# Performance Specification 16 for Predictive Emission Monitoring Systems and Amendments to Testing and Monitoring Provisions, 45608-45625 [05-15330]

Download as PDF## Agencies

[Federal Register Volume 70, Number 151 (Monday, August 8, 2005)] [Proposed Rules] [Pages 45608-45625] From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov] [FR Doc No: 05-15330] ----------------------------------------------------------------------- ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 OAR-2003-0074 [FRL-7947-5] RIN 2060-AG21 Performance Specification 16 for Predictive Emission Monitoring Systems and Amendments to Testing and Monitoring Provisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency is proposing performance specifications (PS) that evaluate the acceptability of predictive emission monitoring systems (PEMS) when used on stationary sources. This PS is needed to provide sources and regulatory agencies with performance criteria for evaluating this new technology. The intended effect of this action is to establish standardized performance requirements that will be used to evaluate candidate PEMS uniformly. The affected industries and their Standard Industrial Classification codes are listed under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. In addition, we are proposing to make minor amendments to various testing provisions in the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories (MACT) to correct inadvertent errors, make needed updates, and add flexibility. DATES: Comments: Submit comments on or before October 7, 2005. Public Hearing: If anyone contacts us requesting to speak at a public hearing by August 23, 2005, we will hold a public hearing on September 7, 2005. ADDRESSES: Comments. Comments may be submitted electronically, by mail, by facsimile, or through hand delivery/courier. Follow the detailed instructions as provided in Unit IB of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. Public Hearing. If a public hearing is held, it will be held at 10 a.m. in the EPA Auditorium, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, or at an alternate site nearby. Docket. Docket No. OAR-2003-0074, contains information relevant to this rule. You can read and copy it between 8:30 a.m. and 5:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, (except for Federal holidays), at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA Docket Center, EPA West, Room 108, 1301 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20004; telephone (202) 566-1742. The docket office may charge a reasonable fee for copying. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Foston Curtis, Emission Measurement Center, Mail Code D205-02, Emissions, Monitoring, and Analysis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711; telephone (919) 541-1063; facsimile number (919) 541-0516; electronic mail address curtis.foston@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: General Information A. Affected Entities Predictive emission monitoring systems are not currently required in any Federal rule. However, they may be used under the NSPS to predict nitrogen oxides emissions from small industrial, commercial, and institutional steam generating units. In some cases, PEMS have been approved as alternatives to CEMS for the initial 30-day compliance test at these facilities. Various State and Local regulations are incorporating PEMS as an emission monitoring tool. The major entities that are potentially affected by Proposed Performance Specification 16 and amendments to the subparts are included in the following tables. Table 1.--Major Entities Potentially Affected by This Action for Proposed Performance Specification 16 and for Petroleum Refinery NSPS, Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS, Municipal Solid Waste Landfill NSPS ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Examples of regulated entities SIC codes NAICS codes ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Industrial, Commercial, Institutional 3569 332410 Steam Generating Units................. Stationary Gas Turbines................. 3511 333611 Petroleum Refineries.................... 2911 324110 Kraft Pulp Mills........................ 2621 322110 Municipal Solid Waste Landfills......... 4953 562213 Surface Coatings........................ 3479 336111, 336112 Coke Ovens.............................. 3312 33111111 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Table 2.--Major Entities Potentially Affected by This Action for Amendments to Performance Specification 11 and Procedure 2, Appendix F, Part 60 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Examples of regulated entities SIC codes NAICS codes ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Portland Cement Manufacturing........... 3559 333298 [[Page 45609]] Hazardous Waste Incinerators............ 4953 562211 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Table 3.--Major Entities Potentially Affected by This Action for Amendments to Performance Specification 2, Appendix B, Part 60 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Examples of regulated entities SIC codes NAICS codes ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Fossil Fuel Steam Generators............ 3569 332410 Electric Generating Units............... 3569 332410 Industrial/Commercial/Institutional 3569 332410 Steam Generating Units................. Small Industrial/Commercial/ 3569 332410 Institutional Steam Generating Units... Municipal Waste Combustors.............. 4953 562213 Nitric Acid Plants...................... 2873 525311 Sulfuric Acid Plants.................... 2819 325188 Petroleum Refineries.................... 2911 324110 Primary Copper Smelters................. 3331 331411 Primary Zinc Smelters................... 3339 331419 Primary Lead Smelters................... 3339 331419 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Table 4.--Major Entities Potentially Affected by This Action for Amendments to Method 24, Appendix A, Part 60 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Examples of regulated entities SIC codes NAICS codes ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Rubber Tire Manufacturing............... 3011 326211 Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and 2754 323111 Printing............................... Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities........ 3695 334613 Surface Coating of Plastic Parts for 3479 326199 Business Machines...................... Polymetric Coating of Supporting 2824 332812 Substrates Facilities.................. Surface Coating of Metal Furniture...... 2514 337124 Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface 5012 336111 Coating................................ Graphic Arts Industry: Publication 2754 323111 Rotogravure Printing................... Pressure Sensitive Tape and Label 2672 322222 Surface Coating Operations............. Indusrial Surface Coating: Large 5064 421620 Appliances............................. Metal Coil Surface Coating.............. 3479 335931 Beverage Can Surface Coating............ 3411 332812 Aerospace............................... 3721 33641 Boat and Ship Manufacturing and Repair 3731, 3732 .............. Surface Coating........................ Fabric Printing, Coating and Dyeing..... 2759 .............. Leather Finishing....................... 3111 .............. Miscellaneous Coating Manufacturing..... 3479 .............. Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products.. 