dated:September 30, 2009.
Angela Somma,
Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, 
National Marine Fisheries Service.
[FR Doc. E9-24224 Filed 10-6-09; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 3510-22-S