Import Restrictions Imposed on Certain Archaeological and Ethnological Materials From Colombia, 13757-13766 [06-2620]

Download as PDF Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 52 / Friday, March 17, 2006 / Rules and Regulations 13757 The new fee schedule is as follows: Fees Applicable to the Natural Gas Policy Act 1. Petitions for rate approval pursuant to 18 CFR 284.123(b)(2). (18 CFR 381.403) ............................................................................ 1. 2. 3. 4. Fees Applicable to General Activities Petition for issuance of a declaratory order (except under Part I of the Federal Power Act). (18 CFR 381.302(a)) ...................... Review of a Department of Energy remedial order: Amount in controversy $0–9,999. (18 CFR 381.303(b)) ......................................................................................................................................................... $10,000–29,999. (18 CFR 381.303(b)) .............................................................................................................................................. $30,000 or more. (18 CFR 381.303(a)) ............................................................................................................................................. Review of a Department of Energy denial of adjustment: Amount in controversy $0–9,999. (18 CFR 381.304(b)) ......................................................................................................................................................... $10,000–29,999. (18 CFR 381.304(b)) .............................................................................................................................................. $30,000 or more. (18 CFR 381.304(a)) ............................................................................................................................................. Written legal interpretations by the Office of General Counsel. (18 CFR 381.305(a)) ..................................................................... Fees Applicable to Natural Gas Pipelines 1. Pipeline certificate applications pursuant to 18 CFR 284.224. (18 CFR 381.207(b)) ....................................................................... Fees Applicable to Cogenerators and Small Power Producers 1. Certification of qualifying status as a small power production facility. (18 CFR 381.505(a)) ........................................................ 2. Certification of qualifying status as a cogeneration facility. (18 CFR 381.505(a)) ........................................................................... 3. Applications for exempt wholesale generator status. (18 CFR 381.801) .......................................................................................... * This fee has not been changed. § 381.403 List of Subjects in 18 CFR Part 381 6. Section 381.403 is amended by removing ‘‘$9,660’’ and inserting ‘‘$9,900’’ in its place. I Electric power plants, Electric utilities, Natural gas, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. § 381.505 Thomas R. Herlihy, Executive Director. In consideration of the foregoing, the Commission amends part 381, chapter I, title 18, Code of Federal Regulations, as set forth below. PART 381—FEES Authority: 15 U.S.C. 717–717w; 16 U.S.C. 791–828c, 2601–2645; 31 U.S.C. 9701; 42 U.S.C. 7101–7352; 49 U.S.C. 60502; 49 App. U.S.C. 1–85. [Amended] 2. In 381.302, paragraph (a) is amended by removing ‘‘$19,410’’ and inserting ‘‘$19,890’’ in its place. I 3. In 381.303, paragraph (a) is amended by removing ‘‘$28,330’’ and inserting ‘‘$29,040’’ in its place. [Amended] 4. In 381.304, paragraph (a) is amended by removing ‘‘$14,850’’ and inserting ‘‘$15,230’’ in its place. erjones on PROD1PC68 with RULES I [Amended] 5. In 381.305, paragraph (a) is amended by removing ‘‘$5,560’’ and inserting ‘‘$5,700’’ in its place. I VerDate Aug<31>2005 15:19 Mar 16, 2006 [FR Doc. 06–2587 Filed 3–16–06; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6717–01–P DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Bureau of Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY [Amended] I § 381.305 [Amended] 8. Section 381.801 is amended by removing ‘‘$890’’ and inserting ‘‘$920’’ in its place. 1. The authority citation for part 381 continues to read as follows: § 381.304 § 381.801 I I § 381.303 [Amended] 7. In 381.505, paragraph (a) is amended by removing ‘‘$16,690’’ and inserting ‘‘$17,110’’ in its place and by removing ‘‘$18,890’’ and inserting ‘‘$19,360’’ in its place. I I § 381.302 [Amended] Jkt 208001 19 CFR PART 12 [CBP Dec. 06–09] RIN 1505–AB59 Import Restrictions Imposed on Certain Archaeological and Ethnological Materials From Colombia Customs and Border Protection; Homeland Security; Treasury. ACTION: Final rule. AGENCY: SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) PO 00000 Frm 00021 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 $9,900 $19,890 $100 $600 $29,040 $100 $600 $15,230 $5,700 * $1,000 $17,110 $19,360 $920 regulations to reflect the imposition of import restrictions on certain archaeological material and certain ethnological material from Colombia. These restrictions are being imposed pursuant to an agreement between the United States and the Government of Colombia that has been entered into under the authority of the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act in accordance with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. The final rule amends CBP regulations by adding Colombia to the list of countries for which a bilateral agreement has been entered into for imposing cultural property import restrictions. The final rule also contains the designated list that describes the types of archaeological and ethnological articles to which the restrictions apply. DATES: Effective Date: March 17, 2006. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For legal aspects, George Frederick McCray, Esq., Office of Regulations and Rulings, (202) 572–8709; for operational aspects, Michael Craig, Chief, Other Government Agencies Branch (202) 344–1684. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The value of cultural property, whether archaeological or ethnological in nature, is immeasurable. Such items often constitute the very essence of a society and convey important information concerning a people’s origin, history, and traditional setting. E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1 13758 Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 52 / Friday, March 17, 2006 / Rules and Regulations erjones on PROD1PC68 with RULES The importance and popularity of such items regrettably makes them targets of theft, encourages clandestine looting of archaeological sites, and results in their illegal export and import. The United States shares in the international concern for the need to protect endangered cultural property. The appearance in the United States of stolen or illegally exported artifacts from other countries where there has been pillage has, on occasion, strained our foreign and cultural relations. This situation, combined with the concerns of museum, archaeological, and scholarly communities, was recognized by the President and Congress. It became apparent that it was in the national interest for the United States to join with other countries to control illegal trafficking of such articles in international commerce. The United States joined international efforts and actively participated in deliberations resulting in the 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (823 U.N.T.S. 231 (1972)). U.S. acceptance of the 1970 UNESCO Convention was codified into U.S. law as the ‘‘Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act’’ (Pub. L. 97–446, 19 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.) (the Act). This was done to promote U.S. leadership in achieving greater international cooperation towards preserving cultural treasures that are of importance to the nations from where they originate and contribute to greater international understanding of our common heritage. During the past several years, import restrictions have been imposed on archaeological and ethnological artifacts/materials of a number of signatory nations. These restrictions have been imposed as a result of requests for protection received from those nations, as well as pursuant to bilateral agreements between the United States and other countries. More information on import restrictions can be found on the International Cultural Property Protection Web site (http:// exchanges.state.gov/culprop/ index.html). This document announces that import restrictions are now being imposed on certain archaeological and ethnological materials from Colombia. Determinations Under 19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1), the United States must make certain determinations before entering into an agreement to impose import restrictions under 19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(2). On May 10, 2005, the Assistant Secretary of State for VerDate Aug<31>2005 15:19 Mar 16, 2006 Jkt 208001 Educational and Cultural Affairs made the determinations required under the statute with respect to certain archaeological materials originating in Colombia that represent pre-Colombian cultures and certain Colonial ecclesiastical ethnological materials that are described in the designated list set forth further below in this document (‘‘Determinations to Impose Import Restrictions on Archaeological Material from the Pre-Colombian Cultures of Colombia and Colonial Ecclesiastical Ethnological Material’’). These determinations include the following: (1) That the cultural patrimony of Colombia is in jeopardy from the pillage of irreplaceable archaeological materials representing its pre-Colombian heritage (ranging in date from approximately 1500 B.C. to A.D. 1530) and irreplaceable ecclesiastical ethnological materials of the Colonial period (ranging in date from approximately A.D. 1530 to 1830) (19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(A)); (2) that the Government of Colombia has taken measures consistent with the Convention to protect its cultural patrimony (19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(B)); (3) that import restrictions imposed by the United States would be of substantial benefit in deterring a serious situation of pillage and remedies less drastic are not available (19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(C)); and (4) that the application of import restrictions as set forth in this final rule is consistent with the general interests of the international community in the interchange of cultural property among nations for scientific, cultural, and educational purposes (19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(D)). The Assistant Secretary also found that the materials described in the determinations meet the statutory definition of ‘‘archaeological or ethnological material of the state party’’ (19 U.S.C. 2601(2)). The Agreement On March 15, 2006, the United States and the Government of Colombia entered into a bilateral agreement (the Agreement) pursuant to the provisions of 19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(2) covering certain archaeological materials representing its pre-Colombian cultural heritage and certain ecclesiastical ethnological materials of the Colonial period. Dating from approximately 1500 B.C. to approximately A.D. 1530, the preColombian archaeological materials include, but are not limited to, objects generally associated with the Tairona, Sinu, Uraba, Quimbaya, Muisca, Calima, Malagana, Tolima, Tierradentro, Cauca, San Ugustin, Tumaco, and Narinao cultures, such as ceramic figurines, vessels, and funerary urns; gold and alloy (gold with copper, platinum, or PO 00000 Frm 00022 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 other metals) jewelry; wood, such as tools; bone, such as small implements and jewelry; rock art; and lithics, such as large sculpted stone from the San Agustin Culture. Dating from A.D. 1530 to 1830, the ecclesiastical ethnological materials include, but are not limited to, religious oil paintings; altars and altar pieces, including retablos of wood, gold, and silver; statues of saints (santos); textiles such as liturgical vestments and wall hangings; and objects of paper, parchment, or leather, such as documents and incunabula. Restrictions and Amendment to the Regulations In accordance with the Agreement, import restrictions are now being imposed on these archaeological and ethnological materials from Colombia. Importation of these materials, described specifically in the designated list below, are subject to the restrictions of 19 U.S.C. 2606 and § 12.104g(a) of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Regulations (19 CFR 12.104g(a)) and will be restricted from entry into the United States unless the conditions set forth in 19 U.S.C. 2606 and § 12.104c of the regulations (19 CFR 12.104c) are met. CBP is amending § 12.104g(a) of the CBP Regulations (19 CFR 12.104g(a)) to indicate that these import restrictions have been imposed. Material Encompassed in Import Restrictions The bilateral agreement between the Government of Colombia and the United States covers the categories of objects described in the designated list set forth below. These articles are subject to the import restrictions set forth above, in accordance with the above explained applicable law and the regulation amended in this document (19 CFR 12.104(g)(a)). Categories of Objects from Colombia Designated for Protection From Importation Into the United States I. Archaeological Materials (1500 B.C.–A.D. 1530) I.A. Large Stone Sculptures I.B. Rock Art I.C. Ceramic Figurines I.D. Ceramic Vessels I.E. Ceramic funerary Urns I.F. Miscellaneous Ceramic Object Types I.G. Gold I.H. Wood I.I. Portable Stone I.J. Bone I.K. Textiles II. Ecclesiastical Ethnological Materials (A.D. 1530–1830) II.A. Wooden Items II.B. Metal Objects, Accoutrements, and Fittings E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1 Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 52 / Friday, March 17, 2006 / Rules and Regulations II.C. Textiles II.D. Paper, Parchment, Leather I. Archaeological Materials The archaeological objects that are covered under this agreement are associated with culture groups that resided in this region from about 1500 BC (late in the Archaic Period), throughout the Formative and Classic Periods, to 1530 AD (late in the Recent Period). I.A. Large Stone Sculptures The monolithic sculptures of the San ´ Agustın Culture (1–900 AD) from tombs in Upper Magdalena and the neighboring region in southern and northern Huila, Tierradentro, northern ´ ˜ Narino, the Popayan region, ´ Cundinamarca, Boyaca, and northern ´ Caqueta. Worked primarily in volcanic stone (basalt, tektite, manzonite, and andesite), the tallest statues are up to 3 m. high, with human, avian, and other animal characteristics, carved in low relief and occasionally retaining evidence of pigments. I.B. Rock Art Ancient rock art is found throughout Colombia, at sites including Gorgona in Cauca, Mesitas del Colegio in ´ Cundinamarca, San Agustın in Huila, ´ and Sachica, Sogamoso, Muzo, and ´ Buenavista in Boyaca. Archaeological research has not established a full typology or chronology as yet. The great majority are engravings in low relief (petroglyphs) on the flat surfaces of huge stones or on surfaces of exposed bedrock, some retaining colored pigments. erjones on PROD1PC68 with RULES I.C. Ceramic Figurines Small sculptures and miniature human and animal figures associated with the Tairona, Muisca, Guane, ´ Tolima, Magdalena Medio, San Agustın, ˜ Tierradentro, Narino, Tumaco, Calima, ´ Malagana, Quimbaya, Cauca, Uraba, and ´ Sinu cultures. I. c. 1. Cauca and southern Valle. The ´ Popayan style in this region displays highly decorated anthropomorphous ´ figures with zoomorphous appliques (Height: 20 cm., Width: 13 cm.). Other common forms are the benches on which anthropomorphous figures rest (Height: 7 cm., Width: 10 cm.). I. c. 2. Guajira. Stylized globular anthropomorphous figures with ´ applique features. ˜ I. c. 3. Narino. This is divided into ´ three types of pottery: Capulı, Piartal, ´ and Tuza. The Capulı pottery presents modeled decoration and black negative resist paint on red. The anthropomorphous figures of coca VerDate Aug<31>2005 15:19 Mar 16, 2006 Jkt 208001 chewers (coqueros) are characteristic of this style. I. c. 4. Quimbaya. The Quimbaya anthropomorphous figures are generally seated with their arms extended or holding objects, on occasion wearing a gold or tumbaga nose ring. These objects are usually painted in two or more colors. The dimensions average from 12 to 40 cm. tall and 8 to 30 cm. wide; miniatures of this type are also common. I. c. 5. San Jorge. The average dimensions of the realistic anthropomorphous and zoomorphous figures characteristic of the Momil Culture are 5 by 4 by 2 cm. The larger figures come in 15 by 10 by 8 cm. sizes, and the smaller ones measure approximately 2 by 2 by 2 cm. I. c. 6. Tolima. Anthropomorphous figures, some sitting on benches. Their dimensions vary and are usually painted in black negative resist paint on light brown. I. c. 7. Tumaco. The most characteristic forms of the Tumaco pottery are the anthropomorphous, zoomorphous and anthropozoomorphous heads or figures, and masks. Some are modeled, others molded, and others combine the two techniques and reflect attitudes and expressions of daily and supernatural life. The anthropomorphous heads generally display cranial deformation. The sizes vary from 2 to 30 cm. tall. I.D. Ceramic Vessels This category is the most common, varied, and widespread. Vessels appear initially in deposits from the Archaic Period (4000 BC–1000 AD) on the Atlantic Coast and from the Formative period (1000 BC–1 AD) countrywide. The decorative styles, the forms, and the typical functions of the ceramic vessels vary between regions and periods. Types of