3479 .............. Paper and other Web Surface Coating..... 2741 Plastic Parts Surface Coating........... 3479 Printing and Publishing Surface Coating. 2741 .............. Wood Building Products.................. 2499 .............. Wood Furniture.......................... 2511, 2521 .............. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ These tables are not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides an example of entities that may be affected by this action. If you have any questions regarding the applicability of this action to a particular entity, consult the person listed in the preceding FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section. B. How Can I Get Copies of This Document and Other Related Information? 1. Docket. EPA has established an official public docket for this action under Docket ID No. OAR-2003-0074. The official public docket consists of the documents specifically referenced in this action, any public comments received, and other information related to this action. Although a part of the official docket, the public docket does not include Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Documents in the official public docket are listed in the index list in EPA's electronic public docket and comment system, EDOCKET. Documents may be available either electronically or in hard copy. Electronic documents may be viewed through EDOCKET. Hard copy documents may be viewed at Docket OAR-2003- 0074, EPA Docket Center, (EPA/DC) EPA West, Room B102, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460; telephone (202) 566-1742. The docket facility is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744. 2. Electronic Access. You may access this Federal Register document electronically through the EPA Internet under the ``Federal Register'' listings at http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/ or you can go to the federal wide eRulemaking site at http://www.regulations.gov. [[Page 45610]] An electronic version of the public docket is available through EDOCKET. You may use EPA Dockets at http://www.epa.gov/edocket/ to submit or view public comments, access the index listing of the contents of the official public docket, and to access those documents in the public docket that are available electronically. Once in the system, select ``search,'' then key in the appropriate docket identification number. Certain types of information will not be placed in the EPA Dockets. Information claimed as CBI and other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute, which is not included in the official public docket, will not be available for public viewing in EPA's electronic public docket. The EPA's policy is that copyrighted material will not be placed in EPA's electronic public docket but will be available only in printed, paper form in the official public docket. To the extent feasible, publicly available docket materials will be made available in EPA's electronic public docket. When a document is selected from the index list in EDOCKET, the system will identify whether the document is available for viewing in EPA's electronic public docket. Publicly available docket materials that are not available electronically may be viewed at the docket facility identified in Unit I.B. The EPA intends to work towards providing electronic access to all of the publicly available docket materials through EPA's electronic public docket. For public commenters, it is important to note that EPA's policy is that public comments, whether submitted electronically or on paper, will be made available for public viewing in EPA's electronic public docket as EPA receives them and without change, unless the comment contains copyrighted material, CBI, or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. When EPA identifies a comment containing copyrighted material, EPA will provide a reference to that material in the version of the comment that is placed in EPA's electronic public docket. The entire printed comment, including the copyrighted material, will be available in the public docket. Public comments submitted on computer disks that are mailed or delivered to the docket will be transferred to EPA's electronic public docket. Public comments that are mailed or delivered to the Docket will be scanned and placed in EPA's electronic public docket. Where practical, physical objects will be photographed, and the photograph will be placed in EPA's electronic public docket along with a brief description written by the docket staff. For additional information about EPA's electronic public docket, visit EDOCKET online or see 67 FR 38102, May 31, 2002. C. How and to Whom Do I Submit Comments? You may submit comments electronically, by mail, by facsimile, or through hand delivery/courier. To ensure proper receipt by EPA, identify the appropriate docket identification number in the subject line on the first page of your comment. Please ensure that your comments are submitted within the specified comment period. Comments received after the close of the comment period will be marked ``late.'' The EPA is not required to consider these late comments. However, late comments may be considered if time permits. 1. Electronically. If you submit an electronic comment as prescribed below, EPA recommends that you include your name, mailing address, and an e-mail address or other contact information in the body of your comment. Also include this contact information on the outside of any disk or CD ROM you submit and in any cover letter accompanying the disk or CD ROM. This ensures that you can be identified as the submitter of the comment and allows EPA to contact you in case EPA cannot read your comment due to technical difficulties or needs further information on the substance of your comment. The EPA's policy is that EPA will not edit your comment, and any identifying or contact information provided in the body of a comment will be included as part of the comment that is placed in the official public docket and made available in EPA's electronic public docket. If EPA cannot read your comment due to technical difficulties and cannot contact you for clarification, EPA may not be able to consider your comment. i. EDOCKET. Your use of EPA's electronic public docket to submit comments to EPA electronically is EPA's preferred method for receiving comments. Go directly to EDOCKET at http://www.epa.gov/edocket, and follow the online instructions for submitting comments. To access EPA's electronic public docket from the EPA Internet Home Page, select ``Information Sources,'' ``Dockets,'' and ``EDOCKET.'' Once in the system, select ``search,'' and then key in Docket ID No. OAR-2003-0074. The system is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity, e-mail address, or other contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. ii. http://www.regulations.gov. Electronic comments may also be sent through the federal wide eRulemaking web site at http:// www.regulations.gov. iii. E-mail. Comments may be sent by electronic mail (e-mail) to a- and-r-docket@epamail.gov, Attention: Docket ID No. OAR-2003-0074. In contrast to EPA's electronic public docket, EPA's e-mail system is not an ``anonymous access'' system. If you send an e-mail comment directly to the Docket without going through EPA's electronic public docket, EPA's e-mail system automatically captures your e-mail address. E-mail addresses that are automatically captured by EPA's e-mail system are included as part of the comment that is placed in the official public docket and made available in EPA's electronic public docket. iv. Disk or CD ROM. You may submit comments on a disk or CD ROM that you mail to the mailing address identified in Unit I.C.2. These electronic submissions will be accepted in WordPerfect or ASCII file format. Avoid the use of special characters and any form of encryption. 