Pipeline Safety: Countermeasures to Prevent Human Fatigue in the Control Room, 46917-46919 [05-15956]

Download as PDF 46917 Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 154 / Thursday, August 11, 2005 / Notices MODIFICATION TO EXEMPTIONS—Continued Reason for delay Application No. Applicant 13580–M ...... 12384–M ...... 13327–M ...... 7774–M ........ 13488–M ...... 12988–M ...... 12284–M ...... 11579–M ...... 11241–M ...... 7280–M ........ 10878–M ...... 8162–M ........ 8718–M ........ Carleton Technologies Inc., Orchard Park, NY .................................................................................... OilAir Hydraulics, Inc., Houston, TX ..................................................................................................... Hawk FRP LLC, Ardmore, OK .............................................................................................................. Pipe Recovery Systems, Inc., Houston, TX .......................................................................................... Faber Industries Spa, (U.S. Agent: Kaplan Industries, Maple Shade, NJ) .......................................... Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA .................................................................................... The American Traffic Safety Services, Assn. (ATSSA), Fredericksburg, VA ....................................... Dyno Nobel, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT .................................................................................................... Rohm and Haas Co., Philadelphia, PA ................................................................................................. Department of Defense, Ft. Eustis, VA ................................................................................................. Tankcon FRP Inc., Boisbriand, Qc ....................................................................................................... Structural Composites Industries, Pomona, CA ................................................................................... Structural Composites Industries, Pomona, CA ................................................................................... 4 4 1 4 4 4 1 4 1 4 1, 3 4 4 Estimated date of completion 09–30–2005 09–30–2005 08–31–2005 08–31–2005 08–31–2005 08–31–2005 08–31–2005 08–31–2005 09–30–2005 08–31–2005 08–31–2005 08–31–2005 08–31–2005 RENEWAL OF EXEMPTIONS Reason for delay Application No. Applicant 9649–X ................... U.S. Department of Defense, Fort Eustis, VA ........................................................................ [FR Doc. 05–15860 Filed 8–10–05; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–60–M DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pipeline Safety: Countermeasures to Prevent Human Fatigue in the Control Room Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory Bulletin. AGENCY: SUMMARY: The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) issues this advisory bulletin to owners and operators of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines and liquefied natural gas facilities. The purpose of this advisory is to help operators ensure that controllers are not assigned to shift duties while fatigued, to advise pipeline operators on considerations which could cause a reduction of mental alertness or decision making ability, and to encourage safe management practices. This advisory also responds to the National Transportation Safety Board’s (NTSB) Safety Recommendation P–98– 30, which urges PHMSA to establish industry guidelines for pipeline controller work schedules to reduce the likelihood of accidents attributable to controller fatigue. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Florence Hamn by telephone at (202) VerDate jul<14>2003 16:14 Aug 10, 2005 Jkt 205001 366–3015; by fax at (202) 366–4566, or by e-mail at Florence.Hamn@dot.gov. General information about the PHMSA’s Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) programs may be obtained by accessing the Web site home page at https://ops.dot.gov. I. Background NTSB Recommendations On November 18, 1998, the NTSB issued Safety Recommendation P–98– 30, which urges PHMSA, formerly RSPA, to ‘‘assess the potential safety risks associated with rotating pipeline controller shifts and establish industry guidelines for the development and implementation of pipeline controller work schedules that reduce the likelihood of accidents attributable to controller fatigue.’’ This recommendation resulted from NTSB’s investigation into the rupture of a hazardous liquid pipeline that released about 957,600 gallons of fuel oil into a river and surrounding areas. NTSB determined that the probable cause of the rupture was, in part, the failure to ensure that pipeline controllers were properly trained to recognize and respond to operational emergencies, abnormal conditions, and pipeline leaks. NTSB noted that the controller responsible for operation of the failed pipeline had worked under a rotating shift schedule that may have contributed to operator fatigue. NTSB expressed concern about the potential for pipeline controller fatigue from rotating shift schedules. PO 00000 Frm 00109 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 Estimated date of completion 1, 3 08–31–2005 In 1999, NTSB issued Safety Recommendation P–99–12, which urges PHMSA to establish within two years scientifically based hours of service regulations that set limits on hours of service, provide predictable work and rest schedules, and consider circadian rhythms and human sleep and rest requirements. This recommendation resulted from the NTSB’s review of all transportation accidents reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) modal administrations over a 10 year period. NTSB noted that it had issued over 70 fatigue-related safety recommendations that resulted from its investigations of major accidents, special investigations, or safety studies that identified operator fatigue as a causal factor. The NTSB noted that scientific research has shown that certain sleep factors can affect fatigue and performance, such as insufficient sleep, irregular schedules, and unpredictable schedules. PHMSA Actions and Guidance In response to these recommendations, PHMSA has been aggressively working with the pipeline community and federal agencies to evaluate how rotating controller schedules in the pipeline industry may be related to human fatigue and safety outcomes. From this work, PHMSA has developed the following guidance, which can be applied in the pipeline environment: Work Schedules/Hours of Service Fatigue is a critical safety concern for shift workers, especially workers in the