pre-Columbian pottery that are intensely sought and traded illicitly include very elaborate vessels, profusely ´ decorated (incised, modeled, applique, and/or painted). They originated particularly in the Formative and Classic (1 AD—900 AD) periods, come from all regions, and were buried with the dead. I. D. 1. Vessels of the Early Formative Period. The main sites on the Caribbean coast where evidence is found of the ´ Early Formative Period are: Monsu, Puerto Hormiga, San Jacinto, Canapote, Barlovento, Zambrano, Malambo, Momil, and Crespo. The manufacturing technique includes spirals and modeling, with thick-walled vessels and rough surfaces. The most ancient forms show vegetable fiber and sand temper. The most recent forms display ground PO 00000 Frm 00023 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 13759 shell and sand temper, or sand temper. The decoration includes incision and clay slip. The slip ranges from very light brown (or beige) to a darker light brown or reddish. The ceramic figures and forms are profusely decorated with abundant dots and deep incisions. Some vessels come with stamped decorations using seashells. The bowls and the pots generally have anthropomorphous and ´ zoomorphous appliques on the upper part. The Momil pottery also displays black, white, and red paint. I. D. 1. a. Early phase bowls and pots from the tradition known as tecomate are globular and semi-globular with inverted edges and wide mouths, and decorated with incised and excised decoration on the upper part; they measure ~ 30 cm. in diameter and ~ 20 cm. in height. I. D. 1. b. In more recent phases, such as Malambo, they come in assorted forms, including cups with ring-shaped or foot-type supports (Height: ~ 20 cm., Diameter: ~ 15 cm.). There also are plates, clay griddles (budares), and vessels with prominent shoulders. I. D. 1. c. In Momil, the forms are more varied: narrow-necked and wide everted-edged vessels, compound silhouette cups, globular vessels with downward everted edge, sub-globular downward edge vessels, vessels with mammiform supports, and earthen bowls with base borders. I. D. 2. Vessels of the Late Formative Period: Coast. On the Pacific Coast, the most representative sites are Tumaco, ´ Monte Alto, Inguapı, El Balsal, Pampa ´ de Nerete, and Cupica (Choco). On the Atlantic Coast, the sites are Guajira, the Rancheria river valley and part of the ´ Cesar river valley, the Upper Sinu river, the flanks of the Abibe and San Jeronimo Serrania, and the Gulf of ´ Uraba. The chronology of the period is from 1000 BC to the first century AD. I. D. 2. a. Cupica. The following forms are very common: I. D. 2. a. i. Semi-globular, sub globular vessels, with everted edge, straight or in a poporo form. I. D. 2. a. ii. Double-spouted globular or phytomorphous vessels, short-necked sub globular and everted edge vessels. I. D. 2. a. iii. Globular and phytomorphous cups with ring-shaped support, conical-stemmed cups with punctured supports. I. D. 2. a. iv. Decoration in Cupica is ´ incised, excised, with applique bands forming anthropomorphous and zoomorphous figures, dotted and lentil´ shaped appliques. The slips are generally dark brown with black and red paint. I. D. 2. a. v. All these vessels vary between a maximum height of 25 cm. E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1 erjones on PROD1PC68 with RULES 13760 Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 52 / Friday, March 17, 2006 / Rules and Regulations and a minimum of 10 cm., a diameter between 25 and 10 cm., and generally the height and diameter are the same size. I. D. 2. b. Guajira. The ceramic decoration in this region is characterized by spiral or linear motifs, ´ applique bands, manufactured by modeling or by rolls. They come in light brown and reddish slips and positive red, black, and white paint. The most common forms are: I. D. 2. b. i. Globular and sub globular vessels, short or high-necked, wide or narrow mouthed, zoomorphous (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). I. D. 2. b. ii. Semi globular cups with globular support (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). ´ ´ I. D. 2. c. Sinu (or Uraba). Pottery manufactured by rolls and modeled, ´ with applique bands, incisions, dotted, imprints and applying internal pressure. The slip comes in beige, light brown to reddish, and black. The main forms are: I. D. 2. c. i. Plates, semi globular earthen bowls, globular wide-mouthed and printed edged vessels (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: some 20 cm.). I. D. 2. c. ii. Printed, horizontal everted-edge cups, evenly punctured crowning support, some with ´ zoomorphous appliques and with rattles (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: around 15 cm.). I. D. 2. d. Tumaco—La Tolita. This pottery is characterized by coming in red, brown, or gray slip. Some vessels display zoned white paint. The common forms are: I. D. 2. d.i. Globular, semi globular, or keel-shaped earthen bowls with slightly inverted or everted edge (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). I. D. 2. d.ii. Globular or sub globular vessels, short or high-necked with everted edge, with or without anthropomorphous or zoomorphous ´ ´ appliques on the body or applique bands, with or without double handles on the body (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 12 cm.). I. D. 2. d.iii. Semi globular or cylindrical, or keel-shaped cups, with mammiform tripod-shaped supports (Height: 12 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.). I. D. 2. d.iv. Alcarrazas (doublespouted jug with a bridge handle), in various animal, avian, and human forms. I. D. 2. d.v. ‘‘Canasteros’’ or anthropomorphous or zoomorphous figures with a cylindrical container in the back part (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 3. Vessels of the Late Formative Period: Interior. The Interior comprises the lower and mid-Magdalena valley region, the provinces of Cesar, VerDate Aug<31>2005 15:19 Mar 16, 2006 Jkt 208001 ´ Magdalena, Bolıvar, Santander, ´ Antioquia, Boyaca, Cundinamarca, Caldas, Tolima, Huila, Putumayo, the Llanos Orientales (Eastern Plains), and the Amazon. The archaeological cultures represented are Tamalameque and Magdalena Medio, Pijao (in Espinal), Panche (in Ricaurte and ´ Honda), Pantagora (in Guarino, La Miel, and Puerto Serviez), Mosquito (in ˜ Ocana), and Guayupes (Llanos Orientales). I. D. 3. a. Amazon. This ceramic slip varies from beige to dark brown and reddish, and different tones of gray; the decoration consists of incisions, dots, brushing, impression, grooves, modeled ´ appliques, geometric designs in red positive paint and occasionally white, brown. Common forms are: I. D. 3. a. i. Budares (flat clay griddles) with slightly everted edge, usually holding leaf imprints on the base (Height: approximately 5 cm., Diameter: varies between 34 and 56 cm.). I. D. 3. a. ii. Cylindrical, ‘‘hourglass’’ supports or in the form of a truncated cone (probably for the griddles); they can be hollow or compact with a flat base (Height: variable, Diameter of the base: varies between 10 and 18 cm.). I. D. 3. a. iii. Semi globular and keelshaped everted-edge earthen bowls (Height: 7 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.), globular body, or compound silhouette vessels, flat base, short-necked, everted edge (Height: varies between 7 and 18 cm., Diameter: varies between 15 and 36 cm.). I. D. 3. a. iv. Anthropomorphous and zoomorphous containers of assorted dimensions, modeled, realistic, and stylized. I. D. 3. b. Calima. The Formative is represented in Calima by the Ilama pottery, characterized by brushed and/ or incised fine decoration, with slip ranging from light to dark brown. Some incisions are filled in with white paste. The common forms are: I. D. 3. b. i. Simple, anthropomorphous, zoomorphous alcarrazas (double-spouted jug). Average dimensions: Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 15 cm. I. D. 3. b. ii. Canasteros (anthropomorphous vessels with hollow cylinder in the back part)(Height: 16 cm., Diameter: 10 cm.). I. D. 3. b. iii. Cylindrical, anthropomorphous, or zoomorphous vessels (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 7 cm.) and the globular narrow-mouthed and everted edge vessels (Height: 12 cm., Diameter: 16 cm.). I. D. 3. c. Llanos Orientales (Eastern Plains). Vessels from this are semi globular or compound silhouette earthen bowls, with rounded or flat PO 00000 Frm 00024 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 bases, everted or slightly inverted edges and rounded. Some show triangular or rhomboid mouths and modeled ´ appliques on the border (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). The slip is generally reddish and with white positive paint, forming geometrical designs. Common also are globular, semi-globular, sub globular vessels, compound silhouette, keel-shaped, short-necked, everted or straight-edged, rounded or flat based, ´ with or without appliques, with or without white positive paint (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.). ´ I. D. 3. d. Putumayo (Guamues). The diagnostic feature of this type is a decoration with visible coils, and corrugated decoration with fingerprints, or corrugated with different imprints. The colors of the slip range from gray to reddish brown. The common forms are globular and sub globular with straight neck and everted edge (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 30 cm.). I. D. 3. e. Tamalameque, Mosquito and Chimila. In this zone, we find vessels of various forms associated with burials. The most common forms are the globular narrow-necked vessels, everted-edged, and with incised decoration forming a rhombus. There are also anthropomorphous vessels with ring-shaped supports and very realistic anthropomorphous modeled figures. Multi-colored zoomorphous vessels with geometrical designs, narrow necks, and everted edges have also been found in Ricaurte. I. D. 4. Vessels from the Classic and Recent Periods. The formation and consolidation of chiefdoms started in these periods, with regional political units and populated towns. The principal chiefdoms in the Classic period are in Magdalena (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta), Cordoba, Santander, ´ Cundinamarca, Boyaca, Caldas ´ Risaralda, Quindıo, Huila, Valle, Cauca, ˜ and Narino. The archaeological cultures ´ represented are Tairona, Sinu, San Jorge, Guane, Muisca, Quimbaya, ´ Calima, San Agustın, Tierradentro, and ˜ Narino. I. D. 4. a. Calima. The Classic Period in Calima corresponds to Yotoco pottery, with its characteristic decoration in black negative resist paint on red, orange or white wash, and curvilinear designs. They occasionally ´ carry appliques. The most common forms are: I. D. 4. a. i. Simple alcarrazas, anthropomorphous, phytomorphous with ring-shaped, tetrapod or tripodshaped support (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 4. a. ii. Whistling Alcarrazas, which could be either simple or double. The dimensions of the simple ones are E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1 erjones on PROD1PC68 with RULES Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 52 / Friday, March 17, 2006 / Rules and Regulations the same as the double-spouted alcarrazas. The double ones have the same average height and an average length of 20 cm. I. D. 4. a. iii. Earthen bowls with flat or rounded base. The negative resist paint is apparent inside and outside (Height: 8 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). The Recent Period in Calima encompasses Sonso pottery, characterized by decoration in the form of negative black paint on red or orange wash, with a linear design or light brown to reddish light brown slip. They ´ display appliqued incised bands. The most common forms of the Sonso style are: I. D. 4. a. iv. Semi globular earthen bowls (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 4. a. v. Pitchers with three horizontal handles set irregularly on the vessel’s body. The neck is phytomorphous or anthropomorphous (Height: 24 cm., Diameter: 22 cm.). I. D. 4. a. vi. Other common forms are cups with incised brushing and ´ applique decoration (Height: 12 cm., Diameter: 16 cm.). I. D. 4. b. Cauca and southern Valle. We find three pottery styles: Quebrada ´ ´ Seca or Corinto, Rıo Bolo, and Popayan. ´ In the Quebrada Seca and Rıo Bolo vessels, the pottery surface is fine and polished with red slip, exception made to the top part of the vessel that conserves the paste’s natural color. It generally holds stylized ´ anthropomorphous modeled appliques and incisions on the top part, on the border between the slip and the paste. Sometimes, the body displays incisions around and on the border. Some vessels come in unpolished surfaces, and totally brushed with wide, deep, and ´ intersecting lines. The Popayan style is characterized by the use of modeling. The most common forms are: I. D. 4. b. i. Semi globular or globular earthen bowls, with straight border, inverted border, or externally reinforced border, sometimes with two handles. (Height: 7 cm., Diameter: 16 cm.). I. D. 4. b. ii. Semi-globular, subglobular, globular cups in bell-form, short, medium-sized and tall supports, and straight, inverted, reinforced, everted borders, with or without small handles. I. D. 4. b. iii. Triple cups on only one support (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 16 cm.), globular, sub-globular, aribaloide (high-necked, oval-shaped urn type) vessels, narrow-necked, everted, reinforced, straight border, with a flange, with or without false handles. (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 4. b. iv. Mocasines (shoe shaped) vessels, squash gourds, different-sized VerDate Aug<31>2005 15:19 Mar 16, 2006 Jkt 208001 zoomorphous and anthropomorphous figures. I. D. 4. c. Guane. A characteristic of this pottery is that it has light brown, orange and dark brown slips. The decoration consists of linear, spiral, dotted incisions and geometric designs. ´ It also displays band appliques, molded in anthropomorphous and zoomorphous figures. On the orange slips, the designs are painted in red and/or white, inside or outside. The principal Guane forms are: I. D. 4. c. i. Semi globular earthen bowls with straight or slightly inverted border (Height: 9 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.) and cups with straight borders, slightly inverted or everted, with low ringshaped support. Some cups show internal and external decoration, ´ displaying applique zoomorphous figures, particularly frogs (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 4. c. ii. Double or triple earthen bowls joined by a lower bridge and an upper bridge handle; the latter can represent a zoomorphous figure (Height: 10 cm., Length: 24 cm.). I. D. 4. c. iii. Globular and sub globular pots with inverted border. Some display upper bridge handles and others display two or more rounded handles located on the border of the body; other handles can be placed horizontally on the body (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). I. D. 4. c. iv. Globular vessels with low ring-shaped support, short and narrownecked, slightly everted border, coming with two or more handles from border to body (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 13 cm.) and sub globular narrow-necked vessels with slightly everted border, and with two opposing handles from border to body, or neck to body (Height: 25 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). I. D. 4. c. v. Globular, sub globular, and keel-shaped pitchers, short-necked and long, occasionally displaying ´ anthropomorphous applique or painted decoration, straight and slightly everted borders, flat rounded handles from border to body, or neck to body (Height: 25 cm., Diameter: 23 cm.), occasionally portraying this form in miniature or in double vessels joined by lower and upper bridges. Some come with two and three necks for the same body. I. D. 4. c. vi. Keel-shaped vessel, narrow and short necked with two opposing handles ending in an inverted form with a very narrow mouth (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 21 cm.). I. D. 4. c. vii. Barrel-shaped vessels in a horizontal position, narrow and shortnecked with opposing handles, separating from the middle of the body. On some occasions, they display ´ applique zoomorphous motifs and PO 00000 Frm 00025 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 13761 hollow cylindrical supports with painted decoration, forming linear and spiral geometrical motifs. I. D. 4. d. Malagana. This seems to be a local style of the Calima macro-region, because it has very similar vessels to the complex Calima pottery. It is characterized by the use of modeled and negative black and white paint on red. Some vessels display fine incisions and black and light brown slips as decoration. The most common forms of Malagana Vessels are: I. D. 4. d. i. Semi-globular, globular, and keel-shaped earthen bowls, with mammiform or tubular supports. I. D. 4. d. ii. Anthropomorphous cups with the figure kneeling down (Height: 16 cm., Diameter: 12 cm.). I. D. 4. d. iii. Globular, oval, compound, phytomorphous, anthropomorphous and zoomorphous, single or double-spouted alcarrazas (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.). I. D. 4. d. iv. Realistic zoomorphous containers in very varied dimensions depending on the figure. I. D. 4. e. Muisca. The main Muisca forms are: I. D. 4. e. i. Semi globular earthen bowls with straight or slightly inverted border, their decoration black and/or red paint or incised, forming geometric designs. I. D. 4. e. ii. Semi globular earthen bowls, with flat keel-shaped border portraying lentil-shaped, zoomorphous, ´ spiral and applique figures, with dotted decoration and two rounded handles or a bridge handle. The pottery comes in black (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 4. e. iii. Straight border cups, slightly everted, with short or tall ringshaped