2. By Mail. Send duplicate copies of your comments to: ``Performance Specification 16 for Predictive Emission Monitoring Systems,'' Environmental Protection Agency, Mail Code 6102T, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC, 20460, Attention Docket ID No. OAR-2003-0074. 3. By Hand Delivery or Courier. Deliver your comments to: EPA Docket Center, EPA West, Room 108, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460, Attention: Docket ID No. OAR-2003-0074. Such deliveries are only accepted during the Docket's normal hours of operation as identified in Unit I.B.1. 4. By Facsimile. Fax your comments to: 202-566-1741, Attention: Docket ID. No. OAR-2003-0074. D. How Should I Submit CBI to the Agency? Do not submit information that you consider to be CBI electronically through EPA's electronic public docket or by e-mail. Send or deliver information identified as CBI only to the docket address to the attention of Docket ID No. OAR-2003-0074. You may claim information that you submit to EPA as CBI by marking any part or all of that information as CBI (if you submit CBI on disk or CD ROM, mark the outside of the disk or CD ROM as CBI and then identify electronically within the disk or CD ROM the specific information that is CBI). Information so [[Page 45611]] marked will not be disclosed except in accordance with procedures set forth in 40 CFR Part 2. In addition to one complete version of the comment that includes any information claimed as CBI, a copy of the comment that does not contain the information claimed as CBI must be submitted for inclusion in the public docket and EPA's electronic public docket. If you submit the copy that does not contain CBI on disk or CD ROM, mark the outside of the disk or CD ROM clearly that it does not contain CBI. Information not marked as CBI will be included in the public docket and EPA's electronic public docket without prior notice. If you have any questions about CBI or the procedures for claiming CBI, please consult the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section. E. What Should I Consider as I Prepare My Comments for EPA? You may find the following suggestions helpful for preparing your comments: 1. Explain your views as clearly as possible. 2. Describe any assumptions that you used. 3. Provide any technical information and/or data you used that support your views. 4. If you estimate potential burden or costs, explain how you arrived at your estimate. 5. Provide specific examples to illustrate your concerns. 6. Offer alternatives. 7. Make sure to submit your comments by the comment period deadline identified. 8. To ensure proper receipt by EPA, identify the appropriate docket identification number in the subject line on the first page of your response. It would also be helpful if you provided the name, date, and Federal Register citation related to your comments. Outline. The information presented in this preamble is organized as follows: I. Background II. Summary of Proposed Performance Specification 16 A. What Is the Purpose of PS-16? B. Who Must Comply With PS-16? C. What Are the Basic Requirements of PS-16? D. What Is the Rationale for the Performance Criteria in PS-16? III. Summary of Other Amendments A. Petroleum Refinery (Subpart J) NSPS B. Kraft Pulp Mill (Subpart BB) NSPS C. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (Subpart WWW) NSPS D. Method 24 of Appendix A of Part 60 E. Performance Specification 2 of Appendix B of Part 60 F. Performance Specification 11 of Appendix B of Part 60 G. Method 303 of Appendix A of Part 63 IV. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A. Executive Order 12866: Regulatory Planning and Review B. Paperwork Reduction Act C. Regulatory Flexibility Act D. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act E. Executive Order 13132: Federalism F. Executive Order 13175: Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments G. Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks H. Executive Order 13211: Action Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I. NTTAA: National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act I. Background Today we are proposing Performance Specification 16 for Predictive Emission Monitoring Systems to Appendix B, Part 60. Predictive emission monitoring systems are a new and innovative tool for monitoring pollutant emissions without the traditional hardware analyzers. The PEMS predicts a unit's emissions indirectly using process parameters that have a known relationship to pollutant concentration. Their principle of operation can range from a relatively simple relationship based on combustion principles to the more complex computer models that are trained to predict emissions using neural networks technology. They have been used for monitoring purposes at industrial, commercial, and institutional steam-generating units, gas turbines, internal combustion engines, and other combustion processes where process parameters have a predictable relationship to emissions. We are also proposing to make amendments to the testing and monitoring provisions of various NSPS and MACT rules. II. Summary of Proposed Performance Specification 16 A. What Is the Purpose of PS-16? The purpose of PS-16 is to establish the initial installation and performance procedures that candidate PEMS must meet to be acceptable for use. The specification stipulates equipment design and documentation, location, and addresses initial and periodic performance tests of the PEMS. B. Who Must Comply With PS-16? If adopted as a final rule, all PEMS that will be used to comply with 40 CFR Parts 60, 61, and 63 will be required to comply with PS-16. In addition to new PEMS that are installed after the effective date of PS-16, other PEMS may also be required to comply with PS-16 at the discretion of the applicable regulatory agency or permit writer. C. What Are the Basic Requirements of PS-16? The PS-16 requires owners and operators of affected PEMS to: (1) Select a PEMS that satisfies basic design criteria; (2) verify and document their PEMS; (3) validate their PEMS against a reference method using prescribed statistical procedures prior to placing it into operation; and (4) periodically reassess their PEMS's performance. The performance requirements for PS-16 follow the general performance requirements for continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) in Appendix B of Part 60. A relative accuracy (RA) test of the PEMS against a reference method is the primary assessment of accuracy. The number of runs prescribed for the RA test will depend upon the underlying regulation. D. What Is the Rationale for the Performance Criteria in PS-16? The Agency is allowing, but not requiring, PEMS use in a number of recently-promulgated rules, and a number of facilities regulated by State and Local agencies are considering their use. Past EPA approvals of PEMS were based on criteria provided in the draft performance specifications on the Agency's Emission Measurement Center website. In other cases, performance specifications developed by State or Local Agencies were used to evaluate the PEMS. We are proposing PS-16 to provide regulatory agencies a uniform procedure for assessing the capabilities of this new monitoring tool. III. Summary of Other Amendments A. Petroleum Refinery (Subpart J) NSPS In the petroleum refinery NSPS in Sec. 60.106(b)(3) the equation for determining the coke burnoff rate is being corrected. B. Kraft Pulp Mill (Subpart BB) NSPS In the monitoring provisions of the kraft pulp mills NSPS in Sec. 60.284, a paragraph requiring continuous emission monitors be subject to the quality assurance provisions of Appendix F that was added by mistake in an October 17, 2000 amendment is being deleted. C. Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (Subpart WWW) NSPS Under the municipal solid waste landfill NSPS in Sec. 60.752, the requirement to test open flares for heat content and flare exit velocity using Methods 18 and ASTM D1946 is being [[Page 45612]] changed to require Method 3C. These open flares must comply with the general flare provisions of 40 CFR 60.18, which require that flare gas heat content and flare exit velocity be within prescribed limits. The heat content of flare gas is determined from an analysis of its organic compound and hydrogen content using Method 18 and ASTM D1946, respectively. Methane is the only significant organic compound in landfill gas and hydrogen is not likely to be present. Therefore, Method 18 and ASTM D1946 are not practical methods for landfill applications. Method 3C is less labor-intensive than Method 18 and has the preferred measuring range for methane levels encountered at landfills. In addition, Method 3C determines oxygen and nitrogen which are currently determined by an additional method and are needed to calculate the flare gas exit velocity. We are proposing that Method 3C be required as the test method for methane in place of Method 18 and ASTM D1946 for organics and hydrogen. D. Method 24 of Appendix A of Part 60 Method 24, Part 60, Appendix A is used to determine the contents and properties of surface coatings under NSPS applications. Method 24 currently references ASTM D2369 as the method for determining volatiles content. The American Society for Testing and Materials has recommended that ASTM D6419 be allowed as an alternative to D2369 in this case. We are proposing to amend Method 24 to allow this option. E. Performance Specification 2, Part 60, Appendix B In Performance Specification 2, Part 60, Appendix B, an inadvertent omission in an October 17, 2000 amendment removed an allowance for relative accuracy relief for low-emitters. We are proposing to reinstate the allowance. F. Performance Specification 11 of Appendix of Appendix B of Part 60 The publication on January 12, 2004 of Performance Specification 11 for Appendix B and Procedure 2 for Part 60, Appendix F contained technical and typographical errors and unclear instructions. We are revising the definition of confidence interval half range to clarify the language, replacing the word ``pairs'' with ``sets'' to avoid possible confusion regarding the use of paired sampling trains, correcting errors in Equations 11-22, 11-27, and 11-37, correcting the procedures in paragraphs (4) and (5) of section 12.3 for determining confidence and tolerance interval half ranges for the exponential and power correlation models, and adding a note following paragraph (5)(v) concerning the application of correlation equations to calculate PM concentrations using the response data from an operating PM CEMS. We are also renumbering some equations and references for clarification, consistency, and accuracy. G. Method 303 of Appendix A of Part 63 In Method 303 of Appendix A of Part 63, we are proposing to add a statement on varying the time of day runs are taken that was deleted by mistake in a recent amendment of the method. IV. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A. Executive Order 12866: Regulatory Planning and Reviews Under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735 October 4, 1993), we must determine whether this regulatory action is ``significant'' and therefore subject to Office of Management and Budget (OMB) review and the requirements of this Executive Order. The Order defines ``significant regulatory action'' as one that is likely to result in a rule that may: (1) Have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more or adversely affects in a material way the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, Local, or Tribal governments or communities; (2) create a serious inconsistency or otherwise interferes with an action taken or planned by another agency; (3) materially alter the budgetary impact of entitlements, grants, user fees, or loan programs, or the rights and obligations of recipients thereof; or (4) raise novel legal or policy issues arising out of legal mandates, the President's priorities, or the principles set forth in the Executive Order. We have determined that this rule is not a ``significant regulatory action'' under the terms of Executive Order 12866 and is therefore not subject to OMB review. We have determined that this regulation would result in none of the economic effects set forth in Section 1 of the Order because it does not impose emission measurement requirements beyond those specified in the current regulations, nor does it change any emission standard. B. Paperwork Reduction Act This action does not impose an information collection burden under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. This actions provides performance criteria for a new monitoring tool that may be used in some cases in place of current source monitoring requirements. These criteria do not add information collection requirements beyond those currently required under the applicable regulation. The additional amendments being made to the testing requirements in 40 CFR part 60 do no add information collection requirements but make minor corrections to existing testing methodology. Burden means the total time, effort, or financial resources expended by persons to generate, maintain, retain, or disclose or provide information to or for a Federal agency. This includes the time needed to review instructions; develop, acquire, install, and utilize technology and systems for the purposes of collecting, validating, and verifying information, processing and maintaining information, and disclosing and providing information; adjust the existing ways to comply with any previously applicable instructions and requirements; train personnel to be able to respond to a collection of information; search data sources; complete and review the collection of information; and transmit or otherwise disclose the information. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. The OMB control numbers for EPA's regulations in 40 CFR are listed in 40 CFR part 9. C. Regulatory Flexibility Act The RFA generally requires an agency to prepare a regulatory flexibility analysis of any rule subject to notice and comment rulemaking requirements under the Administrative Procedure Act or any other statute unless the agency certifies that the rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Small entities include small businesses, small organizations, and small governmental jurisdictions. For purposes of assessing the impacts of today's rule on small entities, small entity is defined as: (1) A small business as defined by the Small Business Administration's regulations at 13 CFR 121.201; (2) a small governmental jurisdiction that is a government of a city, county, town, school district or special district with a population of less than 50,000; and (3) a small organization that is any not-for- profit enterprise which is independently owned and operated and is not dominant in its field. Entities potentially affected by this action [[Page 45613]] include those listed in Table 1 of SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. After considering the economic impacts of today's proposed rule on small entities, I certify that this action will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. We are allowing, but not requiring, PEMS use in a number of recently- promulgated rules, and a number of facilities regulated by State and Local agencies are considering their use. The intended effect of this action is to facilitate the use of PEMS by establishing levels of acceptability for candidate PEMS. In addition, we are proposing to make minor amendments to various testing provisions in the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories (MACT) to correct inadvertent errors, make needed updates, and add flexibility. We invite comments on all aspects of the proposal and its impacts on small entities. D. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA), Public Law 104-4, establishes requirements for Federal agencies to assess the effects of their regulatory actions on State, Local, and Tribal governments and the private sector. Under section 202 of the UMRA, EPA generally must prepare a written statement, including a cost-benefit analysis, for proposed and final rules with ``Federal mandates'' that may result in expenditures to State, Local, and Tribal governments, in the aggregate, or to the private sector, of $100 million or more in any one year. Before promulgating an EPA rule for which a written statement is needed, section 205 of the UMRA generally requires EPA to identify and consider a reasonable number of regulatory alternatives and adopt the least costly, most cost-effective or least burdensome alternative that achieves the objectives of the rule. The provisions of section 205 do not apply when they are inconsistent with applicable law. Moreover, section 205 allows EPA to adopt an alternative other than the least costly, most cost-effective or least burdensome alternative if the Administrator publishes with the final rule an explanation why that alternative was not adopted. Before EPA establishes any regulatory requirements that may significantly or uniquely affect small governments, including tribal governments, it must have developed under section 203 of the UMRA a small government agency plan. The plan must provide for notifying potentially affected small governments, enabling officials of affected small governments to have meaningful and timely input in the development of EPA regulatory proposals with significant Federal intergovernmental mandates, and informing, educating, and advising small governments on compliance with the regulatory requirements. Today's rule contains no Federal mandates (under the regulatory provisions of Title II of the UMRA) for State, Local, or Tribal governments or the private sector. The rule imposes no enforceable duty on any State, Local, or Tribal governments or the private sector. In any event, EPA has determined that this rule does not contain a Federal mandate that may result in expenditures of $100 million or more for State, Local, and Tribal governments, in the aggregate, or the private sector in any one year. Thus, today's rule is not subject to the requirements of Sections 202 and 205 of the UMRA. E. Executive Order 13132: Federalism Executive Order 13132, entitled ``Federalism'' (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999), requires EPA to develop an accountable process to ensure ``meaningful and timely input by State and Local officials in the development of regulatory policies that have federalism implications.'' ``Policies that have federalism implications'' are defined in the Executive Order to include regulations that have ``substantial direct effects on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government.'' This rule does not have federalism implications. It will not have substantial direct effects on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government, as specified in Executive Order 13132. Thus, the requirements of Section 6 of the Executive Order do not apply to this rule. In the spirit of Executive Order 13132, and consistent with EPA policy to promote communications between EPA and State and Local governments, EPA specifically solicits comment on this proposed rule from State and Local officials. F. Executive Order 13175: Consultation and Coordination With Tribal Governments Executive Order 13175, entitled ``Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments'' (65 FR 67249, November 6, 2000), requires EPA to develop an accountable process to ensure ``meaningful and timely input by tribal officials in the development of regulatory policies that have tribal implications.'' ``Policies that have tribal implications'' is defined in the Executive Order to include regulations that have ``substantial direct effects on one or more Indian tribes, on the relationship between the Federal government and the Indian tribes, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities between the Federal government and Indian tribes.'' This proposed rule does not have tribal implications. It will not have substantial direct effects on tribal governments, on the relationship between the Federal government and Indian tribes, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities between the Federal government and Indian tribes, as specified in Executive Order 13175. In this proposed rule, we are simply allowing an alternative emission monitoring tool that applicable facilities may use. Thus, Executive Order 13175 does not apply to this rule. G. Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks Executive Order 13045 applies to any rule that EPA determines (1) is ``economically significant'' as defined under Executive Order 12866, and (2) the environmental health or safety risk addressed by the rule has a disproportionate effect on children. If the regulatory action meets both criteria, the Agency must evaluate the environmental health or safety effects of the planned rule on children and explain why the planned regulation is preferable to other potentially effective and reasonably feasible alternatives considered by the Agency. The EPA interprets Executive Order 13045 as applying only to regulatory actions that are based on health or safety risks, such that the analysis required under section 5-501 of the Executive Order has the potential to influence the regulation. This proposed rule is not subject to Executive Order 13045 because it is not based on health or safety risks. H. Executive Order 13211: Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use This action is not subject to Executive Order 13211, ``Actions Concerning Regulations that Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001) because it is [[Page 45614]] not a significant regulatory action under Executive Order 12866. I. NTTAA: National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA), Public Law 104-113 (15 U.S.C. 272), directs us to use voluntary consensus standards (VCSs) in our regulatory activities unless to do so would be inconsistent with applicable law or otherwise impractical. Voluntary consensus standards are technical standards (e.g., materials specifications, test methods, sampling procedures, business practices, etc.) that are developed or adopted by VCS bodies. The NTTAA requires us to provide Congress, through OMB, explanations when we decide not to use available and applicable VCSs. We are not proposing new test methods in this rulemaking but are adding performance requirements for a new monitoring tool that can be used as an alternative to what has already been mandated. Therefore, NTTAA does not apply. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, New sources, Test methods and procedures, Performance specifications, and Continuous emission monitors. Dated: July 26, 2005. Stephen L. Johnson, Administrator. For the reasons stated in the preamble, the Environmental Protection Agency proposes to amend title 40, chapter I of the Code of Federal Regulations as follows: PART 60--STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES 1. The authority citation for Part 60 continues to read as follows: Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401, 7411, 7413, 7414, 7416, 7601, and 7602. Sec. 60.106 [Amended] 2. By revising the equation in Sec. 60.106(b)(3) to read as follows: Sec. 60.106 Test methods and procedures. * * * * * (b) * * * (3) * * * RC = K1 Qr (%CO2 + %CO) + (K2 Qa - K3 Qr )((%CO / 2) + (%CO2 + %O2 )) * * * * * Sec. 60.284 [Amended] 3. By revising Sec. 60.284(f) to read as follows: Sec. 60.284 Monitoring of emissions and operations. * * * * * (f) The procedures under Sec. 60.13 shall be followed for installation, evaluation, and operation of the continuous monitoring systems required under this section. All continuous monitoring systems shall be operated in accordance with the applicable procedures under Performance Specifications 1, 3, and 5 of appendix B of this part. * * * * * Sec. 60.752 [Amended] 4. By revising Sec. 60.752(b)(2)(iii)(A) to read as follows: Sec. 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills * * * * * (b) * * * (2) * * * (iii) * * * (A) An open flare designed and operated in accordance with Sec. 60.18, except that the net heating value of the combusted landfill gas is calculated from the concentration of methane in the landfill gas as measured by Method 3C. Other organic components, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide are not measured; * * * * * Appendix A [Amended] 5. In Appendix A, by adding Section 6.7 to Method 24 to read as follows: Method 24--Determination of Volatile Matter Content, Water Content, Density, Volume Solids, and Weight Solids of Surface Coatings * * * * * 6.7 ASTM D 6419-00, Test Method for Volatile Content of Sheet-Fed and Coldset Web Offset Printing Inks. * * * * * Appendix B [Amended] 6. In Appendix B, by adding a sentence to Section 13.2 of Performance Specification 2 to read as follows: Performance Specification 2--Specifications and Test Procedures for SO2 and NOX Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems in Stationary Sources * * * * * 13.2 * * * For SO2 emission standards of 130 to and including 86 ng/J (0.30 and 0.20 lb/million Btu), inclusive, use 15 percent of the applicable standard; below 86 ng/J (0.20 lb/million Btu), use 20 percent of the emission standard. * * * * * 7. In Appendix B, Performance Specification 11: A. By revising Sections 3.4 and 8.6; B. By revising paragraphs (1)(ii), (2), (4), and (5) of Section 12.3; C. By revising paragraph (3)(ii) of Section 12.4; D. By revising (2) and (3) of Section 13.2; E. By adding references 16.8 and 16.9 to Section 16.0; and F. By revising Table 1 in Section 17.0. The revisions and addition read as follows: Performance Specification 11--Specifications and Test Procedures for Particulate Matter Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources * * * * * 3.4 ``Confidence Interval Half Range (CI)'' is a statistical term and means one-half of the width of the 95 percent confidence interval around the predicted mean PM concentration (y value) calculated at the PM CEMS response value (x value) where the confidence interval is narrowest. Procedures for calculating CI are specified in section 12.3. The CI as a percent of the emission limit value (CI%) is calculated at the appropriate PM CEMS response value and must satisfy the criteria specified in Section 13.2 (2). * * * * * 8.6 How do I conduct my PM CEMS correlation test? You must conduct the correlation test according to the procedure given in paragraphs (1) through (5) of this section. If you need multiple correlations, you must conduct testing and collect at least 15 sets of reference method and PM CEMS data for calculating each separate correlation. * * * * * 12.3 How do I determine my PM CEMS correlation? * * * * * (1) How do I evaluate a linear correlation for my correlation test data? * * * * * (ii) Calculate the half range of the 95 percent confidence interval (CI) for the predicted PM concentration (y) at the mean value of x, using Equation 11-8: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.045 Where: CI = the half range of the 95 percent confidence interval for the predicted PM concentration at the mean x value, tdf,1-a/2 = the value for the t statistic provided in Table 1 for df = (n-2), and [[Page 45615]] SL = the scatter or deviation of y values about the correlation curve, which is determined using Equation 11-9: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.046 Calculate the confidence interval half range for the predicted PM concentration (y) at the mean x value as a percentage of the emission limit (CI%) using Equation 11-10: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.047 Where: CI = the half range of the 95 percent confidence interval for the predicted PM concentration at the mean x value, and EL = PM emission limit, as described in section 13.2. (iii) Calculate the half range of the tolerance interval (TI) for the predicted PM concentration (y) at the mean x value using Equation 11-11: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.048 Where: TI = the half range of the tolerance interval for the predicted PM concentration (y) at the mean x value, kT = as calculated using Equation 11-12, and SL = as calculated using Equation 11-9: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.049 Where: n' = the number of test runs (n), un , = the tolerance factor for 75 percent coverage at 95 percent confidence provided in Table 1 for df = (n-2), and vdf = the value from Table 1 for df = (n--2). Calculate the half range of the tolerance interval for the predicted PM concentration (y) at the mean x value as a percentage of the emission limit (TI%) using Equation 11-13: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.050 Where: TI = the half range of the tolerance interval for the predicted PM concentration (y) at the mean x value, and EL = PM emission limit, as described in section 13.2. * * * * * (2) How do I evaluate a polynomial correlation for my correlation test data? To evaluate a polynomial correlation, follow the procedures described in paragraphs (2)(i) through (iv) of this section. (i) Calculate the polynomial correlation equation, which is indicated by Equation 11-16, using Equations 11-17 through 11-22: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.051 Where: y = the PM CEMS concentration predicted by the polynomial correlation equation, and b0 , b1 , b2 = the coefficients determined from the solution to the matrix equation Ab=B Where: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.052 [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.053 Where: xi = the PM CEMS response for run i, yi = the reference method PM concentration for run i, and n = the number