E:\FR\FM\11AUN1.SGM 11AUN1 46918 Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 154 / Thursday, August 11, 2005 / Notices transportation industry. Many pipeline control operators work 10 and 12 hour shifts, and they generally perform sedentary tasks requiring high levels of vigilance. Consequently, fatigue may be an issue, given the long hours of continuous control monitoring and the reduced likelihood of taking rest breaks. Fatigue can result in sleepiness, drowsiness, reduced alertness, and/or slower reaction time. This in turn can make handling stressful or emergency situations on the job more difficult. Being fatigued can make it difficult to concentrate, thereby increasing the possibility of safety-related control errors. An individual’s body processes have peaks and valleys during every 24-hour period. Time cues, like work rest schedules, help set the sleep pattern. Crossing time zones or changing from a day shift to a night shift forces the sleep pattern to move to a different schedule. Time is required to adjust to the new schedule. Although individuals differ in their optimal sleep requirements, adults typically need between 6 and 10 hours of sleep in a 24-hour period. Most people, however, require approximately 8 hours of sleep per day. When adults get less than 5 hours of sleep over a 24hour period, peak mental abilities begin to decline. Additionally, sleep deprivation of just a couple of days can slow response times and decrease initiative. Sleep deficit leads to less alertness and slower response times. Although working non-traditional shifts is a common and necessary part of the pipeline control operator’s job, the countermeasures recommended in this advisory can help reduce the potential detrimental effects of shift work on worker safety. Control Room Environment Pipeline control operators generally remain seated for long periods of time, and the environment of the control room can affect an individual’s sleep patterns. The sedentary work of control operators can add to shift-work fatigue and reduce an operator’s alertness because it decreases blood flow and causes sleepiness. An individual’s sleep pattern is affected by the presence of light and darkness. By incorporating specific design features, such as lighting and temperature control, operator alertness can be maximized at any time of the day or night, which in turn enhances safety by reducing fatigue and control errors. Training and Education Because adequate sleep is the main way to address fatigue, controller VerDate jul<14>2003 16:14 Aug 10, 2005 Jkt 205001 education programs must emphasize the recognition of the signs of sleep deprivation. Operators can improve safety by analyzing working conditions, addressing operational safety issues, and conducting sleep-safety training. For example, teaching control supervisors that work rotation schedules that go in the direction of the sun have been found to reduce the negative effects of fatigue. Furthermore, training controllers on the number of hours of sleep needed to reduce fatigue and methods they can use to fall asleep, such as dark light shades, can provide controllers with the tools they need to control fatigue. Operator Fatigue Studies Several studies are electronically available that provide more information about operator fatigue, such as the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Commercial Transportation Commercial Transportation Operator Fatigue Management Reference (2003). This document can be viewed at https:// ops.dot.gov/regs/reports/ Fatigue%20Management%20 Reference.pdf. This publication also references many other studies and reports on human fatigue. PHMSA urges operators to evaluate potential risks associated with pipeline operator fatigue and shift rotation schedules and take measures to alleviate such risks. II. Advisory Bulletin (ADB–05–06) To: Owners and operators of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline and liquefied natural gas facilities. Subject: Countermeasures to Prevent Human Fatigue in the Pipeline Control Room. Purpose: The purpose of this advisory is to address situations where fatigue could reduce the ability of pipeline operators and their controller staff to operate pipelines in a safe condition. This advisory is designed to help operators ensure that controllers are not assigned to shift duties while fatigued, to advise pipeline operators on considerations which could cause a reduction of mental alertness or decision making ability, and to encourage management practices which will promote safety. This advisory provides guidance to gas and liquids pipeline operators and their pipeline controllers. Advisory: The functions of a controller are often sedentary tasks requiring high levels of vigilance. Consequently, fatigue may be an issue, given long hours of continuous control monitoring and the reduced likelihood of taking rest breaks. Fatigue can result PO 00000 Frm 00110 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 in sleepiness, drowsiness, and/or reduced alertness. These factors can decrease the ability of the pipeline controller to safely perform critical functions. It is known that fatigue is significantly underestimated as a contributing factor in conventional accident reporting in many transportation modes because it is difficult to accurately detect. The scientific knowledge on human alertness has improved in recent years, but has not been broadly applied to managing operator fatigue because it is difficult to determine how much fatigue has contributed to the cause and/or the magnitude of pipeline accidents. PHMSA, however, has learned that there are measures that can be taken to reduce the detrimental effects of shift work on worker safety, and provides the following guidance for operators to consider: Work Scheduling and Hours of Service An individual’s body processes have natural peaks and valleys during every 24-hour period. Adults typically need between 6 and 10 hours of sleep in each 24-hour period, and suffer from declining peak mental abilities if they get less than 5 hours of sleep. Natural sleep schedules are affected by shifts in routine, and can be affected by nonroutine work schedules. This can lead to fatigue or impair alertness if operators are working non-standard shifts or are working long hours without enough rest. PHMSA advises pipeline operators to consider: • Developing shift rotation practices to minimize fatigue caused by the disruption of normal sleep patterns. • Limiting work schedules to no more than 12 hours in any 24 hour period except in extraordinary or emergency situations. • Developing a policy or procedure to manage unusual circumstances where a controller is required to work more than 12 hours in any 