support and with the painted geometric decoration usually at the top. On the external part, they display ´ applique or painted serpent-like motifs. Occasionally, the border comes with zoomorphous and anthropomorphous ´ appliques. The most recurrent decoration colors are white and red (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). Occasionally, there are double cups joined together by bridges. I. D. 4. e. iv. Globular and sub globular pots with inverted border, the decoration of which consists of red geometric and linear designs. Their characteristic is to have multiple handles; some can even have decorated handles at the top (Height: varies between 10 and 40 cm., Diameter: 15 to 45 cm.). I. D. 4. e. v. Sub globular or keelshaped pitchers, narrow-necked and with straight or slightly everted border, and with one or two flat opposing handles from neck to body. Occasionally, they display E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1 erjones on PROD1PC68 with RULES 13762 Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 52 / Friday, March 17, 2006 / Rules and Regulations representations of anthropomorphous faces, or dotted or striped incisions in the neck, and false handles. Colors vary from red and white to grey and white (Height: 23 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.). I. D. 4. e. vi. Globular, sub globular, and keel-shaped short-necked pitchers, with straight everted borders, flat or rounded handles from border to body, or neck to body (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 22 cm.). The decoration consists of linear design with red or gray and white paint. I. D. 4. e. vii. Globular, sub globular, ´ or keel-shaped mucuras, very narrow and tall, with a flat handle from neck to body. The neck generally displays ´ applique or painted anthropomorphous and zoomorphous figures, occasionally with false handles; the paint can cover the top part of the vessel’s body. Dimensions vary (Height: minimum of 10 cm. to 50 cm., Diameter: 12 cm. to 40 cm.). Occasionally, there can be ´ double mucuras joined by bridges or mucuras with two necks. I. D. 4. e. viii. Barrel-shaped vessels in a horizontal position, narrow and shortnecked with opposing handles separated from the body; on some ´ occasions they have applique anthropomorphous or zoomorphous motifs (Height: 20 cm., Width: 24 cm.). Hollow cylindrical supports with painted decoration forming geometric motifs with lines and spirals. I. D. 4. e. ix. Mocasines (shoe shaped) vessels, generally black, come with a lateral handle from border to body or neck to body. The decoration is ´ applique with zoomorphous motifs and dotted incisions. The dimensions vary (Height: 9 to 15 cm., Width: maximum between 10 and 20 cm.). I. D. 4. e. x. Offertories, or hollow anthropomorphous figures, with an opening in the front or back or on the top. They are modeled figures with ´ incised, dotted and applique decoration, displaying great diversity in their attire, especially the head ornaments. On some occasions, these figures have one or more anthropomorphous figures or smaller-sized vessels. The slip varies in tones of brown and occasionally comes in red linear paint. The dimensions are very varied, ranging from a height of 40 cm. to 11 cm. approximately. There also are circular offertories, occasionally showing anthropomorphous figures on the body with simple flat or anthropomorphous lids with similar characteristics to the previous ones. The latter have an average height of 15 cm. ˜ I. D. 4. f. Narino. This pottery comes ´ in two types: Capulı, and Piartal-Tuza. ´ The Capulı pottery displays modeled decoration and negative black paint on VerDate Aug<31>2005 15:19 Mar 16, 2006 Jkt 208001 red. Cups are its most characteristic form. The common forms are: I. D. 4. f. i. Globular, semi globular, and square cups, their supports are short, medium, and tall ring-shaped. They occasionally come with modeled anthropomorphous figures supporting the cup. The borders are straight, everted, or slightly inverted (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 13 cm.). I. D. 4. f. ii. Semi globular earthen bowls (Height: 8 cm., Diameter: 16 cm.). Some earthen bowls have an upper bridge handle, in the form of a basket. Occasionally, they come in double or triple vessels. I. D. 4. f. iii. Globular vessels with or without a narrow neck and a wide mouth, everted border, or flanges. I. D. 4. f. iv. Keel-shaped and lentilshaped vessels with everted border. Some vessels have three or four light supports attached by internal pressure. These forms can have a flange at the center of the body. Others have serpent´ like bands appliqued vertically. I. D. 4. f. v. Tripod-shaped globular vessels or ones with zoomorphous modeled figures forming the border. I. D. 4. f. vi. Globular, lentil-shaped, or keel-shaped vessels with lentil´ shaped appliques set on the greatest diameter (Height: 8 cm., Diameter: 12 cm.). I. D. 4. f. vii. Sub globular vessels with narrow neck and straight border, low ring-shaped support. I. D. 4. f. viii. Zoomorphous or anthropomorphous vessels depicting an animal or human seated on a bench with its legs crossed or extended, chewing coca, or with an open mouth. The dimensions are very varied, and they depend on the theme represented. Some are miniatures. I. D. 4. f. ix. The Piartal-Tuza pottery is characterized by having red, orange and/or black on brown paint decoration with many stylized representations of fauna, anthropomorphous figures, or geometric designs. Its most characteristic forms are: I. D. 4. f. x. Dishes with low ringshaped support (Height: 7 cm., Diameter: 14 cm.). I. D. 4. f. xi. Semi globular earthen bowls (Height: 6 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 4. f. xii. Globular vessels, narrownecked, wide-mouthed, neck slightly everted and short, with tripod-shaped or tetrapod support achieved by internal pressure (Height: 8 cm., Diameter: 13 cm.). I. D. 4. f. xiii. Cups with low ringshaped support, straight or everted border, with one or two handles (Height: 12 cm., Diameter: 14 cm.). I. D. 4. f. xiv. Globular vessels, shortnecked, everted border, wide-mouthed PO 00000 Frm 00026 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 17 cm.); the globular, keel-shaped or lentil-shaped vessels are very short-necked and have a slightly everted or straight border (Height: 7 cm., Diameter: 10 cm.). These Vessels also come with tripod-shaped support, or low ring-shaped support, sometimes with a flange in the center of the vessel. I. D. 4. f. xv. Square or rectangular earthen bowls having low ring-shaped support (Height: 5 cm. Width: 7 cm.). I. D. 4. f. xvi. Amphorae with aribaloide (high-necked, oval-shaped urn) or flat bases, with or without handles (Height: varies between approximately 20 cm. and 120 cm., Diameter: varies between 15 cm. and 50 cm.). I. D. 4. f. xvii. Small pitchers, with a handle, globular, sub globular or cylindrical body, flat, rounded, or with low ring-shaped support bases (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 8 cm.). I. D. 4. f. xviii. Compound silhouette ‘‘Piartal’’ vessels, keel-shaped, very narrow and long necked, everted border, rounded base and diverse geometric designs in brown, black or red on cream positive paint (Height: 25 cm., Diameter: 30 cm.). I. D. 4. f. xix. ‘‘Tuza’’ vessels, subglobular, conical, cylindrical, with short neck, straight or everted border, flat or rounded bases with low ring-shaped support, and diverse designs in positive paint (Height: varies between approximately 20 cm. and 90 cm., Diameter: varies approximately between 15 cm. and 50 cm.). I. D. 4. f. xx. Dishes with low ringshaped support and design in anthropomorphous and zoomorphous positive paint, especially monkeys, deer, birds, and feline figures. I. D. 4. f. xxi. One variant of the Piartal-Tuza pottery is the ‘‘Quillacinga’’ style, with white on red paint decoration, in geometric design. Its main forms are low ring-shaped support dishes, globular vessels with lentilshaped, globular, or keel-shaped ´ appliques, short-necked and slightly everted border and globular with narrow neck and everted border. I. D. 4. g. Quimbaya. Classic forms of Quimbaya pottery vessels from the midCauca river zone are decorated with black on red and orange negative resist paint, forming linear designs (cups, vessels, figures). The classic forms include sub-globular keel-shaped bowls and globular keel-shaped and square vessels. They may be decorated with excised decoration covering the entire outer surface, or with incisions or ´ appliques, using light brown slips (Height: 8 cm., Diameter: 16 cm.). The most common forms are: E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1 erjones on PROD1PC68 with RULES Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 52 / Friday, March 17, 2006 / Rules and Regulations I. D. 4. g. i. Rectangular rounded-base vessels with anthropomorphous ´ appliques on the borders, incised linear decoration, red on cream and orange paint (Height: 10 cm., Width: 20 cm., Length: 30 cm.). With similar colors in linear and circular design inside, everted border earthen bowls. On the outside, they generally have incised ´ decoration, dotted and applique bands (Height: Varies between 7 and 10 cm., Diameter: the average is 20 cm.). I. D. 4. g. ii. Sub globular vessels with narrow, short necks, some with two mouths and two handles (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 13 cm.). I. D. 4. g. iii. Keel-shaped vessels, wide-mouthed and with two handles decorated with linear designs in red paint (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 12 cm). I. D. 4. g. iv. Semi globular earthen bowls with inverted or slightly everted border (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 4. g. v. Truncated cone-shaped, flat-based cups (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.). I. D. 4. g. vi. Truncated cone-shaped cups with bell-shaped support (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 16 cm.). A variation of these cups is a semi globular body ´ with applique white paint in linear form that overhangs the surface (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.). I. D. 4. g. vii. Amphorae (Height: Average between 20 and 60 cm., Diameter: between 15 and 40 cm.). I. D. 4. g. viii. Small squash-type gourds (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 11 cm.). I. D. 4. g. ix. Anthropomorphous, zoomorphous, and phytomorphous alcarrazas decorated with negative resist three-colored paint (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 4. g. x. Bottles with stirrup handle (Height: 29 cm., Diameter: 14 cm.). Hollow cylindrical supports, with lower and upper everted border (Height: 16 cm., Diameter: 14 cm.). Cups ´ decorated with incisions or appliques (Height: 12 cm., Diameter: 16 cm.). I. D. 4. g. xi. Globular, sub globular pots, with flanges decorated with ´ appliques and/or incisions (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). I. D. 4. g. xii. Simple incised alcarrazas (Height: 19 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 4. g. xiii. Vessels with black coloring, including rhomboid vessels with a flat base, everted border, round or square-mouthed and decorated with ´ applique anthropomorphous incised bands. Their very diverse dimensions range from 10 cm. to 20 cm., and from 8 cm. to 25 cm. Sometimes they are elongated; at other times they are wider. VerDate Aug<31>2005 15:19 Mar 16, 2006 Jkt 208001 I. D. 4. g. xiv. Elongated vessels in the ´ form of a sail, with applique incised bands (Height: 10 cm., Length: 30 cm). ´ I. D. 4. h. San Agustın. The vessels of this culture display varying slips in differing tones from brown to black with incised decoration in lines, triangles, and dots. Others come in negative resist black paint on red with geometric motifs. A characteristic of the pottery forms is the presence of an everted border inclined downwards. Very common are: I. D. 4. h. i. Dishes with everted border (Height: 5 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 4. h. ii. Globular, semi-globular, sub globular earthen bowls, keel-shaped with straight, everted, or slightly everted border (Height: varies between 8 and 20 cm., Diameter: varies between 10 and 30 cm.). I. D. 4. h. iii. Globular pots and compound silhouette with everted border (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). I. D. 4. h. iv. Globular vessels with tripod-shaped everted border (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.). I. D. 4. h. v. Keel-shaped, globular, and sub globular vessels, narrow-necked and wide-mouthed and everted border (Height: ranging from 50 to 15 cm., Width: from 30 cm. to 10 cm.). I. D. 4. h. vi. Globular and semi globular cups with tubular support and horizontal everted border (Height: 18 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 4. h. vii. Simple anthropomorphous alcarrazas (Height: 12 cm., Diameter: 12 cm.). I. D. 4. h. viii. Double vessels joined together by upper and lower bridge handles (Height: 20 cm., Length: 30 cm.). I. D. 4. i. San Jorge. The manufacturing technique is spiraled and modeled, with incised decoration, dots, notches, extensive bands, and ´ zoomorphous appliques. The wide range of browns on this pottery’s slip goes from light to dark reddish. The vessels displaying paint use red, forming geometric designs. The texture is granular and sometimes cracked for First Occupation period pottery. By the Second Occupation period, the texture becomes compact and fine. In the Classic Period: I. D. 4. i. i. Cups with tall, short, and bell-shaped supports. I. D. 4. i. ii. Cups with lids. I. D. 4. i. iii. Cups with narrow mouths. I. D. 4. i. iv. Cups with keel shapes (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 4. i. v. Alcarrazas, baskets, globular vessels, globular vessels with ring-shaped support (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). PO 00000 Frm 00027 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 13763 The main forms from the Second Occupation period are: I. D. 4. i. vi. Globular and sub globular vessels (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). I. D. 4. i. vii. Cups with low pedestal support and an average diameter of 15 cm. Some cups are approximately 30 cm. high. ´ I. D. 4. j. Sinu. The ceramic vessels come in a diversity of forms. The main ones are: I. D. 4. j. i. High pedestal cups with incised and excised decoration, forming geometric designs, especially rhombus (Height: 25 cm., Diameter: 10 cm.). I. D. 4. j. ii. High pedestal cups with ´ applique modeled anthropomorphous figures, with incised decoration. They frequently represent standing female figures (Height: 25 cm., Diameter: 10 cm.). I. D. 4. j. iii. Cups with perforated compound supports, the globular vessels with a flat base, neck, and everted border with female figures attached to the body, and sub globular vessels with ring-shaped support. I. D. 4. j. iv. Compound silhouette vessels and also globular narrow-necked vessels, with everted border and black and red on cream decoration, forming a linear design, or with ´ anthropomorphous appliques (Height: 30 cm., Diameter: 30 cm.) The ceramic ´ slip, also called ‘‘Betancı,’’ is light brown, beige, and very light beige. I. D. 4. k. Tairona. The Tairona manufacturing technique is by rolls and modeled. The slips are beige, gray, black, dark brown, and reddish brown. They also display linear incisions, dotted, zoomorphous, and ´ anthropomorphous appliques, and ´ applique bands. The black and the beige Tairona pottery typically comprise principally ceremonial vessels, whereas the red pottery includes domestic forms. The common forms are: I. D. 4. k. i. Globular vessels, widemouthed and everted border. I. D. 4. k. ii. Globular vessels, narrownecked and everted border. I. D. 4. k. iii. Keel-shaped vessels, wide-mouthed. I. D. 4. k. iv. Globular vessels, high neck and low ring-shaped support (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). I. D. 4. k. v. Semi globular cups with ring-shaped support. I. D. 4. k. vi. Keel-shaped cups with stylized, high, medium, and low support, especially the tallest ones (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 4. k. vii. Globular and keelshaped vessels with ring-shaped support, wide-mouthed, side spout and upper bridge handle, sometimes ´ displaying zoomorphous appliques at E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1 erjones on PROD1PC68 with RULES 13764 Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 52 / Friday, March 17, 2006 / Rules and Regulations the top, opposite the spout (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. D. 4. k. viii. Double vessels joined by a bridge at the bottom with an upper ´ bridge handle, generally with appliques on the body. I. D. 4. k. ix. Vessels elongated horizontally with a zoomorphous representation on each end; a narrow and short neck is in the center of the vessel, and the support is ring-shaped (Height: 15 cm., Length: 25 cm.). I. D. 4. k. x. Zoomorphous and anthropo-zoomorphous (depicting both human and animal characteristics) tetrapod vessels with narrow neck (Height: 10 cm., Length: 20 cm.). I. D. 4. l. Tierradentro. The ceramic vessels of this archaeological culture are similar in form and decoration to the ´ San Agustın pottery. The most representative vessels of this region are funerary urns with brown, red, and negative resist paint slips, decorated with incised dotted decoration forming triangles filled-in with white paste and/ ´ or modeled appliques in zoomorphous, especially serpent-like figures. Their dimensions vary (Height: 20 to 50 cm., Diameter: 25 and 40 cm.). Another special Tierradentro form is the anthropomorphous mask and alcarraza. I. D. 4. m. Tolima. This pottery displays anthropomorphous and zoomorphous motifs that are modeled, ´ applique, incised, carved, and/or stamped. The slips come in light and dark brown and reddish brown. Some objects have a geometric design decoration in black on light brown or red