of test runs. Calculate the polynomial correlation curve coefficients (b0 , b1 , and b2 ) using Equations 11- 19 through 11-21, respectively: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.054 [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.055 [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.056 Where: [[Page 45616]] [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.057 (ii) Calculate the 95 percent confidence interval half range (CI) by first calculating the C coefficients (C0 to C5 ) using Equations 11-23 and 11-24: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.058 Where: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.059 Calculate [Delta] using Equation 11-25 for each x value: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.060 Determine the x value that corresponds to the minimum value [Delta] ([Delta]min ). Determine the scatter or deviation of y values about the polynomial correlation curve (SP ) using Equation 11-26: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.061 Calculate the half range of the 95 percent confidence interval (CI) for the predicted PM concentration (y) at the x value that corresponds to [Delta]min using Equation 11-27: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.062 Where: df = (n - 3), and tdf = as listed in Table 1 (see section 17). Calculate the half range of the 95 percent confidence interval for the predicted PM concentration at the x value that corresponds to [Delta]min as a percentage of the emission limit (CI%) using Equation 11-28: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.063 Where: CI = the half range of the 95 percent confidence interval for the predicted PM concentration at the x value that corresponds to [Delta]min , and EL = PM emission limit, as described in section 13.2. (iii) Calculate the tolerance interval half range (TI) for the predicted PM concentration at the x value that corresponds to [Delta]min , as indicated in Equation 11-29 for the polynomial correlation, using Equations 11-30 and 11-31: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.064 Where: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.065 [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.066 un , = the value indicated in Table 1 for df = (n' - 3), and vdf = the value indicated in Table 1 for df = (n' - 3). Calculate the tolerance interval half range for the predicted PM concentration at the x value that corresponds to [Delta]min as a percentage of the emission limit (TI%) using Equation 11-32: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.067 Where: TI = the tolerance interval half range for the predicted PM concentration at the x value that corresponds to [Delta]min , and EL = PM emission limit, as described in section 13.2. (iv) Calculate the polynomial correlation coefficient (r) using Equation 11-33: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.068 Where: SP = as calculated using Equation 11-26, and Sy = as calculated using Equation 11-15. * * * * * (4) How do I evaluate an exponential correlation for my correlation test data? To evaluate an exponential correlation, which has the form indicated by Equation 11-37, follow the procedures described in paragraphs (4)(i) through (v) of this section: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.069 (i) Perform a logarithmic transformation of each PM concentration measurement (y values) using Equation 11-38: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.070 Where: y'i = is the transformed value of yi , and Ln(yi ) = the natural logarithm of the PM concentration measurement for run i. (ii) Using the values for y'i in place of the values for yi , perform the same procedures used to develop the linear correlation equation described in paragraph (1)(i) of this section. The resulting equation will have the form indicated by Equation 11-39. [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.071 Where: [ycirc]' = the predicted log PM concentration value, b'0 = the natural logarithm of b0, and the variables b0, b1, and x are as defined in paragraph (1)(i) of this section. [[Page 45617]] (iii) Using the values for y'i in place of the values for yi, calculate the half range of the 95 percent confidence interval (CI'), as described in paragraph (1)(ii) of this section for CI. Note that CI' is on the log scale. Next, calculate the upper and lower 95 percent confidence limits for the mean value y' using Equations 11-40 and 11- 41: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.072 [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.073 Where: LCL' = the lower 95 percent confidence limit for the mean value y', UCL = the upper 95 percent confidence limit for the mean value y', y' = the mean value of the log-transformed PM concentrations, and CI' = the half range of the 95 percent confidence interval for the predicted PM concentration ([ycirc]'), as calculated in Equation 11-8. Calculate the half range of the 95 percent confidence interval (CI) on the original PM concentration scale using Equation 11-42: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.074 Where: CI = the half range of the 95 percent confidence interval on the original PM concentration scale, and UCL' and LCL' are as defined previously. Calculate the half range of the 95 percent confidence interval for the predicted PM concentration corresponding to the mean value of x as a percentage of the emission limit (CI%) using Equation 11-10. (iv) Using the values for y'i in place of the values for yi , calculate the half range tolerance interval (TI'), as described in paragraph (1)(iii) of this section for TI. Note that TI' is on the log scale. Next, calculate the half range tolerance limits for the mean value y' using Equations 11-43 and 11-44: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.075 [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.076 Where: LTL' = the lower 95 percent tolerance limit for the mean value y', UTL' = the upper 95 percent tolerance limit for the mean value y', y' = the mean value of the log-transformed PM concentrations, and TI' = the half range of the 95 percent tolerance interval for the predicted PM concentration ([ycirc]'), as calculated in Equation 11-11. Calculate the half range tolerance interval (TI) on the original PM concentration scale using Equation 11-45: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.077 TI = the half range of the 95 percent tolerance interval on the original PM scale, and UTL' and LTL' are as defined previously. Calculate the tolerance interval half range for the predicted PM concentration corresponding to the mean value of x as a percentage of the emission limit (TI%) using Equation 11-13. (v) Using the values for y'i in place of the values for yi, calculate the correlation coefficient (r) using the procedure described in paragraph (1)(iv) of this section. (5) How do I evaluate a power correlation for my correlation test data? To evaluate a power correlation, which has the form indicated by Equation 11-46, follow the procedures described in paragraphs (5)(i) through (v) of this section. [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.078 (i) Perform logarithmic transformations of each PM CEMS response (x values) and each PM concentration measurement (y values) using Equations 11-35 and 11-38, respectively. (ii) Using the values for x'i in place of the values for xi, and the values for y'i in place of the values for yi, perform the same procedures used to develop the linear correlation equation described