24 hour period. • Scheduling at least a 10 hour break between work periods. • Scheduling overtime on an individual basis, not the whole shift of controllers and controller supervisors. Controller fatigue and alertness should be considered in allowing overtime. • Developing guidelines for scheduling controllers and supervisors in emergency situations taking into consideration controller fatigue and alertness. • Establishing work relief periods and other measures during controller shifts to promote alertness and enhance capabilities for effective decision making. E:\FR\FM\11AUN1.SGM 11AUN1 Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 154 / Thursday, August 11, 2005 / Notices Control Room Environmental Factors An individual’s sleep pattern is also influenced by external factors. Many control rooms are designed for day workers. In 24-hour pipeline operations, alertness and vigilance on the night shift is equally as important and should be addressed by the operator. Although there are many methods that can be employed to reduce operator fatigue in the control room, PHMSA advises pipeline operators to consider: • Using the available information on control room environments to incorporate environmental measures that reduce fatigue and promote alertness. • Adjusting environmental factors to specifically address the problems associated with night shifts and shift rotation schedules. • Sharing information across the industry on environmental factors in control rooms that can affect fatigue and controller alertness. Training and Education Training and education of both supervisors and controller personnel is critical to the prevention of fatiguerelated pipeline incidents. These efforts can maximize the safety and performance of pipeline control personnel by minimizing the effects of fatigue in shift-work operations. Therefore, PHMSA advises pipeline operators to consider: • Educating controllers and controller supervisors on factors that impact human fatigue. • Training supervisors of controllers to recognize signs of stress and fatigue both on duty and when reporting for duty. • Sharing information across the industry on training of controllers and supervisors on the effects of fatigue on controller alertness and decision making. Issued in Washington, DC, on August 5, 2005. Theodore L. Willke, Deputy Associate Administrator for Pipeline Safety. [FR Doc. 05–15956 Filed 8–10–05; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–60–P DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research and Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Submission of Audit Reports—Part 248 Research & Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), AGENCY: VerDate jul<14>2003 16:14 Aug 10, 2005 Jkt 205001 Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), this notice announces that the Information Collection Request (ICR) described below is being forwarded to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for extension of currently approved collections. The ICR describes the nature of the information collection and its expected burden. The Federal Register notice with a 60-day comment period soliciting comments on the following collection of information was published on December 17, 2004 (69 FR 75602). DATES: Written comments should be submitted by September 12, 2005. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bernie Stankus, Office of Airline Information, RTS–42, Room 4125, RITA, BTS, 400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC 20590–0001, Telephone Number (202) 366–4387, Fax Number (202) 366–3383 or e-mail bernard.stankus@dot.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Title: Submission of Audit Reports— Part 248. Type of Request: Extension of a currently approved reporting requirement. OMB Control Number: 2138–0004. Affected Public: Certificated air carriers. Number of Respondents: 85. Number of Responses: 85. Total Annual Burden: 21 hours. Abstract: BTS collects independent audited financial reports from U.S. certificated air carriers. Carriers not having an annual audit must file a statement that no such audit has been performed. In lieu of the audit report, BTS will accept the annual report submitted to the stockholders. The audited reports are needed by the Department of Transportation as: (1) A means to monitor an air carrier’s continuing fitness to operate, (2) reference material used by analysts in examining foreign route cases, (3) reference material used by analysts in examining proposed mergers, acquisitions and consolidations, (4) a means whereby BTS sends a copy of the report to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in fulfillment of a United States treaty obligation, and (5) corroboration of a carrier’s Form 41 filings. PO 00000 Frm 00111 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 46919 The Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act of 2002 (44 U.S.C. 3501 note), requires a statistical agency to clearly identify information it collects for non-statistical purposes. BTS hereby notifies the respondents and the public that BTS uses the information it collects under this OMB approval for non-statistical purposes including, but not limited to, publication of both Respondent’s identity and its data, submission of the information to agencies outside BTS for review, analysis and possible use in regulatory and other administrative matters. ADDRESSES: Send comments to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, 725–17th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20503, Attention: BTS Desk Officer. Comments are invited on: whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the Department of Transportation. Comments should address whether the information will have practical utility; the accuracy of the Department’s estimate of the burden of the proposed information collection; ways to enhance the quality, utility and clarity of the information to be collected; and ways to minimize the burden of the collection of information on respondents, including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Issued in Washington, DC, on August 5, 2005. Donald W. Bright, Assistant Director, Office of Airline Information. [FR Doc. 05–15914 Filed 8–10–05; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910–FE–P DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Reporting Required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Research & Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), DOT. ACTION: Notice. AGENCY: SUMMARY: In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), this notice announces that the Information Collection Request (ICR) described below is being forwarded to the Office E:\FR\FM\11AUN1.SGM 11AUN1

Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 70, Number 154 (Thursday, August 11, 2005)]
[Notices]
[Pages 46917-46919]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 05-15956]


-----------------------------------------------------------------------

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration


Pipeline Safety: Countermeasures to Prevent Human Fatigue in the 
Control Room

AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), 
DOT.

ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory Bulletin.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 
(PHMSA) issues this advisory bulletin to owners and operators of 
natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines and liquefied natural gas 
facilities. The purpose of this advisory is to help operators ensure 
that controllers are not assigned to shift duties while fatigued, to 
advise pipeline operators on considerations which could cause a 
reduction of mental alertness or decision making ability, and to 
encourage safe management practices.
    This advisory also responds to the National Transportation Safety 
Board's (NTSB) Safety Recommendation P-98-30, which urges PHMSA to 
establish industry guidelines for pipeline controller work schedules to 
reduce the likelihood of accidents attributable to controller fatigue.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Florence Hamn by telephone at (202) 
366-3015; by fax at (202) 366-4566, or by e-mail at 
Florence.Hamn@dot.gov. General information about the PHMSA's Office of 
Pipeline Safety (OPS) programs may be obtained by accessing the Web 
site home page at https://ops.dot.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

I. Background

NTSB Recommendations

    On November 18, 1998, the NTSB issued Safety Recommendation P-98-
30, which urges PHMSA, formerly RSPA, to ``assess the potential safety 
risks associated with rotating pipeline controller shifts and establish 
industry guidelines for the development and implementation of pipeline 
controller work schedules that reduce the likelihood of accidents 
attributable to controller fatigue.'' This recommendation resulted from 
NTSB's investigation into the rupture of a hazardous liquid pipeline 
that released about 957,600 gallons of fuel oil into a river and 
surrounding areas.
    NTSB determined that the probable cause of the rupture was, in 
part, the failure to ensure that pipeline controllers were properly 
trained to recognize and respond to operational emergencies, abnormal 
conditions, and pipeline leaks. NTSB noted that the controller 
responsible for operation of the failed pipeline had worked under a 
rotating shift schedule that may have contributed to operator fatigue. 
NTSB expressed concern about the potential for pipeline controller 
fatigue from rotating shift schedules.
    In 1999, NTSB issued Safety Recommendation P-99-12, which urges 
PHMSA to establish within two years scientifically based hours of 
service regulations that set limits on hours of service, provide 
predictable work and rest schedules, and consider circadian rhythms and 
human sleep and rest requirements.
    This recommendation resulted from the NTSB's review of all 
transportation accidents reported to U.S. Department of Transportation 
(DOT) modal administrations over a 10 year period. NTSB noted that it 
had issued over 70 fatigue-related safety recommendations that resulted 
from its investigations of major accidents, special investigations, or 
safety studies that identified operator fatigue as a causal factor. The 
NTSB noted that scientific research has shown that certain sleep 
factors can affect fatigue and performance, such as insufficient sleep, 
irregular schedules, and unpredictable schedules.

