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Document Number: 2014-29356
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Geological Survey, Department of the Interior
We (the U.S. Geological Survey) will ask Office of Management and Budget (OMB) the information collection request (ICR) described below. To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA) and as part of our continuing efforts to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, we invite the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on this ICR. This collection is scheduled to expire on January 31, 2015.
Document Number: 2014-29354
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Homeland Security, Office of the Secretary
In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, the Department of Homeland Security proposes to update and reissue a current Department of Homeland Security system of records titled, ``Department of Homeland Security/United States Coast Guard Homeport System of Records.'' This system of records allows the Department of Homeland Security/United States Coast Guard to validate the suitability and identify the eligibility of those who request permission and/or have access to the system. As a result of the biennial review of this system, the system manager and address category has been updated. Additionally, this notice includes non-substantive changes to simplify the formatting and text of the previously published notice. This updated system will be included in the Department of Homeland Security's inventory of record systems.
Document Number: 2014-29353
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Homeland Security
Under Department of Homeland Security (DHS) regulations, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) may approve petitions for H-2A and H-2B nonimmigrant status only for nationals of countries that the Secretary of Homeland Security, with the concurrence of the Secretary of State, has designated by notice published in the Federal Register. That notice must be renewed each year. This notice announces that the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State, is identifying 68 countries whose nationals are eligible to participate in the H-2A and H-2B programs for the coming year.
Document Number: 2014-29352
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities, Agencies and Commissions
Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, notice is hereby given that six meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held by teleconference (unless otherwise specified) from the National Endowment for the Arts, Constitution Center, 400 7th St. SW., Washington, DC, 20506 as follows (all meetings are Eastern time and ending times are approximate): State & Regional (review of Partnership Agreements): This meeting will be by videoconference and will be open. Information for connecting to the meeting will be available under the ``Webinar'' tab on the Arts Endowment's Web site: http://arts.gov. Dates: January 13, 20153:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.; January 14, 2015 3:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.; and January 15, 20153:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. Partnerships/Folk & Traditional Arts (application review): This meeting will be closed. Dates: January 16, 2014. 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Literature (application review): This meeting will be closed. Dates: January 23, 2015. 2:00 p.m. to 2:30 p.m.. Research (application review): This meeting will be closed. Dates: January 27, 2015. 2:00 p.m. to 4:30 p.m.. Research (application review): This meeting will be closed. Dates: January 28, 2015. 2:00 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. Music (application review): This meeting will be closed. Dates: January 29, 2015. 1:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m..
Document Number: 2014-29351
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Homeland Security
The Department of Homeland Security will submit the following Information Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). DHS previously published this information collection request (ICR) in the Federal Register on Tuesday, September 9, 2014 at 79 FR 53435 for a 60- day public comment period. No comments were received by DHS. The purpose of this notice is to allow additional 30-days for public comments
Document Number: 2014-29349
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Homeland Security, Office of the Secretary
In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, the Department of Homeland Security proposes to update and reissue a current Department of Homeland Security system of records titled, ``Department of Homeland Security/United States Coast Guard Federal Medical Care Recovery Act System of Records.'' This system of records allows the Department of Homeland Security/United States Coast Guard to collect and maintain Federal Medical Care Recovery Act claims (FMCRA). As a result of the biennial review of this system, the system manager and address category has been updated. Additionally, this notice includes non-substantive changes to simplify the formatting and text of the previously published notice. This updated system will be included in the Department of Homeland Security's inventory of record systems.
Document Number: 2014-29348
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NMFS publishes standard ex-vessel prices for groundfish and halibut for the calculation of the observer fee under the North Pacific Groundfish and Halibut Observer Program (Observer Program). This notice is intended to provide information to vessel owners, processors, registered buyers, and other participants about the standard ex-vessel prices that will be used to calculate the observer fee liability for landings of groundfish and halibut made in 2015. NMFS will send invoices to processors and registered buyers subject to the fee by January 15, 2016. Fees are due to NMFS on or before February 15, 2016.
Document Number: 2014-29347
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Notice is hereby given that Larry Wood, LDWood BioConsulting, Inc., 425 Kennedy Street, Jupiter, FL 33468 has been issued a permit to take hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) for purposes of scientific research.
Document Number: 2014-29346
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Notice is hereby given that NMFS Pacific Islands Regional Office, 1601 Kapiolani Boulevard, Suite 1110, Honolulu, HI 96814 [Responsible Party: Michael Tosatto], has applied in due form for a permit to take hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), leatherback (Dermochelys imbricata), loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green (Chelonia mydas) sea turtles for purposes of scientific research.