negative resist paint. The common forms are: I. D. 4. m. i. Semi globular, keelshaped earthen bowls, compound silhouette, some with two handles, straight, everted, inverted or compound borders, abundant decoration (Height: 5 cm., Diameter: 10 cm.). I. D. 4. m. ii. Globular, sub globular, keel-shaped vessels, with flanges in the center of the body, short-necked, widemouthed, direct or everted borders, flat or rounded bases, with or without handles, with abundant decoration. Some have tetrapod or tripod-shaped supports and others are phytomorphous (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.). I. D. 4. m. iii. Semi globular cups, everted border, tall supports generally perforated at intervals (Height: varies between 8 cm. and 35 cm., Diameter: varies between 15 cm. and 32 cm.). I. D. 4. m. iv. Alcarrazas with straight spouts (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.) with phytomorphous and zoomorphous motifs and those depicting figures of houses. I. D. 4. m. v. In the Guaduas, Tolima region, globular or keel-shaped vessels, VerDate Aug<31>2005 15:19 Mar 16, 2006 Jkt 208001 the top tubular bifurcated part ending in an anthropomorphous or zoomorphous figure (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.). I.E. Ceramic Funerary Urns This category of ceramic artifacts consists of a great variety of objects whose function was to contain human remains in secondary burials. They are either alone in the tombs or with funerary accoutrements. They contain, in the untouched deposits, complete human bones or fragments of bones from one or more individuals. I. E. 1. Buga, Cumbre, Pavas, and Guabas. This pottery relates to the Sonso style, with brown slip and white and red paint whenever present. Some ´ have appliques with anthropomorphous designs. It consists of cylindrical, globular, and sub globular funerary urns (Height: 70 cm., Diameter: 40 cm.). Another characteristic form is cylindrical vessels with four handles (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). I. E. 2. El Espinal, Ricaurte, Honda, and Girardot (Panche and Pijao). These funerary urns for secondary burials come in sub globular inverted-necked, with dish-form lids. The urns generally represent a human face with modeled bands. Some urns are multi-colored, displaying geometric designs in red and black. Others depict zoomorphous ´ modeled and applique figures. The dimensions of these urns are similar to the previous ones. Their lids have the following dimensions: about 6 cm. high and 20 cm. wide. I. E. 3. Guajira. Globular and conicalstemmed funerary urns (Height: 30 cm., Diameter: 30 cm.). ´ I. E. 4. La Miel, Guarino, and Puerto ´ Serviez (Pantagora). These urns are oval-shaped in diverse variants; some are cylindrical and short-necked with a wide mouth. The decoration is linear incised at the top, occasionally forming a rhombus. It is dotted, in between parallel lines. A characteristic of the La Miel river urns is that they have anthropomorphous and zoomorphous figures attached, embracing the neck of the urn. The lids are sub globular, with incised and dotted decoration, forming geometric designs. The anthropomorphous figures are attached, sitting on benches with their hands on the rolls or holding earthen bowls or cups in one or both hands. In some, small, perforated shell discs are attached on the figures of the La Miel lids. Other lids come with zoomorphous, preferably ornitomorphous, figures in sets of two or more. The dimensions of the urns range from the largest (Height: 55 cm., Diameter: 42 cm.) to the smallest PO 00000 Frm 00028 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). The average lid size is (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). The Puerto Serviez urns display gray shaded slips, and others come in different tones of brown to reddish brown slips. I. E. 5. Llanos Orientales (Eastern Plains). The urns of this region are generally cylindrical, with flanges, or sub globular, compound silhouettes, straight borders, generally flat bases, white positive paint and anthropomorphous or zoomorphous ´ appliques modeled on the body or on the border (Height: 35 cm., Diameter: 30 ´ cm.). The urns have applique zoomorphous decoration (especially bat figures). The slip is usually reddish and with red positive paint, forming geometric designs. I. E. 6. Putumayo. The main forms of Putumayo funerary urns are sub globular, with straight neck and everted border (Height: 66 cm., Diameter: 65 cm.). I. E. 7. Quimbaya. Quimbaya pottery is found in mid-Cauca river zone (Cauca Medio). The earliest forms in the zone are associated with the pottery known ´ as Marron Inciso (incised brown), the most common forms of which are cylindrical funerary urns with rounded base, modeled borders, and incised decoration in the form of a fishbone. Also common are urns with ´ anthropomorphous appliques and phytomorphous urns. This ceramic slip is black and brown. The dimensions vary from (Height: 20 to 40 cm., Diameter: 34 and 15 cm.). ´ I. E. 8. Sinu. Sub globular funerary urns with slightly everted border and perforated ring-shaped support (Height: 25 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). A variant of this urn type averages 80 cm. in height. I. E. 9. Tairona. These funerary urns are common: Globular and sub globular, short and wide-necked, with ´ anthropomorphous appliques on the neck and body, sometimes with low ring-shaped support (Height: 70 cm., Diameter: 60 cm.). I. E. 10. Tamalameque, Mosquito, and Chimila. These urns for secondary burials have anthropomorphous lids. The urns in general are cylindrical, with flat or circular bases and straight or slightly inverted border. Mosquito urns are occasionally oval-shaped. Some come with zoomorphous modeled and ´ incised appliques on the top, like false handles. The Tamalameque lids are semi globular, with a human figure attached on the top, represented by the head and torso. The head is generally full-sized and very realistic. The heads come in two types: One is modeled in two E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1 Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 52 / Friday, March 17, 2006 / Rules and Regulations dimensions with a straight outline, small extended arms to the sides with open hands; the second head type has a hollow inside and is more realistic. The arms are in various positions. The Mosquito lids have complete anthropomorphous representations, seated on benches and with their hands resting on their knees. Occasionally, the figures are decorated with zoomorphous motifs. The bigger urns are approximately 50 cm. high and with a diameter of approximately 31 cm. The smallest ones are approximately 20 cm. high and with a diameter of approximately 18 cm. The average size of the lids is: Height: 38 cm., Diameter: 30 cm. The manufacturing technique used in these urns was modeling; the slips vary from light brown to reddish tones, some displaying white paint. Outstanding in Chimila pottery are the funerary urns, with anthropomorphous modeled figures, represented in the lid—which pertains to the head—and the body—which pertains to the extremities (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.). I. E. 11. Tumaco—La Tolita. Sub globular with everted border urns (Height: 50 cm., Diameter: 50 cm.). These containers show fine, linear incisions at the top. erjones on PROD1PC68 with RULES I.F. Miscellaneous Ceramic Object Types This category contains the articles that do not fit in the Figurines, Vessels, or Urns Categories. It includes materials from cultures from around the country: I. F. 1. Calima. The Sonso style of Calima pottery is seen in anthropomorphous masks and some miniatures, particularly in the Recent Period. I. F. 2. Guajira. Zoomorphous Mocasines (shoe shaped) vessels are frequent (Approximate length: 15 cm.). ˜ I. F. 3. Narino. Ocarinas (whistles) are common in snail form, sometimes with modeled anthropomorphous or zoomorphous representations on one of their ends. The painted designs are diverse, as well as their dimensions. The average length is about 7 cm. I. F. 4. Quimbaya. Diverse forms of spindle whorls are common, some are hollow and some are rattles with incised decoration filled in with white paste. Their average dimensions are: Height: 3 cm., Diameter: 5 cm. Seals are flat as well as cylindrical, both hollow and solid. They have excised decoration in geometric designs. Common also are Mocasines (shoe shaped) vessels with ´ applique decoration (Height: 10 cm., Length: 15 cm.). VerDate Aug<31>2005 15:19 Mar 16, 2006 Jkt 208001 I. F. 5. San Jorge. Rolls, spindle whorls and anthropomorphous figures. The latter’s average dimensions are 10 x 8 x 4 cm. Likewise, miniature pottery with average dimensions of 4 x 3 cm. ´ I. F. 6. Sinu. Lavishly decorated earthen bowl miniatures. Also Mocasines (shoe shaped) vessels, rolls, and spindle whorls. I. F. 7. Tairona. Anthropomorphous and zoomorphous whistles, especially birds, feline figures, and bats (Height: 5 cm.). I. F. 8. Tumaco. Tabloid graters in different forms, like fish and others, as well as representations of small dwellings, and seals and molds for pottery production. I.G. Gold This category comprises objects of gold and of alloys that include gold with copper, platinum, or other metals, dating mostly to the Classic and Recent Periods and associated with the following culture groups: Calima, ´ ˜ Muisca, Narino, Quimbaya, Sinu, Tairona, Tolima, Tumaco, Cauca, ´ Tierradentro, and San Agustın. Figurative pieces are characterized by elaborate and well-executed work; they represent animal and human forms, as well as supernatural beings. They were produced and decorated using the following techniques: Embossing, soldering, hammering, lost wax casting, no-nucleus melting, stone matrix mold melting, solid no-nucleus melting, sheet fusion, and wire filigree. Examples of articles made in gold and gold alloys include: Beads, Bells, Belts, Bracelets and Anklets, Pectorals and Pendants, Ceremonial Staffs and Finials, Combs, Containers, Mesh, Crowns and Helmets, Ear and Nose Ornaments, Animal and Human Figures, Finger Ornaments, Fishhooks, Gold Casting Paste, Knobs, Lime Containers, Lip Plugs, Masks, Musical Instruments, Necklaces, Needles and Pins, Pincers and Tweezers, and Wire. I.H. Wood This category refers to articles carved in hard woods, mainly small benches and chairs, staffs, needles, weavers’ tools, sarcophagi, chonta palm wooden swords (especially in the Calima and ´ San Agustın regions), and anthropomorphous sculptures in hard woods (particularly in the Muisca region). They are in evidence from all archaeological periods. I.I. Portable Stone Carved and polished archaeological stone articles in Colombia are common and varied. Lithic articles come from tombs and other types of storage from PO 00000 Frm 00029 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 13765 all periods, ranging from the PaleoIndian to the Colonial era. The most common stone artifacts that are looted and traded on the illicit market are flat decorative pendants, tabular necklace beads, ritual monolithic hand axes, hoes, and other small hard polished stone articles mainly from the Calima, Tairona, Guane, Muisca, and Alto Magdalena regions. I.J. Bone Articles carved from animal bone, from all archaeological periods. They are in the form of needles, netting hooks, musical instruments (flutes), and beads, or pendants (especially in the ´ Muisca, Guane, Calima and San Agustın regions). I.K. Textiles The majority of archaeological textiles found in Colombia originate in human burial offerings. These textiles were made mainly on looms, utilizing cotton, sometimes dyed, as the raw material. They come from the Muisca, Guane, and ˜ ˜ Narino Classic periods. In Narino, they also include additions in metal like tumbaga and gold. II. Ecclesiastical Ethnological Materials The categories of Colombian ethnological materials excluded from importation into the United States comprise objects that were made between A.D. 1530 and 1830, with ecclesiastic purpose or association, under the stewardship of the Church. II.A. Wooden Items II. A. 1. Paintings on wood panels (depicting religious and symbolic themes). II. A. 2. Sculpture (polychrome on gesso preparation over wood, including dressed and dressable figures used in religious settings). II. A. 3. Crucifixes. II. A. 4. Altarpieces. II. A. 5. Retablos (carved altar screens). II.B. Metal Objects, Accoutrements & Fittings (Gold, Silver, and Other Metals) II. B. 1. Paintings with religious motifs on metal panels. II. B. 2. Chalices, pitchers, and drinking cups used for religious ceremonies. II. B. 3. Urns and custodia (monstrances) used to display the communion wafer. II. B. 4. Processional or stationary crosses. II. B. 5. Head pieces, wings, and other accoutrements from statues or effigies. II. B. 6. Candlesticks and candelabra. II. B. 7. Plaques. E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1 13766 Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 52 / Friday, March 17, 2006 / Rules and Regulations II.C. Textiles II. C. 1. Garments, such as vestments and tunics worn by clergy (often embroidered with silver and gold ´ threads, with stone appliques). II. C. 2. Altar hangings and altar garments. II. C. 3. Tapestries and carpets. II. C. 4. Paintings on cloth. II.D. Paper, Parchment, Leather II. D. 1. Unique letters, artwork, documents, and manuscripts on paper, parchment, or leather. II. D. 2. Incunabula (books made before printing, such as hymnals and other Colonial-era books, usually with special bindings). Signing Authority furtherance of a foreign affairs function of the United States, pursuant to section 553(a)(1) of the Administrative Procedure Act, (5 U.S.C. 553(a)(1)), no notice of proposed rulemaking or public procedure is necessary. For the same reason, a delayed effective date is not required pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3). Regulatory Flexibility Act Because no notice of proposed rulemaking is required, the provisions of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) do not apply. Accordingly, this final rule is not subject to the regulatory analysis or other requirements of 5 U.S.C. 603 and 604. Executive Order 12866 This regulation is being issued in accordance with § 0.1(a)(1) of the CBP Regulations (19 CFR 0.1(a)(1)). List of Subjects in 19 CFR Part 12 Because this amendment to the CBP regulations imposing import restrictions on the above-listed cultural property of Colombia is being made in response to a bilateral agreement entered into in Accordingly, Part 12 of the Customs Regulations (19 CFR Part 12) is amended as set forth below: I PART 12—SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE 1. The general authority and specific authority citations for Part 12, in part, continue to read as follows: I Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301, 19 U.S.C. 66, 1202 (General Note 3(i), Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS)), 1624; * * * * * * * 2. In § 12.104g, paragraph (a), containing the list of agreements imposing import restrictions on described articles of cultural property of State Parties, is amended by adding Colombia to the list in appropriate alphabetical order as follows: Customs duties and inspections, Imports, Cultural property. § 12.104(g) Specific items or categories designated by agreements or emergency actions. (a) * * * Cultural property * * Colombia ........................................ * * * Pre-Colombian Archaeological Material ranging approximately from 1500 B.C. to 1530 A.D. and ecclesiastical ethnological material of the Colonial period ranging approximately from A.D. 1530 to 1830. * * * * * * * * Decision No. * BILLING CODE 9111–14–P Internal Revenue Service [TD 9239] RIN 1545–BE00 Time for Filing Employment Tax Returns and Modifications to the Deposit Rules; Correction Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to final and temporary regulations. AGENCY: This document contains a correction to final and temporary regulations that were published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, January 3, 2006 (71 FR 11). These regulations relate to the annual filing of Federal employment tax returns and requirements for employment tax deposits for employers in the VerDate Aug<31>2005 15:19 Mar 16, 2006 Jkt 208001 PO 00000 Frm 00030 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 * CBP Dec. 06–09. * Employers’ Annual Federal Tax Program (Form 944). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Raymond Bailey, (202) 622–4910 and Audra M. Dineen, (202) 622–4940 (not toll-free numbers). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 26 CFR Part 1 SUMMARY: * * * DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Deborah J. Spero, Acting Commissioner, Customs and Border Protection. Approved: March 14, 2006. Timothy E. Skud, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. [FR Doc. 06–2620 Filed 3–16–06; 8:45 am] * * State party erjones on PROD1PC68 with RULES * Sections 12.104 through 12.104i also issued under 19 U.S.C. 2612; I This amendment does not meet the criteria of a ‘‘significant regulatory action’’ as described in E.O. 12866. Inapplicability of Notice and Delayed Effective Date Amendment to the Regulations Background The final and temporary regulations (TD 9239) that is the subject of this correction is under section 6302 of the Internal Revenue Code. Need for Correction As published, the final and temporary regulations (TD 9239) contains an error that may prove to be misleading and is in need of clarification. Correction of Publication Accordingly, the publication of the final and temporary regulations (TD 9239), that was the subject of FR Doc. 05–24565, is corrected as follows: I E:\FR\FM\17MRR1.SGM 17MRR1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 71, Number 52 (Friday, March 17, 2006)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 13757-13766]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 06-2620]