in paragraph (1)(i) of this section. The resulting equation will have the form indicated by Equation 11-47: [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.079 Where: [ycirc]' = the predicted log PM concentration value, and x' = the natural logarithm of the PM CEMS response values, b'0 = the natural logarithm of b0, and the variables b0, b1, and x are as defined in paragraph (1)(i) of this section. (iii) Using the same procedure described for exponential models in paragraph (4)(iii) of this section, calculate the half range of the 95 percent confidence interval for the predicted PM concentration corresponding to the mean value of x' as a percentage of the emission limit. (iv) Using the same procedure described for exponential models in paragraph (4)(iv) of this section, calculate the tolerance interval half range for the predicted PM concentration corresponding to the mean value of x' as a percentage of the emission limit. (v) Using the values for y'i in place of the values for yi, calculate the correlation coefficient (r) using the procedure described in paragraph (1)(iv) of this section. Note: PS-11 does not address the application of correlation equations to calculate PM emission concentrations using PM CEMS response data during normal operations of a PM CEMS. However, we will provide guidance on the use of specific correlation models (i.e., logarithmic, exponential, and power models) to calculate PM concentrations in an operating PM CEMS in situations when the PM CEMS response values are equal to or less than zero, and the correlation model is undefined. * * * * * 12.4 What correlation model should I use? * * * * * (3) * * * (ii) Calculate the minimum value using Equation 11-48. [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP08AU05.080 * * * * * 13.2 What performance criteria must my PM CEMS correlation satisfy? * * * * * (2) The confidence interval half range must satisfy the applicable criterion specified in paragraph (2)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section, based on the type of correlation model. (i) For linear or logarithmic correlations, the 95 percent confidence interval half range at the mean PM CEMS response value from the correlation test must be within 10 [[Page 45618]] percent of the PM emission limit value specified in the applicable regulation. Therefore, the CI% calculated using Equation 11-10 must be less than or equal to 10 percent. (ii) For polynomial correlations, the 95 percent confidence interval half range at the PM CEMS response value from the correlation test that corresponds to the minimum value for [Delta] must be within 10 percent of the PM emission limit value specified in the applicable regulation. Therefore, the CI% calculated using Equation 11-28 must be less than or equal to 10 percent. (iii) For exponential or power correlations, the 95 percent confidence interval half range at the mean of the logarithm of the PM CEMS response values from the correlation test must be within 10 percent of the PM emission limit value specified in the applicable regulation. Therefore, the CI% calculated using Equation 11-10 must be less than or equal to 10 percent. * * * * * (3) The tolerance interval half range must satisfy the applicable criterion specified in paragraph (3)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section, based on the type of correlation model. (i) For linear or logarithmic correlations, the half range tolerance interval with 95 percent confidence and 75 percent coverage at the mean PM CEMS response value from the correlation test must be within 25 percent of the PM emission limit value specified in the applicable regulation. Therefore, the TI% calculated using Equation 11- 13 must be less than or equal to 25 percent. (ii) For polynomial correlations, the half range tolerance interval with 95 percent confidence and 75 percent coverage at the PM CEMS response value from the correlation test that corresponds to the minimum value for [Delta] must be within 25 percent of the PM emission limit value specified in the applicable regulation. Therefore, the TI% calculated using Equation 11-32 must be less than or equal to 25 percent. (iii) For exponential or power correlations, the half range tolerance interval with 95 percent confidence and 75 percent coverage at the mean of the logarithm of the PM CEMS response values from the correlation test must be within 25 percent of the PM emission limit value specified in the applicable regulation. Therefore, the TI% calculated using Equation 11-13 must be less than or equal to 25 percent. * * * * * 16.0 Which references are relevant to this performance specification? * * * * * 16.8 Snedecor, George W. and Cochran, William G. (1989), Statistical Methods, Eighth Edition, Iowa State University Press. 16.9 Wallis, W.A. (1951) ``Tolerance Intervals for Linear Regression,'' in Second Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, ed. J. Neyman, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 43-51. 17.0 What Reference Tables and Validation Data Are Relevant to PS-11? * * * * * Table 1.--Factors for Calculation of Confidence and Tolerance Interval Half Ranges ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tolerance interval with 75% coverage and 95% Student's t, confidence level df t df ----------------------------------------------- V df (95%) u n, (75%) kT ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3............................................... 3.182 2.920 1.266 3.697 4............................................... 2.776 2.372 1.247 2.958 5............................................... 2.571 2.089 1.233 2.576 6............................................... 2.447 1.915 1.223 2.342 7............................................... 2.365 1.797 1.214 2.183 8............................................... 2.306 1.711 1.208 2.067 9............................................... 2.262 1.645 1.203 1.979 10.............................................. 2.228 1.593 1.198 1.909 11.............................................. 2.201 1.551 1.195 1.853 12.............................................. 2.179 1.515 1.192 1.806 13.............................................. 2.160 1.485 1.189 1.766 14.............................................. 2.145 1.460 1.186 1.732 15.............................................. 2.131 1.437 1.184 1.702 16.............................................. 2.120 1.418 1.182 1.676 17.............................................. 2.110 1.400 1.181 1.653 18.............................................. 2.101 1.384 1.179 1.633 19.............................................. 2.093 1.370 1.178 1.614 20.............................................. 2.086 1.358 1.177 1.597 21.............................................. 2.080 1.346 1.175 1.582 22.............................................. 2.074 1.335 1.174 1.568 23.............................................. 2.069 1.326 1.173 1.555 24.............................................. 2.064 1.316 1.172 1.544 25.............................................. 2.060 1.308 1.172 1.533 26.............................................. 2.056 1.300 1.171 1.522 27.............................................. 2.052 1.293 1.170 1.513 28.............................................. 2.048 1.286 1.170 1.504 29.............................................. 2.045 1.280 1.169 1.496 30.............................................. 2.042 1.274 1.168 1.488 31.............................................. 2.040 1.268 1.168 1.4