Document Number: 2014-29345
Type: Rule
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Federal Housing Finance Agency
The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) is issuing an interim final rule setting forth requirements related to allocations by the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) (together, the Enterprises) to the Housing Trust and Capital Magnet Funds created by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008. The rule implements a statutory prohibition against the Enterprises passing the cost of such allocations through to the originators of loans they purchase or securitize.
Document Number: 2014-29344
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Postal Service, Agencies and Commissions
The Board of Governors of the Postal Service has adopted a resolution regarding the exercise of those powers reserved to the Board upon the loss of a quorum of the Board. During the time in which the Board is unable to form a quorum, those powers needed to provide for continuity of operations would be delegated to a Temporary Emergency Committee composed of the remaining members of the Board. The Governors of the Postal Service have also issued a resolution regarding the exercise of the powers vested solely in the Governors, as distinguished from the Board of Governors. The resolution clarifies that the inability of the Board to constitute a quorum does not inhibit or affect the authority of the Governors then in office to exercise those powers vested solely in the Governors, upon the concurrence of an absolute majority of the Governors then in office.
Document Number: 2014-29340
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Judicial Conference of the United States, Agencies and Commissions
The Committee on Rules of Practice and Procedure will hold a two-day meeting. The meeting will be open to public observation but not participation.
Document Number: 2014-29338
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Postal Regulatory Commission, Agencies and Commissions
The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning the addition of Priority Mail Express Contract 23 negotiated service agreement to the competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public comment, and takes other administrative steps.
Document Number: 2014-29336
Type: Rule
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is approving the State of Maryland's request to redesignate to attainment the Maryland portion of the Martinsburg-Hagerstown, WV-MD Nonattainment Area (Martinsburg Area or Area) for the 1997 annual fine particulate matter (PM2.5) national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS). The Maryland portion of the Martinsburg Area is comprised of Washington County, Maryland. EPA has found that the Martinsburg Area attained the standard and continues to attain the standard. In addition, EPA is approving, as a revision to the Maryland State Implementation Plan (SIP), the Washington County maintenance plan to show maintenance of the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS through 2025 for the Maryland portion of the Area. The maintenance plan includes the 2017 and 2025 PM2.5 and nitrogen oxides (NOX) mobile vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for Washington County, Maryland for the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS, which EPA is proposing to approve for transportation conformity purposes. These actions are being taken under the Clean Air Act (CAA).
Document Number: 2014-29333
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Postal Regulatory Commission, Agencies and Commissions
The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning a minor classification change regarding Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public comment, and takes other administrative steps.
Document Number: 2014-29328
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Agencies and Commissions
The Federal Activities Inventory Reform (FAIR) Act, Public Law 105-270, requires agencies to develop inventories each year of activities performed by their employees that are not inherently governmental functions. The FAIR Act further requires OMB to review the inventories in consultation with the agencies. Once that review is complete, agencies are required to make the list available to the public and OMB must publish a notice of public availability in the Federal Register. In accordance with the FAIR Act, OMB is publishing this notice to announce the availability of inventories for Fiscal Years (FY) 2012 and 2013 from the agencies listed below. These inventories identify activities that are not inherently governmental and those activities that are inherently governmental. If an agency has not yet posted its inventory on its Web site, the agency's point of contact should be able to assist. As provided in the FAIR Act, interested parties who disagree with the agency's initial judgment may challenge the inclusion, or the omission, of an activity on the list of activities that are not inherently governmental within 30 working days of this Notice and, if not satisfied with this review, may appeal to a higher level within the agency.
Document Number: 2014-29327
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Agencies and Commissions
In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Heliophysics Subcommittee (HPS) of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the Science Committee of the NAC. The meeting will be held for the purpose of soliciting, from the scientific community and other persons, scientific and technical information relevant to program planning.
Document Number: 2014-29325
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Education
In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. chapter 3501 et seq.), ED is proposing a new information collection.
Document Number: 2014-29324
Type: Rule
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is approving the State of Maryland's request to redesignate to attainment the Baltimore, Maryland Nonattainment Area (Baltimore Area or Area) for the 1997 annual fine particulate matter (PM2.5) national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS). EPA has determined that the Baltimore Area attained the standard and that it continues to attain the standard. In addition, EPA is approving, as a revision to the Maryland State Implementation Plan (SIP), the Baltimore Area maintenance plan to show maintenance of the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS through 2025 for the Area. The maintenance plan includes the 2017 and 2025 PM2.5 and nitrogen oxides (NOX) mobile vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for the Baltimore Area for the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS, which EPA is approving for transportation conformity purposes. These actions are being taken under the Clean Air Act (CAA).