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DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY

Bureau of Customs and Border Protection

DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY

19 CFR PART 12

[CBP Dec. 06-09]
RIN 1505-AB59


Import Restrictions Imposed on Certain Archaeological and 
Ethnological Materials From Colombia

AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection; Homeland Security; Treasury.

ACTION: Final rule.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) 
regulations to reflect the imposition of import restrictions on certain 
archaeological material and certain ethnological material from 
Colombia. These restrictions are being imposed pursuant to an agreement 
between the United States and the Government of Colombia that has been 
entered into under the authority of the Convention on Cultural Property 
Implementation Act in accordance with the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Convention on the Means 
of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer 
of Ownership of Cultural Property. The final rule amends CBP 
regulations by adding Colombia to the list of countries for which a 
bilateral agreement has been entered into for imposing cultural 
property import restrictions. The final rule also contains the 
designated list that describes the types of archaeological and 
ethnological articles to which the restrictions apply.

DATES: Effective Date: March 17, 2006.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For legal aspects, George Frederick 
McCray, Esq., Office of Regulations and Rulings, (202) 572-8709; for 
operational aspects, Michael Craig, Chief, Other Government Agencies 
Branch (202) 344-1684.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

    The value of cultural property, whether archaeological or 
ethnological in nature, is immeasurable. Such items often constitute 
the very essence of a society and convey important information 
concerning a people's origin, history, and traditional setting.

[[Page 13758]]

The importance and popularity of such items regrettably makes them 
targets of theft, encourages clandestine looting of archaeological 
sites, and results in their illegal export and import.
    The United States shares in the international concern for the need 
to protect endangered cultural property. The appearance in the United 
States of stolen or illegally exported artifacts from other countries 
where there has been pillage has, on occasion, strained our foreign and 
cultural relations. This situation, combined with the concerns of 
museum, archaeological, and scholarly communities, was recognized by 
the President and Congress. It became apparent that it was in the 
national interest for the United States to join with other countries to 
control illegal trafficking of such articles in international commerce.
    The United States joined international efforts and actively 
participated in deliberations resulting in the 1970 UNESCO Convention 
on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export 
and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (823 U.N.T.S. 231 
(1972)). U.S. acceptance of the 1970 UNESCO Convention was codified 
into U.S. law as the ``Convention on Cultural Property Implementation 
Act'' (Pub. L. 97-446, 19 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.) (the Act). This was done 
to promote U.S. leadership in achieving greater international 
cooperation towards preserving cultural treasures that are of 
importance to the nations from where they originate and contribute to 
greater international understanding of our common heritage.
    During the past several years, import restrictions have been 
imposed on archaeological and ethnological artifacts/materials of a 
number of signatory nations. These restrictions have been imposed as a 
result of requests for protection received from those nations, as well 
as pursuant to bilateral agreements between the United States and other 
countries. More information on import restrictions can be found on the 
International Cultural Property Protection Web site (http://
exchanges.state.gov/culprop/index.html).
    This document announces that import restrictions are now being 
imposed on certain archaeological and ethnological materials from 
Colombia.

Determinations

    Under 19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1), the United States must make certain 
determinations before entering into an agreement to impose import 
restrictions under 19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(2). On May 10, 2005, the Assistant 
Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs made the 
determinations required under the statute with respect to certain 
archaeological materials originating in Colombia that represent pre-
Colombian cultures and certain Colonial ecclesiastical ethnological 
materials that are described in the designated list set forth further 
below in this document (``Determinations to Impose Import Restrictions 
on Archaeological Material from the Pre-Colombian Cultures of Colombia 
and Colonial Ecclesiastical Ethnological Material''). These 
determinations include the following: (1) That the cultural patrimony 
of Colombia is in jeopardy from the pillage of irreplaceable 
archaeological materials representing its pre-Colombian heritage 
(ranging in date from approximately 1500 B.C. to A.D. 1530) and 
irreplaceable ecclesiastical ethnological materials of the Colonial 
period (ranging in date from approximately A.D. 1530 to 1830) (19 
U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(A)); (2) that the Government of Colombia has taken 
measures consistent with the Convention to protect its cultural 
patrimony (19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(B)); (3) that import restrictions 
imposed by the United States would be of substantial benefit in 
deterring a serious situation of pillage and remedies less drastic are 
not available (19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(C)); and (4) that the application 
of import restrictions as set forth in this final rule is consistent 
with the general interests of the international community in the 
interchange of cultural property among nations for scientific, 
cultural, and educational purposes (19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(1)(D)). The 
Assistant Secretary also found that the materials described in the 
determinations meet the statutory definition of ``archaeological or 
ethnological material of the state party'' (19 U.S.C. 2601(2)).

The Agreement

    On March 15, 2006, the United States and the Government of Colombia 
entered into a bilateral agreement (the Agreement) pursuant to the 
provisions of 19 U.S.C. 2602(a)(2) covering certain archaeological 
materials representing its pre-Colombian cultural heritage and certain 
ecclesiastical ethnological materials of the Colonial period. Dating 
from approximately 1500 B.C. to approximately A.D. 1530, the pre-
Colombian archaeological materials include, but are not limited to, 
objects generally associated with the Tairona, Sinu, Uraba, Quimbaya, 
Muisca, Calima, Malagana, Tolima, Tierradentro, Cauca, San Ugustin, 
Tumaco, and Narinao cultures, such as ceramic figurines, vessels, and 
funerary urns; gold and alloy (gold with copper, platinum, or other 
metals) jewelry; wood, such as tools; bone, such as small implements 
and jewelry; rock art; and lithics, such as large sculpted stone from 
the San Agustin Culture. Dating from A.D. 1530 to 1830, the 
ecclesiastical ethnological materials include, but are not limited to, 
religious oil paintings; altars and altar pieces, including retablos of 
wood, gold, and silver; statues of saints (santos); textiles such as 
liturgical vestments and wall hangings; and objects of paper, 
parchment, or leather, such as documents and incunabula.

Restrictions and Amendment to the Regulations

    In accordance with the Agreement, import restrictions are now being 
imposed on these archaeological and ethnological materials from 
Colombia. Importation of these materials, described specifically in the 
designated list below, are subject to the restrictions of 19 U.S.C. 
2606 and Sec.  12.104g(a) of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) 
Regulations (19 CFR 12.104g(a)) and will be restricted from entry into 
the United States unless the conditions set forth in 19 U.S.C. 2606 and 
Sec.  12.104c of the regulations (19 CFR 12.104c) are met. CBP is 
amending Sec.  12.104g(a) of the CBP Regulations (19 CFR 12.104g(a)) to 
indicate that these import restrictions have been imposed.

Material Encompassed in Import Restrictions

    The bilateral agreement between the Government of Colombia and the 
United States covers the categories of objects described in the 
designated list set forth below. These articles are subject to the 
import restrictions set forth above, in accordance with the above 
explained applicable law and the regulation amended in this document 
(19 CFR 12.104(g)(a)).

Categories of Objects from Colombia Designated for Protection From 
Importation Into the United States

I. Archaeological Materials (1500 B.C.-A.D. 1530)

I.A. Large Stone Sculptures
I.B. Rock Art
I.C. Ceramic Figurines
I.D. Ceramic Vessels
I.E. Ceramic funerary Urns
I.F. Miscellaneous Ceramic Object Types
I.G. Gold
I.H. Wood
I.I. Portable Stone
I.J. Bone
I.K. Textiles

II. Ecclesiastical Ethnological Materials (A.D. 1530-1830)

II.A. Wooden Items
II.B. Metal Objects, Accoutrements, and Fittings

[[Page 13759]]

II.C. Textiles
II.D. Paper, Parchment, Leather

I. Archaeological Materials

    The archaeological objects that are covered under this agreement 
are associated with culture groups that resided in this region from 
about 1500 BC (late in the Archaic Period), throughout the Formative 
and Classic Periods, to 1530 AD (late in the Recent Period).
I.A. Large Stone Sculptures
    The monolithic sculptures of the San Agust[iacute]n Culture (1-900 
AD) from tombs in Upper Magdalena and the neighboring region in 
southern and northern Huila, Tierradentro, northern Nari[ntilde]o, the 
Popay[aacute]n region, Cundinamarca, Boyac[aacute], and northern 
Caquet[aacute]. Worked primarily in volcanic stone (basalt, tektite, 
manzonite, and andesite), the tallest statues are up to 3 m. high, with 
human, avian, and other animal characteristics, carved in low relief 
and occasionally retaining evidence of pigments.
I.B. Rock Art
    Ancient rock art is found throughout Colombia, at sites including 
Gorgona in Cauca, Mesitas del Colegio in Cundinamarca, San 
Agust[iacute]n in Huila, and S[aacute]chica, Sogamoso, Muzo, and 
Buenavista in Boyac[aacute]. Archaeological research has not 
established a full typology or chronology as yet. The great majority 
are engravings in low relief (petroglyphs) on the flat surfaces of huge 
stones or on surfaces of exposed bedrock, some retaining colored 
pigments.
I.C. Ceramic Figurines
    Small sculptures and miniature human and animal figures associated 
with the Tairona, Muisca, Guane, Tolima, Magdalena Medio, San 
Agust[iacute]n, Tierradentro, Narino, Tumaco, Calima, Malagana, 
Quimbaya, Cauca, Urab[aacute], and Sin[uacute] cultures.
    I. c. 1. Cauca and southern Valle. The Popay[aacute]n style in this 
region displays highly decorated anthropomorphous figures with 
zoomorphous appliqu[eacute]s (Height: 20 cm., Width: 13 cm.). Other 
common forms are the benches on which anthropomorphous figures rest 
(Height: 7 cm., Width: 10 cm.).
    I. c. 2. Guajira. Stylized globular anthropomorphous figures with 
appliqu[eacute] features.
    I. c. 3. Nari[ntilde]o. This is divided into three types of 
pottery: Capul[iacute], Piartal, and Tuza. The Capul[iacute] pottery 
presents modeled decoration and black negative resist paint on red. The 
anthropomorphous figures of coca chewers (coqueros) are characteristic 
of this style.
    I. c. 4. Quimbaya. The Quimbaya anthropomorphous figures are 
generally seated with their arms extended or holding objects, on 
occasion wearing a gold or tumbaga nose ring. These objects are usually 
painted in two or more colors. The dimensions average from 12 to 40 cm. 
tall and 8 to 30 cm. wide; miniatures of this type are also common.
    I. c. 5. San Jorge. The average dimensions of the realistic 
anthropomorphous and zoomorphous figures characteristic of the Momil 
Culture are 5 by 4 by 2 cm. The larger figures come in 15 by 10 by 8 
cm. sizes, and the smaller ones measure approximately 2 by 2 by 2 cm.
    I. c. 6. Tolima. Anthropomorphous figures, some sitting on benches. 
Their dimensions vary and are usually painted in black negative resist 
paint on light brown.
    I. c. 7. Tumaco. The most characteristic forms of the Tumaco 
pottery are the anthropomorphous, zoomorphous and anthropo-zoomorphous 
heads or figures, and masks. Some are modeled, others molded, and 
others combine the two techniques and reflect attitudes and expressions 
of daily and supernatural life. The anthropomorphous heads generally 
display cranial deformation. The sizes vary from 2 to 30 cm. tall.
I.D. Ceramic Vessels
    This category is the most common, varied, and widespread. Vessels 
appear initially in deposits from the Archaic Period (4000 BC-1000 AD) 
on the Atlantic Coast and from the Formative period (1000 BC-1 AD) 
countrywide. The decorative styles, the forms, and the typical 
functions of the ceramic vessels vary between regions and periods. 
Types of pre-Columbian pottery that are intensely sought and traded 
illicitly include very elaborate vessels, profusely decorated (incised, 
modeled, appliqu[eacute], and/or painted). They originated particularly 
in the Formative and Classic (1 AD--900 AD) periods, come from all 
regions, and were buried with the dead.
    I. D. 1. Vessels of the Early Formative Period. The main sites on 
the Caribbean coast where evidence is found of the Early Formative 
Period are: Mons[uacute], Puerto Hormiga, San Jacinto, Canapote, 
Barlovento, Zambrano, Malambo, Momil, and Crespo. The manufacturing 
technique includes spirals and modeling, with thick-walled vessels and 
rough surfaces. The most ancient forms show vegetable fiber and sand 
temper. The most recent forms display ground shell and sand temper, or 
sand temper. The decoration includes incision and clay slip. The slip 
ranges from very light brown (or beige) to a darker light brown or 
reddish. The ceramic figures and forms are profusely decorated with 
abundant dots and deep incisions. Some vessels come with stamped 
decorations using seashells. The bowls and the pots generally have 
anthropomorphous and zoomorphous appliqu[eacute]s on the upper part. 
The Momil pottery also displays black, white, and red paint.
    I. D. 1. a. Early phase bowls and pots from the tradition known as 
tecomate are globular and semi-globular with inverted edges and wide 
mouths, and decorated with incised and excised decoration on the upper 
part; they measure ~ 30 cm. in diameter and ~ 20 cm. in height.
    I. D. 1. b. In more recent phases, such as Malambo, they come in 
assorted forms, including cups with ring-shaped or foot-type supports 
(Height: ~ 20 cm., Diameter: ~ 15 cm.). There also are plates, clay 
griddles (budares), and vessels with prominent shoulders.
    I. D. 1. c. In Momil, the forms are more varied: narrow-necked and 
wide everted-edged vessels, compound silhouette cups, globular vessels 
with downward everted edge, sub-globular downward edge vessels, vessels 
with mammiform supports, and earthen bowls with base borders.
    I. D. 2. Vessels of the Late Formative Period: Coast. On the 
Pacific Coast, the most representative sites are Tumaco, Monte Alto, 
Inguap[iacute], El Balsal, Pampa de Nerete, and Cupica (Choc[oacute]). 
On the Atlantic Coast, the sites are Guajira, the Rancheria river 
valley and part of the Cesar river valley, the Upper Sin[uacute] river, 
the flanks of the Abibe and San Jeronimo Serrania, and the Gulf of 
Urab[aacute]. The chronology of the period is from 1000 BC to the first 
century AD.
    I. D. 2. a. Cupica. The following forms are very common:
    I. D. 2. a. i. Semi-globular, sub globular vessels, with everted 
edge, straight or in a poporo form.
    I. D. 2. a. ii. Double-spouted globular or phytomorphous vessels, 
short-necked sub globular and everted edge vessels.
    I. D. 2. a. iii. Globular and phytomorphous cups with ring-shaped 
support, conical-stemmed cups with punctured supports.
    I. D. 2. a. iv. Decoration in Cupica is incised, excised, with 
appliqu[eacute] bands forming anthropomorphous and zoomorphous figures, 
dotted and lentil-shaped appliqu[eacute]s. The slips are generally dark 
brown with black and red paint.
    I. D. 2. a. v. All these vessels vary between a maximum height of 
25 cm.