PHMSA Actions and Guidance

    In response to these recommendations, PHMSA has been aggressively 
working with the pipeline community and federal agencies to evaluate 
how rotating controller schedules in the pipeline industry may be 
related to human fatigue and safety outcomes. From this work, PHMSA has 
developed the following guidance, which can be applied in the pipeline 
environment:
Work Schedules/Hours of Service
    Fatigue is a critical safety concern for shift workers, especially 
workers in the

[[Page 46918]]

transportation industry. Many pipeline control operators work 10 and 12 
hour shifts, and they generally perform sedentary tasks requiring high 
levels of vigilance. Consequently, fatigue may be an issue, given the 
long hours of continuous control monitoring and the reduced likelihood 
of taking rest breaks. Fatigue can result in sleepiness, drowsiness, 
reduced alertness, and/or slower reaction time. This in turn can make 
handling stressful or emergency situations on the job more difficult. 
Being fatigued can make it difficult to concentrate, thereby increasing 
the possibility of safety-related control errors.
    An individual's body processes have peaks and valleys during every 
24-hour period. Time cues, like work rest schedules, help set the sleep 
pattern. Crossing time zones or changing from a day shift to a night 
shift forces the sleep pattern to move to a different schedule. Time is 
required to adjust to the new schedule.
    Although individuals differ in their optimal sleep requirements, 
adults typically need between 6 and 10 hours of sleep in a 24-hour 
period. Most people, however, require approximately 8 hours of sleep 
per day. When adults get less than 5 hours of sleep over a 24-hour 
period, peak mental abilities begin to decline. Additionally, sleep 
deprivation of just a couple of days can slow response times and 
decrease initiative. Sleep deficit leads to less alertness and slower 
response times.
    Although working non-traditional shifts is a common and necessary 
part of the pipeline control operator's job, the countermeasures 
recommended in this advisory can help reduce the potential detrimental 
effects of shift work on worker safety.
Control Room Environment
    Pipeline control operators generally remain seated for long periods 
of time, and the environment of the control room can affect an 
individual's sleep patterns. The sedentary work of control operators 
can add to shift-work fatigue and reduce an operator's alertness 
because it decreases blood flow and causes sleepiness. An individual's 
sleep pattern is affected by the presence of light and darkness. By 
incorporating specific design features, such as lighting and 
temperature control, operator alertness can be maximized at any time of 
the day or night, which in turn enhances safety by reducing fatigue and 
control errors.
Training and Education
    Because adequate sleep is the main way to address fatigue, 
controller education programs must emphasize the recognition of the 
signs of sleep deprivation. Operators can improve safety by analyzing 
working conditions, addressing operational safety issues, and 
conducting sleep-safety training. For example, teaching control 
supervisors that work rotation schedules that go in the direction of 
the sun have been found to reduce the negative effects of fatigue. 
Furthermore, training controllers on the number of hours of sleep 
needed to reduce fatigue and methods they can use to fall asleep, such 
as dark light shades, can provide controllers with the tools they need 
to control fatigue.

Operator Fatigue Studies

    Several studies are electronically available that provide more 
information about operator fatigue, such as the U.S. Department of 
Transportation's Commercial Transportation Commercial Transportation 
Operator Fatigue Management Reference (2003). This document can be 
viewed at https://ops.dot.gov/regs/reports/Fatigue%20Management%20 
Reference.pdf. This publication also references many other studies and 
reports on human fatigue.
    PHMSA urges operators to evaluate potential risks associated with 
pipeline operator fatigue and shift rotation schedules and take 
measures to alleviate such risks.