Document Number: 2014-29322
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health
Document Number: 2014-29321
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health
Document Number: 2014-29320
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health
Document Number: 2014-29319
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health
The inventions listed below are owned by an agency of the U.S. Government and are available for licensing in the U.S. in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR part 404 to achieve expeditious commercialization of results of federally-funded research and development. Foreign patent applications are filed on selected inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing.
Document Number: 2014-29318
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
We, NMFS, announce a 12-month finding on two petitions to list the Northwest Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico population of dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) as a threatened or endangered distinct population segment (DPS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We completed a comprehensive status review of the dusky shark in response to these petitions. Based on the best scientific and commercial information available, including the status review report (McCandless et al., 2014), we have determined that the Northwest Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico (henceforth abbreviated as NWA) population constitutes a DPS but does not warrant listing at this time. We conclude that the NWA DPS is not currently in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range and is not likely to become so within the foreseeable future.
Document Number: 2014-29314
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for FDA staff entitled ``Compliance Policy Guide CrabmeatFresh and FrozenAdulteration with Filth, Involving the Presence of Escherichia coli.'' The draft Compliance Policy Guide (CPG), when finalized, will update the previously issued ``CPG CrabmeatFresh and FrozenAdulteration with Filth, Involving the Presence of the Organism Escherichia coli.'' This revised draft provides guidance for FDA staff on the level of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in crabmeat at which we may consider the crabmeat to be adulterated with filth.
Document Number: 2014-29305
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Energy, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
Document Number: 2014-29303
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Energy, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
Document Number: 2014-29302
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Energy, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
Document Number: 2014-29301
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Energy, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
Document Number: 2014-29296
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Federal Reserve System, Agencies and Commissions
Notice is hereby given of the final approval of a proposed information collection by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board) under OMB delegated authority, as per 5 CFR 1320.16 (OMB Regulations on Controlling Paperwork Burdens on the Public). Board- approved collections of information are incorporated into the official OMB inventory of currently approved collections of information. Copies of the Paperwork Reduction Act Submission, supporting statements and approved collection of information instrument(s) are placed into OMB's public docket files. The Federal Reserve may not conduct or sponsor, and the respondent is not required to respond to, an information collection that has been extended, revised, or implemented on or after October 1, 1995, unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number.
Document Number: 2014-29291
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services
Document Number: 2014-29288
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Department of Transportation
In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, FMCSA announces its plan to submit the Information Collection Request (ICR) described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for its review and approval and invites public comment. The FMCSA requests to revise an ICR entitled, ``Medical Qualification Requirements,'' due to updated information for several of the Information Collections (ICs) discussed. This ICR is needed to ensure that drivers, motor carriers and the States are complying with the medical qualification requirements of commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. The information collected is used to determine and certify driver medical fitness and must be collected in order for our highways to be safe.
Document Number: 2014-29285
Type: Rule
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern emissions of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NOX) from wood heating devices and open burning. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).
Document Number: 2014-29283
Type: Proposed Rule
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to approve revisions to the Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern emissions of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NOX) from wood heating devices and open burning. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).
Document Number: 2014-29280
Type: Proposed Rule
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Agricultural Marketing Service, Department of Agriculture
This proposal would modify the organic assessment exemption regulations under 23 Federal marketing orders and 22 research and promotion programs. The current regulations would be amended to allow persons that produce, handle, market, or import certified organic products to be exempt from paying assessments associated with commodity promotion activities, including paid advertising, conducted under a commodity promotion program administered by the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS). The exemption would cover all ``organic'' and ``100 percent organic'' products certified under the National Organic Program regardless of whether the person requesting the exemption also produces, handles, markets, or imports conventional or nonorganic products. Currently, only persons that exclusively produce and market products certified as 100 percent organic are eligible for an exemption from assessments under commodity promotion programs. The authority for this proposal is in section 10004 of the Agricultural Act of 2014.
Document Number: 2014-29279
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Judicial Conference of the United States, Agencies and Commissions
The following public hearing on proposed amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure has been canceled: Civil Rules Hearing, January 9, 2015, in Phoenix, Arizona.