[[Page 13760]]

and a minimum of 10 cm., a diameter between 25 and 10 cm., and 
generally the height and diameter are the same size.
    I. D. 2. b. Guajira. The ceramic decoration in this region is 
characterized by spiral or linear motifs, appliqu[eacute] bands, 
manufactured by modeling or by rolls. They come in light brown and 
reddish slips and positive red, black, and white paint. The most common 
forms are:
    I. D. 2. b. i. Globular and sub globular vessels, short or high-
necked, wide or narrow mouthed, zoomorphous (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 
20 cm.).
    I. D. 2. b. ii. Semi globular cups with globular support (Height: 
15 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.).
    I. D. 2. c. Sin[uacute] (or Urab[aacute]). Pottery manufactured by 
rolls and modeled, with appliqu[eacute] bands, incisions, dotted, 
imprints and applying internal pressure. The slip comes in beige, light 
brown to reddish, and black. The main forms are:
    I. D. 2. c. i. Plates, semi globular earthen bowls, globular wide-
mouthed and printed edged vessels (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: some 20 
cm.).
    I. D. 2. c. ii. Printed, horizontal everted-edge cups, evenly 
punctured crowning support, some with zoomorphous appliqu[eacute]s and 
with rattles (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: around 15 cm.).
    I. D. 2. d. Tumaco--La Tolita. This pottery is characterized by 
coming in red, brown, or gray slip. Some vessels display zoned white 
paint. The common forms are:
    I. D. 2. d.i. Globular, semi globular, or keel-shaped earthen bowls 
with slightly inverted or everted edge (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 20 
cm.).
    I. D. 2. d.ii. Globular or sub globular vessels, short or high-
necked with everted edge, with or without anthropomorphous or 
zoomorphous appliqu[eacute]s on the body or appliqu[eacute] bands, with 
or without double handles on the body (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 12 
cm.).
    I. D. 2. d.iii. Semi globular or cylindrical, or keel-shaped cups, 
with mammiform tripod-shaped supports (Height: 12 cm., Diameter: 18 
cm.).
    I. D. 2. d.iv. Alcarrazas (double-spouted jug with a bridge 
handle), in various animal, avian, and human forms.
    I. D. 2. d.v. ``Canasteros'' or anthropomorphous or zoomorphous 
figures with a cylindrical container in the back part (Height: 15 cm., 
Diameter: 15 cm.).
    I. D. 3. Vessels of the Late Formative Period: Interior. The 
Interior comprises the lower and mid-Magdalena valley region, the 
provinces of Cesar, Magdalena, Bol[iacute]var, Santander, Antioquia, 
Boyac[aacute], Cundinamarca, Caldas, Tolima, Huila, Putumayo, the 
Llanos Orientales (Eastern Plains), and the Amazon. The archaeological 
cultures represented are Tamalameque and Magdalena Medio, Pijao (in 
Espinal), Panche (in Ricaurte and Honda), Pantagora (in Guarin[oacute], 
La Miel, and Puerto Serviez), Mosquito (in Oca[ntilde]a), and Guayupes 
(Llanos Orientales).
    I. D. 3. a. Amazon. This ceramic slip varies from beige to dark 
brown and reddish, and different tones of gray; the decoration consists 
of incisions, dots, brushing, impression, grooves, modeled 
appliqu[eacute]s, geometric designs in red positive paint and 
occasionally white, brown. Common forms are:
    I. D. 3. a. i. Budares (flat clay griddles) with slightly everted 
edge, usually holding leaf imprints on the base (Height: approximately 
5 cm., Diameter: varies between 34 and 56 cm.).
    I. D. 3. a. ii. Cylindrical, ``hourglass'' supports or in the form 
of a truncated cone (probably for the griddles); they can be hollow or 
compact with a flat base (Height: variable, Diameter of the base: 
varies between 10 and 18 cm.).
    I. D. 3. a. iii. Semi globular and keel-shaped everted-edge earthen 
bowls (Height: 7 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.), globular body, or compound 
silhouette vessels, flat base, short-necked, everted edge (Height: 
varies between 7 and 18 cm., Diameter: varies between 15 and 36 cm.).
    I. D. 3. a. iv. Anthropomorphous and zoomorphous containers of 
assorted dimensions, modeled, realistic, and stylized.
    I. D. 3. b. Calima. The Formative is represented in Calima by the 
Ilama pottery, characterized by brushed and/or incised fine decoration, 
with slip ranging from light to dark brown. Some incisions are filled 
in with white paste. The common forms are:
    I. D. 3. b. i. Simple, anthropomorphous, zoomorphous alcarrazas 
(double-spouted jug). Average dimensions: Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 15 
cm.
    I. D. 3. b. ii. Canasteros (anthropomorphous vessels with hollow 
cylinder in the back part)(Height: 16 cm., Diameter: 10 cm.).
    I. D. 3. b. iii. Cylindrical, anthropomorphous, or zoomorphous 
vessels (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 7 cm.) and the globular narrow-
mouthed and everted edge vessels (Height: 12 cm., Diameter: 16 cm.).
    I. D. 3. c. Llanos Orientales (Eastern Plains). Vessels from this 
are semi globular or compound silhouette earthen bowls, with rounded or 
flat bases, everted or slightly inverted edges and rounded. Some show 
triangular or rhomboid mouths and modeled appliqu[eacute]s on the 
border (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). The slip is generally 
reddish and with white positive paint, forming geometrical designs. 
Common also are globular, semi-globular, sub globular vessels, compound 
silhouette, keel-shaped, short-necked, everted or straight-edged, 
rounded or flat based, with or without appliqu[eacute]s, with or 
without white positive paint (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.).
    I. D. 3. d. Putumayo (Guamu[eacute]s). The diagnostic feature of 
this type is a decoration with visible coils, and corrugated decoration 
with fingerprints, or corrugated with different imprints. The colors of 
the slip range from gray to reddish brown. The common forms are 
globular and sub globular with straight neck and everted edge (Height: 
20 cm., Diameter: 30 cm.).
    I. D. 3. e. Tamalameque, Mosquito and Chimila. In this zone, we 
find vessels of various forms associated with burials. The most common 
forms are the globular narrow-necked vessels, everted-edged, and with 
incised decoration forming a rhombus. There are also anthropomorphous 
vessels with ring-shaped supports and very realistic anthropomorphous 
modeled figures. Multi-colored zoomorphous vessels with geometrical 
designs, narrow necks, and everted edges have also been found in 
Ricaurte.
    I. D. 4. Vessels from the Classic and Recent Periods. The formation 
and consolidation of chiefdoms started in these periods, with regional 
political units and populated towns. The principal chiefdoms in the 
Classic period are in Magdalena (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta), 
Cordoba, Santander, Cundinamarca, Boyac[aacute], Caldas Risaralda, 
Quind[iacute]o, Huila, Valle, Cauca, and Nari[ntilde]o. The 
archaeological cultures represented are Tairona, Sin[uacute], San 
Jorge, Guane, Muisca, Quimbaya, Calima, San Agust[iacute]n, 
Tierradentro, and Nari[ntilde]o.
    I. D. 4. a. Calima. The Classic Period in Calima corresponds to 
Yotoco pottery, with its characteristic decoration in black negative 
resist paint on red, orange or white wash, and curvilinear designs. 
They occasionally carry appliqu[eacute]s. The most common forms are:
    I. D. 4. a. i. Simple alcarrazas, anthropomorphous, phytomorphous 
with ring-shaped, tetrapod or tripod-shaped support (Height: 15 cm., 
Diameter: 15 cm.).
    I. D. 4. a. ii. Whistling Alcarrazas, which could be either simple 
or double. The dimensions of the simple ones are

[[Page 13761]]

the same as the double-spouted alcarrazas. The double ones have the 
same average height and an average length of 20 cm.
    I. D. 4. a. iii. Earthen bowls with flat or rounded base. The 
negative resist paint is apparent inside and outside (Height: 8 cm., 
Diameter: 15 cm.).
    The Recent Period in Calima encompasses Sonso pottery, 
characterized by decoration in the form of negative black paint on red 
or orange wash, with a linear design or light brown to reddish light 
brown slip. They display appliqu[eacute]d incised bands. The most 
common forms of the Sonso style are:
    I. D. 4. a. iv. Semi globular earthen bowls (Height: 10 cm., 
Diameter: 15 cm.).
    I. D. 4. a. v. Pitchers with three horizontal handles set 
irregularly on the vessel's body. The neck is phytomorphous or 
anthropomorphous (Height: 24 cm., Diameter: 22 cm.).
    I. D. 4. a. vi. Other common forms are cups with incised brushing 
and appliqu[eacute] decoration (Height: 12 cm., Diameter: 16 cm.).
    I. D. 4. b. Cauca and southern Valle. We find three pottery styles: 
Quebrada Seca or Corinto, R[iacute]o Bolo, and Popay[aacute]n. In the 
Quebrada Seca and R[iacute]o Bolo vessels, the pottery surface is fine 
and polished with red slip, exception made to the top part of the 
vessel that conserves the paste's natural color. It generally holds 
stylized anthropomorphous modeled appliqu[eacute]s and incisions on the 
top part, on the border between the slip and the paste. Sometimes, the 
body displays incisions around and on the border. Some vessels come in 
unpolished surfaces, and totally brushed with wide, deep, and 
intersecting lines. The Popay[aacute]n style is characterized by the 
use of modeling. The most common forms are:
    I. D. 4. b. i. Semi globular or globular earthen bowls, with 
straight border, inverted border, or externally reinforced border, 
sometimes with two handles. (Height: 7 cm., Diameter: 16 cm.).
    I. D. 4. b. ii. Semi-globular, sub-globular, globular cups in bell-
form, short, medium-sized and tall supports, and straight, inverted, 
reinforced, everted borders, with or without small handles.
    I. D. 4. b. iii. Triple cups on only one support (Height: 15 cm., 
Diameter: 16 cm.), globular, sub-globular, aribaloide (high-necked, 
oval-shaped urn type) vessels, narrow-necked, everted, reinforced, 
straight border, with a flange, with or without false handles. (Height: 
15 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.).
    I. D. 4. b. iv. Mocasines (shoe shaped) vessels, squash gourds, 
different-sized zoomorphous and anthropomorphous figures.
    I. D. 4. c. Guane. A characteristic of this pottery is that it has 
light brown, orange and dark brown slips. The decoration consists of 
linear, spiral, dotted incisions and geometric designs. It also 
displays band appliqu[eacute]s, molded in anthropomorphous and 
zoomorphous figures. On the orange slips, the designs are painted in 
red and/or white, inside or outside. The principal Guane forms are:
    I. D. 4. c. i. Semi globular earthen bowls with straight or 
slightly inverted border (Height: 9 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.) and cups 
with straight borders, slightly inverted or everted, with low ring-
shaped support. Some cups show internal and external decoration, 
displaying appliqu[eacute] zoomorphous figures, particularly frogs 
(Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.).
    I. D. 4. c. ii. Double or triple earthen bowls joined by a lower 
bridge and an upper bridge handle; the latter can represent a 
zoomorphous figure (Height: 10 cm., Length: 24 cm.).
    I. D. 4. c. iii. Globular and sub globular pots with inverted 
border. Some display upper bridge handles and others display two or 
more rounded handles located on the border of the body; other handles 
can be placed horizontally on the body (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 20 
cm.).
    I. D. 4. c. iv. Globular vessels with low ring-shaped support, 
short and narrow-necked, slightly everted border, coming with two or 
more handles from border to body (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 13 cm.) and 
sub globular narrow-necked vessels with slightly everted border, and 
with two opposing handles from border to body, or neck to body (Height: 
25 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.).
    I. D. 4. c. v. Globular, sub globular, and keel-shaped pitchers, 
short-necked and long, occasionally displaying anthropomorphous 
appliqu[eacute] or painted decoration, straight and slightly everted 
borders, flat rounded handles from border to body, or neck to body 
(Height: 25 cm., Diameter: 23 cm.), occasionally portraying this form 
in miniature or in double vessels joined by lower and upper bridges. 
Some come with two and three necks for the same body.
    I. D. 4. c. vi. Keel-shaped vessel, narrow and short necked with 
two opposing handles ending in an inverted form with a very narrow 
mouth (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 21 cm.).
    I. D. 4. c. vii. Barrel-shaped vessels in a horizontal position, 
narrow and short-necked with opposing handles, separating from the 
middle of the body. On some occasions, they display appliqu[eacute] 
zoomorphous motifs and hollow cylindrical supports with painted 
decoration, forming linear and spiral geometrical motifs.
    I. D. 4. d. Malagana. This seems to be a local style of the Calima 
macro-region, because it has very similar vessels to the complex Calima 
pottery. It is characterized by the use of modeled and negative black 
and white paint on red. Some vessels display fine incisions and black 
and light brown slips as decoration. The most common forms of Malagana 
Vessels are:
    I. D. 4. d. i. Semi-globular, globular, and keel-shaped earthen 
bowls, with mammiform or tubular supports.
    I. D. 4. d. ii. Anthropomorphous cups with the figure kneeling down 
(Height: 16 cm., Diameter: 12 cm.).
    I. D. 4. d. iii. Globular, oval, compound, phytomorphous, 
anthropomorphous and zoomorphous, single or double-spouted alcarrazas 
(Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.).
    I. D. 4. d. iv. Realistic zoomorphous containers in very varied 
dimensions depending on the figure.
    I. D. 4. e. Muisca. The main Muisca forms are:
    I. D. 4. e. i. Semi globular earthen bowls with straight or 
slightly inverted border, their decoration black and/or red paint or 
incised, forming geometric designs.
    I. D. 4. e. ii. Semi globular earthen bowls, with flat keel-shaped 
border portraying lentil-shaped, zoomorphous, spiral and 
appliqu[eacute] figures, with dotted decoration and two rounded handles 
or a bridge handle. The pottery comes in black (Height: 10 cm., 
Diameter: 15 cm.).
    I. D. 4. e. iii. Straight border cups, slightly everted, with short 
or tall ring-shaped support and with the painted geometric decoration 
usually at the top. On the external part, they display appliqu[eacute] 
or painted serpent-like motifs. Occasionally, the border comes with 
zoomorphous and anthropomorphous appliqu[eacute]s. The most recurrent 
decoration colors are white and red (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.). 
Occasionally, there are double cups joined together by bridges.
    I. D. 4. e. iv. Globular and sub globular pots with inverted 
border, the decoration of which consists of red geometric and linear 
designs. Their characteristic is to have multiple handles; some can 
even have decorated handles at the top (Height: varies between 10 and 
40 cm., Diameter: 15 to 45 cm.).
    I. D. 4. e. v. Sub globular or keel-shaped pitchers, narrow-necked 
and with straight or slightly everted border, and with one or two flat 
opposing handles from neck to body. Occasionally, they display