II. Advisory Bulletin (ADB-05-06)

    To: Owners and operators of natural gas and hazardous liquid 
pipeline and liquefied natural gas facilities.
    Subject: Countermeasures to Prevent Human Fatigue in the Pipeline 
Control Room.
    Purpose: The purpose of this advisory is to address situations 
where fatigue could reduce the ability of pipeline operators and their 
controller staff to operate pipelines in a safe condition. This 
advisory is designed to help operators ensure that controllers are not 
assigned to shift duties while fatigued, to advise pipeline operators 
on considerations which could cause a reduction of mental alertness or 
decision making ability, and to encourage management practices which 
will promote safety. This advisory provides guidance to gas and liquids 
pipeline operators and their pipeline controllers.
    Advisory: The functions of a controller are often sedentary tasks 
requiring high levels of vigilance. Consequently, fatigue may be an 
issue, given long hours of continuous control monitoring and the 
reduced likelihood of taking rest breaks. Fatigue can result in 
sleepiness, drowsiness, and/or reduced alertness. These factors can 
decrease the ability of the pipeline controller to safely perform 
critical functions. It is known that fatigue is significantly 
underestimated as a contributing factor in conventional accident 
reporting in many transportation modes because it is difficult to 
accurately detect. The scientific knowledge on human alertness has 
improved in recent years, but has not been broadly applied to managing 
operator fatigue because it is difficult to determine how much fatigue 
has contributed to the cause and/or the magnitude of pipeline 
accidents. PHMSA, however, has learned that there are measures that can 
be taken to reduce the detrimental effects of shift work on worker 
safety, and provides the following guidance for operators to consider:

Work Scheduling and Hours of Service

    An individual's body processes have natural peaks and valleys 
during every 24-hour period. Adults typically need between 6 and 10 
hours of sleep in each 24-hour period, and suffer from declining peak 
mental abilities if they get less than 5 hours of sleep. Natural sleep 
schedules are affected by shifts in routine, and can be affected by 
non-routine work schedules. This can lead to fatigue or impair 
alertness if operators are working non-standard shifts or are working 
long hours without enough rest. PHMSA advises pipeline operators to 
consider:
     Developing shift rotation practices to minimize fatigue 
caused by the disruption of normal sleep patterns.
     Limiting work schedules to no more than 12 hours in any 24 
hour period except in extraordinary or emergency situations.
     Developing a policy or procedure to manage unusual 
circumstances where a controller is required to work more than 12 hours 
in any 24 hour period.
     Scheduling at least a 10 hour break between work periods.
     Scheduling overtime on an individual basis, not the whole 
shift of controllers and controller supervisors. Controller fatigue and 
alertness should be considered in allowing overtime.
     Developing guidelines for scheduling controllers and 
supervisors in emergency situations taking into consideration 
controller fatigue and alertness.
     Establishing work relief periods and other measures during 
controller shifts to promote alertness and enhance capabilities for 
effective decision making.

[[Page 46919]]

Control Room Environmental Factors

    An individual's sleep pattern is also influenced by external 
factors. Many control rooms are designed for day workers. In 24-hour 
pipeline operations, alertness and vigilance on the night shift is 
equally as important and should be addressed by the operator. Although 
there are many methods that can be employed to reduce operator fatigue 
in the control room, PHMSA advises pipeline operators to consider:
     Using the available information on control room 
environments to incorporate environmental measures that reduce fatigue 
and promote alertness.
     Adjusting environmental factors to specifically address 
the problems associated with night shifts and shift rotation schedules.
     Sharing information across the industry on environmental 
factors in control rooms that can affect fatigue and controller 
alertness.

Training and Education

    Training and education of both supervisors and controller personnel 
is critical to the prevention of fatigue-related pipeline incidents. 
These efforts can maximize the safety and performance of pipeline 
control personnel by minimizing the effects of fatigue in shift-work 
operations. Therefore, PHMSA advises pipeline operators to consider:
     Educating controllers and controller supervisors on 
factors that impact human fatigue.
     Training supervisors of controllers to recognize signs of 
stress and fatigue both on duty and when reporting for duty.
     Sharing information across the industry on training of 
controllers and supervisors on the effects of fatigue on controller 
alertness and decision making.

    Issued in Washington, DC, on August 5, 2005.
Theodore L. Willke,
Deputy Associate Administrator for Pipeline Safety.
[FR Doc. 05-15956 Filed 8-10-05; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4910-60-P