Document Number: 2014-29228
Type: Rule
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A300 series airplanes; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes (collectively called Model A300-600 series airplanes); and Airbus Model A310 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report of early ruptures on the levers of the nose landing gear (NLG) sequence valve. This AD requires a one-time inspection for damage of the landing gear sequence valve levers and pin shearing indicating areas on the NLG and the main landing gears (MLGs); and depending on findings, replacing the sequence valve and lever, or doing a one-time inspection to detect interference between control rods and sequence valves and corrective actions if necessary. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct interference between a landing gear leg and door, which could result in failure of that landing gear to extend and could damage the airplane and injure occupants.
Document Number: 2014-29225
Type: Rule
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Dassault Aviation Model FALCON 2000 and FALCON 2000EX airplanes. This AD was prompted by a design review, which revealed that the forward servicing compartment (FSC) is configured with tie-down points. This AD requires inspecting the FSC for installed tie-down points, and removing those tie-down points. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct installed tie-down points, which could lead to inadvertent use of the FSC as a cargo compartment, which could result in damage to the structure of the airplane or potential risk of fire.
Document Number: 2014-29203
Type: Proposed Rule
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
We, NMFS, have completed comprehensive status reviews under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) for seven foreign marine species in response to a petition to list those species. These seven species are the Eastern Taiwan Strait population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), dusky sea snake (Aipysurus fuscus), Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni), Harrisson's dogfish (Centrophorus harrissoni), and the corals Cantharellus noumeae, Siderastrea glynni, and Tubastraea floreana. We have determined that the Eastern Taiwan Strait Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is not a distinct population segment and therefore does not warrant listing. We have determined that, based on the best scientific and commercial data available, and after taking into account efforts being made to protect the species, Pterapogon kauderni, and Centrophorus harrissoni meet the definition of a threatened species; and Aipysurus fuscus, Cantharellus noumeae, Siderastrea glynni, and Tubastraea floreana meet the definition of an endangered species. Therefore, we propose to list these six species under the ESA. We are not proposing to designate critical habitat for any of the species proposed for listing, because the geographical areas occupied by these species are entirely outside U.S. jurisdiction, and we have not identified any unoccupied areas that are currently essential to the conservation of any of these species. We are soliciting comments on our proposals to list the six species. We are also proposing related administrative changes to our lists of threatened and endangered species.
Document Number: 2014-29190
Type: Rule
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of fatigue cracking in the skin assembly and bear strap of the aft lower corner of the forward airstair stowage doorway. This AD requires repetitive inspections for cracking of the skin assembly and bear strap of the forward airstair stowage doorway; post-repair and post-modification inspections for certain airplanes; and related investigative and corrective actions, if necessary. This AD also provides optional terminating actions for certain inspections. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct fatigue cracking, which could result in rapid loss of cabin pressure.
Document Number: 2014-29174
Type: Rule
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A320-211, -212, -214, -231, -232, and -233 airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report of cracking at the splice plate of the frame (FR) 47 butt joint crossing area found during full-scale fatigue testing. This AD requires repetitive inspections for cracking of both sides of the splice plate of that frame butt joint crossing area, and corrective action if necessary. This AD also provides for an optional modification, which terminates the repetitive inspections. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct fatigue cracking of the splice plate of the FR 47 butt joint crossing area, which could result in reduced structural integrity of the airplane.
Document Number: 2014-29124
Type: Notice
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Agencies and Commissions
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing an exemption in response to a July 18, 2014, request from Entergy Operations, Inc. (EOI) which requested an exemption from addressing enhancements to the Emergency Preparedness (EP) rules in their Combined License (COL) application. The NRC staff reviewed this request and determined that it is appropriate to grant the exemption but stipulated that the revised application must be submitted the earlier of either the NRC's resumption of EOI's application review or by December 31, 2015.
Document Number: 2014-29114
Type: Rule
Date: 2014-12-16
Agency: Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
We are amending the regulations on importing plants for planting to add Turkey to the list of countries from which the importation of restricted articles of Chrysanthemum spp., Leucanthemella serotina, and Nipponanthemum nipponicum into the United States is prohibited due to the presence of white rust of Chrysanthemum; to require permits for the importation of any seed that is coated, pelleted, or embedded in a substrate that obscures visibility; to provide for an alternate additional declaration on phytosanitary certificates that accompany articles imported from a country in which potato cyst nematodes are known to occur; to provide conditions for the importation of Prunus spp. articles from Canada that address the presence of plum pox potyvirus in that country; and to provide for the importation of Dianthus spp. (carnations) from the Netherlands. We are also making other changes to update and clarify the regulations and to improve their effectiveness. These changes are necessary to relieve restrictions that appear unnecessary, to update existing provisions, and to make the regulations easier to understand and implement.