[[Page 13762]]

representations of anthropomorphous faces, or dotted or striped 
incisions in the neck, and false handles. Colors vary from red and 
white to grey and white (Height: 23 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.).
    I. D. 4. e. vi. Globular, sub globular, and keel-shaped short-
necked pitchers, with straight everted borders, flat or rounded handles 
from border to body, or neck to body (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 22 
cm.). The decoration consists of linear design with red or gray and 
white paint.
    I. D. 4. e. vii. Globular, sub globular, or keel-shaped 
m[uacute]curas, very narrow and tall, with a flat handle from neck to 
body. The neck generally displays appliqu[eacute] or painted 
anthropomorphous and zoomorphous figures, occasionally with false 
handles; the paint can cover the top part of the vessel's body. 
Dimensions vary (Height: minimum of 10 cm. to 50 cm., Diameter: 12 cm. 
to 40 cm.). Occasionally, there can be double m[uacute]curas joined by 
bridges or mucuras with two necks.
    I. D. 4. e. viii. Barrel-shaped vessels in a horizontal position, 
narrow and short-necked with opposing handles separated from the body; 
on some occasions they have appliqu[eacute] anthropomorphous or 
zoomorphous motifs (Height: 20 cm., Width: 24 cm.). Hollow cylindrical 
supports with painted decoration forming geometric motifs with lines 
and spirals.
    I. D. 4. e. ix. Mocasines (shoe shaped) vessels, generally black, 
come with a lateral handle from border to body or neck to body. The 
decoration is appliqu[eacute] with zoomorphous motifs and dotted 
incisions. The dimensions vary (Height: 9 to 15 cm., Width: maximum 
between 10 and 20 cm.).
    I. D. 4. e. x. Offertories, or hollow anthropomorphous figures, 
with an opening in the front or back or on the top. They are modeled 
figures with incised, dotted and appliqu[eacute] decoration, displaying 
great diversity in their attire, especially the head ornaments. On some 
occasions, these figures have one or more anthropomorphous figures or 
smaller-sized vessels. The slip varies in tones of brown and 
occasionally comes in red linear paint. The dimensions are very varied, 
ranging from a height of 40 cm. to 11 cm. approximately. There also are 
circular offertories, occasionally showing anthropomorphous figures on 
the body with simple flat or anthropomorphous lids with similar 
characteristics to the previous ones. The latter have an average height 
of 15 cm.
    I. D. 4. f. Nari[ntilde]o. This pottery comes in two types: 
Capul[iacute], and Piartal-Tuza.
    The Capul[iacute] pottery displays modeled decoration and negative 
black paint on red. Cups are its most characteristic form. The common 
forms are:
    I. D. 4. f. i. Globular, semi globular, and square cups, their 
supports are short, medium, and tall ring-shaped. They occasionally 
come with modeled anthropomorphous figures supporting the cup. The 
borders are straight, everted, or slightly inverted (Height: 10 cm., 
Diameter: 13 cm.).
    I. D. 4. f. ii. Semi globular earthen bowls (Height: 8 cm., 
Diameter: 16 cm.). Some earthen bowls have an upper bridge handle, in 
the form of a basket. Occasionally, they come in double or triple 
vessels.
    I. D. 4. f. iii. Globular vessels with or without a narrow neck and 
a wide mouth, everted border, or flanges.
    I. D. 4. f. iv. Keel-shaped and lentil-shaped vessels with everted 
border. Some vessels have three or four light supports attached by 
internal pressure. These forms can have a flange at the center of the 
body. Others have serpent-like bands appliqu[eacute]d vertically.
    I. D. 4. f. v. Tripod-shaped globular vessels or ones with 
zoomorphous modeled figures forming the border.
    I. D. 4. f. vi. Globular, lentil-shaped, or keel-shaped vessels 
with lentil-shaped appliqu[eacute]s set on the greatest diameter 
(Height: 8 cm., Diameter: 12 cm.).
    I. D. 4. f. vii. Sub globular vessels with narrow neck and straight 
border, low ring-shaped support.
    I. D. 4. f. viii. Zoomorphous or anthropomorphous vessels depicting 
an animal or human seated on a bench with its legs crossed or extended, 
chewing coca, or with an open mouth. The dimensions are very varied, 
and they depend on the theme represented. Some are miniatures.
    I. D. 4. f. ix. The Piartal-Tuza pottery is characterized by having 
red, orange and/or black on brown paint decoration with many stylized 
representations of fauna, anthropomorphous figures, or geometric 
designs. Its most characteristic forms are:
    I. D. 4. f. x. Dishes with low ring-shaped support (Height: 7 cm., 
Diameter: 14 cm.).
    I. D. 4. f. xi. Semi globular earthen bowls (Height: 6 cm., 
Diameter: 15 cm.).
    I. D. 4. f. xii. Globular vessels, narrow-necked, wide-mouthed, 
neck slightly everted and short, with tripod-shaped or tetrapod support 
achieved by internal pressure (Height: 8 cm., Diameter: 13 cm.).
    I. D. 4. f. xiii. Cups with low ring-shaped support, straight or 
everted border, with one or two handles (Height: 12 cm., Diameter: 14 
cm.).
    I. D. 4. f. xiv. Globular vessels, short-necked, everted border, 
wide-mouthed (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 17 cm.); the globular, keel-
shaped or lentil-shaped vessels are very short-necked and have a 
slightly everted or straight border (Height: 7 cm., Diameter: 10 cm.). 
These Vessels also come with tripod-shaped support, or low ring-shaped 
support, sometimes with a flange in the center of the vessel.
    I. D. 4. f. xv. Square or rectangular earthen bowls having low 
ring-shaped support (Height: 5 cm. Width: 7 cm.).
    I. D. 4. f. xvi. Amphorae with aribaloide (high-necked, oval-shaped 
urn) or flat bases, with or without handles (Height: varies between 
approximately 20 cm. and 120 cm., Diameter: varies between 15 cm. and 
50 cm.).
    I. D. 4. f. xvii. Small pitchers, with a handle, globular, sub 
globular or cylindrical body, flat, rounded, or with low ring-shaped 
support bases (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 8 cm.).
    I. D. 4. f. xviii. Compound silhouette ``Piartal'' vessels, keel-
shaped, very narrow and long necked, everted border, rounded base and 
diverse geometric designs in brown, black or red on cream positive 
paint (Height: 25 cm., Diameter: 30 cm.).
    I. D. 4. f. xix. ``Tuza'' vessels, sub-globular, conical, 
cylindrical, with short neck, straight or everted border, flat or 
rounded bases with low ring-shaped support, and diverse designs in 
positive paint (Height: varies between approximately 20 cm. and 90 cm., 
Diameter: varies approximately between 15 cm. and 50 cm.).
    I. D. 4. f. xx. Dishes with low ring-shaped support and design in 
anthropomorphous and zoomorphous positive paint, especially monkeys, 
deer, birds, and feline figures.
    I. D. 4. f. xxi. One variant of the Piartal-Tuza pottery is the 
``Quillacinga'' style, with white on red paint decoration, in geometric 
design. Its main forms are low ring-shaped support dishes, globular 
vessels with lentil-shaped, globular, or keel-shaped appliqu[eacute]s, 
short-necked and slightly everted border and globular with narrow neck 
and everted border.
    I. D. 4. g. Quimbaya. Classic forms of Quimbaya pottery vessels 
from the mid-Cauca river zone are decorated with black on red and 
orange negative resist paint, forming linear designs (cups, vessels, 
figures). The classic forms include sub-globular keel-shaped bowls and 
globular keel-shaped and square vessels. They may be decorated with 
excised decoration covering the entire outer surface, or with incisions 
or appliqu[eacute]s, using light brown slips (Height: 8 cm., Diameter: 
16 cm.). The most common forms are:

[[Page 13763]]

    I. D. 4. g. i. Rectangular rounded-base vessels with 
anthropomorphous appliqu[eacute]s on the borders, incised linear 
decoration, red on cream and orange paint (Height: 10 cm., Width: 20 
cm., Length: 30 cm.). With similar colors in linear and circular design 
inside, everted border earthen bowls. On the outside, they generally 
have incised decoration, dotted and appliqu[eacute] bands (Height: 
Varies between 7 and 10 cm., Diameter: the average is 20 cm.).
    I. D. 4. g. ii. Sub globular vessels with narrow, short necks, some 
with two mouths and two handles (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 13 cm.).
    I. D. 4. g. iii. Keel-shaped vessels, wide-mouthed and with two 
handles decorated with linear designs in red paint (Height: 10 cm., 
Diameter: 12 cm).
    I. D. 4. g. iv. Semi globular earthen bowls with inverted or 
slightly everted border (Height: 10 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.).
    I. D. 4. g. v. Truncated cone-shaped, flat-based cups (Height: 20 
cm., Diameter: 18 cm.).
    I. D. 4. g. vi. Truncated cone-shaped cups with bell-shaped support 
(Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 16 cm.). A variation of these cups is a semi 
globular body with appliqu[eacute] white paint in linear form that 
overhangs the surface (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.).
    I. D. 4. g. vii. Amphorae (Height: Average between 20 and 60 cm., 
Diameter: between 15 and 40 cm.).
    I. D. 4. g. viii. Small squash-type gourds (Height: 10 cm., 
Diameter: 11 cm.).
    I. D. 4. g. ix. Anthropomorphous, zoomorphous, and phytomorphous 
alcarrazas decorated with negative resist three-colored paint (Height: 
15 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.).
    I. D. 4. g. x. Bottles with stirrup handle (Height: 29 cm., 
Diameter: 14 cm.). Hollow cylindrical supports, with lower and upper 
everted border (Height: 16 cm., Diameter: 14 cm.). Cups decorated with 
incisions or appliqu[eacute]s (Height: 12 cm., Diameter: 16 cm.).
    I. D. 4. g. xi. Globular, sub globular pots, with flanges decorated 
with appliqu[eacute]s and/or incisions (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 20 
cm.).
    I. D. 4. g. xii. Simple incised alcarrazas (Height: 19 cm., 
Diameter: 15 cm.).
    I. D. 4. g. xiii. Vessels with black coloring, including rhomboid 
vessels with a flat base, everted border, round or square-mouthed and 
decorated with appliqu[eacute] anthropomorphous incised bands. Their 
very diverse dimensions range from 10 cm. to 20 cm., and from 8 cm. to 
25 cm. Sometimes they are elongated; at other times they are wider.
    I. D. 4. g. xiv. Elongated vessels in the form of a sail, with 
appliqu[eacute] incised bands (Height: 10 cm., Length: 30 cm).
    I. D. 4. h. San Agust[iacute]n. The vessels of this culture display 
varying slips in differing tones from brown to black with incised 
decoration in lines, triangles, and dots. Others come in negative 
resist black paint on red with geometric motifs. A characteristic of 
the pottery forms is the presence of an everted border inclined 
downwards. Very common are:
    I. D. 4. h. i. Dishes with everted border (Height: 5 cm., Diameter: 
15 cm.).
    I. D. 4. h. ii. Globular, semi-globular, sub globular earthen 
bowls, keel-shaped with straight, everted, or slightly everted border 
(Height: varies between 8 and 20 cm., Diameter: varies between 10 and 
30 cm.).
    I. D. 4. h. iii. Globular pots and compound silhouette with everted 
border (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.).
    I. D. 4. h. iv. Globular vessels with tripod-shaped everted border 
(Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.).
    I. D. 4. h. v. Keel-shaped, globular, and sub globular vessels, 
narrow-necked and wide-mouthed and everted border (Height: ranging from 
50 to 15 cm., Width: from 30 cm. to 10 cm.).
    I. D. 4. h. vi. Globular and semi globular cups with tubular 
support and horizontal everted border (Height: 18 cm., Diameter: 15 
cm.).
    I. D. 4. h. vii. Simple anthropomorphous alcarrazas (Height: 12 
cm., Diameter: 12 cm.).
    I. D. 4. h. viii. Double vessels joined together by upper and lower 
bridge handles (Height: 20 cm., Length: 30 cm.).
    I. D. 4. i. San Jorge. The manufacturing technique is spiraled and 
modeled, with incised decoration, dots, notches, extensive bands, and 
zoomorphous appliqu[eacute]s. The wide range of browns on this 
pottery's slip goes from light to dark reddish. The vessels displaying 
paint use red, forming geometric designs. The texture is granular and 
sometimes cracked for First Occupation period pottery. By the Second 
Occupation period, the texture becomes compact and fine.
    In the Classic Period:
    I. D. 4. i. i. Cups with tall, short, and bell-shaped supports.
    I. D. 4. i. ii. Cups with lids.
    I. D. 4. i. iii. Cups with narrow mouths.
    I. D. 4. i. iv. Cups with keel shapes (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 15 
cm.).
    I. D. 4. i. v. Alcarrazas, baskets, globular vessels, globular 
vessels with ring-shaped support (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.).
    The main forms from the Second Occupation period are:
    I. D. 4. i. vi. Globular and sub globular vessels (Height: 15 cm., 
Diameter: 20 cm.).
    I. D. 4. i. vii. Cups with low pedestal support and an average 
diameter of 15 cm. Some cups are approximately 30 cm. high.
    I. D. 4. j. Sin[uacute]. The ceramic vessels come in a diversity of 
forms. The main ones are:
    I. D. 4. j. i. High pedestal cups with incised and excised 
decoration, forming geometric designs, especially rhombus (Height: 25 
cm., Diameter: 10 cm.).
    I. D. 4. j. ii. High pedestal cups with appliqu[eacute] modeled 
anthropomorphous figures, with incised decoration. They frequently 
represent standing female figures (Height: 25 cm., Diameter: 10 cm.).
    I. D. 4. j. iii. Cups with perforated compound supports, the 
globular vessels with a flat base, neck, and everted border with female 
figures attached to the body, and sub globular vessels with ring-shaped 
support.
    I. D. 4. j. iv. Compound silhouette vessels and also globular 
narrow-necked vessels, with everted border and black and red on cream 
decoration, forming a linear design, or with anthropomorphous 
appliqu[eacute]s (Height: 30 cm., Diameter: 30 cm.) The ceramic slip, 
also called ``Betanc[iacute],'' is light brown, beige, and very light 
beige.
    I. D. 4. k. Tairona. The Tairona manufacturing technique is by 
rolls and modeled. The slips are beige, gray, black, dark brown, and 
reddish brown. They also display linear incisions, dotted, zoomorphous, 
and anthropomorphous appliqu[eacute]s, and appliqu[eacute] bands. The 
black and the beige Tairona pottery typically comprise principally 
ceremonial vessels, whereas the red pottery includes domestic forms. 
The common forms are:
    I. D. 4. k. i. Globular vessels, wide-mouthed and everted border.
    I. D. 4. k. ii. Globular vessels, narrow-necked and everted border.
    I. D. 4. k. iii. Keel-shaped vessels, wide-mouthed.
    I. D. 4. k. iv. Globular vessels, high neck and low ring-shaped 
support (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.).
    I. D. 4. k. v. Semi globular cups with ring-shaped support.
    I. D. 4. k. vi. Keel-shaped cups with stylized, high, medium, and 
low support, especially the tallest ones (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 15 
cm.).
    I. D. 4. k. vii. Globular and keel-shaped vessels with ring-shaped 
support, wide-mouthed, side spout and upper bridge handle, sometimes 
displaying zoomorphous appliqu[eacute]s at

[[Page 13764]]

the top, opposite the spout (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 15 cm.).
    I. D. 4. k. viii. Double vessels joined by a bridge at the bottom 
with an upper bridge handle, generally with appliqu[eacute]s on the 
body.
    I. D. 4. k. ix. Vessels elongated horizontally with a zoomorphous 
representation on each end; a narrow and short neck is in the center of 
the vessel, and the support is ring-shaped (Height: 15 cm., Length: 25 
cm.).
    I. D. 4. k. x. Zoomorphous and anthropo-zoomorphous (depicting both 
human and animal characteristics) tetrapod vessels with narrow neck 
(Height: 10 cm., Length: 20 cm.).
    I. D. 4. l. Tierradentro. The ceramic vessels of this 
archaeological culture are similar in form and decoration to the San 
Agust[iacute]n pottery. The most representative vessels of this region 
are funerary urns with brown, red, and negative resist paint slips, 
decorated with incised dotted decoration forming triangles filled-in 
with white paste and/or modeled appliqu[eacute]s in zoomorphous, 
especially serpent-like figures. Their dimensions vary (Height: 20 to 
50 cm., Diameter: 25 and 40 cm.). Another special Tierradentro form is 
the anthropomorphous mask and alcarraza.
    I. D. 4. m. Tolima. This pottery displays anthropomorphous and 
zoomorphous motifs that are modeled, appliqu[eacute], incised, carved, 
and/or stamped. The slips come in light and dark brown and reddish 
brown. Some objects have a geometric design decoration in black on 
light brown or red negative resist paint. The common forms are:
    I. D. 4. m. i. Semi globular, keel-shaped earthen bowls, compound 
silhouette, some with two handles, straight, everted, inverted or 
compound borders, abundant decoration (Height: 5 cm., Diameter: 10 
cm.).
    I. D. 4. m. ii. Globular, sub globular, keel-shaped vessels, with 
flanges in the center of the body, short-necked, wide-mouthed, direct 
or everted borders, flat or rounded bases, with or without handles, 
with abundant decoration. Some have tetrapod or tripod-shaped supports 
and others are phytomorphous (Height: 15 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.).
    I. D. 4. m. iii. Semi globular cups, everted border, tall supports 
generally perforated at intervals (Height: varies between 8 cm. and 35 
cm., Diameter: varies between 15 cm. and 32 cm.).
    I. D. 4. m. iv. Alcarrazas with straight spouts (Height: 15 cm., 
Diameter: 18 cm.) with phytomorphous and zoomorphous motifs and those 
depicting figures of houses.
    I. D. 4. m. v. In the Guaduas, Tolima region, globular or keel-
shaped vessels, the top tubular bifurcated part ending in an 
anthropomorphous or zoomorphous figure (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 18 
cm.).
I.E. Ceramic Funerary Urns
    This category of ceramic artifacts consists of a great variety of 
objects whose function was to contain human remains in secondary 
burials. They are either alone in the tombs or with funerary 
accoutrements. They contain, in the untouched deposits, complete human 
bones or fragments of bones from one or more individuals.
    I. E. 1. Buga, Cumbre, Pavas, and Guabas. This pottery relates to 
the Sonso style, with brown slip and white and red paint whenever 
present. Some have appliqu[eacute]s with anthropomorphous designs. It 
consists of cylindrical, globular, and sub globular funerary urns 
(Height: 70 cm., Diameter: 40 cm.). Another characteristic form is 
cylindrical vessels with four handles (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 15 
cm.).
    I. E. 2. El Espinal, Ricaurte, Honda, and Girardot (Panche and 
Pijao). These funerary urns for secondary burials come in sub globular 
inverted-necked, with dish-form lids. The urns generally represent a 
human face with modeled bands. Some urns are multi-colored, displaying 
geometric designs in red and black. Others depict zoomorphous modeled 
and appliqu[eacute] figures. The dimensions of these urns are similar 
to the previous ones. Their lids have the following dimensions: about 6 
cm. high and 20 cm. wide.
    I. E. 3. Guajira. Globular and conical-stemmed funerary urns 
(Height: 30 cm., Diameter: 30 cm.).
    I. E. 4. La Miel, Guarin[oacute], and Puerto Serviez 
(Pant[aacute]gora). These urns are oval-shaped in diverse variants; 
some are cylindrical and short-necked with a wide mouth. The decoration 
is linear incised at the top, occasionally forming a rhombus. It is 
dotted, in between parallel lines. A characteristic of the La Miel 
river urns is that they have anthropomorphous and zoomorphous figures 
attached, embracing the neck of the urn. The lids are sub globular, 
with incised and dotted decoration, forming geometric designs. The 
anthropomorphous figures are attached, sitting on benches with their 
hands on the rolls or holding earthen bowls or cups in one or both 
hands. In some, small, perforated shell discs are attached on the 
figures of the La Miel lids. Other lids come with zoomorphous, 
preferably ornitomorphous, figures in sets of two or more. The 
dimensions of the urns range from the largest (Height: 55 cm., 
Diameter: 42 cm.) to the smallest (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.). 
The average lid size is (Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 20 cm.).
    The Puerto Serviez urns display gray shaded slips, and others come 
in different tones of brown to reddish brown slips.
    I. E. 5. Llanos Orientales (Eastern Plains). The urns of this 
region are generally cylindrical, with flanges, or sub globular, 
compound silhouettes, straight borders, generally flat bases, white 
positive paint and anthropomorphous or zoomorphous appliqu[eacute]s 
modeled on the body or on the border (Height: 35 cm., Diameter: 30 
cm.). The urns have appliqu[eacute] zoomorphous decoration (especially 
bat figures). The slip is usually reddish and with red positive paint, 
forming geometric designs.
    I. E. 6. Putumayo. The main forms of Putumayo funerary urns are sub 
globular, with straight neck and everted border (Height: 66 cm., 
Diameter: 65 cm.).
    I. E. 7. Quimbaya. Quimbaya pottery is found in mid-Cauca river 
zone (Cauca Medio). The earliest forms in the zone are associated with 
the pottery known as Marr[oacute]n Inciso (incised brown), the most 
common forms of which are cylindrical funerary urns with rounded base, 
modeled borders, and incised decoration in the form of a fishbone. Also 
common are urns with anthropomorphous appliqu[eacute]s and 
phytomorphous urns. This ceramic slip is black and brown. The 
dimensions vary from (Height: 20 to 40 cm., Diameter: 34 and 15 cm.).
    I. E. 8. Sin[uacute]. Sub globular funerary urns with slightly 
everted border and perforated ring-shaped support (Height: 25 cm., 
Diameter: 20 cm.). A variant of this urn type averages 80 cm. in 
height.
    I. E. 9. Tairona. These funerary urns are common: Globular and sub 
globular, short and wide-necked, with anthropomorphous appliqu[eacute]s 
on the neck and body, sometimes with low ring-shaped support (Height: 
70 cm., Diameter: 60 cm.).
    I. E. 10. Tamalameque, Mosquito, and Chimila. These urns for 
secondary burials have anthropomorphous lids. The urns in general are 
cylindrical, with flat or circular bases and straight or slightly 
inverted border. Mosquito urns are occasionally oval-shaped. Some come 
with zoomorphous modeled and incised appliqu[eacute]s on the top, like 
false handles.
    The Tamalameque lids are semi globular, with a human figure 
attached on the top, represented by the head and torso. The head is 
generally full-sized and very realistic. The heads come in two types: 
One is modeled in two

[[Page 13765]]

dimensions with a straight outline, small extended arms to the sides 
with open hands; the second head type has a hollow inside and is more 
realistic. The arms are in various positions.
    The Mosquito lids have complete anthropomorphous representations, 
seated on benches and with their hands resting on their knees. 
Occasionally, the figures are decorated with zoomorphous motifs.
    The bigger urns are approximately 50 cm. high and with a diameter 
of approximately 31 cm. The smallest ones are approximately 20 cm. high 
and with a diameter of approximately 18 cm.
    The average size of the lids is: Height: 38 cm., Diameter: 30 cm.
    The manufacturing technique used in these urns was modeling; the 
slips vary from light brown to reddish tones, some displaying white 
paint.
    Outstanding in Chimila pottery are the funerary urns, with 
anthropomorphous modeled figures, represented in the lid--which 
pertains to the head--and the body--which pertains to the extremities 
(Height: 20 cm., Diameter: 18 cm.).
    I. E. 11. Tumaco--La Tolita. Sub globular with everted border urns 
(Height: 50 cm., Diameter: 50 cm.).
    These containers show fine, linear incisions at the top.
I.F. Miscellaneous Ceramic Object Types
    This category contains the articles that do not fit in the 
Figurines, Vessels, or Urns Categories. It includes materials from 
cultures from around the country:
    I. F. 1. Calima. The Sonso style of Calima pottery is seen in 
anthropomorphous masks and some miniatures, particularly in the Recent 
Period.
    I. F. 2. Guajira. Zoomorphous Mocasines (shoe shaped) vessels are 
frequent (Approximate length: 15 cm.).
    I. F. 3. Nari[ntilde]o. Ocarinas (whistles) are common in snail 
form, sometimes with modeled anthropomorphous or zoomorphous 
representations on one of their ends. The painted designs are diverse, 
as well as their dimensions. The average length is about 7 cm.
    I. F. 4. Quimbaya. Diverse forms of spindle whorls are common, some 
are hollow and some are rattles with incised decoration filled in with 
white paste. Their average dimensions are: Height: 3 cm., Diameter: 5 
cm. Seals are flat as well as cylindrical, both hollow and solid. They 
have excised decoration in geometric designs. Common also are Mocasines 
(shoe shaped) vessels with appliqu[eacute] decoration (Height: 10 cm., 
Length: 15 cm.).
    I. F. 5. San Jorge. Rolls, spindle whorls and anthropomorphous 
figures. The latter's average dimensions are 10 x 8 x 4 cm. Likewise, 
miniature pottery with average dimensions of 4 x 3 cm.
    I. F. 6. Sin[uacute]. Lavishly decorated earthen bowl miniatures. 
Also Mocasines (shoe shaped) vessels, rolls, and spindle whorls.
    I. F. 7. Tairona. Anthropomorphous and zoomorphous whistles, 
especially birds, feline figures, and bats (Height: 5 cm.).
    I. F. 8. Tumaco. Tabloid graters in different forms, like fish and 
others, as well as representations of small dwellings, and seals and 
molds for pottery production.
I.G. Gold
    This category comprises objects of gold and of alloys that include 
gold with copper, platinum, or other metals, dating mostly to the 
Classic and Recent Periods and associated with the following culture 
groups: Calima, Muisca, Nari[ntilde]o, Quimbaya, Sin[uacute], Tairona, 
Tolima, Tumaco, Cauca, Tierradentro, and San Agust[iacute]n. Figurative 
pieces are characterized by elaborate and well-executed work; they 
represent animal and human forms, as well as supernatural beings. They 
were produced and decorated using the following techniques: Embossing, 
soldering, hammering, lost wax casting, no-nucleus melting, stone 
matrix mold melting, solid no-nucleus melting, sheet fusion, and wire 
filigree. Examples of articles made in gold and gold alloys include: 
Beads, Bells, Belts, Bracelets and Anklets, Pectorals and Pendants, 
Ceremonial Staffs and Finials, Combs, Containers, Mesh, Crowns and 
Helmets, Ear and Nose Ornaments, Animal and Human Figures, Finger 
Ornaments, Fishhooks, Gold Casting Paste, Knobs, Lime Containers, Lip 
Plugs, Masks, Musical Instruments, Necklaces, Needles and Pins, Pincers 
and Tweezers, and Wire.
I.H. Wood
    This category refers to articles carved in hard woods, mainly small 
benches and chairs, staffs, needles, weavers' tools, sarcophagi, chonta 
palm wooden swords (especially in the Calima and San Agust[iacute]n 
regions), and anthropomorphous sculptures in hard woods (particularly 
in the Muisca region). They are in evidence from all archaeological 
periods.
I.I. Portable Stone
    Carved and polished archaeological stone articles in Colombia are 
common and varied. Lithic articles come from tombs and other types of 
storage from all periods, ranging from the Paleo-Indian to the Colonial 
era. The most common stone artifacts that are looted and traded on the 
illicit market are flat decorative pendants, tabular necklace beads, 
ritual monolithic hand axes, hoes, and other small hard polished stone 
articles mainly from the Calima, Tairona, Guane, Muisca, and Alto 
Magdalena regions.
I.J. Bone
    Articles carved from animal bone, from all archaeological periods. 
They are in the form of needles, netting hooks, musical instruments 
(flutes), and beads, or pendants (especially in the Muisca, Guane, 
Calima and San Agust[iacute]n regions).
I.K. Textiles
    The majority of archaeological textiles found in Colombia originate 
in human burial offerings. These textiles were made mainly on looms, 
utilizing cotton, sometimes dyed, as the raw material. They come from 
the Muisca, Guane, and Nari[ntilde]o Classic periods. In Nari[ntilde]o, 
they also include additions in metal like tumbaga and gold.

II. Ecclesiastical Ethnological Materials

    The categories of Colombian ethnological materials excluded from 
importation into the United States comprise objects that were made 
between A.D. 1530 and 1830, with ecclesiastic purpose or association, 
under the stewardship of the Church.
II.A. Wooden Items
    II. A. 1. Paintings on wood panels (depicting religious and 
symbolic themes).
    II. A. 2. Sculpture (polychrome on gesso preparation over wood, 
including dressed and dressable figures used in religious settings).
    II. A. 3. Crucifixes.
    II. A. 4. Altarpieces.
    II. A. 5. Retablos (carved altar screens).
II.B. Metal Objects, Accoutrements & Fittings (Gold, Silver, and Other 
Metals)
    II. B. 1. Paintings with religious motifs on metal panels.
    II. B. 2. Chalices, pitchers, and drinking cups used for religious 
ceremonies.
    II. B. 3. Urns and custodia (monstrances) used to display the 
communion wafer.
    II. B. 4. Processional or stationary crosses.
    II. B. 5. Head pieces, wings, and other accoutrements from statues 
or effigies.
    II. B. 6. Candlesticks and candelabra.
    II. B. 7. Plaques.

[[Page 13766]]

II.C. Textiles
    II. C. 1. Garments, such as vestments and tunics worn by clergy 
(often embroidered with silver and gold threads, with stone 
appliqu[eacute]s).
    II. C. 2. Altar hangings and altar garments.
    II. C. 3. Tapestries and carpets.
    II. C. 4. Paintings on cloth.
II.D. Paper, Parchment, Leather
    II. D. 1. Unique letters, artwork, documents, and manuscripts on 
paper, parchment, or leather.
    II. D. 2. Incunabula (books made before printing, such as hymnals 
and other Colonial-era books, usually with special bindings).

Signing Authority

    This regulation is being issued in accordance with Sec.  0.1(a)(1) 
of the CBP Regulations (19 CFR 0.1(a)(1)).

Inapplicability of Notice and Delayed Effective Date

    Because this amendment to the CBP regulations imposing import 
restrictions on the above-listed cultural property of Colombia is being 
made in response to a bilateral agreement entered into in furtherance 
of a foreign affairs function of the United States, pursuant to section 
553(a)(1) of the Administrative Procedure Act, (5 U.S.C. 553(a)(1)), no 
notice of proposed rulemaking or public procedure is necessary. For the 
same reason, a delayed effective date is not required pursuant to 5 
U.S.C. 553(d)(3).

Regulatory Flexibility Act

    Because no notice of proposed rulemaking is required, the 
provisions of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) do 
not apply. Accordingly, this final rule is not subject to the 
regulatory analysis or other requirements of 5 U.S.C. 603 and 604.

Executive Order 12866

    This amendment does not meet the criteria of a ``significant 
regulatory action'' as described in E.O. 12866.

List of Subjects in 19 CFR Part 12

    Customs duties and inspections, Imports, Cultural property.

Amendment to the Regulations

0
Accordingly, Part 12 of the Customs Regulations (19 CFR Part 12) is 
amended as set forth below:

PART 12--SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE

0
1. The general authority and specific authority citations for Part 12, 
in part, continue to read as follows:

    Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301, 19 U.S.C. 66, 1202 (General Note 3(i), 
Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS)), 1624;
* * * * *
    Sections 12.104 through 12.104i also issued under 19 U.S.C. 
2612;
* * * * *

0
2. In Sec.  12.104g, paragraph (a), containing the list of agreements 
imposing import restrictions on described articles of cultural property 
of State Parties, is amended by adding Colombia to the list in 
appropriate alphabetical order as follows:


Sec.  12.104(g)  Specific items or categories designated by agreements 
or emergency actions.

    (a) * * *

------------------------------------------------------------------------
          State party              Cultural property      Decision No.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                              * * * * * * *
Colombia......................  Pre-Colombian           CBP Dec. 06-09.
                                 Archaeological
                                 Material ranging
                                 approximately from
                                 1500 B.C. to 1530
                                 A.D. and
                                 ecclesiastical
                                 ethnological material
                                 of the Colonial
                                 period ranging
                                 approximately from
                                 A.D. 1530 to 1830.
 
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------

* * * * *

Deborah J. Spero,
Acting Commissioner, Customs and Border Protection.
    Approved: March 14, 2006.
Timothy E. Skud,
Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.
[FR Doc. 06-2620 Filed 3-16-06; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 91